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Across Canada : Western Lines Canadian Pacific Railway Company 1924

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 I
ACiti »!lS
M  GUIDE via   '     --li
tNADIAN PACIFIC
.W®ftiS$~CtitIATiST
fflBsemmm
vs?®**
Lines Save the Forests!
Canada's timber reserves are national assets of
incalculable value. To neglect to take ordinary
precautions which ensure them against 'destruction
from forest fires is to rob civilization. Quite apart
from the danger to the lives, homes and property
of settlers, every acre of forest burned means labor
turned away, reduced markets for manufactured
products, heavier taxation on other property, and
higher lumber prices. Passengers on trains should
not throw lighted cigar or cigarette ends from car
windows. Those who go into the woods—hunters,
fishermen, campers and canoeists'—should consider
it their duty to exercise every care to prevent
loss from fire.
.'!'■ Across Canada
An Annotated Guide to
the Country served by the
Canadian Pacific Railway
and  its  Allied   Interests
WESTERN  LINES
First Issued in 1887
This Edition Revised to 1924
Canadian Pacific Railway
MONTREAL
w
PRINTED IN CANADA T
Across Canada by
Canadian   Pacific
HE Canadian Pacific Railway is the world's greatest
transportation system.
With a total length, including lines owned and controlled,
of over 20,100 miles, it serves all the important industrial,
commercial and agricultural sections of Canada, as well as
many parts of the United States. Practically every large
city of Canada is on its system. It reaches famous historic
spots, wonderful vacation and sporting resorts, and some
of the most magnificent scenery in the world.
Its steamship services reach out across the Atlantic to
Europe, and across the Pacific to the Orient. Its telegraph
system extends along the entire length of the railway and
reaches as well every point of importance in Canada away
from it. Its thirteen fine hotels set the standard for hotel
accommodation in Canada. Its express system (the Dominion Express Company) has a world-wide service. Its
land-settlement policy, coupled with the large areas of
fertile agricultural land that it still has for sale in the west,
is helping to accomplish the development of a richer and
bigger Canada.
This "Annotated Guide" is a description of the Canadian Pacific
system and of those systems allied or associated with it. While principally dealing with the various cities and resorts from the viewpoint of
the pleasure-traveller, it also pays some attention to the industrial
activities and natural resources of Canada: and while the latter information is not—because of the nature of this publication—of an exhaustive
character, yet it is hoped that it will be stimulative as indicating the
potentialities of this great Dominion.
"Across Canada" is written as though the reader were travelling westward, but it can be used equally as easily in the reverse direction. At the
head of nearly every page, in italic type (like this) is a list of stations and a
general description of that section of the country; one has but to turn to the
later pages, and to read the station names upwards instead of downwards, to
trace the journey eastward instead of westward.
Below this general description is a more detailed story of the important cities, towns, or sights that are embraced within that section
—set in roman type, like this.
The story of the main line, between Winnipeg and Vancouver, is
interrupted at two or three appropriate places to admit description of
branch and other lines, but can be picked up a few pages later. Secondary main lines, for example, are thus interposed. Branch lines are
sometimes found in smaller type at the foot of pages, sometimes,
according to importance, in the body of the book.
iiiiiUifiiioiiiiiiiiujfliiuiiJMiiiaiiiii iniiiic
"Across Canada"—which is also called "The Annotated Time
Table"—is issued in two parts, Western Lines and Eastern Lines.
Copies can be obtained from porters on transcontinental trains, Canadian Pacific passenger agents, or from the General Publicity Department, Canadian Pacific Railway, Montreal. Table of Contents
Main Transcontinental Line
Page
Winnipeg to Calgary  7
Winnipeg to Calgary via Edmonton  24
Calgary to Field  30
Field to Revelstoke      44
Revelstoke to Vancouver  65
Southern British Columbia Route (Crow's Nest)  81
MANITOBA
Winnipeg to Riverton, Emerson, etc  5
Winnipeg to Regina, via Arcola  27
Winnipeg to Napinka  27
Brandon to Estevan  8
Brandon to Saskatoon  8
SASKATCHEWAN
Regina to Saskatoon  11
Moose Jaw to Shaunavon and Lethbridge  12
Moose Jaw to Macklin  13
Swift Current to Empress and Bassano  14
ALBERTA
Calgary to Edmonton  28
Calgary to Lethbridge and Macleod  29
Branches from Lethbridge  82
Edmonton to Grande Prairie  26
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Lake Windermere Branch  45
Kootenay and Slocan Lakes Steamer Services  88
Arrow Lakes Steamer Service. Jf.  65
Okanagarf Lake Steamer Service  66
Vancouver to Victoria, Seattle, and other steamer routes  76
Victoria to Courtenay and Alberni (E. & N.)  93
Vancouver to Alaska  95
UNITED STATES
Chicago to St. Paul and Minneapolis  19
St. Paul and Minneapolis to Winnipeg  19
St. Paul and Minneapolis to Vancouver  22
Lethbridge to Spokane  86
- ]iimii!moiiriiiiiiii[)ijriiiniiii[
Condensed Guide to the Canadian Pacific Rockies
A "Condensed Guide" to the mountain peaks and principal
sights of the Rocky and Selkirk Mountains, as seen
from the train, is inserted between pages 47-57
MAPS
Sectional maps on large scale will be found as follows
Txr-                                                                                                              Page
Winnipeg to Calgary       9
Soo Line to Winnipeg and Moose Jaw  21
Calgary to Field ■ 31
Field to Revelstoke  45
Revelstoke to Kamloops  69
Kamloops to Vancouver      73
British Columbia Coast Services  77
Medicine Hat to Vancouver via Nelson  83
Index to principal stations      99
Distances by Canadian Pacific    100 r
Winnipeg—Canadian Pacific Station and Royal Alexandra Hotel
Winnipeg
Winnipeg is Canada's third largest city. Greater Winnipeg has a
population of 282,906, the city itself of 199,300. La Veren-
drye, the first white man to set foot in Winnipeg, arrived in 1738, and
built Fort Rouge, now part of the city. In 1806 Fort Gibraltar was
built by the North-West Trading Company; in 1822, when the North-
West Company amalgamated with the Hudson's Bay Company,
that fort was rebuilt and named Fort Garry. In 1835 Governor
Christie rebuilt Fort Garry in stone. Though this was an important
trading centre for the Western plains, the population of Fort Garry,
as late as 1871, was only two hundred and fifteen.
Winnipeg is beautifully situated at the junction of the Red and
Assiniboine Rivers. The city is handsomely built, one of the most
notable structures being the provincial Parliament Buildings; it is
also the seat of the University of Manitoba and the Manitoba Agricultural College. It is a city of fine boulevards and parks, many golf
courses, and summer and winter sports of all kinds.
Winnipeg is the greatest grain market and grain inspection point
in the British Empire. It is the railway centre of the West, and
commands the trade of the vaet region to the north, east and west.
Branch lines radiate in every direction.
The Royal Alexandra owned   and   operated   by   the   Canadian
Pacific Railway, ranks amongst the finest
hotels in the world. It was erected at a cost of $1,250,000, has been
extended to twice its original size, and is most handsomely decorated
and furnished. The hotel is adjacent to the railway station, a magnificent building which is the headquarters of the Company's western
system. Immense workshops of the Canadian Pacific Railway are
situated in Winnipeg, and the railway has also the two largest train
yards in the world. One yard has 121 miles of track. The second
is even larger, as it includes seventy tracks with a total mileage of
165 miles. In connection with this yard development the Canadian'
Pacific has a transfer elevator of a million bushels capacity.
A land office of the railway is located in the city, and here also are
the chief Western immigration offices of the Government, and the
immigration sheds. The Canadian Pacific owns large areas of good
agricultural land, and has a comprehensive colonization policy for
facilitating the settlement of practical farmers.
An Industrial Centre        Since the  advent  of  cheap  hydro-electric
power in 1911, Winnipeg has made remarkable strides as an industrial centre. Nine hundred industrial plants
are now located there, with 23,000 employees and an annual output of
$133,000,000. During the war period the city constructed a $16,000,-
000 aqueduct (capacity 100,000,000 gallons daily) which carries pure, soft
water from Indian Bay, a portion of Lake of the Woods. In Winnipeg
and St. Boniface are the largest western stock yards and packing
houses, with enormous flour mills, mills for other cereal products, rolling mills, iron and steel works, and automobile assembling plants. Branches   from   Winnipe
Winnipeg to Riverton: 84 miles
Winnipeg
Fort Garry
Selkirk
Matlock
Whytewold
Ponemah
Winnipeg Beach
Gimli
Riverton
A branch line runs nor h from Winnipeg to Winnipeg
Beach and Riverton. Skirting the banks of the Red
River, we traverse first a well-settled suburban district,
and then a truck-gardening area, reaching Lower Fort
Garry, built by the Hudson's Bay Company as a trading
post in 1881. Selkirk is the shipping point for the
steamers that travel across Lake Winnipeg to Warren's
Landing, at the north end of the lake. At this point
are successful fisheries, lumber mills, and several
factories. Matlock, Whytewold, and Ponemah are
summer cottage points. Winnipeg Beach is perhaps the most popular
summer resort for Winnipegers. It stands on the shore of Lake Winnipeg,
and has a beautiful beach, dancing pavilion, hotels, yacht club, hundreds
of summer cottages, and all the other appurtenances of a successful resort.
Gimli and Riverton are very progressive Icelandic settlements whose
principal industries are fishing and lumbering. The region is also a
large pulp-wood producing one.
Winnipeg to Arborg: 76 miles
Winnipeg A branch north from Winnipeg runs through a suc-
Stony Mountain   cessful market garden area and a fine mixed farming
Stonewall district  to  the  commercial  centre  of Stonewall.    At
Teulon Teulon, 19 miles further, flax is being grown in a com-
Komarno mercial way for its fibre,  so far with great success.
Arborg As we travel north the wooded country is reached and
lumbering becomes one of the principal industries of
the territory. Arborg, the terminus of this line, serves a flourishing
country to the north and west.
Winnipeg to Emerson: 65 miles
Winnipeg From Winnipeg a branch runs due south to the interna-
St. Boniface tional boundary,  where connection is made with the
Niverville Soo Line.    The route is through the fertile valley of
Otterburn the Red River; and it is interesting to remember that
Arnaud Fort Garry (as Winnipeg was then called) was reached
Dominion City     by this route before the building of the Canadian Pacific
Emerson Railway,  except that the river was used—first small
Minneapolis boats that drifted with the current, and then shallow
St. Paul steamers.    St. Boniface is an independent city facing
Winnipeg across the Red River. Of its 13,000 population, a considerable proportion is French-Canadian. It has a fine
cathedral, college buildings, and many manufactures, as well as the Union
Stock Yards, where thousands of head of stock are handled and transshipped east and soidh every year. The country down to the border was
amongst the earliest taken up in Western Canada, and some of the farms
in this neighborhood have been under cultivation for several generations.
Round Dominion City are large gypsum deposits which have been
investigated and found highly suitable for development. Emerson (population 1,200) has grown rapidly during the past few years.
Winnipeg Beach Across    Canada
The Prairie Provinces
The three prairie provinces—Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta—
contain a land area of 466,000,000 acres. Of this amount, the conservative estimate has been made that at least 200,000,000 acres are first-class
agricultural land that will raise the finest of crops. At the present time,
scarcely more than 85,000,000 acres are actually under cultivation, and
the population of this vast area is only a little over two million and a
quarter. Of the remaining 165,000,000 odd acres of available good farming
land, considerably over 80,000,000 acres are within a radius of fifteen
miles of existing railways. 11 will be seen, therefore, how far the absorption power of Western Canada for population is from being exhausted.
From the head of Lake Superior to the Rocky Mountains there is an
increase in altitude of over three-quarters of a mile. All the way across
the prairies, practically, our train is climbing up this long ascent. Between
Winnipeg and Calgary, a distance of 832 miles, it climbs 2667 feet—and
then there is the sudden barrier of the mountains, with almost 1900feet to the
Great Divide.
Between Winnipeg and the foothill country west of Calgary lies a
vast prairie region, with soil as wonderful as its sunshine, with possibilities as limitless as its horizons. Millions of years ago, this whole
area was the bed of an inland sea, and the marine deposits made at
that time have given to the soil of the prairies its wonderful richness
and fertility. For hundreds of years it was wilderness territory, over
which roamed at will huge herds of buffalo and scattered tribes of
Indians. The last half century, however, has witnessed in this country
a most remarkable transformation. Now it is dotted with splendid
farms, thriving settlements, and well-established towns and cities,
which have developed with astonishing rapidity to meet the needs of
the highly prosperous agricultural regions around them.
Though, frequently, for miles at a stretch, the country appears to
be as level as a billiard table, there are also large areas of rolling,
well-treed country excellent for mixed farming. The valleys of the two
great prairie rivers, the Assiniboine and the North and South Saskatchewan, are of this character. So, too, are the beautiful valleys of
the Qu'Appelle and the Cypress Hills districts. Bush country with
scattered lakes and many ponds is frequent, the latter abounding with
wild ducks, geese and prairie chicken.
Valuable mineral deposits are general. The greater part of Alberta
and large areas in Saskatchewan and Manitoba are apparently underlaid with coal, in seams comparatively near the surface, and easily
mined. Deposits of fine brick-making and building clays are also
frequent. Extensive gas areas and wells producing oil of a high grade
are being developed in Southern Alberta; and salt lakes—several of
which are utilized for commercial production—are found in both
Alberta and Saskatchewan.—Continued on next page.
Winnipeg—Portage Avenue Manitoba
Threshing in Manitoba
Winnipeg to Calgary: 832 miles
(For Map, see page 9)
Going west, read station names downward.   Going east, read upward.
The country from Winnipeg to Brandon is for the
most part a well-settled area, with comfortable farm
homes and large barn buildings. It is a first-class
mixed farming region, renowned for the prize cattle
which it raises—the home, in fact, of several world-
championship herds. In the Portage Plains, where
the country appears to be level for miles at a stretch,
considerable hay is grown and a large dairying industry has been developed. The Assiniboine Valley
parallels the railway throughout this part of the line,
and the river may be seen at several points, prominently marked by the line of trees along its course. Lake
Manitoba, one of the larger and finer prairie lakes,
lies north of the line, the eastern end of the lake being
within a few miles of several of the stations near
It is a popular summer resort, with many cottages
and camps. Fine fishing and duck shooting may be obtained along its
shores. Marquette is the home of the Indian tribe of thatname. Reaburn
is the half-way point between Montreal and Vancouver.
Winnipeg
Rosser
Marquette
Reaburn
Poplar Point
High Bluff
Portage la Prairie
Bagot
MacGregor
Sidney
Carberry
Camp Hughes
Chater
Brandon
Portage la Prairie.
Portage la Prairie (Population 7,000, altitude 858 feet) is the centre
of a large and very fertile agricultural district,
and an important railway point served by many branch lines. It is
situated a mile from the Assiniboine River, fifty-six miles west of
Winnipeg; and has large flour mills, brickyards, and other industries,
while in addition to its local water supply the power lines of the
Manitoba Water Commission have been strung into the city from the
Winnipeg River, 125 miles distant.
Carberry     (Population 1,000) is a prosperous town, with a surrounding country reminiscent of the Portage Plains.
Branch Lines    Portage to Edmonton (see page 24).
MacGregor to Varcoe and Forrest, with connections to Lenore, Rapid City, Oak Rivei,
Hamiota, Miniota and Minnedosa.
The Prairie Provinces—Continued
The people of Western Canada are characterized by remarkable
energy and enterprise. The cities are modern in every particular;
modem methods of agriculture have been adopted generally; rural
communities have established telephone service, good roads, fine
public schools and churches, and community organizations for social
intercourse and co-operative effort. Universities, agricultural colleges
and normal schools have been established in all the provinces, and
splendid high schools in all the larger towns. Industrial development
is already well under way, the abundance of coal and the water power
possibilities of the larger rivers promising' great expansion in this
direction. 8
Across    Canada
!
Manitoba The province of Manitoba, with an area of 251,000 square
miles, first became famous for ihe quality of its wheat.
The term "Manitoba Hard" has long been the standard of excellence
wherever grain is ground into flour. Its wheal crop now exceeds 60,000,000
bushels per year. Of recent years the discovery of various minerals in
. northern Manitoba has considerably added to the possibilities of the province. In industrial development its progress has been rapid. Ils
capital, Winnipeg, is now the third city of Canada in size, with a population of over a quarter of a million—and this since 1870, when it was
practically only a village, the trading centre of the Red River settlement.
Brandon (Population 16,400, altitude 1,204 feet) is situated in the
centre of one of the richest agricultural and live stock
territories of Manitoba. A railway divisional point and an important
commercial centre, it serves nearly three hundred small towns, villages and hamlets. It has flour mills, factories, distributing houses
covering all lines of farm machinery, and the largest seed warehouse
in the West. It is a modern city, with complete educational facilities,
churches of all denominations, an Indian training school, and a
Dominion Government Experimental Farm. Beautifully situated
overlooking the Assiniboine River, it is a homelike city with many
charming streets. It has a unique central heating system for business
premises.
Branch Lines    Brandon to Minnedosa.
Brandon to Estevan—This important branch line runs in a southwesterly direction
towards the international, boundary, which it then parallels for a considerable distance.
This line connects the network of branches that laces together the southern regions of
Manitoba and Saskatchewan. At Souris it crosses the Winnipeg-Regina loop line (see
page 27) and at Napinka the Southern Manitoba branch from Winnipeg (see page 27).
Estevan is the junction with the Soo Line (see page 23). The Souris fields, centring around
Bienfait, produce a somewhat low-grade lignite coal finding its principal market in Manitoba: the Dominion Government, in conjunction with the two provincial governments
concerned, have erected a million-dollar briquetting plant to improve the grade of coal.
Brandon to Saskatoon—This branch runs north-west, through a number of very prosperous towns well-built-up and doing a large local business, drawing from a tributary country
well-settled with enterprising farmers. In tributary territory are lakes and local summer
resorts, good shooting and plenty of sports. At Lanigan the branch joins the Winnipeg-
Edmonton line (see page 24).
Ploughing on the Prairies WINNIPEG TO CALGARY 10
Across    Canada
-411?  Iff*
am
'vWm
Cattle Ranching in Saskatchewan
Going west, read station names downward.   Going east, read upward.
Kemnay About ten miles west of the town of Qu'Appelle, where the
Alexander railway crosses the end of the Assiniboine Valley, the highest
Griswold point on the line between Winnipeg and Moose Jaw is
Oak Lake reached. Eastward to Brandon the hills fall gradually
Routledge away, over a stretch of two hundred miles. This section
Virden of country is one of the most picturesque in Eastern Sas-
Elkhorn katchewan, its numerous lakes and woods providing a most
Kirkella attractive setting to a very productive area. Westward to the
Fleming Regina Plains the drop from the%1Wcountry is made within
Moosomin twenty-five miles, and is consequently much more abrupt than
Wapella that on the eastern slope. The%.various towns are well-built-
Whitewood up, with good buildings, grain elevators, stock yards and other
Percival facilities definitely associated with agricultural interests.
Broadview Oak Lake has fine prairie chicken and duck-shooting in its
vicinity. Virden is a flourishing town with a population of
1600. Eikhorn/ias an Indian industrial school. Vlemmgisthebordertovm
between the two provinces.
Moosomin (Population 1,200) is a large progressive town, the
oldest in Saskatchewan and the centre of a fine dairying
country. To the south is the Moose Mountain country. Broadview
is the end of the Manitoba operating district of the railway and the
beginning of the Saskatchewan District. Near the town is Lake
Escape, with good fishing and boating.
Wolseley (Population 1,200) has a Canadian Pacific nursery, covering some 115 acres, where trees are grown for the planting
of prairie farms, as well as vegetables, and flowers for the Company's
hotels and dining cars. Wolseley also supplies the western system
of the Canadian Pacific with flowers for planting in station gardens.
Indian Head    (Population 1,700),. an old-established and prosperous
town, has an experimental farm and a forestry farm.
Qu'Appelle is a pretty town twenty miles south of the Qu'Appelle
Lakes and the fort bearing that name—an old Hudson's
Bay Post. Along the valley the river and numerous lakes afford
excellent fishing and duck shooting. Qu'Appelle is well-known for its
beautiful trees.
Branch Lines   Wolseley to Reston, through a prosperous grain and stock country, well-
settled with good business towns dotted through an area that produces
huge quantities of grain and other products yearly  (see page 27). Saskatchewan 11
Going west, read station names downward.   Going east, read upward.
Oakshela Saskatchewan, with an area of some 251,700 square miles,
Grenfell is pre-eminently the wheat province of Canada.   More
Wolseley than 50 per cent of ihe annual production of this crop
Indian Head for the entire Dominion comes from Saskatchewan, which
Qu'Appelle on several occasions has secured world championships.
Balgonie In other phases of agriculture, too, the province occupies
Regina a  very important place—notably in cattle-raising and
dairying. There are substantial lignite deposits in the
southern regions, where mining-has been carried on for a number of years,
besides large clay deposits. Amongst the industries of Saskatchewan,
flour-milling is perhaps the chief.
Regina (Population 40,000, altitude 1,896 feet) is the capital and
largest city in the province of Saskatchewan and one of the
most important distributing centres west of Winnipeg. The Parliament Buildings, which face the placid Wascana Lake, are very
handsome. Fine exhibition buildings are also located here. It is a
modern city, with well-paved streets, fine parks, large educational
institutions and splendid buildings. Several large mail order houses,
numerous wholesale concerns and a large number of manufacturing
plants are established at Regina. The factories are located in a model
industrial district planned by the city, and served by open tracks and
other industrial utilities. A huge oil refinery, extending over fifty
acres, has also been built here at a cost of $500,000.
The city owns and operates successfully well-equipped water works,
street railway, and light and power utilities.
Regina was formerly the capital of the North West Territories, and
was for over forty years the headquarters of the Royal North-West
Mounted Police, one of the most famous bodies of constabulary in the
world, whose exploits have been so often chronicled, both in fact and
in fiction, as to have become almost historic. This force is now
known as the Royal Canadian Mounted Police.
Branch Lines Regina to Saskatoon. Covering a portion of the great summer pleasure
grounds of the people of Southern Saskatchewan, this line runs north-west to
Saskatoon. Regina Beach, on Last Mountain Lake and within easy reach of Regina, affords
good fishing and shooting. North of the lake, open prairie land succeeds, well-cultivated
and well-settled, with numerous prosperous towns. At Colonsay the traveller joins the
Winnipeg-Edmonton line (see page 24).
Another route to Saskatoon is by a branch from Euston, connecting with the Brandon-
Saskatoon line (see page 8) at Bulyea.
Regina-Winnipeg via Arcola (see page 27).
Mil II iHI 11
I       1
liiiM.i
mP i ii IlrtHTOiiwn \m\\ i' u
Regina—Provincial Parliament Buildings 12
Across    Canada
ims
Reaping by Tractor
W^M§mM®mW&®&mim
Going west, read station names downward.    Going east, read upward.
Grand Coulee   Between Regina and Moose Jaw are the Regina Plains, a
Pense splendid   stretch   of   grain-growing   country,   extending
Pasqua well to the north and nearly down to the international
Moose Jaw boundary. Toward the south may be seen the dark blue
line of the Dirt Hills, the western boundary of the plains.
This is a prosperous well-settled farming district producing great herds of
sheep and cattle and large quantities of butter. It is noted for crops of
uniform quality and high yield.
To visit this country when the grain is ripe and full is a never-to-be-
forgotten experience. The play of wind and sunlight on the far reaches of
ripening grain, which stand shoulder high across the plains, is a "magic
touch" which transforms them into a billoivy ocean of burnished gold;
and the wealth and the beauty and the mystery of that picture linger long in
one's memory.
Moose Jaw (Population 20,000, altitude 1,779 feet) is an important
divisional point and one of the principal transportation
centres of Western Canada. Its unusual name is a contraction of an
Indian word meaning "The-creek-where-the-white-man-mended-the-
cart-with-a-moose-jaw-bone"—an illuminating side-light of an episode
of pioneering days. The finest stock yards on the line between Winnipeg and the coast are located here. Mills and elevators indicate the
district's wheat-producing qualities, Moose Jaw being one of the largest
milling points in Saskatchewan. A Dominion Government interior
terminal elevator, with a capacity of 3,500,000 bushels, lies just west
of the city. The Canadian Pacific Railway has recently completed
the erection of a magnificent new depot, administration block, power
house, etc., at a cost of approximately a million dollars. The city has
cheap electric power and has fifty or more wholesale houses which
serve several smaller cities and a large number of towns and villages.
Branch Lines.    Moose Jaw to Lethbridge
Moose Jaw
Expanse
Assiniboia
Gouverneur
Shaunavon
Eastend
Notuken
Govenlock
Manyberries
LeUibridge
From Moose Jaw a branch runs south-westerly towards
the international boundary to Assiniboia, and then turns
abruptly to the west. The region through which we pass is
settling up fast, and is already a heavily producing one.
Assiniboia (population 1,400) is a divisional point with
large elevator capacity, abundant lignite coal within
seven miles, clay deposits, sand and gravel in the immediate vicinity and the centre of a rich grain-growing district.
The country west of Assiniboia is good rolling prairie
with many large sheets of water. At one time a considerable portion of this area was devoted to ranching, but the
process of the dissolution of these big ranches into small farms, familiar in
many other parts of the west, has taken place here also.    Clay deposits are Branches   from   Moose Jaw
13
plentiful, and also small coal areas. Near Gouverneur is a large deposit of
flint pebbles. Shaunavon (population 1,500) is the principal town of the
territory. Before the construction of the railway, the only means of access
to this district was by Gull Lake and Maple Creek. We are now approaching the Cypress Hills, which lie to the north and continue westerly towards
the south of Medicine Hat. At Eastend we cross the Frenchman River,
near which are large clay and sand deposits, with large possibilites for
the development of the china and pottery industry.
The line has now been extended from Govenlock to Manyberries to meet
the line coming from Lethbridge (see page 82).
Branch Lines   From Assiniboia to Weyburn and Stoughton   (see pages 23 and 27).
From Notuken to Bracken.
Moose Jaw to Macklin
Moose Jaw This important branch line runs north-westerly from
Eyebrow Moose Jaw to Macklin, on the Winnipeg-Edmonton line
Outlook (see page 24), passing thr ough the rich agricultural regions
Milden of Western Saskatchewan.   After climbing up a grade to a
Rosetown plateau, it enters a long stretch of fertile prairie country
Kerrobert extending to the Alberta boundary, and watered by the
Macklin South Saskatchewan River.    This river is  crossed at
Outlook by a fine steel bridge, the third longest on the
Canadian Pacific System—8004feet in length, 140 feet above water level,
and with eight truss sp&ns supported by concrete piers. Rosetown is a
convenient point for the rich area known as the Goose Lake country. Kerrobert (population 1,200) is an important town, and a railway divisional
point with some district government offices. From it we continue through
the same kind of a country to Macklin, whence train can be taken either
west to Edmonton or east to Saskatoon and Winnipeg.
From Milden south-westerly a new branch 62 miles long is being built
towards Empress, while another branch is being built south from this
towards the Saskatchewan River.
Branch Lines    From Milden south-westerly towards Empress (under construction).
Moose Jaw to Chicago
Via Weyburn, Estevan, Portal, Minneapolis and St. Paul (see page 23)
IMS
gggjjj'T h ■ IM «
Moose Jaw 14
Across    Canada
Horse Ranching on the Prairies
Going west, read station names downward.   Going east, read upward.
Caron Settlement has not yet spread itself over all the available
Parkbeg lands between Moose Jaw and Swift Current. The country
Chaplin is rolling, though here and there magnificent vistas of level
Morse plain appear, with thousands of acres of good arable land,
Herbert both cultivated and uncultivated.   Frequently, old buffalo
Rush Lake trails may be seen, scarred and pitted, on the prairie by
Swift Current their "wallows," In the late eighties great piles of buffalo
bones were stacked up, adjacent to the railway, for transportation to the towns to be made into fertilizer. But now practically
the only reminders of the huge herds of buffalo that roamed the prairies fifty
years ago are at Banff and Wainwright, in government enclosures.
Caron supplies Moose Jaw with part of its water supply. Morse and
Herbert are growing towns, with large tributary agricultural districts.
Rush Lake is a hunter's paradise; there are literally millions of ducks in
its great lake and marshes during the'breeding and shooting seasons.
Swift Current (Population 8,500, altitude 2,482 feet) is situated on a
pretty stream which, although in summer somewhat
shallow, is a very turbid body of water when the spring freshets are
coming down. It is a divisional point, the end of the Saskatchewan
District of the railway, and the beginning of the Alberta District.
The city is an important one, with a large distributing area for merchandise, reaching practically to the international boundary. A
government meteorological station is located here.
Branch Lines
Swift Current to Blumenhoff, Neville and Vanguard. A new branch line
is under construction, easterly from Wymark.
Branch Line
Swift Current   From Swift Current a branch runs north and then west, as
Java a cut-off between this point and Bassano, on the main line
Prelate (see  page  17).    This  branch  crosses   the   South  Sas-
Leader katchewan River at Empress, east of which the river is
Empress joined by the Red Deer River, running north-west and
Denhart acting during part of its course as the northern boundary
Rosemary of the Canadian Pacific Irrigation Block.    The country
Bassano is a typical prairie one, of good promise and excellent
settlement, with many growing towns. A new branch is
under construction from Leader in a south-westerly direction towards
Medicine Hat. Empress is a divisional point that with the building up of
the surrounding territory will become an important commercial centre.
Leaving Empress, we run through a sparsely settled country until
we strike the Irrigation Block near Denhart. A scheme is now under
consideration to use the waters of the Red Deer River to irrigate all
the country round Jenner. Entering the Irrigation Block we come
within sight of many well-cultivated, irrigated farms, which have
transformed the dry prairie into a prosperous and highly producing
region. With the advent of a large number of experienced irrigation
farmers, this district is rapidly growing in importance. Western   Saskatchewan 15
Going west, read station names downward.   Going east, read upward.
Seward At one time this was a purely ranching country, but to-day,
Gull Lake although great herds of cattle may be seen in many places,
Tompkins it is rapidly  settling with first  class farmers.   Many
Crane Lake of the small towns have sprung into active existence within
Piapot the last few years.   To the south are the Cypress Hills, a
Cross country valuable because of the commercial timber and
Maple Creek extensive clay deposits which it contains.    The hills in-
Kincorth crease in height as the range travels westward, until an
Walsh elevation of 4J9Q feet is reached.   Gull Lake was at one
Dunmore time the jumping-off point for this south country, but this
Medicine Hat traffic is now Jmndled by the branch from Moose Jaw to
Govenlock.    Crane Lake is devoted principally to stock-
raising. Piapot commemorates thename of a once troublesome Indian chief.
Maple Creek       is  a prosperous and well-built town of some 2,000
inhabitants,   in   a   good   mixed   farming   country.
South, towards the Cypress Hills, are some interesting small irrigation
projects.
Walsh       is the first town we pass in Alberta.    Running downhill
to Medicine Hat, we notice the huge clay banks that are
being developed, first class bricks being the product.
Medicine Hat (Population 10,500, altitude 2,181 feet) is the city that
Rudyard Kipling once called "the town that was
born lucky, with all hell for its basement." His allusion was to the
famous natural gas wells. The first well was drilled in 1903; since that
date 22 wells have been put down, to a depth averaging from 1,000 to
1,200 feet, tod each producing from two to three million cubic feet of
gas per day. The rock pressure is about 480 lbs. The area of the gas
field, so far as at present defined, is 108 square miles. The gas is used
by the many factories of Medicine Hat for power and by the inhabitants for lighting, heating, and producing electric light, its cost being
. 3}^-6 cents per thousand cubic feet for manufacturing purposes and 25
cents per thousand cubic feet for domestic purposes. The largest clay
products plant in the west is situated at Medicine Hat, which is also a
large flour milling centre, its three mills having an output of 5,500
barrels per day.
Redcliff, a near neighbor of Medicine Hat, has also a splendid
supply of natural gas; glass, steel and other manufactures are established here.
Branch Lines    Medicine Hat to Lethbridge, the Crow's Nest Pass, Nelson and Vancouver (see page 81).
«S»-
Medicine Hat 16 Across    Canada
est
ws__mmmmr   nii
\________i
■
'I
m
The Brooks Aqueduct
Going w33t, read station names downward.    Going east, read upward.
Redcliff Alberta, with an area of over 255,000 square miles, is the most
Bowell western  of the  prairie  provinces.    Its principal asset is
Suffield agriculture; long famed as the producer of large quantities of
Alderson beef stock, it has now become a great mixed farming region,
Kininvie ' producing both wheat and dairy products. Two-thirds of ils
Tilley population are directly or indirectly connected with the land.
Bantry At the same time, it has immense reserves of bituminous and
Brooks some anthracite coal, as well as gas, oil, lumber and fisheries.
Milling and meat packing areamongstits principalinduslries.
At its western side it changes its characteristics—for it heaps up there
to form the immense ranges of mountains that interpose their giant barrier
between the prairies and the Pacific Coast.
Canadian Pacific Irrigation Block Just west of Alderson the line
enters the three-million-acre
Irrigation Block of the Canadian Pacific, extending from this point to
within a few miles of Calgary, a distance of over 140 miles. This is the
largest individual irrigation project on the continent, and is divided
into three sections. Work was completed some years ago on the
western section, and the greater part of the land in that area has been
settled. The eastern section, extending from Alderson to Bassano,
is now being settled.
Brooks Aqueduct Near Brooks there will be noticed a long flume
crossing the railway track almost at right angles;
at the railway itself, on account of insufficient clearance overhead,
it is carried underneath the track by means of an inverted syphon.
This is one of the important structures of the Irrigation Block, the
Brooks Aqueduct. The necessity having arisen of carrying water from
the reservoir, Lake Newell, across a long flat valley, a reinforced
concrete flume was constructed, two miles in length and in places over
50 feet high. Its construction marked an interesting departure in the
matter of water transportation; it is the first aqueduct in which the
hydrostatic catenary, or elastic curve, has been adopted for the shape
of the water section.
P rooks is the operating headquarters for the eastern section of the
Irrigation Block. Thirty miles north, in the "Bad Lands" of the Red
Deer River, are found the famous Dinosaur and other fossil remains,
regarding which an interesting pamphlet has been published. Tourists
who desire to visit this valley may secure information from the
Canadian Pacific office at Brooks.
Bassano Dam The source for the water used in the eastern section
of the Irrigation Block is the great Horseshoe Bend
Dam, three miles from Bassano in the Bow River. By means of
the dam, the ordinary water level at the site is raised 45 feet, so
that the waters flowing from the far distant eastern slope of the
Rocky Mountains are diverted through a total length of 2,500 miles
Branch Lines    Suffield to Lomond, skirting in part the Bow River and running through
a territory of which a large part is being put under irrigation. Alberta
17
Going west, read station names downward.   Going east, read upward.
Cassils There is not the same necessity for irrigation in this region
Southesk as there is in most "dry" regions of the United States,
Latham but the advantage of irrigation to Southern Alberta is that it
Bassano increases the crop yield and ensures a crop every year. These
Crowfoot irrigated lands have already fully demonstrated their ability
Cluny to produce many profitable crops, such as that very paying
Gleichen fodder crop, alfalfa, to say nothing of vegetables and small
Namaka fruits. From many points in this district the Rockies are in
Strathmore full view—a magnificent line of snowy peaks extending far
Langdon along the southern and western horizon. Note also the
numbers of Indians seen around many of the stations; these
are from the Reservation near Crowfoot, occupied by the Blackfoot tribe.
of canals and distributing ditches, over about 1,800 square miles of
fertile prairie country, irrigating approximately one-third of that
amount. Altogether the structure has a total length of nearly 7,000
feet, being made up of two main parts—a reinforced concrete spillway,
720 feet in length, with 24 electrically-operated gates, which permit
of the free passage of the river at highest flood, and a concrete-faced
earthen portion of a maximum height and width of 45 and 350 feet
respectively. Leading from one end of the spillway is the main canal,
90 feet wide, capable of discharging 3,800 cubic feet of water per second
at a depth of eleven feet, through headgates which form an integral
part of the main structure.
Gleichen a prosperous town, has an Indian hospital and school.
The Dominion Government is spending large sums of
money to see that its red wards are well cared for, and is assisting
them to eater agriculture and other peaceable pursuits. For several
miles west of Gleichen the railway traverses the Irrigation Block,
and the canals and ditches are crossed at several points. Irrigated
farms are seen on each side of the track.
Strathmore is the headquarters of the western section of the
Irrigation Block. It has a large Canadian Pacific
Supply Farm, providing from its own production, and by purchase from
surrounding farmers, the western dining car system and hotels of the
company with cream, butter, eggs, poultry, vegetables and other
commodities.
Branch Lines   Bassano to Empress  (see page 14).
Bassano to Irricana.
-   Gleichen to Shepard cut-off via Strangmuir, Carseland and Dalemead.
Langdon to Kneehill, in the Drumheller coal fields, with a connection from Irricana to
Bassano.
!!ai»fte^jCTW6i«w-*^^^ ■
i^Sftjij^^
The Bassano Dam 18
Across    Canada
JHQf*1
*4fe«s
■Calgary
Going west, read station names downward.    Going east, read upward.
Shepard Here we have reached the end of the prairies proper, and are
Ogden on the edge of the foothills, which climb up gradually towards
Calgary the Rockies, which are now within plain sight. Calgary's
two rivers, ihe Bow and its tributary the Elbow, almost
encircle the city.
Ogden
Calgary
is the location of the immense Canadian Pacific construction and repair shops.
(Population 75,000, elevation 8,489 feet), largest city of
Alberta and the most important between Winnipeg and
Vancouver, is the business centre of this southern part of the province.
Founded only forty years ago, it is now a flourishing industrial and
agricultural centre, with fine buildings and many manufacturing
establishments. It is well supplied with clay and building stone
deposits, and is close to immense developed coal areas and large
developed water powers. A 2,500,000-bushel Dominion Government
terminal elevator is located here.
At the west end of the station block is the imposing Canadian
Pacific hotel, the Palliser. This handsome structure, completed in
1914, comprises ten floors in an "E" shape, which makes every room
an outside room. From the roof garden one can obtain a beautiful view
of the Canadian Rockies. At the east end of the platform is the building of the Natural Resources Department of the Canadian Pacific
Railway, which administers all the company's land, mineral and
timber interests in the west. The Canadian Pacific has a very simple
but excellent method of settling experienced irrigation farmers on the
land, giving thirty-five years for payment of the cost of the land,
after a first payment of seven per cent has been made. This method
has been the means of creating many fine homes and contented
settlers.
Calgary has municipally owned water works, electric light and
power systems and street railway and asphalt paving plants. Natural
gas is piped from Bow Island at very cheap prices. The city has some
beautiful parks and many golf courses, including a municipal course.
Tributary to Calgary is a most prosperous agricultural, beef-raising
and ranching district, in area some thousands of square miles, and by
virtue of the nutritious and abundant grasses growing throughout this
territory, cattle raised are of excellent quality. Grain and vegetables
produced in this district are also very fine.
Transcontinental westward journey continued on page 30.
Branch Lines    Calgary to Edmonton (see page 28).
Calgary to Macleod and Lethbridge (see page 29). U.S.   Connections
19
Soo Line
Chicago to St. Paul and Minneapolis: 460 miles
Chicago This is the United States connection with the Canadian
Waukesha Pacific.  Chicago, the second city in size and importance
Fond du Lac        in the United States, is left in the evening, for a fast,
Milwaukee comfortable run on the Soo Line to the "Turin Cities."
Oshkosh The line to Milwaukee branches off from the main line at
Neenah Rugby Junction, through sleepers being operated daily
Waupaca between Milwaukee arid the Turin Cities.   Waukesha
Stevens Point       is famous for its wonderful water, which is shipped all
Marshfield over the country.   It is a city of beautiful drives and
Chippewa Falls   liandsome residences, with several lakes nearby, while
St. Paul the Fox River flows near the city.  Waupaca is one of
Minneapolis the most noted of the vacation spots within easy reach of
either Chicago, Milwaukee, or the Twin Cities. The
lakes at Waupaca are over twenty in number and form a chain several miles
in length. The irregular shores, with their hard, sandy beaches, tempt the
lover of bathing, while the launch or canoe owner finds the place ideal for
cruising. There are many other beauty spots, including Stevens Point,
Fremont, Fond du Lac, Oshkosh, Cedar Lake, etc.
There are many thousands of beautiful lakes along the right of way
through the entire state, and many are well-known as ideal summering
places because of the fine summer homes and the well-appointed
summer hotels which are built along their shores. The clear crystal
waters of these lakes are well-stocked with game fish of all descriptions,
the large and small mouthed black bass being the most popular with
the average sportsman, although the mighty "lunge," which often
grows to a weight of over forty pounds, is also a prime favorite.
Passing through the beautiful Wisconsin country to the Minnesota
state line, the St. Croix river is spanned by a mighty bridge. Minneapolis and St. Paul are reached the following morning.
Soo Line
St. Paul to Winnipeg: 464 miles
St. Paul
Minneapolis
Brooten
Glenwood
^4. lexandria
Parker's Prairie
From St. Paul and Minneapolis the Soo Line runs
direct to Winnipeg via Emerson. The route is through
the lakey way of the Minnesota lakes, much resembling
in outline a gigantic fish-hook, with the eye at the Twin
Cities, the shaft running north-west. This belt is not
comparatively wide through the first hundred miles
Chicago—Michigan Avenue 20
Across    Canada
Henning
Detroit
Ogema
Mahnomen
Thief River Falls
Emerson
Winnipeg
out from the Twin Cities, but broadens as it turns
northward through a territory which is at once a beauty
spot and a great black bass preserve. West of this
region, the country smoothes down into the famous
prairies of the Red River Valley, every foot of which
is capable of furnishing its quota of wheat, corn and
other cultivated crops. Eastward, the lafid becomes
more park-like, with slightly rolling surface, where,
prosperous farming has heightened the charm of the scenery.
St. Paul St. Paul and Minneapolis, the Twin Cities of the Northwest, form the most important financial and manufacturing
centre between Chicago and Milwaukee on the east, and the Pacific
Coast on the west. Politically two municipal corporations, they are
in substance one large community of over 700,000 population. St.
Paul is the capital of the State of Minnesota and the older of the
"Twins." It is the terminus of nearly all the railway lines in the
Northwest and an important jobbing centre.
Minneapolis is younger, but larger, than St. Paul. Its principal advantage was primarily the immense water power
developed by the falls of St. Anthony, aggregating 40,000 utilized horse
power, employed almost wholly in the manufacture of flour. Minneapolis, due to the presence of these mills, is the largest primary wheat
market in the world. During recent years it has also become the
leading flax seed market, as the largest flax production in the world
from the new lands of North Dakota, which are tributary, forms the
basis of the immense linseed oil production of the Twin Cities. Minneapolis is the site of the University of Minnesota.
From Alexandria northward to the White Earth Reservation there is
a succession of well-tilled farms, of beautiful groves, and of picturesque
sheets of sparkling spring water. The country supports many business
centres. Richville and Dent are towns of great promise. Detroit is
an old-established town, finely located in the midst of numerous lakes
and having within a small radius a great number of summer hotels.
Northward from Detroit until the Canadian boundary is reached, the
country, although farmed to some extent, is only sparsely populated.
For fishing and hunting it is almost without a peer. At Emerson we
cross the border into Canada, and thence travel to Winnipeg over
Canadian Pacific metals. (For description of this route, and the Transcontinental Journey beyond, see page 5).
Minneapolis ST. PAUL-MINNEAPOLIS ™ WINNIPEG
and MOOSE JAW 22
Across    Canada
St. Paul
Soo Line
St. Paul-Minneapolis to North Portal: 562 miles
Going west, read station names downward.   Going east, read upward.
St. Paul The country along the Soo-Pacific line running west from
Buffalo Minneapolis to the International Boundary line between
Maple Lake North Dakota and Canada may for convenience be split into
Annandale three divisions. The first, running slightly north-west to
South Haven Elbow Lake, passes through the lake country. Here the
Kimball settlement is comparatively old: having passed through
Paynesville the early period of farming when the farmer depended
Brooten upon a single crop, the settlers have learned the practical
Glenwood importance of diversification. Not only wheat, oats, barley,
Elbow Lake but corn and other crops receive their share of attention.
Fairmount This is one of the richest dairy sections of the state. Every
Hankinson little community has its creamery, or milk station, and the
Enderlin inhabitants are correspondingly prosperous and progressive.
Valley City The second division may be called the great wheat belt of the
Carrington North-west, running from Elbow Lake, in western Minne-
Fessenden sota, to Harvey, in the north-central part of North Dakota,
Harvey passing through the Big Bend country of Richland county,
Minot through Hankinson, Enderlin, Valley City, Carrington and
Kenmare Fessenden. The development of mixed farming is well under
Flaxton way in this district.  At Hankinson fruit raising experiments
Portal have resulted in establishing a fine apple orchard, which is the
basis of considerable fruit-growing throughout North Dakota.
The third natural division of the country is that newly-opened land
area which is now aptly called "Flaxland." During the past few years
the production of flax has increased prodigiously. It is the crop particularly adapted to the soil of the Dakota prairie. Frequently the production'
runs as high as 20 bushels to the acre. From Flaxton a line has been built
ivestward into Montana through a splendid wheat country. The present
terminus of the branch is Whitetail, Montana.
Almost every station in Minnesota has its lake resorts. Often there
are a number of lakes of considerable area within a radius of five
miles from the town. Some of the finest lake cottages in the Northwest are on this line. Buffalo, Maple Creek, Annandale and Glenwood
are particularly famous, Glenwood being the location of a new State
fish hatchery; South Haven, Kimball Prairie, Paynesville and other
towns, also, are receiving increased attention and a corresponding
appreciation from summer visitors. At all these lake resorts the
fishing is excellent. Disciples of Walton come from as far as Chicago
and St. Louis for the fun of catching the superb black bass for which
the Minnesota lakes are famous. U.S.   Connections
23
Canadian Pacific Railway
North Portal to Moose Jaw: 167 miles
Going west, read station names downward.   Going east, read upward.
North Portal    Portal is on one side of the international boundary between
Estevan Canada and the United States, and North Portal on the
Macoun other.  Here also we leave the metals of the Soo Line, and
Middle continue our journey on those of the Canadian Pacific,
Halbrite running in a north-westerly direction towards the main
Ralph transcontinental line.   We enter an interesting territory
Weyburn of large coal deposits, with many operating mines, and very
Yellow Grass    extensive clay areas supplying material to numerous brick
Lang plants.   Investigation has been carried on for some years
Milestone with a view to improving the coal measures of the district,
Wilcox to enable a higher grade of domestic coal to be sold. Several
Rouleau briquetting plants have been constructed, which are to be
Drinkwater      followed by by-products plants.    Towards the north is a
Pasqua very fertile area known as the Soo Line country, flanked
Moose Jaw on the west by the Dirt Hills and on the east by a continuation of the Regina Plains'. It has always been a good crop
territory, settled many years ago with farmers mostly from the United
States, who have prospered and built fine homes and have well-laid-out and
cultivated farms.
Estevan is a flourishing centre with a population of some 2,500,
carrying on a considerable business with the numerous
communities near by.
Weyburn ^   (Population 4,800) is another very important point and
the centre of a very prosperous community.
Branch Lines   Estevan to Neptune.
Estevan to Winnipeg, via Deloraine (see page 27), or to Brandon (see page 8).
Weyburn to Stoughton and Winnipeg (see Dage 23).
Weyburn to Assiniboia and Lethbridge (see page 13).
Main Line The main line is reached at Pasqua, seven miles beyond which is Moose
Jaw (see page 12).
^s'&'jj!?!*'*-''5***^
A Western Canadian Farm.       (Above) Sheep Raising on the Prairies 24
Across    Canada
Winnipeg to Edmonton: 848 miles
(For Map, see page 9)
Going west, read station names downward.   Going east, read upward.
Winnipeg Generally speaking, the main line of the Canadian Pacific
Portage Railway means the transcontinental line between Vancouver
Gladstone and Montreal.   However, that portion of the system over
Neepawa which the through trains between Edmonton and Winnipeg
Minnedosa are operated is really a main line also, the railway cutting
Shoal Lake across the three great prairie provinces to serve the rapidly
Birtle developing communities north of the transcontinental line.
Binscarth Level grain plains productive of the finest crops cover the
Bredenbury greater part of the area.   The route, as far as Portage la
Saltcoats Prairie, is that of the main line; thence it turns more north-
Yorkton westerly, across the Portage Plains.    This is an old and
Foam Lake well-settled district, with many important business centres.
Wynyard Following this is considerable bush country, with scattered
Lanigan lakes and many ponds, abounding with wild geese, turkeys,
Sutherland ducks and chickens.   On the larger and finer of these lakes
Saskatoon some   summer   resorts   have   been   established.    Between
Binscarth and Churchbridge, the province of Saskatchewan
is entered.
Neepawa        (Population 1,900)  and  Minnedosa  (Population   1,500)
are both important farming centres, charmingly located.
Minnedosa is the headquarters of the Northern Judicial District.
Yorkton (Population 5,500) is one of the principal points of this
territory, surrounded by a large well-situated area of
grain growing and dairy country, and with an important wholesale
business.
Saskatoon (Population 82,500, altitude 1,596 feet) is a city of rapid
growth, modern in every particular, with fine business
blocks, public buildings, paved streets, a beautiful river boulevard,
electric light and power, street railway and many river bridges.
It is a city of optimism and the centre of a large territory for wholesale
trade. There are many factories, including the large Quaker Oats
Company mill, turning out a thousand barrels a day. The Dominion
Government has here an interior terminal elevator with a capacity of
3,500,000 bushels, taking care of storage of grain and relieving the
pressure during the grain shipping season. There are large parks
and a fine baseball ground. Saskatoon is a city destined to build to
large dimensions. Its territory is fruitful and well settled, and its
products mixed and numerous.
Branch Lines    Minnedosa to Brandon.
Binscarth to Inglis, in the direction of the Riding Mountains.
Lanigan to Naicam.
Saskatoon to Brand on (see page 8); Saskatoon to Regina and MooseJaw (see page 11).
mm
RI mmm
l^"; 4is*»^SS ~*..
Portage la Prairie
I The   Northern   Route
25
Going west, read station names downward.   Going east, read upward.
Perdue Between Saskatoon and Edmonton are located many flourish-
Biggar ing small towns.  All of thise have sprung up within the last
Wilkie twenty-five years, having developed with astonishing rapidity
Unity to meet the needs of the agricultural regions around them.
Macklin At every station may be seen elevators and stock pens,
Provost giving evidence that the country is prosperous, well-settled
Hardisty and productive of stock as well as grain. Ranching activities
Sedgewick are more frequent in the Alberta part of this district, where
Killam the country is  park-like, with alternate open and wooded
Daysland spaces, well-watered and with excellent grasses for feed.
Camrose The province of Alberta is entered at Hayter. In this section
Wetaskiwin will be found some of the "Ready Made Farm" districts
Leduc which have been so successfully created by the Canadian
Edmonton     Pacific in many parts of Western Canada, especially with
people from the Old Country.   By this scheme farms were
prepared, ploughed and fenced, and houses built before the new settlers
took possession.
The University of Saskatchewan is situated at Sutherland, which is
on the opposite side of the North Saskatchewan River and reached by
a very handsome bridge.
Biggar        (Population 2,000)  is one of the most important towns
between Saskatoon and Edmonton.    Wilkie  (Population
1,000) is a divisional point.    At Hardisty the Alberta District of the
Railway commences, and the Saskatchewan District ends.
Sedgewick
colonies.
Camrose
surrounded by beautiful farming country, was the site
of one of the earliest of the "Ready Made Farms"
(Population 2,500) is a well situated town doing a large
business and from which many lines of railway radiate.
It is the centre of a good coal area, with operating mines, and a big
dairying and mixed farming district. It is the home of the Alberta
Scandinavian College, as well as high and normal schools. There are
good lakes and good shooting. Bittern Lake, just beyond it, is a
beautiful spot.
Wetaskiwin (from the Indian name "Hills of Peace") is on the
through line running from Calgary to Edmonton (see
page 28). It is a city of some 2,500 inhabitants, backed by a good
country and a developed lumber industry to the west nearer the
mountains.  Coal, marl and clay are in the vicinity.
Branch Lines   Wilkie to Cutknife.
Wilkie to Kerrobert (see page 13) and Kelfield.
Macklin to Kerrobert.
Wetaskiwin to Calgary (see page 28).
»i£«r
1
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1   II IB
Saskatoon—University of Saskatchewan
11 iii   II  II [!
■Kl
II 26
Across    Canada
Edmonton (Population 69,000, altitude 2188), capital of the province
of Alberta, is situated on both sides of the North Saskatchewan River. The portion on the south bank was originally
known as Strathcona, the two cities being amalgamated in 1912. The
Canadian Pacific enters Edmonton by means of a magnificent steel
high-level bridge, 2,250 feet long, 152 feet above water level, which
carries also street car tracks and traffic roads. This bridge was
opened in 1913. Edmonton was established as a fur trading post in
1795; the magnificent buildings of the Province of Alberta are now
located near the site made historic by the original trading post of
Fort Edmonton. The old fort was dismantled only a few years ago.
The University of Alberta, the Robertson Presbyterian College,
Alberta Methodist College, and many other educational institutions
are situated here. The city is run on very progressive municipal lines,
and owns and operates all its own public utilities. It is the distributing
centre for the vast Peace River country to the north and northwest,
and is also the centre of an important and rapidly developing coal
industry, the production of the mines in and around Edmonton being
almost 2,000 tons per day.
There are many points for summer vacation within easy reach,
including the very fine Lake Wabamun, which is well patronized
during the summer months. Sixty miles west of the city, at Rocky
Rapids, there is large water power available for development.
Edmonton, Dunvegan 85 British Columbia Railway
The Edmonton, Dunvegan and British Columbia Railway, extending northwestward from Edmonton to Grande Prairie (407
miles) with a branch from McLennan to Peace River and Berwyn (71
miles), is now being operated by the Canadian Pacific Railway.
Edmonton is located at approximately the centre of Alberta. North
of the city is a fine open stretch of country known as the Grande
Prairie. Still farther north is the famous Peace River country which,
while still in the early stages of its development, has seen rapid settlement within the past few years. Some of the most fertile regions
of this north country are rendered accessible by the E.D. & B.C.
I
a a a
■ ■ ■
■.Ml 3 ]Jl]liIlll
aj a a ^gj?f tp&RftTaTiT^
Edmonton—Provincial Parliament Buildings Southern   Manitoba
27
'Countess of Dufferin" (C.P.R. Locomotive No. 1) in front of Winnipeg Station
Winnipeg to Regina, via Arcola: 366 miles
(For Map, see page 9)
Of the many branches that radiate from Winnipeg, one of the
most important is that which makes a long loop south of the
main line between Winnipeg and Regina. This passes
through a splendidly fertile country, well- settled with
prosperous farmers who mostly came in during the pioneer
days of Manitoba and are now reaping the enjoyment of
their leisure. This region produces large crops, and on
every side big herds of cattle and dairy stock are to be seen.
The country is well-treed and there are numerous lakes in
•ihe district. The succession of fine tovms and villages and
the large well-built farm buildings indicate the prosperous
character of the country. Souris (population 1,800) is
beautifully situated on a small river, and carries on a large
business. Arcola (population 600), is a progressive town
with a pretty summer resort named Fish Lake.
Regina—see page 11.
Branch Lines   Elm Creek south to Carman, a town of 1,600 population and great prosperity.
Souris to Brandon and Estevan (see page 8).
Reston to Wolseley (see page 10).
Stoughton to Weyburn (see page 23).
Winnipeg
Headingley
Starbuck
Elm Creek
Treherne
Glenboro
Souris
Reston
Carlyle
Arcola
Kisbey
Stoughton
Francis
ina
Winnipeg to Napinka: 221 miles
(For Map, see page 9)
Another very important branch line into Winnipeg is that
which runs due south and then west, paralleling the international boundary at a not very great distance. This region
is one of close population and large production, the Red
River Valley being noted for its fertile soil. In parts the
country is like a table-land. It is well-treed and pleasing to the
Pilot Mound eye, and also supports large herds of fine dairy stock. Success-
Crystal City ful apple-growing experiments have been made in this district.
Killarney The towns are all fairly large and have a big trade. Morden
(population 1,500) is a flourishing centre, vrith a Dominion
Government Experimental Farm nearby and cement deposits
fourteen miles distant. Crystal City is a popular summer
resort. Killarney has a particularly lovely lake, with good
fishing and boating, and is also a well-patronized summer resort. Tht
town has a population of some 1,200, and an experimental fruit farm.
Boissevain (population 1,000) is a prosperous centre situated in the heart
of a fine wheat-growing district, with a summer resort close by. Deloraine
is another highly prosperous town.
Branch Lines    Rosenfeld to Altona and Gretna, connecting at the border with the Great
Northern Railway.
Wood Bay to the international boundary, reaching a well-populated country with such
important towns as Snowflake, Mowbray and Windygates.
Boissevain to Lauder, on the Brandon-Estevan line (see page 8).
Deloraine south-westerly to Lyleton.
Napinka to Brandon and Estevan line (see page 8).
Winnipeg
Morris
Winkler
Morden
Manitou
Wood Bay
Boissevain
Deloraine
Napinka 28
Across    Canada
Dairy Cattle in Alberta.
Calgary to Edmonton: 194 miles
(For Map, see page 9)
Calgary Between Calgary and Edmonton runs an important branch
Crossfield line which serves an exceptionally rich region, well suited
Didsbury for mixed farming and especially for dairying. This district,
Olds as a matter of fact, is one of the most successfid dairying
Innisfail areas of Alberta, which fact is testified by the large number
Red Deer of creameries situated along the line. For about thirty miles
Lacombe north of Calgary the line skirts the extreme western boundary
Ponoka of the Canadian Pacific Irrigation Block. Along this part of
Wetaskiwin the line the character of the country is very similar to that
Edmonton along the main line east of Calgary—undulating prairie with
very little timber; but from this point north, generally called
"Central Alberta," the keynote changes. The country is more wooded;
bush will be seen everywhere, gradually increasing in size towards the
north. In the northern section near Edmonton the trees are almost continuous.
Calgary—see page 18.
Olds is the location of one of the Agricultural Schools established
by the Province of Alberta, where practical courses in agriculture, animal husbandry and domestic science are available for
farmers' sons and daughters. A splendid big game country lies sixty
miles west of Olds. Mountain sheep, goat, moose, grizzly bear and
deer are among the possibilities.
Red Deer (Population 2,500) is the commercial centre of this mixed
farming and dairying district. Situated on the Red Deer
River about midway between Calgary and Edmonton, it is a well-
established city, with many factories and distributing houses. In
the neighborhood are found coal, clay, gravel and sand deposits.
Lacombe     (Population 1,800) is another important centre, and is the
site   of   a  Dominion  Government   Experimental   Farm.
About  eight miles west is another highly popular summer resort,
Gull Lake.
Ponoka      is the site of the provincial hospital for the insane.
Wetaskiwin—see page 25.
Edmonton—see page 26.
Branch Lines Red Deer to Rocky Mountain House, passing through a very beautiful
mixed farming country with large hay areas. Sylva.n Lake, on this line,
is a very popular resort for Calgary and Edmonton people. At Rocky Mountain House we
cross the North Saskatchewan River; westward a road lies to the Brazeau coal fields, in
the foothills of the Rockies.
Lacombe to Kerrobert, where the branch joins the line running north-westerly from Moose
Jaw to Macklin (see page 13). Along the line are some flourishing towns, such as Clive,
Alix, Erskine, Stettler, Gadsby, Castor, Coronation, Consort, Monitor, Compeer, etc.
From Coronation, an important centre and divisional point (population BOO), another
branch runs north 25 miles to Lorraine.
Lacombe to Hoadley (L. & N. W. Ry.)
u, Southern  Alberta
29
Calgary to Lethbridge: 126 miles
(For Map, see page 9)
Calgary From Calgary an important branch line runs south to Leth-
Midnapore bridge, through a very prosperous agricultural country, with
Okotoks well-developed and flourishing towns. Large natural gas
Blackie deposits abound. Midnapore is the site of a well-known
Carmangay orphanage and Old People's Home founded by Father La-
Lethbridge combe, one of the most famous pioneers of theW est. Okotoks,
in the Turner Valley, is an oil-field which has been producing
a high grade gasoline since 1916 and where large natural gas deposits abound.
Lethbridge—see page 81.
Calgary to Macleod: 108 miles
Calgary This is the same route as that immediately previous, as far
High River as Aldersyde. Betweenhere and Macleod the line runs through
Nanton an old-settled country that extends right back to the Porcupine
Claresholm Hills, which for a considerable part of the journey are a
Macleod striking feature of the western horizon. These hills are very
rolling and, generally speaking, offer exceptionally high grade
pasturage, particularly for winter feeding. There are many fertile valleys
and benches in them, making irrigation practical, and they are full of the
very finest springs of high grade water. In the foothills are large coal
measures and indications of iron ore deposits; many valuable clay deposits
are found, and also a first-class building stone.
High River This region is a great grain and stock country, famous
for many years back as the location of some celebrated
ranches, of which the "Bar U," near High River, is probably the
largest. H.R.H. the Prince of Wales owns a ranch, the "E.P.", near
here.
Claresholm
is the location
schools.
of one of the provincial agricultural
Macleod—see page 81.
1
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ifi i li!
usnBrl?
Calgary—The Palliser Hotel 30
Across    Canada
Indian Camp at Morley
Calgary to Field: 136 miles
Altitudes of these stations will be found in Condensed
Guide on page 47.
Going west, read station names downward.   Going east, read upward.
Calgary Westward from Calgary we enter the most wonderful region of
Brickburn Canada—the Canadian Pacific Rockies, which interpose their
Keith giant bulk between ihe provinces of Alberta and British
Glenbow Columbia. The Rockies were first seen several miles east
Cochrane of Calgary, but the finest distant view was that obtained from
Radnor the roof garden of the Palliser Hotel. Now we leave the city
Morley and the hotel behind. From Calgary to Banff the railway
Seebe climbs 1,100 feet in eighty miles.   The great stretches of level
prairie cease, and the rolling, grassy foothills succeed, rising
tier upon tier to the base of the great ranges to which they are the outposts.
In the lower valleys can be seen huge ranches, for this is a great stock-
raising country, and on the higher terraces can be seen great herds of cattle
and sheep. The long transverse valleys of this foothill country are the old
grooves down which came the spent glaciers from the higher mountains.
Here, and through nearly the whole eastern slope of the Rocky Mountains
from the Great Divide, the railway follows thetumultuous course of the glacial-
green Bow River—part of one of the greatest river systems of America,
subsequently becoming a tributary of the South Saskatchewan River, which
eventually flows into the Saskatchewan and drains into Lake Winnipeg.
Calgary—see page 18.
Cochrane is one of the principal points in the ranching country.
Ascending the Bow River from here, and gaining the
top of the first terrace, a full view of the Rockies is obtained at last.
Morley is the modern home of the Stoney Indians, once a very
warlike race but now the most industrious of red men.
The foothills are full of Indian lore. The whole district was conceived
as a great giant; hence there are the Knee Hills, the Hand Hills, the
Elbow and the Ghost Rivers, and other names equally picturesque.
Kananaskis Falls, on the Bow River, were named after a mythical
Cree chief, the word meaning "a tall straight pine with branches near
the top."
Seebe    is the site of two hydro-electric power plants which supply
Calgary with its electrical power.  The lower plant was completed in 1911, the upper one in 1915.  The latter can be seen from the
(Continued on page 82) r&   Indicates Double Track
CALGARY TO FIELD 32
Across    Canada
Going west, read station names downward.   Going east, read upward.
Kananaskis   Nature has thrown up the Canadian Pacific Rockies on so
Exshaw vast a scale that the human mind can with difficulty grasp
Gap their greatness, except by some comparison.    The "Trans
Canada Limited," fastest Canadian Pacific train, takes
twenty-three hours to pass from Cochrane, at the entrance to the Rockies,
to Mission, where it enters the coastal plain. The simplest parallel is
that of the Swiss Alps, which throw their giant barrier between Italy and
France. Two of the best known railway routes across the Swiss Alps are
the St. Gothard and the Simplon. It takes an express train five hours to
iravelfrom Lucerne to Como, or from Lausanne to Arona. When, therefore,
Edward Whymper, the hero of the Matterhorn, described the Canadian
Pacific Rockies as fifty Switzerlands thrown into one, this certainly was no
exaggeration. The Canadian Pacific Rockies stretch from the Gap practically to Vancouver—nearly six hundred miles of Alpine scenery. Snowy
peaks, glaciers, rugged precipices, waterfalls, foaming torrents, canyons,
lakes like vast sapphires and amethysts set in the pine-clad mountains—
these have been flung together in unparalleled profusion on a scale which
Europe has never known.
Seebe (continued)
railway. These two plants, with the sub-stations and transmission
lines, represent an investment of about five million dollars. Generators
with a capacity of 31,000 horse power are installed in these power
houses, supplying a current of 55,000 volts which is transmitted over two
high tension transmission lines to the city of Calgary. A supply of power
at 12,000 volts is also transmitted to the large cement mill at Exshaw.
The upper dam consists of a solid concrete structure 600 feet in
length, capable of discharging 40,000 cubic feet of water per second.
The company is engaged in building a third transmission line to the
city of Calgary, to meet the growing demand for power.
Kananaskis     marks the eastern boundary to Rocky Mountains Park.
Exshaw has a large
Portland
cement mill, with an
average output of 4,000
barrels a day. It draws
its supplies of limestone and shale from
the excellent deposits
close to the mill.
The Gap Two almost vertical walls of dizzy
height, streaked and
capped with snow and
ice, where the mountains look almost impenetrable, form what
is known as the Gap.
On the north is the
Fairholme Range, the
prominent peak being
Grotto Mountain (5570
feet), while onthe south
is the GoatRange, with
PigeonMountain, Wind
Mountain and the
Three Sisters. The
peaks in the Fairholme
Range are fantastically broken; the ones
opposite are massive
snow - laden promon-
The Gap tories,    rising     thou-
^®2W$$$y Entering  the  Rockies
33
Going west, read station names downward.   Going east, read upward.
Canmore Canada has a magnificent system of fifteen National Parks,
Bankhead of which eleven are in Western Canada. Of the latter, four of
Banff the most important are traversed by or lie adjacent to the Cana
dian Pacific Railway, while two others can be reached conveniently from it.
Rocky Mountain Park, largest of these six, is bounded on the west by
the inter provincial boundary between Alberta and British Columbia, and
on the east by, approximately, the first big ranges of the Rockies. It has an
area of 2,751 square miles, its greatest length "being about one hundred
miles. No part of the Rockies exhibits a greater variety of sublime and
romantic scenery, and nowhere are good points of view and features of
special interest so accessible, with so many good roads and bridle paths.
Its principal mountain ranges are the Vermilion, Kananaskis, Bourgeau,
Bow, and Sawback ranges; its principal river is the Bow, which has for
chief tributaries the Kananaskis, Spray, Cascade and Pipestone Rivers.
Of the many beautiful lakes within the Park, the principal are Louise,
Moraine, Minnewanka, Hector, Spray, Kananaskis and Bow Lakes.
The Gap (continued)
sands of feet and penetrated by enormous alcoves imprisoning all the
hues of the prism. Hundreds of thousands of years ago, in some huge
upheaval toward the end of the Cretaceous Age, these mountains were
lifted up; some sections were thrust high in the air, others remained
almost as level as before. Others were tilted more or less toward the
west, and still others bent and crumbled under the tremendous pressure
from the sides. We see to-day only the colossal fragments of the original thrusts. It is by the Gap that the Canadian Pacific enters the first
real ranges*of the Rockies.
The Three Sisters A profile so striking that it is easily distin
guishable is formed in the southern range near
Canmore by three companion peaks known as the Three Sisters, the
highest peak reaching a height of 9,734 feet.
In the same neighborhood is a curious group of pillars known as
■"hoodoos," some of them ten times as tall as a man and of sufficiently
hard material to withstand the weatherings that have played havoc
with the surrounding bank.
Cascade Mountain As we pass Bankhead, the great bulk of Cascade
Mountain blocks the view. The pass narrows
suddenly. On the left, the sharp peak is Rundle, so called in honor
of an early missionary to the Indians. Here we leave the Bow for a
time and strike up the valley of the Cascade River, directly in the
face of Cascade Mountain, which, apparently but a stone's throw
distant, is really miles away.
Canmore—The Three Sisters 34 Across    Canada
The Canadian Pacific Rockies comprise some of Nature's most gigantic
works. In the various mountain ranges that make them up—the Rockies,
the Selkirks, and the Gold, Coast, Cascade, and Purcell Ranges—there are,
according to Government measurements, no less than 644 mountain peaks
over 6,000 feet in height above sea level. These include only those peaks
which bear names, and do not profess to exhaust the innumerable
mountains that have not yet been named or measured, or that are very
inaccessible from railways. Of those actually listed, there are 544 over
7,000 feet, 422 over 8,000 feet, 272 over 9,000 feet, 144 over 10,000 feet,
41 over 11,000 feet, and 4 over 12,000feet.
Many of the principal mountains seen by the traveller from the train or
at the most popular mountain resorts—at and around Banff, Lake Louise,
Moraine Lake, Lake O'Hara, Field, Emerald Lake, the Yoho Valley, and
Glacier—average a height above the floor of the valleys at their base of about
4,800 feet, or almost a mile. _^_^
Banff is the administrative headquarters of Rocky Mountains
Park. The town lies embowered in pine forests and lawns,
in a pocket of a wide circle of pearly-grey limestone peaks. Warmed
by clear sunshine and kissed by clear air, exhilarated by the glacial-
green Bow River that frisks through its middle, Banff is the Mecca
of tourists from all parts of the world.
Banff Springs Hotel The traveller seeking a holiday can find all his
wants supplied at the finest mountain hotel
in the world, the Banff Springs Hotel. This hotel, built and operated
by the Canadian Pacific Railway, stands on a height between the
foaming falls of the Bow and the mouth of the rapid Spray River.
Looking from the verandah of the hotel, between Tunnel Mountain and
Mount Rundle, a splendid view may be obtained of the distant snow-
clad barrier of the Fairholme Range. Immediately in front is the
junction of the Bow River with the Spray River, with the former
making a beautiful waterfall.
The Panorama of Banff       From the station a magnificent panorama
is to be witnessed. To the north is the grey
bulk of Cascade Mountain, towering above the town like a grim old
idol. To the east are Mount Inglismaldie and the heights of the
Fairholme sub-range. Still farther to the east the sharp cone of
Mount Peechee closes the view in that direction. To the left of Cascade
rises the wooded ridge of Stoney Squaw. To the west and up the
valley are the distant snowy peaks of the main range above Simpson's
Pass. To the left is Sulphur Mountain; to the south-east the isolated
wooded bluff of Tunnel Mountain and the long serrated spine of Mount
Rundle. From the Bow bridge the view is even more magnificent, for
the river runs through the centre of the picture.
Hot Springs Had Banff not become famous for its beauty, it must
have become famous for its hot springs, which are
amongst the most important of this continent. The five chief springs
have been found to have a total flow of about a million gallons a day.
and issue from the ground the year round at a temperature of over 90
degrees Fahrenheit. Excellent swimming in warm sulphur water is
afforded at the Upper Hot Springs (on Sulphur Mountain), the Cave
and Basin Bath House, and at the Banff Springs Hotel. At the Cave
and Basin the Government has erected a handsome $150,000 swimming
bath. The Banff Springs Hotel has its own beautiful sulphur pool,
with fresh water pool adjoining, and with expert masseurs in attendance
at the Turkish baths attached.
Recreation An eighteen-hole golf course, situated on the banks
of the Bow River at the base of Mount Rundle, is
open to visitors. Rowing, canoeing and motor-boating are available
on the Bow River. There is good fishing in Lake Minnewanka, about
eight miles distant.
Walking and Riding There are a large number of beautiful trails
and roads leading from Banff, offering
delightful rides, drives and walks. On the east side of the Bow Falls
is the road which switchbacks up Tunnel Mountain, affording splendid
views of the Bow Valley and the surrounding mountains. Another
beautiful walk is past the Cave and Basin to Sundance Canyon. (Above) Buffalo at Banff
(At side) Mount Assiniboine
(Below) Sulphur Swimming Pool,
Banff Springs Hotel
lw
|B**f
•iri'^Pnf
iff!
a1
II
'Sf\
J_»}_ _m___T
Banff Springs Hotel and the Bow Valley 36
Across    Canada
Going west, read station names downward.   Going east, read upward.
Massive
Castle Mountain
Eldon
Temple
Lake Louise
as the Sawback.
Magnificent views of the surrounding mountains are
afforded between Banff and Lake Louise, the railway
skirting the Vermilion lakes and following the course
of the Bow River Valley through a beautifully forested
valley. Westward and to the north of Castle Mountain
is the bare, rugged and sharply serrated sub-range known
The Slate Mountains, which appear in the foreground
at Lake Louise, are a spur from this range. Far to the south are the snowy
peaks that enclose Simpson's Pass; somewhat to the south-east are Pilot
Mountain (9,680 feet), a landmark for trappers visible from either end of the
Bow, and Hole-in-the-Wall Mountain (9,184 feet) with an interesting
cavern running into the mountain for 160 feet, which has been used as a
meeting place for the Masonic Lodge at Banff.
Near Eldon a wonderful array of peaks is presented. Toward the southeast may be seen Pilot Mountain, Copper Mountain, Mount Brett, and
Vermilion Pass, where the continental watershed sends the Vermilion
River westward into the Kootenay. Almost directly south is Storm
Mountain (10,809 feet) and the snowy dome of Mount Ball (10,825 feet).
Loftiest and grandest of all towers Temple Mountain.
Castle Mountain a sheer precipice of over 4,000 feet, named for
its resemblance to a giant keep. Turrets,
bastions and battlements can easily be distinguished. The mountain
is eighty miles long, and its highest point is 9,030 feet above sea
level.
Temple Mountain (11,526 feet). This great snowbound mountain,
whose crest exhibits precipitous walls of ice,
flashing blue in the sunlight, is the most conspicuous and admirable
feature of the wonderful valley. A distant glimpse can be obtained on
the south of the Valley of the Ten Peaks, with the triangular-shaped
Mount Deltaform standing out conspicuously.
Banff-Windermere Road    Of great interest to automobile enthusiasts is
thisnew automobileroad, constructed by the
Dominion Government, and the Canadian Pacific Railway, across the
Canadian Pacific Rockies. This spectacular journey through a hundred
miles of the most magnificent mountain scenery of America can be commenced at either Banff or Lake Louise, the road at first being that which
connects those two points. At Castle Mountain it crosses the Bow
River and rises to the Vermilion Pass (altitude 5,264 feet).    Here it
enters Kootenay Park.
From Marble Canyon,
a remarkable fissure
three hundred feet
deep, there is a trail
to the curious Ochre
beds. The road then
follows the Vermilion
River to its junction
with the Kootenay
River. Crossing the
Kootenay, it leads
through a beautiful
avenue of virgin forest,
and, ascending the
Sinclair Pass between
the Briscoe and Stanford Ranges, reaches
Sinclair Hot Springs,
long famous for their
radium qualities.
Emerging through the
^PS gap of Sinclair Canyon
^fxv* ^<l    m meets the Columbia
River and nine miles
beyond the  beautiful
Castle Mountain Lake Windermere.
mump Lake   Louise
37
Kootenay Park (area 587 square miles) tucks in between the southern
portions of Rocky Mountains and Yoho Parks, and comprises the Vermilion, Mitchell and Briscoe Ranges. The Kootenay River flows through
its southern part, with a large tributary in the Vermilion. At the southwest end it almost touches the eastern bank of the Columbia River a little
above Lake Windermere. The Banff-Windermere Road traverses the
centre of this park.
Bungalow Camps This   drive   has   been   rendered   even   more
pleasant by the construction of three Bungalow
Camps en route. These are Storm Mountain (26 miles from Banff),
Vermilion River (50 miles), and Radium Hot Springs (91 miles).
Lake Windermere Bungalow Camp, somewhat larger, will be found
described on page 46.
The journey can be continued along the east side of Lake Windermere
and the Kootenay River, through Canal Flats and Fort Steele, to
Cranbrook. There the road connects with other highways leading
south across the international boundary, thus forming the last link
in the "Grand Circle Tour" to California.
Lake Louise   Thirty-four miles west of Banff is Lake Louise. To reach
the lake we must ascend another 630 feet, by means of a
light gasoline railway.   Turning a corner of the mountain we come
suddenly into full view of the lake.
Lake Louise (altitude 5,670 feet), bearing the liquid music, the
soft color notes of its name, into the realm of the visible, is probably
the most perfect gem of scenery in the known world. "A lake of the
deepest and most exquisite coloring," says one writer, "ever changing,
defying analysis, mirroring in its wonderful depths the sombre forest
and cliffs tnat rise from its shores on either side, the gleaming white
glacier and tremendous snow-crowned peaks that fill the background
of the picture, and the blue sky and fleecy clouds overhead."
Chateau Lake Louise On the shores of this beautiful lake the Canadian Pacific Railway operates the magnificent
Chateau Lake Louise. No more beautiful spot and no more comfortable
hotel could be chosen by anyone wishing to make either a short stay or
a long one in the Canadian Pacific Rockies. Many there are who are
entirely satisfied to sit on the verandah watching the marvelous
kaleidoscope of color that flits across the surface of the lake.
Storm Mountain Bungalow Camp
(At side) On the Banff-Windermere
Road 38 Across    Canada
The Delights of Climbing   It  is  difficult   to  imagine  anything  more
fascinating than to start out in the early
morning, stepping in half an hour from the perfect civilization of a luxurious
hotel into the primitive glory of cliff and crag, winding waterway and frozen
grandeur, to spend the day among the mountains. With a blue sky overhead,
the air soft with the sweet resinous spice of the forest, and all cares left far
behind, one sees only beautiful sights, hears only wonderland sounds, and
for a whole long day lives close to the very heart of Nature in her most
splendid mood.
The Canadian Pacific Rockies present to the mountain climber one of
the most extensive and interesting fields of any easily accessible ranges of
the world. Noted climbers make their way thither from all parts of the
world. There are easy climbs, too, for the novice to graduate from—on
some, indeed, he or she can ride or walk good trails almost to the summit.
The Panorama of Lake Louise        Encircling   Lake   Louise   is   an
amphitheatre of peaks. From
left to right they are Saddle Back, Fairview, Lefroy, Victoria, Collier,
Popes, Whyte, the Devil's Thumb, the Needles, the Big Beehive,
Niblock, St. Piran and the Little Beehive. At the far end of the lake,
catching for the greater part of the day the full glory of the sun, their
snowfields standing out in dazzling whiteness, are the glaciers that
drop down from Mount Victoria and the lofty ice-crowned head of
Mount Lefroy.
Lakes in the Clouds       One of the finest and most popular excursions,
either by walking or on a sure-footed mountain pony, is to the Lakes in the Clouds, nestling a thousand feet and
more higher up in the mountain ranges.
The trail, leaving the west end of the Chateau, rises gradually
through spruce and fir forests to Mirror Lake, thence upward to Lake
Agnes. These lakes are good examples of "cirque" lakes—deep, steep-
walled recesses caused by glacial erosion. The view from the edge
of Lake Agnes—where a charming little rest and tea-holise has been
established—is magnificent.
Saddleback Another excellent walking or pony excursion is to
Saddleback. Crossing the bridge over Lake Louise
creek, the trail rises rapidly on the slopes of Mount Fairview, between
that mountain and Saddleback. The view of Paradise Valley and
Mount Temple from this point is one of the finest in the |Rockies.
At the top is a tea and rest house, over two thousand feet higher than
Lake Louise.
Moraine Lake This lovely mountain lake, in the Valley of the
Ten Peaks, is 9 miles distant from the Chateau,
and can be reached by automobile. The tremendous semi-circle of the
Ten Peaks presents a jagged profile that makes a most majestic view.
Not one of them is less than 10,000 feet in height—the highest is 11,225
feet. Moraine Lake is exquisitely tinted in color, its waters sometimes
so still that they reflect every twig above its surface. On the shore of
the lake is a charming bungalow camp.
Paradise Valley Between Moraine Lake and Lake Louise lies
Paradise Valley, carpeted with Alpine flowers.
Great peaks rise around it like citadel walls. The valley can be reached from the Saddleback down a steep zig-zag trail to the "Giant's
Steps," and continued across the valley to Lake Annette. From the
Giant's Steps a trail leads across the valley to Sentinel Pass, whence
descent can be made through Larch Valley to Moraine Lake.
Abbot Pass From the Victoria Glacier there is a fine climb over
Abbot Pass, between Mounts Victoria and Lefroy,
descending to Lake O'Hara (see page 40). This should nd|J however,
be attempted by the novice, unless accompanied by skilled guides.
An Alpine hut has been erected near the summit, at an altitude of
over 9,500 feet, for the convenience of climbers.
Lake Louise is one of the recognized mountain climbing centres of
the Rockies, and has many good climbs, both for the novice and the
experienced Alpinist. Swiss guides are attached to the Chateau Lake
Louise for those who wish to visit the glaciers, climb mountains, or
make some of the more strenuous trips through the passes.
1 1
" III ii. ' ''n;i»iim^
r ***•*«■ t- ito. V? 40
Across    Canada
Going west, read station names downward.    Going east, read upward.
The Great Divide
Stephen
Hector
Yoho
Cathedral
Field
The twenty-mile journey between Lake Louise and
Field, with its vivid and startling realization of the
elevations reached, of the grades necessitated, and of
the engineering difficulties encountered and overcome,
leaves one breathless and amazed, full of admiration
for the master minds which conceived and carried
through the achievement of a transcontinental railway.
Between the Great Divide and Field, a distance of fourteen miles, the
railway descends nearly a quarter-mile through the Kicking Horse Pass.
The gradient through the pass is a particularly difficult one.
The Great Divide Six miles west of Lake Louise and fourteen
miles east of Field is at once the highest elevation of the Canadian Pacific Railway, the boundary between Alberta
and British Columbia, and the very backbone of the continent. It is
marked by a rustic arch spanning a stream under which the water
divides. The waters that flow to the east eventually reach Hudson
Bay and the Atlantic Ocean; the rivulet that runs to the west adds its
mite to the volume of the Pacific. On the left is the granite shaft
erected to the memory of Sir James Hector, the discoverer of the
Kicking Horse Pass, which permits the Canadian Pacific Railway to
cross the Rockies. The Pass owes its name to an incident of exploration days in which a kicking horse figured literally.
Wapta Camp Wapta Lake Bungalow Camp is delightfully located
just west of the Great Divide, on the far side of a
beautiful lake, from Hector station. This camp, which has accommodation for about fifty guests, comprised in charming sleeping
bungalows that cluster around a central dining and recreational house,
is the centre for many fine excursions. Eight miles south is another
and smaller bungalow camp, at Lake O'Hara—a jewel of a mountain
lake in an open Alpine meadow that was once the cup of an old glacier.
From here the Abbot Pass can be climbed to Lake Louise (see page 38).
To the north of Wapta Lake is Yoho Valley Bungalow Camp (see
page 41).
The Spiral Tunnels Formerly  the   section  between  the Great
"Divide and Field was a difficult one, the
gradient being 4.5 per cent; but by two wonderful tunnels—forming one
of the most notable engineering feats in existence—this difficulty
has now been eliminated, and the grade reduced to 2.2 per cent. These
tunnels are the famous "Spiral Tunnels." From the east, the track
enters the first tunnel under Cathedral Mountain, 3,255 feet in length;
and after turning a complete circle and passing under itself emerges
Wapta Lake Bungalow Camp
— The  Yoho  Valley
41
Bungalow Camps
Bungalow camps have been established at several points in the Canadian
Pacific Rockies, both to supplement the capacity of the hotels and also to
provide accommodation of a somewhat different kind. These camps make
a special appeal to the climber, the trail rider or the hiker; they are, on the
whole, less formal than the hotels. The accommodation provided consists
of separate log bungalows clustering around a large central building which
serves as the dining and community house.
These camps are now established at Wapta Lake, Lake O'Hara, Yoho
Valley, Moraine Lake and Lake Windermere; and at three points on the
new Banff-Windermere automobile highway. There is a bungalow camp
extension to the Emerald Lake Chalet.
The Spiral Tunnels (continued)
into daylight, 54feet lower. (Mount Cathedral, 10,454feet). The track
then turns easterly, and crossing the river enters the second tunnel,
2,922 feet long, under Mount Ogden (8,795 feet). Again turning a complete circle and passing under itself, it comes out 50 feet lower and
continues westward to Field. The whole thing is a perfect maze, the
railway doubling back upon itself twice and forming a rough figure
"8" in shape. If the train is run in two sections, passengers are able
to see the other section at a higher or lower level (according to which
one they are in) making its way down the big grade.
Field Towering six thousand feet higher than the little town of
Field is lofty Mount Stephen (10,485 feet) at the base of
which roars the turbulent Kicking Horse River on its way to join the
mighty Cftlumbia. Field is the divisional point between the Alberta
and British Columbia districts of the Canadian Pacific; it is also the
gateway to Yoho National Park, and particularly to the Yoho Valley.
Yoho Valley The Yoho Valley is one of the most beautiful in the
entire Rockies. It is reached from Field by one of
the finest long drives in the Rockies (round trip distance twenty-two
miles). The road, crossing the Kicking Horse River, follows the milky
glacier-fed stream to where it joins the Yoho River, near the entrance
of the valley at Mount Field, round which it swings and up the valley
until some precipitous cliffs are reached. Up these it zigzags toa
higher level,
ending a short
distance past
the Takakkaw
Falls.
Yoho _ Near the
Valley end of
Camp the road
is the
Yoho Valley
Camp, consisting of small rustic bungalows
with a central
dining room.
Opposite the
camp are the
spectacular Takakkaw Falls,
1,200 feet high,
forming one high
ribbon of water
descending from
precipitous cliffs
in clouds of
foam. The accommodation of
this camp is for
twenty-eight. Field—The Spiral Tunnels 42
Across    Canada
Yoho Park (area 476 square miles) immediately adjoins Rocky Mountains Park on the west, and lies, broadly speaking, on
the descending slopes of the Rockies, with the President and Van Home
ranges as its western boundary. It is a region of charm and winsome beauty,
of giant mountains and deep forests, of rushing rivers and sapphire-like
lakes. Its principal river is the Kicking Horse, with the Ottertail and
Yoho as main tributaries; its chief lakes are Emerald, Wapta, McArthur,
O'Hara and Sherbrooke. The Yoho Valley, Emerald Lake, Burgess Pass
and other points are amongst the chief scenic features. The Canadian
Pacific runs through the centre of Yoho Park following the Kicking Horse
River.
Upper Yoho Valley From the camp a trail leads into the upper part
of the valley, past Laughing Falls and the Twin
Falls (two vast columns of water that drop almost perpendicularly),
to the Yoho and President Glaciers and the Waputik ice fields. The
Yoho Glacier is one of the most interesting in the Canadian Rockies,
and is highly picturesque. A tea and rest house is operated at Twin
Falls, and the visitor can spend the night there, visiting the glacier the
next day and then returning to the Camp. Side trips can be made up
the Little Yoho to one of the former camps of the Alpine Club of
Canada, and the return to camp by a higher trail.
A diversion of the Field-Yoho road leads to Wapta Lake Camp (see
page 40).
Emerald Lake An excellent motor road crosses the Kicking Horse
River at Field to the base of Mount Burgess, and
leads through a forest of balsam and spruce to Emerald Lake, seven
miles distant. This beautiful lake, of most exquisite coloring and
sublimity of surroundings, lies placid under the protection of Mount
Wapta, Mount Burgess and Mount President. It is well stocked with
fish and its vicinity affords many charming excursions on foot. On the
shore of the lake a picturesque two-storey log chalet, which with its
supplementary one and two room bungalows has now accommodation
for sixty people, is operated by the Canadian Pacific.
The Yoho Pass From Emerald Lake a magnificent trail trip on
the back of a sure-footed mountain pony takes
one around the lake and over the Yoho Pass (altitude 6,020 feet). From
the summit an extraordinarily fine view can be obtained. Summit
Lake, small but beautifully colored, has a small rest and tea house;
and thence descent is made into the Yoho Valley near Yoho Valley
Camp.
Burgess Pass When one has reached Summit Lake, from either
Emerald Lake or the Yoho Valley Camp, there is
an alternative return over the Burgess Pass—one of the most magnificent of the easily accessible pony-rides in the mountains. It affords
a breath-taking panorama of a sea of peaks. The trail skirts the great
mass of Mount Wapta, and passing between Mount Field and Mount
Burgess, drops down through wooded slopes to Field. (Altitude of pass
7,150 feet).
Other Excursions There are a number of other fine excursions in
Yoho Park. One is a delightful drive from either
Field or Emerald Lake along the Ottertail road, the round-trip
distance being sixteen miles to the Ottertail Valley, up which a magnificent view of the triple-headed Mount Goodsir may be obtained.
Another trip is to the fossil beds, reached from Field by a pony trail
which rises to an elevation of 6,000 feet above the sea level. The fossil
beds are over 2,000 feet in thickness. A very fine one-day climbing
trip commences at Field, and traverses the gap between Mount
Stephen and Mount Dennis, and from there to Duchesnay Pass. The
descent is made to a beautiful valley under the shadow of the precipitous crags of Mount Odaray, the valley being followed until the
Lake O'Hara trail is reached.    (See page 40).
^~ . 44
Across    Canada
Field to Revelstoke: 126 miles
Altitudes of the stations will be found in Condensed
Guide on page 47.
Going west, read station names downward.    Going east, read upward.
Field Resuming our journey westward from Field, the route for
Emerald some 35 miles is parallel to the turbulent Kicking Horse
Ottertail River. The railway begins to descend steadily, until at
Leanchoil Golden it is nearly 1,500 feet lower. The narrow valley of
Palliser the Kicking Horse divides the Ottertail Range on the south
Clenogle from the Van Home Range on the north. A vivid contrast in
■Golden mountain formation is evident between the two ranges.   One
mile west of Emerald Mount Goodsir (11,676 feet) can be
seen on the south, while on the north we get a fine glimpse of the President
Range.
On the south Mounts Vaux and Chancellor are seen, the glacier on
the former plainly visible. Mount Chancellor (10,781 feet) is one of the
giant peaks of the Ottertail Range. At the base of Mount Hunter the
river turns abruptly and plunges into the lower Kicking Horse Canyon.
The canyon rapidly deepens until, beyond Palliser, the mountain sides
become vertical. The roar of the river as it rushes from side to side of the
narrow gorge, the thunder of the train as it follows the river—pandemonium
increased a thousandfold by the reverberations of the canyon walls—gives
an indescribable sensation until at Golden we suddenly reach daylight again
and the noisy, turbulent Kicking Horse is received into the calm bosom of
the mighty Columbia.
Golden        an interesting town with large lumbering  and mining
interests, commands the trade of the fertile Windermere
Valley to the south.
Main line route continued on page 59.
Leanchoil—Mount Chancellor ■?-ftm\Wfy AT
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Indicates Double Track
FIELD TO REVELSTOKE 46
Across    Canada
Ql
(Below) Lake Windermere
Bungalow Camp
(At side) David Thompson
Memorial Fort
Golden to Cranbrook: 166 miles
From Golden a branch line runs south through the
fertile Columbia Valley, touching for a considerable
part of the journey the beautiful lake Windermere, and
joining the Crow's Nest Line at Colvalli. From
Golden we travel past many new settlements, from
the clearings of which smoke is sometimes still rising,
until we reach Spillimacheen, where there is a wonderful view of the Selkirk Mountains. The new Banff-
Windermere motor road (see page 86) joins the government road at Sinclair,
60 miles from Golden. The scenery of this valley is splendid, and the
canyons and creeks on either side furnish excellent sport. On the left is the
slope of the Rockies; on the right, the panorama of the Selkirks.
Golden
Spillimacheen
Lake Windermere
Fort Steele
Bull River
Colvalli
Cranbrook
Lake Windermere is the station for Lake Windermere Bungalow
Camp, a popular centre for excursions into the
beautiful country surrounding. This camp, which has accommodation
for about 50, is situated on the shore of one of the most delightful
warm water lakes in British Columbia. It is the starting point for
excursions up Toby Creek and Horse Thief Creek to the great ice
fields of the Selkirks, notably the Lake of the Hanging Glaciers.
There are curative hot springs at Sinclair and Fairmont. Bathing,
riding, boating, fishing, motoring can be enjoyed on the shores of this
lake, and alpine climbers can use the camp as headquarters for
expeditions into the Selkirks. There is good trout fishing in nearby
creeks and some of the smaller lakes.
Lake Windermere was discovered by the famous explorer, David
Thompson, in 1807; and a memorial fort, reproducing his stockaded
post, has now been built near the camp.
Fort Steele       has grown up to meet the needs of the ranching and
fruit-growing districts surrounding it.   Lead, copper,
silver, gold and iron are found in the neighbourhood.
Bull River
vicinity.
is a lumbering town, with some important sawmills.
Good fishing and hunting may be obtained in the
Cranbrook—see page 86.
Continued on page 59 Condensed Guide to the
Canadian Pacific Rockies
as seen from, the Train
By studying the following ten pages you will be able to
identify, very easily, the principal points of interest.
Mileage      First find  the  mileage.    Mileage boards are
attached to telegraph poles alongside the track.
The mileage  on these boards is  calculated from   the
divisional point.    These divisional points are:
Westbound—
Calgary
Field
Revelstoke
Kamloops
North Bend
Vancouver
Eastbound—
Vancouver
North Bend
Kamloops
Revelstoke
Field
Calgary
Always calculate westwards      from the divisional point.
Thus, Banff is 81.4 miles
west of Calgary—Glacier is 85.6 miles west of Field.
Westbound    Read this table downwards, from the beginning.
The north side of the track is on your left hand if you
ride with your back to the locomotive—or on your right
hand if you face it.
Eastbound     Read this table upwards, from the last page.
The north side of the track is on your right hand if you
ride with your back to the   locomotive—or on your left
hand if you face it.
For fuller information about any of these 'places, see other
pages in this book. J-jfc
48
Across
Cana
da
Calgary
to Lake Louise
North Side
of Track
Mileage
west of
Calgary
STATION
The railway follows the valley of the     0.0       CALGARY
Bow River, crossing to the North
side of the river 7)^ miles west of
Calgary.
The motor road from Calgary to the   9.4 Keith
mountains may be seen now and
again.
22.8       Cochrane
The valley of the Ghost River enters   33.0       Radnor
the Bow at this point.
Bow River.
41.6        Morley
Site of the hydro-electric plants that   52.1
supply Calgary with electricity.
Seebe
A very large Portland Cement mill   57.3
located here.
Grotto Mtn. (Alt. 8,870).
Fairholme Mountains.
62.3
67.1
Exshaw
Gap
Canmore
The railway crosses Cascade River
just before reaching Bankhead.
79.6        Bankhead
Cascade Mtn. (Alt. 9,
81.4       BANFF
Mt. Edith (Alt. 8,870) is the pointed
spire-like peak.
Sawback Range (AU. 10,000).
92.9       Massive
Castle Mtn. (Alt. 9,080) The railway   99.0
follows the base of this mountain
for several miles.
Castle Mountain
Slate Mountains.
106.5 Eldon
110.6.      Temple
116.6 LAKE LOUISE
Cross Bow Valley and follow Bath
Creek towards the Divide. A  Condensed  Guide
49
Calgary to Lake Louise
Altitude
above
sea-level
South Side of Track
3438
3565    Bow River
3760   In the foothill country; many stock ranches may be seen.
3896
4078
In the heart, of the Stoney Indian Reserve, the modern home
of a once warlike race.
4218
Cross the Bow River after leaving Seebe.
4260
4248
The ra'lway enters the mountains through a narrow opening.
4296
A coal mining town.
The Three Sisters (All. 9,784).
J584
Mt. Rundle (Alt. 9,665).
4537
Spray Valley.
Sulphur Mt. (Alt. 8,080). Banff Springs Hotel.   Headquarters
of the Rocky Mountains Park.   Hot Sulphur Baths, Motoring, Riding, Boating, Swimming, Golf, etc.
4592
Pilot Mt. (Alt. 9,680).
4676
Storm Mt. (Alt. 10 309) and Vermilion Pass.  Motor road goes
South West to Lake Windermere.
4828
A glimpse of Mt. Bident (Alt. 10,10.9) through gap in the Peaks.
4924
A fine view of the great peaks in the Valley of the Ten Peaks.
Deltaform being conspicuous.
5050
Stop for Chateau Lake Louise 3^ miles distant.   Mt. Temple
(All. 11,626). 50
Across    Canada
Lake Louise to Golden
North Side of Track
Mileage
west of        STATION
Calgary
122.2        The Great Divide
Mt. Bosworth (Alt. 9,088).
122.7        Stephen
Lake  Wapta   Bungalow   Camp   on 124.9
north side of the lake.
We pass through the Kicking Horse
Pass. Upper Canyon of the Kicking Horse River.
130.2
WAPTA CAMP
(Hector)
Yoho
Yoho Valley.
Mt. Field (Alt. 8,646).
Kicking Horse River.
132.4
136.6
Cathedral
FIELD
North Side of Track
Mileage
west of
Field
STATION
H-
Kicking Horse River.   Bridge giving     0.0
access to roads to the Yoho Valley
Bungalow   Camp   and   Emerald
Lake Chalet.
Fine view of President Range looking back North.
Van Home Range.
Two miles west of Leanchoil we pass
western boundary of Yoho Park.
Slopes of Mt. Hunter (Alt. 8,652).
Lower Kicking Horse Canyon.
Western end of Rockies.
Beginning of Selkirks.
Edelweiss, the home of the Swiss
guides, employed by the Canadian
Pacific for climbers.
Cross the Blaeberry River. 45.0
FIELD
4.2
Emerald
6.2
8.2
Ottertail
17.0
Leanchoil
22.7
27.9
35.1
Palliser
Glenogle
GOLDEN
'~^^_ A  Condensed  Guide
51
Lake Louise to Golden
Altitude
above
sea-level
South Side of Track
5338 The highest elevation reached by the railway. Boundary
between Alberta and British Columbia. Water from stream
flows on East to Atlantic and on West to Pacific.
5332
5219   Cataract Creek and trail to Lake O'Hara Bungalow Camp.
Cathedral Mtn. (Alt. 10,454).
4724 After leaving Hector the railway descends rapidly and passes
through the famous spiral tunnels, the line traversing the
valley three times in order to descend gradually to the level
of the Kicking Horse River.
4501   Cathedral Mtn. (Alt. 10,454).
4075
Monarch silver-lead mines on slopes of Mt. Stephen   (Alt.
10,485).
Altitude
above
sea-level
South Side of Track
4075   Mt. Stephen (Alt. 10,485) and Mt. Dennis (Alt. 8,826).
3899
3702
Ottertail River is crossed.
3685   The railway which runs almost North and South between here
and Field, turns West.   Note valley of the Beaverfoot.
3288
3008   Beaverfoot Range.
2583 The Kicking Horse River enters the Columbia, the wide valley of which is seen to the South. Golden is the gateway to
the Columbia Valley and Lake Windermere BungalowCamp. 52
Across    Canada
Golden to Revelstoke
Mileage
North Side of Track                west of       STATION
Field
Cross the Columbia River.
Canyon of the Columbia.
After leaving Beavermouth we fol-   63.1
low the Beaver River.
46.1
Moberly
47.6
Forde
51.6
Donald
52.7
Beaver River Canyon.
Gateway of the Beaver.
66.2
The line is rising rapidly to the sum-   68.0
mit of the Selkirks.
Cross   Mountain   Creek,   150   feet   70.9
above stream.
Cross Surprise Creek, 170 feet above   74.6
stream.
Cross Stoney Creek, 270 feet above   76.4
stream.
76.8
80.2
Beavermouth
Rogers
Stoney Creek
We emerge from the Tunnel on the   85.6
western slopes of the Selkirks.
Mt. Cheops (Alt. 8,506) and road to
Nakimu Caves.
The line descends rapidly following
the lllecillewaet River, crossing
and recrossing it.
93.5
At this point we pass the western   98.4
boundary of Glacier Park.
A stop is made to see Albert Canyon 105.0
a fine rock gorge about  150 feet
deep.
Glacier
Western end of the Selkirks.
125.9
Flat Creek
lllecillewaet
Albert Canyon
REVELSTOKE A  Condensed  Guide 53
Golden to Revelstoke
Altitude
above South Side of Track
sea-level
2558   Dogtooth Mountains, a part of the Purcell Range.
2563   Columbia River.
2580
2433   At this point we leave the Columbia which flows North and
then South in a "Big Bend" around the Selkirks.
Cross the Beaver River.
2592
If^p miles from Rogers we enter Glacier Park.
Prairie Hills across the Beaver Valley.
We enter Connaught Tunnel (5 miles long) which pierces the
summit of the Selkirks.
3778   Glacier Hotel is 13^ miles from Station and is stopping place
for lllecillewaet Glacier and many fine mountain trips.
Mt. Sir Donald (Alt. 10,808), the pyramidal-shaped peak.
3094   Valley of Flat Creek.
2713
2226
1496   A branch line goes South to the Arrow Lakes. 54
Across    Canada
Revelstoke to Ashcroft
North Side of Track
Mileage
west of        STATION
Revelstoke
Shortly   after  leaving  Revelstoke     0.0       REVELSTOKE
cross the Columbia River.
The railway climbs up to the Eagle
Pass which is reached here.
Note monument to commemorate
completion of the Canadian Pacific at this point, Nov. 7th, 1885.
Shuswap Lake.
The railway follows the Salmon Arm
of Shuswap Lake.
The railway leaves the lake to climb
over Notch Hill.
Pass along the shores of Little
Shuswap Lake.
Follow the shore of the South
Thompson River to Kamloops.
The North Thompson joins the
South Thompson at this point, the
two rivers forming the Thompson
River.
8.5
Clanwilliam
14.6
Three Valley
24.2
Taft
28.3
Craigellachie
44.7
SICAMOUS
63.4
Salmon Arm
70.6        Tappen
yy.s
87.8
95.6
Notch Hill
Squilax
Shuswap
128.8        KAMLOOPS
North Side of Track
Mileage
west of STATION
Kamloops
The Thompson River widens and is
known as Kamloops Lake.
0.0
5.7
The    Painted    Bluffs,    brilliantly    19.7
coloured rocks, are seen across the
Lake.
Leave the Lake a short distance   25.2
west of Savona and follow the
Thompson.
KAMLOOPS
Tranquille
Munro
Savona
The gateway to the Cariboo country' 47.2       Ashcrcft
-^ A  Condensed  Guide
55
Revelstoke to Ashcroft
Altitude
above
sea-level
South Side of Track
1496   Mt. Begb:e (AU. 8,946).
The railway follows the narrow valley of the Tonkawatla
River.
1820
1638   Three Valley Lake.
1225   Follow the valley of Eagle River to Sicamous.
1154   Jct. of branch to Okanagan Valley.
1150    A fine fruit district adjacent to railway.
1158
1691   From this summit the line descends to Shuswap Lake.
1288
1154
1159
Altitude
above I
sea-level
1159
1142
South Side of Track
1143
1163
1004 56
Across    Canada
Ashcroft to Vancouver
Mileage
North Side of Track                  west of       STATION
Kamloops
The Black Canyon of the Thompson
seen at mile 52.5.
54.7
72.6
85.
Thompson Canyon, very fine, east   89.8
and west of this point.
At mile 93.5 note the striking pinnacle (Botanie Crag) on the
opposite side of the river.
The Fraser River comes in from the   94.8
North and joins the Thompson.
Basque
Spences Bridge
Thompson
Gladwin
LYTTON
Salmon River is  crossed  at mile
113.8; note fine gorge up stream.
103.8       Kanaka
116.4        Chaumox
121.4       NORTH BEND
North Side of Track
Mileage
west of
North Bend
STATION
0.0
Railway bridges span fine rock
gorges at Skuzzy River (mile 5.5)
and Whites Creek (mile 9.7)
Between mile 9 and 10 we pass
through a series of tunnels.
Government Experimental Farm.
At mil e 109.7 the Pitt River is cross ed
The  Coquitlam  River  is  crossed
before reaching this point.
Reach the head of Burrard Inlet.
NORTH BEND
15.5
Spuzzum
27.1
Yale
41.7
Petain
48.0
Ruby Creek
58.9
Agassiz
68.1
Harrison Mills
87.3
Mission
105.1
Hammond
112.5        Westminster Jct.
116.5       Port Moody
129.0       VANCOUVER A  Condensed  Guide
57
Ashcroft to Vancouver
Altitude
above
sea-level
South Side of Track
Altitude
above
eea-level
South Side of Track
493
399
From North Bend west the Canyon becomes more and more
impressive, reaching a climax at Hell's Gate, 8 miles from
North Bend.
■220 The site of an old trading post of Hudson's Bay Company.
183 Jct. with the Kettle Valley Ry.
103 The line westward is double-tracked to Vancouver.
60
47 The Harrison River is crossed at this point.
■27 A branch goes South to Huntingdon.
26 Fraser River.
1
892
774   Valley of the Nicola. Junction with Kettle Valley Railway.
■673
758
€93
At mile 101 we cross the Fraser 140 feet above the River.
■613   Canyon scenery fine from mile 100 to mile 102.
568   Note the old Cariboo road on the opposite side of the valley.
493
34   A branch line runs southwest to New Westminster.
14
16 Canadian
fttciHc
Twenty Thousand
miles of railway in Canada and the
United States—reaching the principal
agricultural, industrial and commercial
regions, as well as the most wonderful
mountain scenery and,'[hunting and fishing territory in the world.
Two Fleets
of ocean steamships— the Empresses 'of
the Pacific from Vancouver to China and
Japan, and the Empresses of the Atlantic
and the Monoclass Cabin Steamships
from Eastern Canadian Ports to Europe.
Thirteen Magnificent Hotels
\     —in the Canadian Pacific Rockies,   at
\
the Pacific Coast, on the Prairies,  and
in the East—Eleven delightful Bungalow
j\\    Camps in the Rockies and in Ontario.
(See back cover for list.)
TELEGRAPHS — EXPRESS
(Dominion Express Co.
Canadian Pacific
"It spans the world
^r^tail	
2*1 ^*-^-'-r-*-_    /"""^H3* !4 The   Selkirks
59
Field to Revelstoke {continued from page 44)
Going west, read station names downward.   Going east, read upward.
Moberly Everything combines to make the scenery between Golden
Forde and  Glacier a climax of mountain grandeur.      There
Donald is first the magnificent eastern thrust of the Selkirks, with
Beavermouth    its glorious array of mountain peaks culminating in the
Rogers lofty pinnacle of Sir Donald; then there are mountain
Stoney Creek    torrents that tumble in splendid cascades,  through the
Glacier narrow gorges cut deeply into the steep hillsides,  the
Columbia River trench, flanked by the two highest mountain systems of the Canadian Pacific Rockies; and the Columbia River
itself, which for more than twenty-five miles parallels the railway line,
and at the base of the Selkirks is a raging roaring flood, forcing its way
through precipitous canyons to the high slopes along which the railway
creeps.
Not only is the scenery impressive, but the engineering feats are particularly remarkable, especially in the construction of bridges and tunnels.
West of Cedar Creek is a very high bridge, spanning a foaming cascade,
whence one of the most beautiful prospects of the whole journey is to be had.
So impressed were the builders with the charm of this magnificent picture
that they named the spot "The Surprise."
Edelweiss Just west of Golden, north of the track, is the model
Swiss village of "Edelweiss,'' erected by the Canadian
Pacific for -the Swiss guides whom it employs for the benefit of mountain climbers. Previous to the erection of this village, which lies on
the slopes of a hill and reproduces with remarkable verisimilitude the
characteristic architecture of the Swiss chalet, the guides had always
returned to Switzerland at the end of each season, but now they live
in Canada the entire year.
Moberly takes its name from Mount Moberly (altitude 7,721) one
of the most prominent peaks for some miles along the
river valley. About two miles west of Moberly, on the south just
before crossing Blaeberry River, is the site of the oldest cabin in the
mountains—the cabin where a government survey party under Walter
Moberley, C.E., engaged in preliminary surveying for the railway,
passed the winter of 1871-2. They wintered their stock onthe shore^pf
what is now Lake Windermere.
Beavermouth     is the farthest
north station
of the transcontinental route,
at the base of the Selkirks.
The Columbia River, which
with but one exception is the
largest river on the west side of
America, rises in the Upper
Columbia Lake; and then, flowing through lake Windermere,
runs north-westerly. From Golden toBeavermouthitis paralleled by the railway; then we take
leave of it as it makes its famous
"Big Bend" round the northern
spur of the Selkirks, until we
meet it at Revelstoke, southward
bound, through the Arrow Lakes,
for the United States and its even
greater majesty. The river is
nearly 1,400 miles long, and
drains a basin of nearly 800,000
square miles. It is the route of
history, the route by which some
of the earliest explorers reached
the Pacific Ocean. Edelweiss 60 Across    Canada
Glacier Park covering an area of 468 square miles, differs very noticeably
from the other parks of the Canadian Pacific Rockies. It
has an atmosphere of austere majesty and high loveliness. The Selkirk
Range, smaller in size than the Rockies, is geologically much older; the tooth
of time was already gnawing its scarred sides when the Rockies were first
pushed up from the crumpled sear-bottom. With its massive peaks and
giant glaciers, Glacier Park has somewhat of an air of isolation and mystery.
For the visitor, it offers a remarkably delightful and exhilarating atmosphere
—probably the best in all the mountains. Surrounding it, too, are some
dense forests of fine trees, of great age; these vrill be particularly noticed
on the way to Nakimu Caves.
Stoney Creek The bridge which crosses Stoney Creek, 270 feet
above the gorge, is the highest on the main line of
the Canadian Pacific. Stoney Creek is a noisy mountain torrent,
flowing in the bottom of a narrow V-shaped channel cut deeply into
the steep slopes along which the railway creeps.
Mount Macdonald      (9,482 feet), towering more than a mile in vertical
height above the railway, makes a most  impressive picture.
Connaught Tunnel Until the end of 1916, the railway crossed the
Selkirks through Rogers Pass, following Bear
Creek and then bending round to Glacier and back again to the
lllecillewaet River in a series of sharp loops. This was a most spectacular route, affording some magnificent views of Mount Macdonald,
Mount Tupper, and other giant peaks; but it had many disadvantages,
amongst which were the enormous track curvature and the necessity
of maintaining long stretches of snowsheds.
These difficulties were finally overcome by the construction of the
Connaught Tunnel, under Mount Macdonald, named in honor of
H.R.H. -the Duke of Connaught, then Governor-General of Canada.
This tunnel is the longest tunnel in America, measuring slightly over
five miles from portal to portal, and it not only eliminated track
curvature to an amount corresponding to seven complete circles, but
also lowered the summit attained by the railway by 552 feet, reduced
the length of the line by 4J^ miles and dispensed with 4}v£ miles of
snow-sheds. The tunnel is double tracked, and measures 29 feet from
side to side and 21J^ feet from the base rail to the crown. The method
by which it was pierced involved the tunnelling of a pioneer bore
paralleling the centre line of the main tunnel—a feature that was new
and aroused the interest of tunnel engineers the world over. The
railway emerges from the tunnel at Glacier Station.
Glacier House - At Glacier is a cosy Canadian Pacific Hotel,
Glacier House. This hotel formerly adjoined
the station; but when the Connaught Tunnel through Mount Macdonald was constructed, the station was moved about 1J^ miles
distant. It is connected with the hotel by a fine motor road.
The Panorama of Glacier        The panorama from Glacier House is
magnificent. To the right of the hotel,
facing the lawns, is the gleaming white lllecillewaet Glacier, hanging
on the side of Mount Sir Donald—the latter a naked and abrupt
pyramid that rises to a height of nearly 1J7^ miles. Farther away are
the sharp peaks of Mount Eagle, Avalanche Crest and Macdonald.
Still circling round, one sees Rogers Pass and the snowy Hermit
Range; at the west end of the range comes Cheops, named after the
great pyramid builder of the Pharaohs, and in the foreground, and far
down among the trees, the lllecillewaet River glistens across the
valley. Circling back again toward the hotel, the shoulders of Ross
Peak are visible over the wooded slope of Mount Abbot. A glimpse
can be caught, between Ross and Cheops, of the Cougar Valley.
The lllecillewaet Glacier This   great   plateau   of   gleaming   ice,
framed in a dark forest of giant cedar,
hemlock and spruce trees, scarred by immense crevasses of great
depth and covering an area of about ten square miles, is about two
(Continued on page 62) (At side)
The lllecillewaet
Glacier
The Connaught Tunnel
(At Side)
Glacier House 62 Across    Canada
Apart from their grandeur and beauty, the Rockies have superb and everlasting snow fields and mighty glaciers. Of these, the most notable in the
proximity of Canadian Pacific Hotels and the Bungalow Camps are Victoria and Lefroy Glaciers at lake Louise, the Yoho Glacier in the Yoho
Valley, the lllecillewaet Glacier at Glacier, and the Lake of the Hanging
Glaciers in the Lake Windermere Valley.
A glacier is, broadly speaking, an accumulation of ice, of sufficient
size and weight to flow down from a snow-covered elevation. 11 is a river
flouring from a lake, only the lake is of snow and the river of ice. The thickness of the ice will vary greatly—it may be, under favorable conditions,
as much as 1,000 feet.
The lllecillewaet Glacier (continued)
miles from the hotel, from which it can be reached by walking or
riding on an excellent trail. It affords some remarkable opportunities
of observing the movements and recession of glaciers. Mount Sir
Donald can be reached by an extension trail from the glacier trail,
and furnishes one of the most attractive climbs of the region. The
return trip may be taken along the alternative trail on the east bank
of the river.
The Nakimu Caves These curious caves, discovered in 1904, are
situated on the lower slope of Mount Cheops
and Ursus Major, in the Cougar Valley. A series of subterranean
chambers, formed partly by seismic disturbance and partly by water,
they are characterized by beautiful interior marble markings, and
have been explored for nearly a mile.
Horse tally-ho's leave Glacier House during the summer season
for the Cougar Valley, whence the caves are reached by foot; or the
whole journey can be made by pony. A small rest house serving meals
and accommodating six persons overnight is operated at the caves.
The Asulkan Valley Tributary to the valley of the lllecillewaet
Glacier is the Asulkan Valley—one of the
most beautiful mountain valleys that are to be found in the Selkirks.
On either side are towering mountain slopes and precipices, exalted
rock ledges from which waterfalls leap, and overhanging snow crests.
A path branches from the Asulkan trail, a short distance from the first
bridge, and climbs, corkscrew fashion, to Glacier Crest, commanding
the'Hlecillewaet Glacier.
Cascade Summer-House An    easy    and    delightful    morning's
walk is to the Cascade Summerhouse,
on the lower slopes of Mount Avalanche. From this point the cascade
tumbles in a series of leaps a distance of 1,200 feet. Still higher up
one may go to Avalanche Crest. A magnificent view of the Bonney
Ridge and glacier may be had from this point. Another very interesting trip is to the "overlook" on Mount Abbot. The trail leaves the
rear of the hotel and climbs gradually up the slope to Marion Lake,
a sombre little mountain tarn. Here the trail forks; one branch goes
to the observation point, which is very close at hand, the other to the
Abbot Alp, a beautiful upland from which one can look down upon the
enormous glacier.
Rogers Pass Rogers Pass, the summit of the Selkirk Range as
formerly crossed by the railway (altitude 4,342 feet),
can be reached from the Nakimu Caves by a trail over Baloo Pass along
the flower-carpeted and wooded valley of Bear Creek. The spectacular loop that was imperative for the train to reach the old station
can be easily imagined- From here the stupendous precipices of
Mount Tupper may be seen to great advantage. The return to
Glacier House can be made over a direct trail from Rogers Pass,
paralleling the old right-of-way.
Climbing Glacier is the centre for some of the finest mountain
eering country of North America. Mounts Abbot,
Afton and Avalanche can be climbed without much difficulty; for
the more experienced climber there are Mounts Hermit, Castor,
Pollux, Tupper, Rogers, Eagle and Sir Donald. Besides the lllecillewaet and Asulkan glaciers, Glacier Park has several other glaciers,
including Deville, Rogers, Bonney, Black, Bishop's, Dawson, Geikie,
Swanzy, Clarke, Fox, Eagle, Tupper and Sulzer.
I i'
^ lllecillewaet Valley
(Below
Cabin at Nakimu Caves
(Above) Ross Peak
(At side)
Mount Sir Donald /
64
Across    Canada
Going west, read station names downward.   Going east, read upward.
Flat Creek Between Glacier and Revelstoke lies the steep western
lllecillewaet slope of the Selkirk Range, with its magnificent peaks
Albert Canyon and impressive mountain scenery. For a considerable
Twin Butte part of the journey the railway follows the lllecillewaet
Greely River which, tumbling along precipitous gorges, rushing
Revelstoke and foaming in splendid cascades, pours its flood from its
glacier source to the broad waters of the majestic Columbia
River, over 2,000 feet below. Here we notice how a river taking its source
in a glacier differs from an ordinary upland stream. The latter, as it tumbles
from great heights, may be foamy arid tumultuous; but the water does not
show that peculiar milk-green colour, characteristic of a glacier-fed stream,
due to its sediment of glacial silt. This silt is composed of infinitesimally
fine particles ground from the rocks by scraping ice.
Albert is a deep
Canyon fissure in
the solid
rock, its walls rising
straight up on both
sides [to wooded
crags. Therailway
runs along the very
edge of this gorge.
We see the river
nearly 150 feet below, boiling angrily
in a narrow twenty-
foot flume.
Twin takes its
Butte name from
the double
summit nearby to
the left, now known
as Mounts Mackenzie and Tilley. In
this district is the
home of the woodland or black-faced
caribou, the mountain goat, and the
grizzly, cinnamon
and black bears.
Albert Canyon
Revelstoke
a flourishing city, with a population of 3,500, lies in the
beautiful Columbia River Valley, surrounded by lofty
and picturesque mountains, some clothed with trees and verdure to
their very peaks, others crowned with rugged and rocky spires or
glistening glaciers. It is the gateway to the Kootenay and Arrow
Lake districts, and is surrounded by vast areas of timber. Revelstoke
is in the heart of very fine hunting grounds, and the Alpine climber will
find whole worlds to conquer. In winter, it is the centre of a large
winter-sport carnival. Besides the drive up Mount Revelstoke, there
is also the beautiful excursion along the Columbia River.
Continued on page 66
100 square miles in extent, is bounded on the
south by the lllecillewaet River.   It includes
not only the striking mountain from which it
derives its name, but also the Clach-na-Cudainn Range.
The park, altogether a mountain-top one, provides a wonderful
automobile trip. A road, as hard and smooth as a city boulevard,
has been constructed by the Dominion Government to within two
miles of its summit, which it will eventually reach. The road ascends
Yfi .;s*SeS«l5>ilJ!l.' '-*fe 2\'Y'
Mount Revelstoke
National Park Tl
The   Arrow   Lakes
65
by an easy grade through a virgin forest, winding along rocky ledges
and on the verge of deep chasms. The glory of the ride is the remarkable view that can be obtained all the way up of the valley below—
the Selkirks to the south-east, the Gold Range to the south-west,
and the Columbia and lllecillewaet Rivers twistinglike ribbons around
the city.
Revelstoke to Nelson: 184 miles
(Rail and Steamer Line)
(For Map, see page 83)
Revelstoke From  Revelstoke  a  branch runs  south  to  Arrowhead,
Arrowhead whence a very delightful trip is made down the Arrow
Halcyon Lakes to Nelson.   (See page 87.)   The service down this
Nakusp lake is provided by the excellent and comfortable steamer
Robson West service of the Canadian Pacific. The Arrow Lakes, lying
Nelson in a long deep valley between the western slopes of the
Selkirks and the Monashee Range, are formed by the Columbia Valley's broadening out on its way south. These very beautiful
lakes, although virtually one, are classified as two, Upper and Lower, very
much the same size and connected by a wide but circuitous channel. The
surrounding country has supplied lumber from the forests that clothe its
slopes to many a sawmill, while of recent years settlers have come in and
made clearings for orchards. The population, however, is still comparatively sparse.
The steamer touches at a number of points en route. Halcyon
Hot Springs are well and favorably known owing to the curative
properties of the waters, which contain a high percentage of lithium.
There is a comfortable Sanatorium hotel here. Nakusp is the distributing centre of the upper lake, which is here about three miles
wide. Prettily situated, overlooking a crescent-like bay, it offers good
bathing, boating and very fair fishing. It is the headquarters of the
Arrow Lake lumber industry, the shipping point for vast quantities of
lumber, poles, fence posts, and ether timber products. A branch line
runs from here to Sandon and Kaslo. Along the lower lake there has
been some development in fruit-growing, very fine cherries, apples
and melons being produced. At Robson West rail connection is made
to Nelson, or westwards to Penticton and Vancouver.
Down the Arrow Lakes 66
Across    Canada
Revelstoke to Vancouver: 379 miles
(For Maps, see pages 69 and 73)
Altitudes of these stations will be found in Condensed
Guide on page 47.
Going west, read station names downward.   Going east, read upward.
Revelstoke
Clanwilliam
Three Valley
Taft
Craigellachie
Malakwa
Sicamous
mer season,
magnificent scenery.
Between Revelstoke and Sicamous is the Gold, or Columbia,
mountain system, the most conspicuous peak being Mount
Begbie. Eagle Pass through which the railway crosses
appears to have been cut purposely for it, so deep and direct
is it. Several lakes occur at short intervals, and in turn
force the railway into the mountain sides. Open-top
Observation Cars are attached to all Canadian Pacific
passenger trains through the mountains, during the sum-
These cars afford the utmost opportunities for viewing the
Revelstoke—see page 64.
Craigellachie Here an obelisk alongside the track commemorates
the completion of the construction of the Canadian
Pacific Railway. It was here, on November 7th, 1885, that the rails
from the East met the rails from the West, and the long-cherished
vision of a Canadian transcontinental railway became a reality.
Sicamous on Shuswap Lake, is not only the junction of the main
line with the Okanagan Valley branch; it is also a
favorite stop-over point for travellers who, having traversed the
mountains, wish also to see by daylight the wonderful canyon scenery
that lies between here and Vancouver. To accommodate this'traffic,
the Canadian Pacific has erected a comfortable hotel on the shore of
the lake. (Continued on'page 68)
Sicamous to Penticton: 155 miles
(Rail and Steamer Line)
(For Map, see page 83)
Sicamous
Enderby   '
Armstrong
Vernon
Okanagan Landing
Okanagan Centre
Kelowna
Peachland
Summerland
Penticton
From Sicamous dbranch runs south to the Okanagan
Lake, connecting with a Canadian Pacific steamer
service to Penticton. Enderby is a progressive
town in a fertile fruit-growing and mixed-farming
country, with considerable dairying and also an
enormous lumber output. Fishing is good and the
big game plentiful. Armstrong (population 500)
is another ■ flourishing town with a large central
creamery and several industries, and a prosperous
tributary agricultural country; it is particularly
noted for the production of celery^Nernon (population 4,000) is the largest town, the judicial centre, and the central distributing point of the northern Okanagan Valley. It is the headquarters of the
co-operative marketing organization which controls 85% of the fruit trade
of interior British Columbia. Near here is the famous Coldstream Ranch,
with about 13,000 acres of fruit lands, 2,000 acres of which are under irrigation and extensively cultivated and 800 in orchards. At Okanagan we
board a splendid steamer for the rest of the trip^
The steamer makes a number of calls down the lakes at the various
landings. The journey takes about six hours. This is one of the most
famous fruit-growing regions of Canada. Journeying down the lake,
one sees striking examples of "bench-land" formation—orchards rising
tier by tier in what look like gigantic steps. On these bench-lands, on
the occasional bottom lands, and even on the hilly slopes that descend
into the water, grow all kinds of sub-tropical fruit, peaches, apricots,
cherries, apples, plums, walnuts, almonds and grapes of superfine
quality.   Irrigation is practised, the wooden flume that carries the
(Continued on page 68) Revelstoke
Craigellachie—Driving
the Last Spike, 1885
*"■       <.«ft-
a^i
Hotel Sicamous.     (Above) Fruit Growing in the Okanagan Valley nnm^*
Kamloops
Revelstoke to Vancouver (continued)
Going west, read station names downward.   Going east, read upward.
Salmon Arm      Salmon Arm and the beautiful South Thompson River,
Tappen flouring from the western arm of Shuswap Lake, provide
Notch Hill interesting and varied scenery between Sicamous and
Squilax Kamloops.    Lake Shuswap is a large  body  of water
Chase of irregular shape which,   with its bordering slopes,
Shuswap reminds one strongly of Scottish scenery and affords
Monte Creek      wonderful fishing.   It has the reputation of containing
Kamloops more varieties of trout and other fish—including steel-
head and land-locked salmon—than any water in British
Columbia. Notch Hill is the only elevation of any considerable height
along the line. Here the railway leaves the open and takes a circuitous
course through the forested slopes which surround its base.
Salmon Arm
Chase
(Population 800) is a very prosperous fruit and mixed
farming community.
(Population 600) is the gateway to an extensive territory
for  big-game  hunting,   bird shooting   and  fishing.    The
various waters in the vicinity are plentifully stocked with trout.
Kamloops (Population 5,500),   the  chief  town  of  the  interior
country of British Columbia, is over a hundred years
old, having originally been a Hudson's Bay post. Situated at the
confluence of the North and South Thompson Rivers, both draining
fertile valleys, it is a beautiful city, with a climate that makes it a
most desirable resort. Trout fishing and game add to its charm for
the tourist and sportsman. The chief industries of the Kamloops
district are ranching, mixed farming, gardening, fruit growing, mining
and lumbering. Much of the valley land is cultivated under irrigation,
and produces large crops. The mining industry is developing rapidly,
the principal minerals being gold, copper and iron. There is also
extensive operation in the lumbering industry. The city has a hydroelectric power plant at Barriere, forty miles up the North Thompson
Valley, and operates its own electric light and water plants, which
also furnish power for irrigation.
Okanagan Valley (continued from page 54)
life-giving water being a conspicuous object of the orchard country.
The Okanagan Valley is one of the best known fruit regions of Canada,
and fruit from this district has on several occasions taken championship prizes at international shows.
Kelowna is an important city with a population of over 3,000.
Tributary to it are some fifty thousand acres of first-
class fruit lands, much of which is under cultivation. The city has
several fruit and vegetable packing plants. It is a pretty point, with a
park with a mile lake frontage. Peachland, Summerland and Naramata are fertile fruit-raising districts, with a certain amount of cattle-
raising a few miles back. At the southern end of the lake is Penticton,
where we join the Kettle Valley Railway (see page 91.) i
?,.„„„,."%.».   12-20-'23
 -   Indicates Double Track
REVELSTOKE TO KAMLOOPS 70
Across    Canada
Going west, read station names downward. Going east, read upward.
Tranquille
Cherry Creek
Munro
Savona
Walhachin
Ashcroft
Basque
Spatsum
Spence's Bridge
Just below Kamloops, the Thompson widens out into
Kamloops Lake, a beautiful sheet of water. The railway runs along its south shore for twenty miles, and,
because of the series of mountain spurs projecting
into the lake, a number of tunnels punctuate this
twenty miles. At Savona the lake ends, and we enter
the series of Thompson River canyons which lead
us through marvellous scenery westward to the Fraser.
The Thompson is the chief tributary of the Fraser
River; in characteristics, however, it is much different.
It is not, for one thing, so rapid; and then again its banks are largely the
sandy hills that hedge it in.
Ashcroft is the outfitting point for the Highland Valley and the
gateway to the Cariboo country and the immense fruit
areas of the Thompson Valley. It is, incidentally, famous for its
potatoes. In addition to fruit-raising, the-country around is specially
suitable for extensive cattle-raising. It offers to the hunter a variety
and an abundance of big game.
Basque is near the Black Canyon of the Thompson.   Here the
river has not only cut? .through a great thickness of the
overlying soil, but also cut two hundred feet into the black bed-rock.
The sombre appearance of this canyon is impressive in the extreme.
Spence's Bridge        where the Nicola River joins the Thompson, is the
business centre for the Nicola Valley, a country
with varied industries, such as ranching, lumbering and mining.
Fraser Canyon       In the Fraser Canyon the
lipf
Thompson River Canyon
scenery grows wilder
than ever. The
great river is
forced between
vertical walls of
blackrock, where,
repeatedly
thrown back upon
itself by opposing
cliffs, it madly
foams and roars.
Six miles below
Lytton we cross
the Fraser by a
fine bridge, plunge
into a tunnel!
and emerge at
Kanaka.
Cariboo      Near
Road Chau
mox,
on the^opposite
side of the valley,
will be noted a
roadway. This
is the celebrated
"Cariboo Road,"
constructed along
the Fraser and
Thompson Rivers
Branch       Spence's
Line Bridge   to
Brookmere
(K.V.R.) — (see page
92). \
The   Fraser   Canyon
71
Going west, read station names downward. Going east, read upward.
Drynoch At the little trading town of Lytton the canyon widens to
Thompson        admit the Fraser,  the chief river of British Columbia,
Gladwin which comes down from the north between two great lines
Lytton of mountain peaks, and whose turbid flood soon.absorbs the
Chaumox bright green waters of ihe  Thompsori..'yW2he Fraser is
North Bend      navigable for steamers from ils mouth to about  Yale.
Spuzzum The river, 800. miles in length, is anrhistoric one; its name
Yale and that of the Thompson commemorate two of the earliest
Haig and most famous explorers who sought the Pacific Ocean
Petain overland from the east.   In the fifties of last century it
served as the avenue of approach to the rich discoveries
of gold that were made in the Cariboo country.
in 1861-2 to reach the gold-mining regions, and for many years the only
means of access up-country.
North Bend is a good stopping point for those who wish to see
more of the Fraser Canyon than is possible from the
train. Within easy walking distance there is some magnificent scenery.
This section of the railway commands the admiration of all passengers
for the way it has overcome apparently insuperable difficulties. For
most of the journey the railway follows the canyon at a considerable
height above the river bank; the track, hewn from the solid rock,
also tunnels through great rock spurs.
Hell's Gate   * This famous cataract, about ten miles west of North
Bend, is created by the sudden compression of the river
between two jutting promontories, whence it escapes as through a
bottle-necked outlet.
Spuzzum     West of North Bend there are several fine bridges spanning
rock gorges; of these White's Creek bridge is the most
notable. About ten miles west of North Bend, also, is a series of four
tunnels located in rapid succession.
Yale       occupies a bench above the river, in a deep cul-de-sac in the
mountains, which rise abruptly and to a great height on all
sides. It was formerly a gold-mining town and an important outfitting
joint for prospectors.
Branch Line     Petain to Penticton and Nelson (K.V.R.)—(see page 91).
The Fraser Canyon 72
Across    Canada
-fflVWffff
-pum.....^,- -,,,„,„,	
Vancouver—English Bay
■•^4L
Going west, read station names downward. Going east, read upward.
i?M&2/ Creek
Agassiz
Harrison Mills
Nicoamen
Mission
Hammond
Westminster Jct.
Port Moody
Hastings
Vancouver
of Washington.
From this point westward the canyon widens out
and is soon succeeded by broad level valleys with rich
soil and heavy timber. Vegetation of all kinds increases; fruit orchards, lovely green meadows, and
beautiful dairy cattle are seen on either side. We are
almost at sea level; and so for a few miles we roll
on through this meadow-like country towards Vancouver. Ruby Creek obtains its name from the
garnets found in the neighborhood. A few miles
beyond Nicoamen, the isolated cone that will be seen
to the south is the gigantic Mount Baker, in the State
At the crossing of the Stave River, near Mission, a
magnificent view can be obtained of the Fraser River. Thence we traverse
the Pitt Meadows, until at Westminster Junction we leave the Fraser
River and turn towards Burrard Inlet.
Agassiz has a Government Experimental Farm and is also the
station for Harrison Hot Springs, sulphur springs highly
regarded for their curative properties. Steamers bound for the Chilliwack district leave this point. This is a trip well worth taking, as
the Chilliwack Valley comprises over 55,000 acres of rich agricultural
land and is well known for its dairying. The largest fruit canning
company in British Columbia is at Chilliwack; so are the two finest
equipped creameries.
Port Moody        at the head of Burrard Inlet, was once the terminus
of the Canadian Pacific Railway.
Vancouver Vancouver (population 180,000), the terminal of the
Canadian Pacific trans-continental rail lines and its
trans-Pacific steamship routes, is the largest commercial centre in
British Columbia. It has an excellent harbor nearly land-locked and
fully sheltered, facing a beautiful range of mountains. Two peaks,
silhouetted against the sky, and remarkably resembling two couchant
lions, are visible from almost any point in the city or harbor, which
has been appropriately called "The Lions' Gate." The city is most
picturesquely situated on Burrard Inlet, surrounded by beautiful
environs of varied character. All kinds of water sports are available,
and are encouraged through a mild climate and extensive bodies of
water. There are many bathing beaches, parks, boulevards, automobile roads, and paved streets. (Continued on page 74)
Branch Lines     Mission to Huntingdon, on the international boundary.
Westminster Junction to New Westminster. 8 miles away.  This city, with
a population of 15,000, is an important one, theheadquarters lor the salmon-canning industry '
as well as the site of several large sawmills.   Steamers ply regularly between here and
Vancouver. m
Indicates   Double   Track
KAMLOOPS  TO   VANCOUVER 74
Across    Canada
British In size 356,000 square miles, the province of British Columbia
Columbia differs in.many regards from other sections of Canada. It is
rugged arid broken by mountain ranges and groups, between
which lie mighty lakes of great beauty, and plains and fertile valleys of
high productivity. Its proximity to the Pacific Ocean exerts a beneficent
effect upon its climate, extremes being unknown. One feature of its
topography is Vancouver Island, a large expanse of land separated by water
from the mainland. The resources of ihe province include agriculture,
especially fruits; but perhaps its limber and its mines account for a greater
volume of production, while ils fisheries are highly important.
Vancouver (continued from page 72)
Hotel Vancouver        The magnificent Hotel Vancouver is the finest
hotel of the North Pacific,  with 490 guests'
bedrooms.   Wonderful views of the Strait of Georgia can be obtained
from the roof garden of this hotel.
A Busy Port Vancouver is a highly important port.   From here
the well-known Canadian Pacific "Princess"
steamers offer splendid service to Victoria, Seattle, Northern British
Columbia, and Alaska. Canadian Pacific "Empress" steamships
cross the Pacific to the Orient. The Canadian-Australasian Line runs
regularly from Vancouver to Honolulu, Suva (Fiji), New Zealand and
Australia.
In and around Vancouver are immense lumber and shingle mills.
Mining, lumbering, farming, shipbuilding, and shipping, with a vast
Oriental business, fogm the reason of the city's phenomenal growth and
prosperity. From a forest clearing less than forty years ago it has
become one of the principal cities and most important seaports of the
North Pacific Coast.
Stanley Park The roads around the city are famous for their
excellence, and there are many fine drives, varying
from an hour to a day in time. Amongst them may be mentioned
Stanley Park—one of the finest natural parks in the world, a primeval
forest right within the city limits and containing thousands of Douglas
firs and giant cedars of a most amazing size and age. The park is
encircled by a perfect road, nine miles in length. The "Marine Drive"
takes the visitor through the best residential parts of the city, including Shaughnessy Heights and Point Grey, thence to the mouth of
the Fraser River, with its fleets of salmon trawlers, and back along
the coast past bathing beaches and golf links.
m
**§&■
Vancouver—The Hotel Vancouver
.3m*«*isiP Vancouver
75
"Empress of Canada" entering Vancouver Harbor
Photograph by Leonard Frank
Capilano Canyon a gorge of great natural beauty, in North Vancouver, is reached over a good road. The suspension bridge across the canyon, 200 feet above the roaring waters,
is visited by thousands of people annually. The Pacific Highway,
including Kingsway, runs through Vancouver, connecting up with the
main American roads of the Northwest. With the exception of about
115 miles, this road is paved all the way from Vancouver to Mexico.
Golf, etc. Vancouver has five good golf courses which are open to
visitors. Guests at the Hotel Vancouver have special
privileges at the Shaughnessy Heights Club, which is recognized
as one of the best links on the Pacific Coast. There are a number
of .good tennis clubs. There are numerous fine bathing beaches
around Vancouver. The most easily reached are English Bay and
Kitsilano—both on the street-car line. The scene at English Bay,
which lies at one entrance to Stanley Park, on a sunny afternoon is one
of great animation. Burrard Inlet, English Bay and the North Arm
are excellent places also for boating. Vancouver boasts of one of the
finest yacht clubs on the Pacific Coast.
Sporting A great variety of fishing can be obtained around Van
couver. In season, salmon, spring, cohoe and tyee,
steelheads, Dolly Varden, j rainbow, cut-throat, and sea trout are
plentiful. Within easy reach of the city there is also wonderful
shooting. Grouse, duck, teal, mallard, snipe, pheasants and partridges are plentiful in season. Lulu Island, Sea Island, the North
Shore and Seymour Flats are all within an hour of the Hotel Vancouver.
Steamer Trips Some fine steamer trips can be made from Van
couver. Chief amongst them, perhaps, is the
A}/2 hours' trip across the Juan de Fuca Strait to Victoria. Then
there is a particularly interesting trip to Nanaimo, a cruise amongst
the Gulf Islands, and others to Comox, Powell River, etc. An excellent tour may be made by taking a "Princess" steamer to Victoria,
the E. & N. train from Victoria to Nanaimo, thence back to Vancouver,
by steamer.
Empresses Vancouver is the port of the trans-Pacific services
of the Pacific of the Canadian Pacific Steamships, which main
tain regular services to Japan, China, and the
Philippines. This well-known fleet consists of four magnificent passenger ships, of which the "Empress of Canada" (21,500 tons) and the
"Empress of Australia" (21,850 tons) are the largest. A large proportion of the silk trade of the Orient passes through Vancouver. 76
Across    Can ada
"Princess Charlotte"
S '!'■
Vancouver-Victoria
Vancouver-Seattle
British Columbia Coast Steamship Services
In connection with the trans-continental rail service, the Canadian
Pacific operates an extensive steamship service on the British Columbia coast as far north as Alaska. A total of 15 steamships are operated
in the various services. Thefleet is commonly known as the "Princess
Line." The ships are of beautiful appearance and handsomely
equipped.
On what is known as the "Triangle Route"
between Vancouver, Victoria and Seattle,
there is a double  daily  service in both
directions.   The day service takes the triangular route, via Victoria,
to Seattle; the night service is a direct one, between Vancouver-
Victoria and Vancouver-Seattle.
Vancouver-Nanaimo During the summer months two round trips
daily are made between Vancouver and
Nanaimo, on Vancouver Island (40 miles). There is a regular winter
service.
Gulf Islands        Regular service is established from Victoria and
Vancouver to various ports of call on the islands of
the Gulf of Georgia.  A delightful all-day sail is provided by this route.
Vancouver-Nanaimo-
Powell River-Union Bay-Comox
Nanaimo, Union Bay and
Comox are on Vancouver
Island; Powell River is on
^he mainland, about 75 miles north of Vancouver. From Vancouver to
Union Bay and return is a most interesting two-day trip. Steamships make two trips a week from Vancouver and one from Victoria.
Northern British Columbia
Coast Service
From Vancouver to Prince Rupert
there is a weekly service with intermediate calls at Campbell River,
Alert Bay, Hardy Bay, Namu, Ocean Falls, East Bella Bella, Swan-
son Bay, Butedale, and Skeena River Canneries.   Salmon canneries
may be seen at most of the ports of call.
West Coast of The West Coast cruise by the "Princess Maquinna"
Vancouver Island to Port Alice, at the extreme northern end of
Vancouver Island, is second only to the Alaska
trip in scenic attraction and general interest. The cruise lasts about
a week and steamers sail on the 1st, 10th and 20th of each month
during the tourist season. The West Coast is deeply indented by inlets,
with mountainous and heavily wooded scenery, and glimpses of logging
camps, canneries, whales, and sea-lions.
Bellingham-Victoria
via Sidney
An automobile-ferry service was inaugurated in
1923 between Bellingham, Wash., and Sidney,
Vancouver Island.   The "Motor Princess" has
capacity for 50 automobiles and makes two round trips daily during
the height of the season.   The run is made in two hours and fifteen .
minutes and is a most delightful one with constantly changing views
of island and mountain scenery.
Vancouver to Alaska—see page 95. Indicates Double Track
BRITISH COLUMBIA COAST SERVICE 78 Across    Canada
Vancouver to Victoria: 83 miles
and Seattle: 164 miles
From Vancouver to Victoria is a pleasant sail of about 4E2. hours. There
is a double daily service on this trip, one that leaves Vancouver in the
morning, the other at night.
The day service, after a short lay-over, continues from Victoria to
Seattle.    There is also a direct night service from Vancouver to Seattle.
Connection between Vancouver, Victoria and Seattle is made with transcontinental trains, to and from the steamers, in both directions.
Victoria Victoria (population 45,000) is charmingly situated at
the southern end of Vancouver Island, overlooking
the Straits, of Juan de Fuca across to the snow-capped Olympic
Mountains on the mainland. Its delightfully mild climate makes it
a favorite resort for both summer and winter, and, owing to the
characteristic beauty of its residential district, it has often been
called "a bit of England on the shores of the Pacific." It is distinctively a home city, with fine roads and beautiful gardens, although its
enterprising business district speaks of a rich commerce drawn from
the fishing, lumber and agricultural industries of Vancouver Island.
Victoria's beauty lies in its residential districts, its boulevards, parks,
public buildings, numerous bathing beaches and semi-tropical foliage.
Empress Hotel j The Empress Hotel, last in the chain of Canadian
Pacific hotels, overlooks the inner harbor, within
a stone's throw of the Parliament buildings. It is an hotel of stately
architecture, hospitable spirit, spacious atmosphere, and social
warmth.
Beacon Hill Park One of the city's public parks, contains 154
acres laid out as recreation grounds and
pleasure gardens, fifteen minutes' walk from the Empress Hotel
and included in all sight-seeing trips in the city. Magnificent views
can be obtained from Beacon Hill across the Straits.
Parliament Buildings        Victoria is the capital of British Columbia.
The Parliament Buildings, which rank
among the handsomest in America, overlook the inner harbor. Adjoining them is the Provincial Museum, very complete and interesting,
and containing a large assortment of specimens of natural history,
native woods, Indian curios and pre-historic instruments. The
Provincial Library contains a large collection of historical prints,
documents, and other works of great value and interest.
Brentwood Near Brentwood, a charming resort on Saanich
Inlet, about 15 miles from the city by street-car or
automobile, are the beautiful and famous gardens of Mr. R. P.
Butchart. In no part of America can any more diversified gardens
be found than these, for besides sunken gardens there are acres of rose
gardens, stretches of velvet lawns bordered with flowers of every
description, and a Japanese, or fairy, garden. Visitors are admitted
without charge every day.
Saanich Mountain Reached by automobile  or  street-car.    The
Observatory new telescope, which has a 72-inch reflector,
has just been installed and is the second
largest in the world. The observatory, in addition to being of interest
itself, commands from its site one of the finest views on the Pacific
Coast.
Golf Victoria can be considered as an approximation to the
"golfer's- paradise," for in its equable climate golf can be
enjoyed every day of the year. Three 18-hole and two 9-hole courses
are open to visitors, and are all convenient to the city, well kept and of
fine location. Guests at the Empress Hotel have special privileges
at the Colwood Club. !      frt    f
Wt^SE   %Wy2^^^^WrM ...tJtah.
(At foot) The Empress Hotel, Victoria; other views are around Victoria
J 80
Across    Canada
Sporting The fishing and shooting on Vancouver Island are of the
best—trout, salmon, pheasant, grouse, cougar, bear,
deer and moose being the prizes. Shawnigan Lake, Cowichan
Lake, Sproat Lake, Great Central Lake and Campbell River are
amongst the most famous fishing streams of this continent. There
are also excellent bird shooting and big game hunting.
Motoring There are as many good motor trips radiating from
Victoria as from any other place in America. The
roads are excellent. Among the popular trips are: Victoria, Marine
Drive, and Mount Douglas Park; Little Saanich Mountain Observatory and Brentwood; tour of Saanich Peninsula; the famous Malahat
Drive to Shawnigan and Duncan; Nanaimo, via Parksville to
Cameron Lake, on over Alberni Summit; the Grand Island Highway
Tour—Victoria, Duncan, Nanaimo, Cameron Lake, Port Alberni,
Qualicum and Campbell River; and the entire Georgian Circuit International Tour, the greatest and most complete scenic tour on the
continent.
Seattle Seattle is the largest city in the State of Washington, and
one of the most important on the Pacific Coast. It is a
beautiful and progressive city, with a rapidly increasing population.
Situated on the east side of Puget Sound, up the slopes of the hills that
front the latter, it has a fine harbor accessible to the largest vessels
afloat. Lake Washington, a body of fresh water about twenty miles
long and three miles wide, bounds the city on the east, and is now
connected with the Sound by the Lake Washington Canal, a very
notable feat of engineering that has a great and important bearing upon
Seattle's future. The down-town business section of Seattle has many
large buildings, including the L. C. Smith Building, the highest in
America outside of the Woolworth Building in New York. Seattle
has a very pleasing residential section, especially in the vicinity of
the University of Washington, and many beautiful parks and summer
resorts. A large number of enjoyable trips can be made from Seattle,
by train, steamer, and motor, such as to Bellingham, Everett, Tacoma,
and Mount Rainier. Southern  Albert
81
;^**^KS>:
Lethbridge
Crow's Nest Pass Route
Medicine Hat to Nelson: 448 miles
(For Map, see page 83)
Figures against towns show altitudes, in feet.
Going west, read station names downward. Going east, read upward.
Medicine Hat 2181
Dunmore 2899
Bow Island 2612
Taber 2663
Coaldale 2821
Lethbridge      2983
From Medicine Hat the Crow's Nest Pass branch
runs south of the main line to the rich farming districts of Southern Alberta, the coal mining regions
of the Crow's Nest Pass, and the gold, copper and
silver lead mines of Southern British Columbia.
Beyond Nelson another line continues through the
"Boundary" mining country, connecting at Mid-.
way with the Kettle Valley Railway to Vancouver, thus providing an
alternative route between the prairies and the Pacific Coast.
The completion of the Crow's Nest line was notable from an engineering
standpoint, both for the celerity of its construction and for the skill shown
in overcoming numerous serious obstacles.
Bow Islaiid North of Bow Island is a great natural gas area, from
which the city of Calgary and other communities en
route are supplied with gas through a pipe line some 170 miles in length.
In this field there are wells producing from one and a quarter million
to twenty-nine million cubic feet of gas per day.
Taber     (Population 1,700) is a very prosperous town that in addition
to being the centre of a splendid farming country has several
coal mines in operation close by.
The Canadian Pacific Railway owns an irrigation block of some 130,000 acres in the Leth-
settled largely with American farmers, who have
made it one of the most prosperous agricultural communities of
Western Canada. It is a great alfalfa growing district, and the beautiful tableland area around Coaldale will be especially noticed. Farmers
living outside the irrigation area are bringing about an extension of
the canals to cover many thousands more acres, and the time is not
far distant when all this south country that is capable of irrigation
will be served by the ditch.
Lethbridge (Population 14,900) is an important commercial city
with three parks, electric light and power, and splendid
buildings. Situated on the Old Man River, it is a Canadian Pacific
divisional and junction point. It is a prosperous wholesale as well
as an agricultural centre.   The city has seven coal mines within
(Continued on page 82)
Irrigation Block
bridge territory. 82
Across    Canada
Lethbridge—Canadian Pacific Bridge
Lethbridge (continued)
five miles, producing a high grade lignite coal that has a market
extending as far east as Winnipeg. Two of these, the Galt Mines,
operated by the Canadian Pacific, are right at the city limits. The
industries of Lethbridge include flour milling and the manufacture cf
macaroni, while the wool shipments are larger than those of any other
point in Canada. A Dominion Experimental Farm is located here for
dry and irrigated farming experiments.
Lethbridge Bridge West of Lethbridge there has been completed
by the Canadian Pacific Railway one of the
most gigantic engineering works in Canada. This is the bridging of
the Old Man River by two immense steel viaducts, one 5,325 feet
in length with a maximum height above the river of 314 feet, and the
other 1,900 feet in length, with a height above the river of 145 feet.
The cost of these works exceeded two million dollars. Nearly 650
cars were required to transport the steel used in the construction of
these viaducts.
Branch Lines
Lethbridge to Coutts and Cardston
Lethbridge From Lethbridge a branch runs south to the international
Stirling boundary to Coutts, through the irrigated area and a fine
Warner ranching and stock country. At Stirling a branch runs
Coutts west from this line through a very fully developed agri-
Raymond cultural country which was at one time a large producer
Magrath of sugar beets. This country is settled to some extent by
Cardston the Mormons, who have very large agricultural interests
and carry on an extensive cattle raising business.
Lethbridge to Shaunavon and Moose Jaw
Lethbridge This recently-completed line forms a through route from
Stirling Lethbridge  through  the  extreme  southern  section  of
Foremost Alberta   and   Saskatchewan,   turning   eastward from
Manyberries Stirling. South of Foremost a very heavily producing
Govenlock well was brought in some years ago, and is now capped
Shaunavon awaiting development.   There are several large lakes in
Assiniboia this territory, the biggest being Pakowki Lake.   This is
Moose Jaw a somewhat irregular country, with large "coulees,"
such as Etzikom Coulee; it is still in process of settlement, but the towns are building up as business develops.
At Assiniboia this line turns north to Moose Jaw (see page 12) with a
branch to Weyburn and Stoughton. ^
Indicates Double Track
MEDICINE HAT to VANCOUVER
VIA CROW'S NEST PASS and  KETTLE VALLEY RAILWAY 84
Across    Canada
Going west, read station names downward.   Going east, read upward.
Kipp 8059       From Lethbridge westward the ascent towards the
Monarch 8116 Rockies is very apparent; between that city and
Macleod 3109 Crow's Nest station there is a difference in altitude
Pincher 8771        of over a quarter of a mile.    The character of the
Cowley 8842       country also changes; from an almost flat agricul-
Hillcrest 4122 tural one it becomes an undulating ranching one,
and then changes to a mountainous district in which
the principal industry is coat-mining. Coal underlies a large area in this
region, and is even seen outcropping in many places. Mines are at operation in several points, the Crow's Nest Pass district being one of the
chief producing districts of Canada.
tern
Kipp      at the confluence of the Lethbridge and St. Mary's Rivers,
is an old trading point that was the scene of many a conflict-
between the Indians and the early white traders.
Monarch       affords on a clear day a clear view of the Rockies, the
square-topped giant to the south,  almost fifty miles
away, being ''The Chief," which lies partly in Canada and partly
in the United States.
Macleod (Population 2,000) the oldest town in Southern Alberta,
was founded by the Royal North-West Mounted Police,
and is still one of the most important posts of this famous force.
Situated at the entrance of the great coal-mining and timber areas
of the eastern slope of the Crow's Nest Pass, and flanked north and
south by a well-irrigated country, with large cattle and grain-growing
interests, it has become a prosperous and important distributing
centre, with good buildings and first-class public utilities.
Cowley Near Cowley is Massacre Butte, commemorating a tragic
episode of the pioneering days where the settler's life was
harassed by hostile Indians. From here to Crow's Nest Lake the
railway follows the valley of the Middle Fork, which narrows into deep
canyons and again broadens.
Branch Lines     Lethbridge to Calgary—Macleod to Calgary (see page 29.)
Crow's Nest Pass—Coal Mining Crow's  Nest  Pass
85
Crow's Nest Mountain
Going west, read station names downward.   Going east, read upward.
Frank
Blairmore
Coleman
421%
4285
4312-
Crow's Nest 4450
Crow's Nest Mountain (9,188 feet) is the central
feature in the Pass. Its huge form thrust far above
the neighboring peaks, its crown capped in a dazzling
mass of snow and ice, its base deeply tintedin purple
and green, Crow's Nest Mountain dominates the
entire region. Various reasons have been advanced
for the origin of the name "Crow's Nest," but the
soundest is apparently that it commemorates a massacre of the Crow Indians by the Blackfeet Indians in the latter part of last
century, on the spot now covered by the Frank Slide.
Michel
Natal
Fernie
8861
8781
8318
Frank - is a coal mining town that was the scene in 1903 of a terrible
catastrophe that is still well-remembered—the "Frank
Slide," when part of the mountain slid down and wiped out the'town.
Some of the debris can still be seen. The present town is situated
some distance from the old one.
Blairmore (Population 2,300) and Coleman (population 8,000) are
both prosperous mining communities. The numerous
streams in this vicinity are full of trout, while farther on in the mountains the more venturesome sportsman can gratify his ambition amongst
the grizzly and black bear, mountain sheep and mountain goat.
Crow's Nest station is the end of the Alberta operating district
of the railway and the beginning of the British Columbia district. Three miles away is Crow's Nest Lake, a beautiful sheet
of water often called the birthplace of the prairie winds, although the
frequent calmness of its waters rather belies that description. Half
way up the north side of this lake a remarkable spring, the chief feeder
of the lake, issues from a large overhung grotto in a limestone formation in Mount Sentinel. This limestone formation rests on a sandstone base, making the mountain most interesting from a geological
standpoint.
Elko     is near the Elk River Canyon, a wild and beautiful canyon
extending several miles with a water drop of 600 feet. Tobacco
Plains, to the south, is a fertile country which is attracting settlement. 86
Across    Canada
Going west
Elko
8088
Caithness
2851
Colvalli
2660
Wardner
2491
Cranbrook
8019
Moyie
8062
Yahk
2822
A British Columbia Orchard
read station names downward. Going east, read upward.
Magnificent scenery may be seen throughout the section
between Crow's Nest and Cranbrook, extending from
the crest of the Rockies to that of the Selkirks. The
railway threads its way along steep mountain sides,
bridges raging torrents, edges along wild and beautiful canyons or follows the course of the Kootenay, the
Elk or some other of its tributaries, as they carve
their precipitous courses through the huge rugged
ranges piled up on either side. The Kootenay River is the principal tributary of the Columbia River, and, like that mightier river, has an international history. It rises near Lake Windermere, but flows south into
the United States, subsequently re-crossing into British Columbia and
forming Kootenay Lake, from which it feeds the Columbia.
' Wardner    is at the crossing of the Kootenay River.   A magnificent
truss bridge has been constructed here with a swing span to
allow of the passage of river steamers.    The river at this point is
nearly 800 feet wide.
Cranbrook (Population 8,000) is charmingly situated in a hill-girt
valley, surrounded by a dense forest growth, and. overlooked by the white-tipped peak of Baker. It is the centre of trade for
the mining interests of the locality as well as for the rapidly growing
ranching industry. In the lateral valleys are fine agricultural lands
that are rapidly attracting settlers. Cranbrook is the principal
lumber manufacturing point of East Kootenay.
Moyie Leaving Cranbrook, we take a winding course along Moyie
Lake, a beautiful sheet of water ten miles long. The town
of Moyie is situated at the southern end, near which are the St. Eugene
group of mines. Extensive deposits of galena, silver and lead ore are
located here. Next the railway penetrates a thickly-wooded heavily-
timbered country.
Branch Lines     Caithness to Waldo.
Colvalli to Golden (see page 46).
Cranbrook. to Marysville and Kimberley—(19 miles). At Kimberley is the Sullivan
Mine, said to be the greatest known deposit of silver-lead-zinc in the world, with§350,000,000
worth of ore blocked out. One of the largest ore-concentrating plants in the world has
recently been erected here. The process of reduction is comparatively new and has revolutionized the business of reducing refractory ores. At Wycliffe is one of the largest lumbering
enterprises in interior British Columbia.
To Spokane From Yahk a short branch runs south to Kingsgate, on the international
boundary between British Columbia and the State of Idaho. From the
latter point the system of the Spokane International Railway runs to Spokane, a distance of
151 miles. The route is along the picturesque Moyie River, the Kootenay River, and the
Pend Oreille River, through the beautifully located towns of Bonner's Ferry and Sand
Point. This is an important lumbering, mining, dairying, and fruit-growing district.
Spokane (population 125,000) is the metropolis of the eastern part of the State of Washington, and affords access to points in the United States in all directions. A through service
is maintained between Spokane and Calgary. Kootenay  Lake
87
Going west, read station names downward
Erickson 2112
Creston 1988
Sirdar 1807
Kootenay Landing 1775
Nelson 1774
Going east, read upward.
Now the downward course towards Kootenay
Lake is commenced, the railway following Kid
Creek. Near here are great iron deposits and
large tracts of timber. After crossing the
gorge of the Goat River Canyon, through which
the river flows in a raging  torrent 165 feet
below the railway bridge, the fruit district of the Creston Valley is entered.
A few miles further is Kootenay Landing, where we take a comfortable
Canadian Pacific steamer for Nelson.
Creston (Population 600) is the distributing centre for the Creston
Valley. Orchards have been planted here capable of producing five hundred cars annually. An important undertaking at
Creston is the Kootenay Flats reclamation project, which involves
the reclaiming of some 77,000 acres of rich delta land in British Columbia and Idaho from the flood waters of the Kootenay River.
Kootenay Lake is a beautiful lake between two separate ranges
of the Selkirks, and runs about seventy miles
almost due north and south. On either side the mountains, dipping
sometimes steeply into the water, at other times affording shelter
to little ledges of fertile land, afford most magnificent scenery. The
steamer trip occupies about four hours, with calls at a number of small
settlements en route. About one-third way up the steamer turns
round into the West Arm, a narrow sheet of water running in a southwesterly direction, passes Procter, a popular summer resort, also
connected with Nelson by rail, and soon after reaches Nelson.
Nelson , (Population 7,000) is charmingly situated on a commanding
eminence overlooking the West Arm of Kootenay Lake,
and is the commercial centre not only of the Kootenay district, but
also of the entire southern British Columbia region. At the convergence of lake and rail systems, it is an attractive city in which life
passes very pleasantly. Nelson is the centre of a very large mining
district: immediately behind it is a wonderful mountain in which is
located the famous "Silver King" mine, from which over ten million
dollars of treasure have been taken. Nelson has several sawmills
-that supply the prairies and is the market place for a very large fruit
region. In the neighborhood are hot springs, glaciers, great cataracts,
and fishing lodges; within easy reach is excellent trout-fishing.
Through journey continued on page 89
Kaslo 88
Across    Canada
Nelson
Steamer Routes from Nelson
Nelson to Kaslo: 54 miles
Nelson From Nelson a Canadian Pacific steamer service runs daily
Procter (except Sunday) up Kootenay Lake to the prosperous mining
Ainsworth and fruit-farming district of Kaslo. The route is from Nelson
Kaslo back along the West Arm of the lake to Procter, and then
north. The lake affords magnificent scenery—on one hand
soft and rounded landscapes, on the other deep canyons, snow-capped and
timber-covered mountains, and glaciers. On the west side of the lake are
the Selkirks, the highest peak of which, Mount Loki, is near Kaslo, and on
the east side is the Purcell Range.
Ainsworth is a mining camp, the oldest in West Kootenay. Across
the lake lies the famous Blue Bell mine. It is an interesting sight to see the crushed ore being floated down the lake to
the smelter, most of it in this district being sent to Trail.
Kaslo a central point on the north arm of the lake, is the chief distributing point and residential centre for the surrounding
mining districts. It is a charming spot that is rapidly coming to the
front as a holiday resort for prairie people. Good boating, swimming
"and fishing are to be obtained. A fairly large amount of fruit is raised
around Kaslo, the Kaslo cherries being celebrated.
Kaslo From Kaslo an extension of the steamer service runs up the Lake to Lardeau.
Lardeau (19 miles), near the northern end, on a weekly service.    From Lardeau there
Gerrard is a rail service (SS miles) to Gerrard, at the south end of Trout Lake.
Kaslo to Nakusp: 66 miles
Kaslo From Kaslo a branch railway line runs to Nakusp, on Arrow
Sandon Lake (see page 65). Striking through the deeply-eroded- gorge
Rosebery of the Kaslo River, the line brings the traveller to Sandon,
Nakusp on a spur line from Parapet. Sandon is one of the most celebrated mining camps in British Columbia, as well as one of
the steepest. All this country is a great silver-lead territory. From Sandon
the railway runs to Rosebery, on ihe northern shore of Slocan Lake, and
thence over a fairly considerable grade to Nakusp.
Nelson to Rosebery: 67 miles
Nelson From South Slocan a branch runs up to Slocan City,
South Slocan at the lower end of beautiful Slocan lake, a smaller
Slocan City brother of Kootenay Lake. From here a Canadian Pacific
Silverton steamer can be taken up the lake to Rosebery.   Silverton
New Denver is a mining camp with a large silver-lead output. New
Rosebery Denver is more of a residential town, facing a glacier of
considerable size and with charming orchard flowers and
gardens.  A t Rosebery the railway line from Kaslo to Nakusp is joined.
^ "I
The  Boundary  Country
89
Nelson to Midway: 127 miles
(For Map, see page 83)
Going west, read station names downward.   Going east, read upward.
Nelson 1774
Bonnington 1710
South Slocan 1688
Brilliant 1456
Castlegar 1450
Robson West 1422
The southern transcontinental route continues
westward from Nelson, the recently completed
Kettle Valley Railway being the last link, so that
a through service is now operated betweenN elson and
Vancouver. This route is a very picturesque one
through the Boundary and Okanagan districts,
amongst the richest and most magnificent of British
Columbia.
Bonnington Leaving Nelson, the railway, for about 26 miles,
parallels the Kootenay River. Some four miles
along, the river is crossed, and at Upper Bonnington and Bonnington
there is a splendid view of the very fine waterfalls.
South Slocan       is famous for "The Pool,"  one of the most celebrated fishing grounds in Canada, and the home of
a particularly sporting variety of rainbow trout.   From here on the
orchard country is passed, in full view from the train.
Brilliant has a very interesting settlement of Dukhobors, an
intensely religious Russian sect who live strictly on
communistic lines. The settlement numbers about six thousand,
and the excellent physical condition of their lands show them to be
an intelligent agricultural people. The picturesque dress of the
women working in the fields always attracts attention.
Branch Lines From Castlegar (where the Columbia River is crossed by a steel bridge)
to Trail and Rossland. These points are located in the heart of the copper-
gold belt of British Columbia. At Tadousac, adjoining the town of Trail, are the great
smelting and refining works of the Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company, which
is the most remarkable metallurgical plant in North America. This smelter treats gold,
silver, lead, zinc and copper ores, and turns out these metals in a refined state ready for
the market. At Rossland, the mines have reached a high state of development, workings
being down 3000 feet, with over 80 miles of underground workings and many miles of electric
railway.
Robson West to Revelstoke—see page 65.
The Trail Smelter 90
Across    Canada
Going west, read station names downward.   Going east, read upward.
Farron 8921
Cascade 1587
Grand Forks 1764
Eholt 1590
Greenwood    2466
Midway 1914
From Castlegar the line follows the Columbia
River. From Robson West the line climbs at
2.2 per cent grade, in full view of the Columbia
River for 28 miles, to. Bull Dog Tunnel. There
is scarcely any more beautiful fifty miles of lake
scenery in North America than this section through
which we are passing. Through Bull Dog Tunnel
the line passes under the summit west of Columbia River, but when we
emerge at the west portal, the character of the landscape is entirely changed,
the line following a narrow gorge vrith lowering mountains on each side.
The summit of this range is at Farron.
Christina Lake Approaching Cascade the line runs in sight of Christina Lake, a beautiful and placid expanse of water
that affords excellent bass fishing, and is the site of many summer
homes. Here we are so close to the United States boundary that it
is actually within sight.
Grand Forks        (Population  1800)   is  the   business   centre   of  this
region; it is a well-built and modern town on the
bank of the Kettle River, with large farming, lumbering and fruit
growing interests.
Kettle River West of Grand Forks the line follows the north fork
of the Kettle River, steadily ascending to Eholt.
The surrounding scenery is magnificent: towering mountains alternate with charming vistas of small lakes, ranches and the river.
Far below, the north fork branch of the Kettle Valley Railway follows
the river windings to the timber and mining districts of Lynch Creek.
Greenwood West of Eholt the line passes Greenwood, another
prosperous mining town. The entire district is highly
mineralized with gold, silver and copper, many different mines and
aerial tramways being in view.
Midway From  Greenwood  Boundary  Creek  is  followed  to
Midway,   which  is  the   connecting  point   with the
Kettle Valley Railway system.
Branch Lines    Eholt to Phoenix, where various mines (although not working at present)
have in the past produced enormous profits.
JsB
Through the Boundary Country 1
Southern  British  Columbia     91
Penticton—Incola Hotel
Kettle Valley Railway
Midway to Hope: 296 miles
(For Map, see page 83)
Altitudes are shown in feet
Going west, read station names downward.   Going east, read upward.
Midway 1914       The Kettle Valley Railway is the connecting link
Carmi 2792       between the prairies and the Pacific Coast.    The
McCulloch 4.144 interesting and varied characteristics and resources
Chute lake 8911 of the country traversed claim the attention of the
Penticton 1182 traveller, whether he be sportsman in search for
hunting grounds, fisherman, miner, woodsman,
or fruit-grower. The "Coast Kootenay Limited" operates as a through
train between Nelson and Vancouver.
Carmi        Leaving Midway, the valley of the Kettle River is followed
to its source, passing through rich agricultural districts
where fruit is extensively grown.   At Carmi is considerable development in gold and silver mining.
McCulloch       We are already climbing over the grade across the
range, and touch the summit near McCulloch. Within
a mile and a half of this point are seven lakes, all of them abounding
with trout. Bear hunting is good in this vicinity, also deer hunting
in season. Descending the west slope of the mountains, the Kelowna
Valley is soon seen in the distance, a panorama of great beauty.
Chute Lake A very interesting section of this part of the line
is the Canyon Creek Loops, which present some
novel engineering feats and some -magnificent scenery. Through
the rugged rock walls at the entrance to the canyon is seen a glimpse
of the fertile valley below. Passing on along the shores of Chute
Lake, and down the mountain side, a view of the Okanagan Valley
suddenly bursts into view.
Penticton (Population  4fi00)   with   its   mild   even   climate,   is
rapidly becoming one of the principal resorts of this
region. Close to the station is the Incola Hotel, a finely appointed
hostelry operated by the Okanagan Hotel Company. Facing it,
just across the Lake Shore Drive, is a most delightful bathing beach,
and the Aquatic Club is adjacent. Excellent motor roads radiate
in all directions, including some to the beautiful orchard districts.
Near at hand is a 9-hole golf course. Fishing for trout is good in
both the Okanagan and Skaha Lakes.
Branch Lines     Penticton is the southern terminus of the Canadian Pacific steamers on
Okanagan Lake.    (See page 66).   A delightful trip up the lake and return
the same day may be taken.
A branch of the Kettle Valley Railway has recently been completed from Penticton
south into the Osooyoos Valley, a district that is fast becoming a land of thrifty settlers
and beautiful homes.
J i€
92
Across    Canada
Going west, read station names downward.   Going east, read upward.
West Summerland 1729
Princeton 2111
Coalmont 2481
Tulameen 2561
Brodie 8022
Coquihalla 8652
Hope 214
Vancouver
monlory with a tunnel.
The journey through the Cascade Mountains,
lying between Penticton and the Pacific Coast,
provides scenery of picturesque and rugged
grandeur, i The solid rock crags and peaks
stand out in prominence, as if defying the
hand of man. But, typifying the supremacy
of human skill, the road-bed is hewn out of
solid rock, sometimes on a shelf on the mountain side,  sometimes piercing a jutting pro-
West The West Summerland valley is one of the most
Summerland        prolific   fruit   districts   of   Canada.    The   highest
point in this section is Osprey Lake,  where the
fisherman will find his pursuit well rewarded.
Princeton Passing a fertile agricultural district near Jura, the
descent is made to Princeton (population 1,000), a
thriving little city at the junction of the Tulameen and Similkameen
Rivers. Extensive coal fields are operated here, and some fourteen
miles to the south is the well-known Copper Mountain mining district.
Coalmont      at the junction of the Tulameen River with Granite
Creek, was the scene of much activity in placer mining
in the earlier days.    In this locality are deposits in more or less
degree of almost every known mineral.
Tulameen is near Otter Lake, one of the most beautiful of British
Columbia's many inland bodies of water. This lake,
also, abounds with fish. From here on we pass through the Otter
Valley, a rich agricultural district where meadows and fields form
a pleasant contrast to the mountain background.
Coquihalla
station tl
peaks are
with forests
The ascent is now made gradually to the Coquihalla
Pass through the Cascades. As we near Portia
ie character of the country again changes, the mountain
peaks are higher, the tops tipped with snow, and the sides covered
Coming on down'to Othello station we reach a remarkable engineering achievement. Just beyond this station are
'ocated five tunnels, in such perfect alignment that a view is obtained
directly through all five of
them at once. At the portal
of each tunnel the walls rise
sheer for hundreds of feet,
while the gap to the next
tunnel is bridged by a steel
span. Underneath, the Coquihalla River, now a raging
torrent, zigzags its way between each of the tunnels.
Hope      the    western    ter-
* minus of the Kettle
Valley, is reached in four
miles. The train crosses the
Fraser River on a steel
bridge, and joins the Canadian Pacific, on which it
travels (87 miles) to Vancouver.   See page 71.
Branch Line Brodie to Spence's
Bridge, on the main
line of the Canadian Pacific. (See
page 70). The route is through a
prosperous agricultural and mining
district. Fro111 tills branch another
Coquihalla Canyon—Quintette Tunnels runs fromTtferritt to Nicola. Logging on Vancouver Island
Esquimault and Nanaimo Railway:  198 miles
Victoria The Esquimault and Nanaimo Railway, a subsidiary
Colwood company of the Canadian Pacific,  serves the rich
Malahat agricultural, lumbering and mining regions along the
Shawnigan ■ east coast of Vancouver Island.   It runs north from
Duncan Victoria to Courtenay, with branches to Lake Cowichan
Chemainus and Port Alberni, and takes the traveller through
Ladysmith magnificent rugged scenery.     For the sportsman this
Cassidy is a most attractive country, for it embraces within
South Wellington   its   territory   some famous   salmon-fishing   waters,
Nanaimo such as Cowichan River and Campbell River.   Leaving
the station at Victoria, the well-known dockyards at
Esquimault are passed.
Colwood
Golf Links.
"Malahat
A small farming suburb of Victoria, comprising Langford
Plains, on which are located the picturesque Colwood
The line rises gradually from Langford Plains to Malahat, which is the summit of the railway crossing the
Malahat Range.   From here there is a prolonged view of Todd Inlet
and the Saanich Arm.   The Malahat Drive (in view from the railway)
crosses this mountain.
Shawnigan Lake A beautiful sheet of fresh water, with excellent
fishing.  Strathcona Lodge, privately operated,
affords first class accommodation.
Duncan (Population 1,500) the centre of a flourishing agricul
tural district, is largely populated by retired English
people, with country homes, many of the residents supplementing
their income by small farming.
Chemainus       One of the largest sawmills in British Columbia operates at this point, the property of the Victoria Lumber
and Manufacturing Company,  Limited,  the capacity of  the mill
being over 200,000 feet per day.
Ladysmith        (Population 8,800) located on Oyster Bay.   Principally
a mining town, and headquarters for the Extension
Mines, twelve miles distant, which are reached by the Canadian
Collieries' coal railway.
Cassidy Site of the Granby coal mine, property of the Granby
Consolidated Mining, Smelting & Power Co.  Limited,
output from 600 to 1,000 tons per day.
South Wellington Location of  the old South Wellington coal
mine,   property  of  the  Canadian  Collieries
(Dunsmuir) Limited, with an output from 600 to 1,000 tons per day.
Branch Line    Duncan to Cowichan, where the well-known Cowichan Lake affords fine
fishing.   There are several sawmills on this line, some 30 to 50 carloads of
logs being hauled out per day. 94
Across    Canada
Parksville Jct.        The line rises from Nanaimo to Wellington, and then
Union Bay drops to Nanoose Bay, where a beautiful view of the
Courtenay Gulf of Georgia is obtained.   Parksville is the centre
of a substantial agricultural district.
Nanaimo (Population 12,000) also reached by steamer from Van
couver, 41 miles. A flourishing commercial and mining city, beautifully situated; headquarters of the Western Fuel
Company's extensive coal mines and of agricultural and herring-fishing
interests.   The largest city on Vancouver Island outside of Victoria.
Union Bay is  the  shipping  port  for  the  Canadian  Collieries
Comox mines, which are located some 12 miles
distant at Cumberland, and have an output of from 2,500 to 3,500 tons
of coal per day.
Courtenay (Population 1,000) is the present northern terminus
of the railway, and the most northerly large town
on Vancouver Island, in which the agricultural business of the Comox
Valley centres. This valley is the largest farming and most productive
and promising on Vancouver Island. A large Returned Soldier Settlement has been established at Merville. There are very extensive
timber interests adjacent to and through this valley, making it an
attractive location for future settlers, as the timber is removed and
land cleared up for settlement. The journey can be continued by automobile to Campbell River, a noted salmon-fishing centre.
Parksville Jcl.      A branch line (39 miles) runs from Parksville Jct. to
Cameron Lake
Arrowsmith
Port Alberni
Port Alberni, crossing through dense forests to the
West Coast of Vancouver Island. This introduces one
to some splendid fishing and hunting sections, of which
the best known are Cameron Lake, Great Central Lake,
and Sproat Lake.
Cameron Lake Excellent salmon fishing may be obtained here at
the proper season of the year. Cameron Lake
Chalet, at the southern end of the lake, affords snug accommodation
for a limited number of visitors, being owned by the railway company,
but operated privately. A trail to the timber line of Mount Arrow-
smith makes a delightful day or two's outing for mountain climbers.
Arrowsmith From Cameron Lake the line skirts the foothills of
Mount Arrowsmith (6,000 feet high), of which a
magnificent view can be had as the train passes along the high cliffs
on Cameron Lake. This mountain is the summit of the Beaufort
Range. From Arrowsmith the line skirts the west side of the Beaufort
Range, from which many glimpses of the Alberni Canal, Great Central
Lake and Sproat Lake can be obtained in the distance.
Port Alberni
A thriving city, with a great
^mistmm
M-...._'. v    "-'     :      N»"   .*■% .
Cameron Lake Chalet
future as a lumber
manufacturing,
fishing and shipping port. One of
the largest areas
of standing timber
on Vancouver Island is tributary
to the Alberni
Canal. There are
several fish-packing
industries   located
•at Port Alberni
and down the Canal
to the outlet at
Barclay Sound,
and the canal also
affords splendid
sport for both salmon and "tyee"
fishing in season. ^s
The  B.C.   Coast
95
To Alaska
(For Map, see page 77)
This is one of the finest trips in North America. A magnificent four-day
thousand-mile steamship journey introduces the traveller to rugged fiordlike scenery of a type unknown elsewhere on this continent; it hugs the
coastline of British Columbia and Alaska, and for almost its entire length
is protected by the long fringe of islands that extends north from Vancouver
Island. One views mountains, forested islands, ice-clad peaks, glaciers,
and the purple twilights of the north. Queer Indian totem poles, goldmines, fisheries, furs, flowers, the memories of a not-distant and romantic
past—this is Alaska! And then beyond,,very easily reached by railway
over the White Pass, is the fascinating Yukon Territory.
This service to Alaska is performed by Canadian Pacific'" Princess"
steamers, with a regular schedule throughout the year and a greatly increased one during the summer months.
Victoria . Leaving Victoria at night  and Vancouver the fol-
Vancouver        lowing night, the traveller has a very delightful sail
Alert Bay out of Burrard Inlet through the First Narrows and
across English Bay. Along about breakfast time the
steamer enters the famous Seymour Narrows, one of the swiftest
passageways on this coast. About noon Alert Bay is reached. This
quaint Indian village is full of interest to the tourist, and the steamer
stops long enough to allow passengers to see the sights. It has a
mission settlement, a good hospital and a cannery. Every house
has its toteih pole, some of which rise to a height of fifty feet. Here,
in fact, may be seen the most complete collection of totem poles to be
found anywhere on the whole Pacific Coast.
Queen Charlotte Sound is reached at early evening, and if the
heavens are clear, a sunset of rare beauty
will be viewed. This three-hour ride across the Sound affords the
first glimpse of the trip of the open Pacific Ocean. Whales and porpoises are frequently seen. To the northwest the dim outlines of the
QueenCharlotte Islands can be seen.
Millbank Sound
Soon Rivers Inlet is passed, with its many
canneries and fleets of fishing boats. Farther
on are Namu, with more canneries, and Bella Bella, on Campbell
Island. Through Lama Passage the vessel finds its way out into Mill-
bank Sound, where the channel is very wide, and the islands quite
distant. - During the night the ship passes through Finlayson Channel;
early next morning Swanson Bay with an immense mill for the
manufacture
of lumber and
sulphite pulp
is seen.
Out into the
c hannel the
steamer again
finds its way,
andformost of
a day plows
steadilynorth-
ward without
stopping.
Granville
Channel, Douglas Channel
and then Lowe
Inlet, with its
settlement lying close to the i
foot of a moun- ""
tain, is reached. Alert Bay—Totem Poles M
96
Across    Canada
3*5*
_3
w^mWwmAmm.
Juneau
Alaska 27ie territory now known as Alaska was unknown to white men
till, in 1741, H was explored by two Russian officers, Captains
Vitus Bering and Chirikov. Thirty-three years later it was visited by Spaniards: in 1778 Captain Cook undertook some surveys of the coast. The first
elaborate survey of that coast was made by Captain Vancouver in 1798-94-
The Russians formally assumed possession in 1799, when the administration was handed over to the Russian American Company, the chief resident
director being Alexander Baranov, who founded Sitka in 1804- The reign
of this Chartered Company ended in 1861, when Prince Maksutov was
appointed Imperial Governor.
In 1867 the United States purchased Alaska from Russia for $7,200,000,
in order to obtain control of the fisheries and fur trade, which at that time
were the chief known resources of Alaska. The gradual discovery of mineral
wealth culminated in the Klondike rush of 1897, and the rush to the gold
fields of Nome in 1900.	
Prince Rupert Late afternoon brings the vessel to the mouth of
the Skeena River, where a large fleet of salmon
boats are usually encountered. Prince Rupert (population 6,500) situated on an island near the mouth of Skeena River, is a very important
fishing and fish-exporting point. Perched on a series of rocky cliffs, and
surrounded by forest, its existence as a fully developed city hundreds
of miles from the big centres is one of the discoveries of this journey.
The terminus of other Canadian Pacific steamer lines, it is also our last
call in Canada.
Ketchikan        Shortly after leaving Prince Rupert, the third and last
stretch of open water is passed, Dixon's Entrance. On
the east side are passed the settlements of Old and New Metlakatla.
Port Simpson, with its old Hudson's Bay Company's Fort, is close
by, and United States waters are entered shortly before arrival at
Ketchikan.
Ketchikan might be said to be now the most prosperous town in
Alaska. It is one that pleases by its bustling air, its hotels, fine stores
and banks. The waterfall, about fifteen minutes' walk from the
steamer docks, should certainly be visited. In the late summer
months thousands of salmon ascend the falls in the river, and it is a
wonderful sight to see the large fish leap and find their way to the
spawning banks. Ketchikan has large cold storage and salmon-
canning plants.
Wrangell A distinct  change of scenery occurs from now on.
The stretches of water become wider, snow-capped
mountains rise on either side, and the wonderful purple peculiar to
the Alaskan sunrise or sunset is seen. Wrangell is our next stop. It is
a beautifully situated and interesting town, near the mouth of the
Stikine River, which serves the famous Cassiar Country in the interior
of British Columbia, known to big game hunters the world over. A
steamer service runs from Wrangell up the Stikine. Part of the old
Russian fort still exists. To Alaska
97
The Wrangell Narrows are reached an hour or so out from Wrangell,
and for nearly two hours the steamer proceeds at half speed through
this narrow winding channel, which can be navigated only at certain
stages of the tide. This passage between the islands saves a long
detour across a rough and open part of the Pacific Ocean; it has been
thoroughly well marked with buoys and lights, and is one of the most
beautiful parts of the coast.
Leaving the Narrows, the port of Petersburg, a flourishing fishing
centre inhabited largely by Scandinavian people, is passed.
Taku Glacier We are now surrounded by the typical grandeur of
Alaska. Taku Inlet sends out hundreds of odd-
shaped ice-floes to meet us, as blue as indigo, floating by to melt
gradually in warmer waters. Slowly the steamer approaches the two
famous glaciers at the head of the inlet. One is a "dead" glacier, a
mixture of brown, white and blue colors, and gradually receding.
The other is ' 'alive,'' and continually moves forward. It shows all the
colors of the rainbow) according to the time of day or the position of the
sun. Huge masses of ice continually break off into the sea with a deafening thunder and float away like gigantic swans. Taku Glacier
is a mile wide, and extends for over ninety miles over the mountains to join Llewellyn Glacier. The vibration caused by the boat's
whistles brings down great pieces of ice weighing hundreds of tons.
Juneau Three hours steaming up Gastineau Channel brings us
to Juneau, clinging to the base and sides of Mount Juneau.
This is the capital of Alaska, the residence of the Governor, and the
meeting place of the Legislature. Until some time after the beginning
of the late war, three of the' largest gold ore crushing plants in the
world were situated close by—the Treadwell, the Alaska Gastineau
and the Alaska Juneau mills and mines. Now only the last named
remains. Juneau is an up-to-date city, with all modern improvements,
and has good roads and automobiles aplenty. One particularly interesting ride is by automobile to the face of Mehdenhall Glacier.
Another is by the mountain road winding up to Perseverance Mine.
The Territorial Museum in the Alaska Brotherhood Hall has a wonderful Alaska collection which every one should visit. Those so inclined will be well repaid by seeing the fine raw furs of local dealers.
Lynn Canal With the possible exception of Taku Glacier, the trip
from Juneau to Skagway provides the most wonderful
scenery of all. For over eighty miles we steam up the arm of sea
called the Lynn Canal, varying in width from one to over five miles.
Mountains of rock capped with snow, towering glaciers and gushing
waterfalls, canyons of all sizes and wild shapes, and colors in restless
variety, surround us. Passing Fort William H. Seward, we suddenly
turn a point and see Skagway ahead of us.
^ft^^SK^^SSSSi
Skagway 98 Across    Canada
The Yukon Alaska is a part of the United Stales; but the Yukon
Territory is part of Canada, extending from the northern
boundary of British Columbia to the Arctic Ocean. A tremendous territory
of over 207,000 square miles, it has a population of scarcely more than four
thousand. It came to world notice in 1897, when gold was discovered on
the Klondike; since then more than $150,000,000 worth of precious minerals
have been mined. The output of gold has for some time been on the wane,
but recent silver discoveries in the Mayo district have again focussed attention on the Yukon. Much of the territory is well wooded, and farming,
although the Yukon is not primarily an agricultural country, is being
successfully carried on. Fishing and fur-hunting are, next to mining, the
most important industries.
Skagway Skagway is the end of the northbound run.   It is a
town which has loomed large in the history of the
North. When the gold rush started to the Yukon in 1896 the landing
was made at Dyea, which lies at the north of the other, or western
inlet, which completes the Lynn Canal. From Dyea the trail led over
the dangerous Chilcoot Pass, but word came of the discovery of the
White Pass, and in a day fifteen thousand people left Dyea for Skagway and in a day a big city had grown wherebef ore was chiefly swamp.
The steamer lays over about thirty-six hours, and ample opportunity
is given for the many diversions offered in summer. These include
"hikes" along the Skagway River, mountain climbing, launch trips
or angling.
Inland from Interesting though Skagway is, the shortest visit
Skagway would be incomplete without a journey to the inter
esting and fascinating "inside." Such a journey,
difficult as it was in the early days, can be easily undertaken, for
Skagway is the southern terminus of the rail line of the White Pass and
Yukon Route. A comfortable train, with large-windowed observation
cars, will carry one through the magnificent, thrilling scenery of the
White Pass into the Yukon Territory, connecting at Carcross and at
White Horse with the commodious steamers operated by the same
company.
For those who are returning south at once, there is available a fine
excursion to the West Taku Arm or to White Horse. For those waiting
over until the next steamship, there is a trip to Atlin Lake. For those
with more time, there is the wonderful trip from White Horse down
the Yukon River to Dawson.
Over the The rail journey is a most spectacular one.    The
White Pass salt tang of the sea is left behind, and the sweet
ness of lake and mountain air fills the nostrils.
Climbing up to Glacier Gorge, at Summit a scarlet-coated Mounted
Policeman greets us as we enter Canada: A bronze monument, where
the flags of the two countries float side by side, marks the boundary
line.
White Horse At Carcross steamer can be taken for Atlin and the
West Taku Arm. Atlin is one of the most enchanting
lakes in the northland, with a remarkable hotel operated by the railway. Or continuing to the little town of White Horse, near the famous
rapids of the same name, a steamer can be taken down the Yukon
River to Dawson. En route there are several rapids to "shoot," of
which the Five-Finger Rapids are the largest and most thrilling.
Dawson 9 Dawson, once the focus of the world's greatest gold rush,
is now but a shadow of its former glory. It is beautifully
situated on a bend of the Yukon River, an up-to-date, well-built and
well-regulated city, with many fine homes, comfortable hotels, and
pretty flower gardens. Good roads make possible many automobile
trips to surrounding hydraulic and dredge mining operations. The
literary-inclined can make a pilgrimage to the cabin occupied by
Robert W. Service, the "Kipling of the Yukon," during his long
residence in Dawson. Across    Canada
99
Index to Principal Stations
Western Canada
Agassiz, B.C	
Albert Canyon, B
Alderson, Alta...
Alert Bay, B.C..
Alexander, Man..
Alexandria.Minn.
Annandale, Minn
Arborg, Man....
Arcola, Sask....
Armstrong, B.C..
Arrowhead; B.C..
Arrowsmith, B.C.
Ashcroft, B.C	
Assiniboia, Sask..
Atlin, B..C	
Page
...72
.C.64
...16
76, 94
.. .10
19,20
.22
11, 27
.. .66
...65
.. .94
. . .70
12, 82
...98
11
Banff Alta
34
33
Bankhead, Alta....
Bassano, Alta.... 14,
17
Beavermouth, B.C.
59
Bellingham, Wash..
76
Blggar, Sask	
25
Binscarth, Man....
24
Birtle, Man	
24
Blairmore, Alta....
85
Boissevain, Man...
27
Bow Island, Alta...
81
Brandon, Man. .7,8
24
Bredenbury, Sask..
24
Brilliant, B.C	
89
Broadview, Sask...
10
Brodie, B.C	
92
Brookmere, B.C....
.92
Brooks, Alta	
16
Brooten, Minn.. 19
22
Buffalo, Minn	
22
Bull River, B.C	
46
11
Calgary, Alta.
18, 28, 29
30"
Cameron Lake, B.C
.94
Campbell River, B.C.
7ft
Camp Hughes, Man
..7
Camrose, Alta	
25
33
7
Cardston, Alta	
82
Carlyle, Sask	
27
Carman, Man	
27
Carrington, N.D...
.22
Castlegar, B.C	
,89
Castle Mountain,
Castor, Alta	
28
Chase, B.C	
68
Chemainus, B.C....
93
Chicago, 111    .   .13
19
Chippewa Falls, Wis.19
Claresholm, Alta...
.29
Coaldale, Alta	
81
.30
Coleman, Alta	
.85
Colonsay, Sask	
11
Colvalli, B.C 42
86
Comox, B.C	
.76
Coquihalla, B.C....
.92
Coronation, Alta...
.28
94
Cowichan, B.C	
.93
Cowley, Alta	
.84
Craigellachie, B.C..
.66
Cranbrook, B.C. 46
86
Creston, B.C	
.37
Crowfoot, Alta	
17
Crow's Nest, B.C. .
.85
Crystal City, Man.
.27
Cutknife, Sask.	
.25
Daysland, Alta 25
Dawson, Yukon 98
Deloraine, Man 27
Detroit, Minn 19
Didsbury, Alta 28
Dominion City, Man.5
Drinkwater, Sask 23 i
Duncan, B.C 93
Dunmore, Alta. .15, 81
Page
Eastend, Sask 12
Edmonton, Alta.
8, 25, 26, 28
Elbow Lake, Minn...22
Eikhorn, Man 10
Elko, B.C 86
Elm Creek, Man 27
Emerald, B.C 44
Emerson, Man... .5, 20
Empress, Alta... 13, 14
Enderby, B.C 66
Enderlin, N.D 22
Erickson, B.C 87
Erskine, Alta 28
Estevan, Sask..8,13,23
Euston, Sask 11
Exshaw, Alta 30
Fairmount, N.D.... 22
Fernie, B.C 85
Fessenden, N.D 12
Field, B.C 40,44
Fond du Lac, Wis... 19
Francis, Sask 27
Frank, Alta 85
Gerrard, B.C 88
Gimli, Man.;.V 5
Glacier, B.C 591
Gladstone, Man 24
Gleichen, Alta 17
Glenboro, Man 27
Glenwood, Minn. 19, 22
Golden, B.C 44, 46
Govenlock, Sask,
12, 13, 82
Grand Forks, B.C...90
Grand Prairie, Alta. .26
Great Divide, B.C. .40
Greenwood, B.C... .90
Grenfell, Sask 11
Gretna, Man 27
Griswold, Man 10
Gull Lake, Sask 15
Haig, B.C 71
Hamiota, Man 7
Hankinson, N.D 22
Hardisty, Alta 25
Harrison Mills, B.C. .72
Harvey, N.D 22
Henning, Minn 19
Herbert, Sask 13
High River, Alta.... 29
HUlcrest, Alta 84
Hope, B.C 92
Huntingdon, B.C 72
lllecillewaet, B.C 64
Indian Head, Sask.. il
Innisfall, Alta 28
Irricana, Alta 17
Juneau, Alaska..
.97
Kamloops, B.C 68
Kananaskis, Alta.... 32
Kaslo, B.C 88
Kelowna, B.C 66
Kenmare, N.D 22
Kerrobert, Sask.
13, 25, 28
Ketchikan, Alaska.. 96
Killarney, Man 27
Kimberley, B.C 86
Kipp, Alta 84
Kirkella, Man 10
Kisbey, Sask 27
Kootenay Ldg., B.C.87
Lacombe, Alta 28
Ladysmith, B.C 93
Lake Louise, Alta.
36, 37-J
Lake Windermere,
B.C 46
Langdon, Alta 17
Lanigan, Sask... .8, 24
Lardeau, B.C 88
Leader, Sask 14
Leanchoil, B.C 44
Pa:
Leduc, Alta :
Lethbridge, Alta.
12, 15, 29, !
Lyleton, Man	
Lytton, B.C	
MacGregor, Man 7
Macklin, Sask... 13, 25
Macleod, Alta.. .29, 84
Magrath, Alta 82
Mahnomen, Minn... .19
Manltou, Man 27
Maple Creek, Sask.. 15
Marshfleld, Wis 19
Marysville, B.C 86
McLennan, Alta.... 26
Medicine Hat, Alta.
14, 15, 81
Merritt, B.C 92
Michel, B.C 85
Midway, B.C 90, 91
Milestone, Sask 23
Milwaukee, Wis 19
Minneapolis, Minn.
5, 13, 19, 22
Minnedosa, Man.. 8, 24
Minot, N.D 22
Mission, B.C 72
Moose Jaw, Sask,        v.
11, 12, 13, 23, 82*
Moosomin, Sask 10
Morden, Man 27
Morris, Man 27
Morse, Sask 13
Nakusp, B.C 65, 88
Nanaimo, B.C.. .76. 93
Nanton, Alta 29
Napinka, Man.... 8, 27
Natal, B.C 85
Neenah, Wis 19
Neepawa, Man 24
Nelson, B.C. 65, 87, 89
New Denver, B.C.. .88
New Westminster,
B.C 72
North Bend, B.C 71
North Portal, Sask. .23
Oak Lake, Man 10
Ocean Falls, B;C.... 76
Ogden, Alta 18
Okanagan Ldg., B.C.66
Okotoks, Alta 29
Olds, Alta 28
Oshkosh, Wis 19
Otterburne, Man 5
Outlook, Sask Bffe!
Palliser, B.C	
Parksville Jct., B.C.
Pasqua, Sask 12,
Paynesville, Minn...
Peace River, Alta...
Peachland, B.C..".
Penticton, B.C...66,
Perdue, Sask	
Petain, B.C	
Pilot Mound, Man..
Pincher, Alta	
Ponoka, Alta	
Portage la Prairie,
Man 7,
Portal, N.D 13,
Port Alice, B.C	
Port Alberni, B.C...
Port Moody, B.C...
Powell River, B.C...
Prince Rupert, B.C.
76,
Princeton B.C	
Provost, Alta	
Qu'Appelle, Sask.... 11
Rapid City, Man 7
Raymond, Alta 82
Redcliff, Alta 15, 16
Red Deer, Alta 28*
Regina, Sask.. . .11, 27
Reston, Man.... 10, 27
Page
Revelstoke, B.C. 64, 65 <;
Riverton, Man 5
Robson West, B.C.
65, 89
Rosebery, B.C 88
Rosetown, Sask 13
Bossland, B.C 89
Rouleau, Sask 23
St. Boniface, Man... .5
St. Paul, Minn.
5, 13, 19, 22
Salmon Arm, B.C... 68
Saltcoats, Sask 24
Sandon, B.C 88
Saskatoon, Sask.
8, 11, 24 <
Seattle, Wash 80
Sedgewick, Alta 25
Selkirk, Man 5
Shaunavon, Sask.12, 82
Shawnigan, B.C 93
Shoal Lake, Man... .24
Sieamous, B.C 66V
Skagway, Alaska.... 98
Slocan City, B.C 88
Souris, Man 8, 27 v
Spence's Bridge,
B.C 70,92
Spillimacheen, B.C. .46
Spokane, Wash 86
Spuzzum, B.C 7i
Starbuck, Man 27
Stettler, Alta 28
Steven's Point, Wis..19
Stirling, Alta 82
Stonewall, Man 5
Stoughton, Sask.
13, 23, 27
Strathmore, Alta.... 17
Summerland, B.C... 66
Sutherland, Sask 24
Swift Current, Sask..13
Sylvan Lake, Alta... 28
Taber, Alta 81
Teulon, Man 5
Thief River Falls,
Minn 20
Trail, B.C 89
Treherne, Man 27
Union Bay, B.C.76, 94
Unity, Sask 25
Valley City, N.D.. ..22
Vancouver, B.C..72, 92
Vernon, B.C 66
Victoria, B.C.. . .78, 93 <
Virden, Man 10
Waldo, B.C 86
Wapella, Sask 10
Wapta Lake, B.C.... 40
Warner, Alta 82
Waukesha, Wis 19
Waupaca, Wis 19
Westminster Jct.,
B.C 72
West Summerland,
B.C 92
Wetaskiwin.Alta. 25,28
Weyburn, Sask.
13, 23, 27
Whitehorse, Yukon.. .98
Whitewood, Sask 10
Whytewold, Man 5
Wilcox, Sask 23
Wilkie, Sask 25
Winkler, Man 27
Winnipeg, Man.
4, 5, 7, 8, 20, 24, 27 V
Winnipeg Beach,
Man 5
Wolseley, Sask 11
Wrangell, Alaska 96
Wynyard, Sask 24
Yahk, B.C 86
Yale.B.C 71
Yellow Grass, Sask. .23
Yorkton, Sask 24 100 Across    Canada
Table of Mileages
Principally in Western Canada
(By Direct Route unless otherwise stated)
Winnipeg Vancouver Chicago    Toronto Montreal
Banff, Alta  914 560 1694 2147 2326
Biggar.Sask  540 .... .... 1773 1952
Boston, Mass 1752(a) 3226(a) .... 598 340
Brandon, Man  133 1341 .... 1365 1545
Broadview, Sask  264 1210 .... 1496 1676
Buffalo, N.Y. (b) 1333 2807 613                101 441
Calgary.Alta  832 642 1612 2065 2244
Camrose.Alta  781 .... .... 2013 2193
Chicago.IIl  913 2254 ....                512 853
Cranbrook, B.C  968(c) 662(d) 1748(c) 2202(c) 2379(c)
Detroit, Mich 1197 (e) 2537 (e) 283 (e)         229 569
Edmonton, Alta. (f) 1026 836 1806 2259 2438
Edmonton. Alta. (g)  848 .... 1762 2081 2260
Estevan, Sask  279 1220 1034 .... ....
Fernie.B.C  905(c) 725(d) 1689(c) 2137(c) 2316  (e
Field, B.C  969 505 1749 2201 2380
Fort William, Ont  419 1893 ....                813(h) 992
Glacier.B.C 1054 420 1834 2286 2466
Grand Prairie, Alta (g) 1255 .... .... 2488 2667
Halifax, N.S. (i) 2089 3563 1530 1018 677
Hamilton, Ont. (b) 1272 2746 552                  40 380
High River, Alta. (f)  872 682 .... 2104 2284
Ignace, Ont  272 1746 ....                960 1140
Indian Head, Sask  315 1159 .... 1547 1726
Kamloops, B.C 1224 250 2004 2456 2635
Kelowna, B.C 1230 (j) 315(d) 2010 (j) 2463 (j) 2642   (j>
Kenora, Ont   126 1600 1106 1286
Lacombe, Alta. (f)  945 755 1725 2178 2357
Lake Louise, Alta  949 525 1729 2181 2361
Lethbridge, Alta  768(c) 768(f) 1548 (k) 2000(1) 2179   (1>
London, Ont 1311(e) 2652(e) 398                115 455
Macleod. Alta  799 (c) 750 (f) 1579 (c) 2032 (c) 2211 (c)
Maple Creek, Sask  593 881 1373 1826 2005
Medicine Hat, Alta  656 818 1436 1888 2068
Minneapolis, Minn  453 1794 460                939 (n) 1119 (n)
Minnedosa, Man   134 .... .... 1366 1546
Montreal, Que 1412 2886 853                340
MooseJaw, Sask  398 1076 1178 1631 1810
Moosomin, Sask  219 1255 .... 1452 1631
Morden, Man     81 .... .... 1313 1493
Nanaimo, B.C.. 1515 41 2295 2748 2927
Neepawa, Man  117 .... .... 1343 1523
Nelson, B.C 1104 (c 513 (m) 1885 (k) 2337 (c) 2516 (c)
New Westminster, B.C 1466 25 2246 2698 2877
New York.N.Y 1796(a) 3270(a) ...                 539(b) 384
Ottawa.Ont 1300 2775 777                265 111
Penticton, B.C 1294 (j) 251(d) 2074 (j) 2527 (j) 2707   0)
Portage la Prairie. Man     56 1418 .... 1288 1467     '
Port Arthur, Ont  424 1898 ....                809 988
Quebec, Que 1584 3058 1025               513 173
Red Deer, Alta (f)  927 737 1707 2159 2339
Regina, Sask  357 1117 1220 1589 1768
Revelstoke, B.C 1095 379 1875 2327 2506
St.John, N.B 1893 3367 1334                822 482
St. Paul, Minn  464 1805 449                929 (n) 1109  (n)
Saskatoon, Sask  480 .... 1392 1713 1892
Seattle, Wash 1638 164 2418 2870 3050
Sicamous, B.C 1139 335 1919 2372 2551
Skagway, Alaska 2462 988 3242 3695 3874
Souris.Man  151 .... .... 1383 1562
Spokane, Wash 1157(c) 773(d) 1937(c) 2389(e) .   2568(c)
Sudbury, Ont  973 2447 772                260 439
Swift Current, Sask  509 965 1289 1741 1921
Toronto, Ont 1232 2706 512 .... 340
Vancouver, B.C 1474 .... 2254 2706 2886
Vernon, B.C 1185 (j) 360(d) 1965 (j) 2418 (j) 2597   (j)
Victoria, B.C 1557 S3 2337 2789 2969
Virden, Man   180 1294 .... 1413 1592
Wetaskiwin, Alta 806(g) 794(f) 1764(f) 2039(g) 2218(g)
Weyburn, Sask  1167 1087
Wilkie, Sask  580 .... .... 1812 1991
• Windsor, Ont 1199(e) 2540(e) 286                226 567
Winnipeg, Man  1474 913(e) 1232 1412
Yorkton, Sask  279 .... .... 1511 1691
(a) via Montreal, (b) via Toronto, (c) via Medicine Hat and Lethbridge, (d) via
Penticton, (e) via Michigan Central, (f) via Calgary, (g) via Saskatoon, (h) 655 miles
via Port McNicoll and steamship, (i) via Digby, (j) via Sicamous, (k) via Medicine Hat:
two miles less via Weyburn and Shaunavon, (1) via Medicine Hat: 6 miles further via
Shaunavon, (m) via Penticton: 50 miles further via Revelstoke.
I "1
Canadian  Pacific  Hotels
Name of Hotel
St. Andrews, N.B.
The Algonquin A
McAdam, N.B.
McAdam Hotel A
Quebeo, Que.
Chateau Frontenac E
Montreal, Que.
Place Viger Hotel E
Altitude
Winnipeg, Man.
The Royal Alexandra..
Calgary, Alta.
Hotel Palliser.	
Banff, Alta.
Banff Springs Hotel....
Lake Louise, Alta.
Chateau Lake Louise E
Emerald Lake(near Field), B.C,
Emerald Lake Chalet A
Giaoler, B.C.
Glacier House	
Sicamous, B.C.
Hotel Sicamous	
Vancouver, B.C.
Hote I Vancouver.	
Victoria, B.C.
Empress Hotel E
150
445
300
57
760
3425
4625
5670
4262
4086
1146
100
Sea
Level
June 28
to Sept. 6
Ailyear
All year
Al I year
All year
Al I year
May 15
to Sept. 30
June 1
to Sept. 30
June 15
to Sept. 15
June 15
to Sept. 15
Ailyear
Al I year
All year
Recreations
Golf,    Bathing,    Boating,     Yachting.
(Passamaquoddy Bay, St.Croix River.)
Hunting in Season.
Scenic and Historical interest. Golf,
Motoring (Plains of Abraham, St.
Anne de Beaupre).
Historical Monuments and buildings.
Mount Royal, St. Lawrence River,
Golfing, Boating, Yachting, Motoring,
City founded by Maisonneuve 1642.
Golf,   Motoring,  centre  of    Canadian,
West.   (Site of old Fort Garry.)
Golf, Motoring, Fishing (Trout).
Mountain drives and climbs, Golf, Bathing, Fishing, Boating, Riding (Rocky
Mountain Park).
Boating, Mountain climbs. Pony trails
Fishing, Lakes in the Clouds, Moraine
Lake, Glaciers.
Boating, Fishing, Pony trails to Yoho
Valley, Takakkaw FallSj Riding to
Summit Lake and Twin Falls.
Pony trails, Climbs, Exploring Glaciers,
Great Nakimu Caves.
Rowing, Canoeing, Motor boats. Trout
Fishing.   (Sicamous Lake.)
Golf,   Motoring,   Fishing,   Steamboat
excursions.
Golf,   Motoring,   Yachting,   Sea   and
Stream Fishing.
CAMPS AND HOTELS (reached by Canadian Pacific)
Digby, N.S.
The Pines. A
Kentville, N.S.
Cornwallis I nn A
French River, Ont.
French River Camp A
Nipigon, Ont.
Nipigon River Camp A
Kenora, Ont.
Devils Gap Camp A
Banff or Lake Louise, Alta.
Storm Mountain Bungalow A
Camp
Banff or Lake Louise, Alta.
Vermilion River Camp A
Banff or Lake Louise, Alta.
Radium Hot Springs Camp..A
Lake Louise, Alta.
Moraine Lake Camp A
Hector, B.C.
Lake O'Hara Camp A
Hector, B.C.
Wapta Camp ... A
Field, B.C.
Yoho Valley Camp A
Lake Windermere, B.C.
Lake Windermere Camp a
(Operated by lnvermere Hotel
Penticton, B.C.
Hotel Incola A
(Owned and operated by the
Okanagan Hotel Company.)
Cameron Lake, B.C.
Cameron Lake Chalet A
Vancouver Island.
Strathcona Lodge Stn., B.C.
Strathcona Lodge	
Vancouver Island.
5600
3952
3456
6190
6664
5190
5000
2700
Co.)
1132
604
600
June 20
to Sept. 15
Ailyear
June 15
to Sept. 15
June 15
to Sept. 15
June 15
to Sept. 15
Julyl
to Sept. 15
July 1
to Sept. 15
Julyl
to Sept. 15
June 1
to Sept. 15
Julyl
to Sept. 15
July 1
to Sept. 15
July 1
to Sept. 15
July 1
to Sept. 15
All year
May 1
to Sept. 20
May 15
to Oct. 1
Golf, Tennis, Sea-fishing.   Excursions
into the Land of Evangeline.
In the heart of the Land of Evangeline.
Canoeing,     Fishing,
Fishing,
Motor    boating
Swimming.
Motor    boating.    Canoeing
' Swimming.
Motor    boating.    Canoeing,    Fishing,
Swimming.
Hiking, Motoring, Mountain   climbing,
Hiking,  Motoring, Fishing,    Mountain
climbing.
Hiking,  Motoring,   Fishing,   Mountain
climbing. Swimming in hot radium
pools.
Head of Valley of Ten Peaks, Consolation Lake.   Trout fishing. Pony trails,
climbs, etc.
Riding, Walking,  Mountain climbing.
Trips to Lake  McArthur and Lake
Oesa, also Alpine Hut, Abbot's Pass.
Centre for Explorations.   Excursions to
Lake   O'Hara,   Yoho   Valley,   etc.
Drives, Kicking Horse Canyon.
Half-way between Wapta Camp and
Emerald Lake Chalet, by road and
trail.    Takakkaw Falls, Twin Falls,
Summit Lake, Yoho Glacier, etc.
Centre for Riding, Camping, Motoring,
Bathing, Boating, Fishing, Excursions
to the Glaciers of the Selkirks.
Boating and Fishing, Okanagan Lake.
Splendid Motor roads.
Fishing    (Trout),    Boating.   Splendid
forests.   (Salmon fishing adjacent.)
Fishing   (Trout),   Swimming,   Tennis,
Mountain climbing, Motoring.	
A—American Plan.       E—European Plan.
■rtl.'fi"
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