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Across Canada : east bound Canadian Pacific Railway Company 1922

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  Save the Forests!
Canada's timber reserves are national assets of
incalculable value. To neglect to take ordinary
precautions which ensure them against destruction
from forest fires is to rob civilization. Quite apart
from the danger to the lives, homes and property
of settlers, every acre of forest burned means labor
turned away, reduced markets for manufactured
products, heavier taxation on other property, and
higher lumber prices. Passengers on trains should
not throw lighted cigar or cigarette ends from car
windows. Those who go into the woods—hunters,
fishermen, campers and canoeists—should consider
it their duty to exercise every care to prevent
loss from fire. ACROSS CANADA
ii
An Annotated Guide to
the Country Served by the
Canadian Pacific Railway
and its Allied Interests.
EASTBOUND
First Issued in 1887. This Edition
Revised to March, 1922.
Canadian    Pacific    Railway
MONTREAL
J ACROSS  CANADA   BY
CANADIAN   PACIFIC
THE  Canadian  Pacific  Railway  is  the  world's   greatest
transportation system.
With a total length, including lines owned and controlled,
of over 19,600 miles, it serves all tke important industrial,
commercial and agricultural sections of Canada, as well as
many parts of tke United States. Practically every large
city of Canada is on its system. It reaches famous historic
spots, wonderful holiday-making and sporting resorts, and
some of the most magnificent scenery in the world.
Its steamship services reach out across the Atlantic to
Europe, and across the Pacific to the Orient. Its telegraph
system extends along the entire length of the railway and
reaches as well every point of importance in Canada away
from it. Its fifteen fine hotels set the standard for hotel
accommodation in Canada. Its express system (the Dominion Express Company) has a world-wide service. Its
land-settlement policy, coupled with the large areas of
fertile agricultural land that it still has for sale in the west,
is helping to accomplish the development of a richer and
bigger Canada.
This 'Annotated Guide" is a description of the Canadian
Pacific system and of those systems allied or associated
with it. While principally dealing with the various cities
and resorts from the viewpoint of the pleasure-traveller,
it also pays some attention to the industrial activities and
natural resources of Canada; and while the latter information is not — because of the nature of this publication —
of an exhaustive character, yet it is hoped that it will be
stimulating as indicative of the potentialities of this great
Dominion.
Across Canada by Canadian Pacific, from Victoria to
Halifax, is a journey of over 3,600 miles; other lines amount
to over sixteen thousand more. With such a vast territory
to be covered, and with such a multiplicity of interest to be
described, it is inevitable that a certain abridgment must
be made. Other publications issued by this company enter
into fuller detail concerning various parts of the Canadian
Pacific system.
This Annotated Guide is also issued in two -parts, West
of Winnipeg and East of Winnipeg, as well as in a
Westbound edition. Copies can he obtained from porters
on transcontinental trains, Canadian Pacific passenger
agents, or from the General Publicity Department, Canadian
Pacific Railway, Montreal %
Sgs; : a* ■« ■ iii      ■  ,k : r'g-1 ■- -=-w««a—gBga£aaa» TABLE OF CONTENTS
MAIN TRANSCONTINENTAL LINE
Vancouver  to  Revelstoke      -       -       -       -     f-II
, Revelstoke to Field       -       -      -       -       -       -
Field to Calgary     -       - J||  l|p     -     |jjj
Calgary   to   Winnipeg   -	
Winnipeg to Port Arthur	
Port  Arthur  to   Sudbury	
Sudbury to Toronto	
Sudbury to Montreal	
ALTERNATIVE   ROUTES
Southern   British   Columbia   Route      -
Edmonton to Winnipeg -       -       -       -       -       -
Great Lakes  Steamship Route      ....
BEITISH COLUMBIA
Victoria to Vancouver, Seattle, and other steamer routes -
Vancouver  to  Alaska ■     -
Victoria to Courtenay and Alberni (E. & N.)
Okanagan Lake Steamer Service      -        -        -        -        -
Arrow   Lakes   Steamer   Service
Kootenay and Slocan Lakes Steamer Services -
Lake   Windermere   Branch       -        -
Pages
17-23
26-34
35-44
60-71
84-88
89-92
93-96
114-122
48-59
77-79
88-89
4-8
10-14
14-16
22-24
25
54
31-32
ALBERTA
Calgary to  Edmonton       -------- 45-46
Calgary to Lethbridge and Macleod ------ 47
Bassano to Empress and Swift Current      -        -        - ||f 62-63
Branches   from   Lethbridge       - .      -        -        -        -        -        - 59
SASKATCHEWAN
Moose Jaw to Govenlock, Macklin, etc.      -        -        -        -        - 66
Begina  to   Saskatoon       -------- 67
Brandon to Saskatoon      -------- 68
MANITOBA
Brandon to Estevan          -------- 69
Napinka  to  Winnipeg       -----... 83
Begina to Winnipeg,  via Arcola      ------ 82
Winnipeg to Emerson,  Riverton,   etc.       ----- 80-81
ONTARIO
Toronto to Hamilton and Niagara Falls ----- 97-98
Toronto to Owen Sound, Goderich, etc.      ----- 98-100
Windsor to Toronto and Montreal      -        -        -        -        -        - 101-110
Sault Ste. Marie to Sudbury     ------- 112-113
QUEBEC
Branches   from   Ottawa   -------- 118-119
Ottawa- to Montreal  (North Shore)  -        -        -        -%                - 124
Montreal  to  Mont  Laurier       ---.... 124-126
Montreal to Quebec --        -        -        -        -        -        -        - 126-129
Sherbroke   to   Quebec       -        -.       -        -        -        -                  - iso
MARITIME PROVINCES
Montreal to St. John and Halifax      -                                               - 131-139
Branches from McAdam Junction      -        -        -        -        -        - 136
Land  of  Evangeline   Route    ||§|      ------ 139-142
fe}|.UNITED STATES .                                             , . . If:
Spokane   to   Calgary     ------- 55-58
Moose Jaw to Minneapolis and  St.  Paul   -       -       - 72-75
Minneapolis and St. Paul to Chicago -       -       - 75-76
Winnipeg to Minneapolis and St. Paul - 80-81
Chicago  to   Toronto  and  Montreal      -     j|j|     -       - 101-110
Toronto to Buffalo  and New York      - 97-98
Minneapolis, St. Paul and Duluth to Montreal     -       - 111-122
Montreal to New York, Boston and Portland     -       - 123
Index to Stations will be found on pages 143-144 and a Table of
Mileages on page 145.
aj&t 4
Across   Canada
\
Victoria—Empress  Hotel on left,  Parliament Buildings  in  centre
VICTORIA TO VANCOUVER:  83 miles; and SEATTLE:
81  miles
(For Map, see page 9)
Victoria Although the Canadian Pacific rail services do not
begin until we reach Vancouver, and although there
are some Canadian Pacific steamer services which travel afield
much farther than Victoria, we will begin our transcontinental
journey at this beautiful city.
Victoria (population 60,000), charmingly situated at the
southern end of Vancouver Island, overlooking the Straits of
Juan de Fuca across the blue waters to the snow-capped
Olympic Mountains on the mainland, is the Garden City of
Canada. Its delightfully mild climate makes it a favorite
resort for both summer and winter. It is the provincial capital of British Columbia, and owing to the characteristic beauty
of its residential district has often been called "A bit of England on the shores of the Pacific." It is distinctively a home
city, with fine roads and beautiful gardens, although its enterprising business district, composed of imposing stores and tall
office buildings, speak of a rich commerce drawn from the fishing, lumber and agricultural industries of Vancouver Island.
Victoria's beauty lies in its residential districts, its boulevards,
parks, public buildings, numerous bathing beaches, and semi-
tropical foliage. The famous strawberry growing districts of
Gordon Head and Keatings are close to Victoria.
The Empress Hotel, last in the chain of Canadian Pacific
hotels, overlooks the inner harbor, within a stone's throw of the
Parliament  Buildings.
Beacon Hill Park, one of the city's public parks, containing SOO
acres laid out as recreation grounds and pleasure gardens, is fifteen minutes' walk^from hotel and included in tally-ho trip and in
all sight-seeing trips in the city. Magnificent views can be obtained from Beacon Hill across the Straits and of Olympic
Mountains.
Victoria is the seat of the British Columbia Provincial Government. The Parliament Building is a handsome structure, overlooking the inner harbor. Adjoining it is the Provincial Museum, very complete and interesting, and containing a large assortment of specimens of natural history, native woods, Indian
curios and prehistoric instruments. The Provincial Library, in
the Provincial Buildings, is one of the finest in existence. Its
historical prints, documents, and other works are of great value
and interest.
Golf can be enjoyed every day of the year in Victoria. Two
18-hole courses and one 9-hole course, which are very convenient,
are open to visitors.
The correctness of the figures of populations at the different
cities and towns mentioned has b&en checked with the latest
information available, but is not guaranteed. ;^—_T_
Victoria
Saanich Mountain Observatory, reached by splendid auto road
or interurban car, was selected as observatory site, owing to
Vancouver Island's equable climate. The new telescope, which
has a 72-inch reflector, has just been installed and is the largest
in the world. The observatory, in addition to being of interest
itself, commands from its site one of the finest views on the
Pacific Coast.
The fishing and shooting in the vicinity of Victoria is of the
best—trout, salmon, pheasant, grouse, cougar, bear, deer and
moose being the prizes of the sportsman. Trout are to be had
at many places, and salmon fly-fishing also, as well as salmon
trolling. There is excellent bird shooting and big game hunting
on the Island.
Considering the size of Vancouver Island, there are possibly
more good motor trips radiating from Victoria than any other
place in America. The motor roads are excellent, the drives
north to Campbell River, Port Alberni, Sproat and Great Central Lakes being among the most spectacular in the world.
Among the most popular trips are: Victoria, Marine Drive and
Mount Douglas Park, 25 miles; Little Saanich Mountain Observatory and Brentwood, 33 miles; tour of Saanich Peninsula, 45
miles; the famous Malahat Drive to Shawnigan and Duncan^
Island Highway, 41 miles; Nanaimo, via Parksville to Cameron
Lake, 40 miles; over Alberni Summit, 57 miles; the Grand
Island Highway Tour—Victoria, Duncan, Nanaimo, Cameron
Lake, Port Alberni, Qualicum and Campbell River, and the entire
-Georgian Circuit International Tour, the greatest and most complete scenic tour on the continent.
From Victoria, the Esquimalt and Nanaimo Railway, a subsidiary company of the Canadian Pacific, serves the east coast
of Vancouver Island.    (For description see page 14).
From Victoria to Vancouver is a pleasant sail of about four
hours across the Strait of Juan de Fuca. There is a double
daily service on this trip, one in the afternoon and one at night.
Vancouver     Vancouver (population 175,000), the terminal of
the Canadian Pacific transcontinental rail lines
and its trans-Pacific steamship routes, is the largest commercial
centre in British Columbia. It has an excellent harbor nearly
land-locked and fully sheltered, facing a beautiful range of
mountains that are tipped with snow the year around. Two
peaks, silhouetted against the sky, and remarkably resembling
two couchant lions, are visible from almost any point in the city
or harbor, which has been appropriately called "The Lion's
Gate."
In and around Vancouver are immense lumber and shingle
mills. Mining, lumbering, farming, shipbuilding and shipping,
with a vast Oriental business, form the reason of the city's
phenomenal growth and prosperity. From a forest clearing
thirty-six years ago it has become one of the principal cities and
most important seaports of the North Pacific Coast.
The magnificent Hotel Vancouver, operated by the Canadian
Pacific Railway, is the finest hotel of the North Pacific, with 490
'Princess Charlotte"
"1
j Across   Canada
Vancouver
guests' bedrooms. Wonderful views of
the Strait of Georgia can be obtained
from the roof garden of this hotel.
Vancouver is
most picturesquely situated on
Burrard Inlet.
Surrounding it
are beautiful environs of varied
character. All
kinds of water
sports are avail-,
able, and are encouraged through
a mild climate
and extensive
bodies of water.
There are many
bathing beaches,
parks, boulevards,
automobile roads,
and paved streets.
The roads
around the city
are famous for
their excellence,
and there are
many fine drives,
varying from an hour to a day in time. Amongst them may be
mentioned Stanley Park—one of the largest natural parks in the
world, a primeval forest right within the city limits and containing thousands of Douglas firs and giant cedars of a most amazing
size and age. The park is encircled by a perfect road. The
"Marine Drive" takes the visitor through the best residential
parts of the city, including Shaughnessy Heights and Point Grey,
thence to the mouth of the Fraser River, with its fleets of salmon
trawlers, and back along the coast. Capilano Canyon, a gorge of
great natural beauty, in North Vancouver, is reached by a recently completed road. The Pacific Highway, including Kings-
way, runs through Vancouver, connecting up with the main
American roads of the Northwest.
Vancouver has three good golf courses. Guests of the Hotel
Vancouver have special privileges at the Shaughnessy Heights
Golf Club.
There are numerous fine bathing beaches around Vancouver,
the most easily reached of-which are English Bay and Kit-
silano—both on street-car line. The scene at English Bay,
which lies at one entrance to Stanley Park, on a sunny afternoon, is one of great animation. Burrard Inlet, English Bay
and the North Arm are excellent places also for boating,
Vancouver boasts of one of the finest yacht clubs on the Pacific
Coast, which extends a hearty welcome to members of recognized
yacht clubs. The North Arm is an ideal place for picnics and
moonlight excursions.
Within easy reach of Vancouver there is wonderful shooting
to be had. Grouse, duck, teal, mallard, snipe, pheasants, and
partridges are plentiful in season. Lulu Island, Sea Island, the
North Shore and Seymour Flats are all within an hour of the
hotel. It is extremely doubtful whether there is another city on
the Pacific Coast where such a variety of fishing dan be obtained. In season, salmon, spring, cohoe and tyee, steelheads,
Dolly Varden, rainbow, cut-throat and sea trout are plentiful. B.C.   Coast   Services
Arrangements have been made by the Hotel Vancouver with the
Vancouver Fishing Asociation to obtain daily reports as to the
runs, and the services of an experienced fisherman can be
obtained by guests of the hotel to conduct them to the various
fishing centres. Fishing tackle, bait and flies are easily obtainable in the city.
Vancouver is the port of the trans-Pacific services of the
Canadian Pacific Steamships, which maintain regular services to Japan, China, Manila and Hong Kong. This fleet consists of six magnificent passenger ships, of which the largest are
the "Empress of Canada" (22,500 tons), and the "Empress of
Australia" (21,400 tons), in addition to two freight ships. A large
proportion of the silk trade of the Orient passes through Vancouver, and the Canadian Pacific "Silk Train" is perhaps the
most famous freight train in the world. From Vancouver the
steamers of the Canadian-Australian Line ply to Honolulu, Fiji,
New Zealand and Australia. Various Canadian Pacific steamer
services along the British Columbia coast run from Vancouver.
Seattle Seattle, largest city in the State of Washington, and
one of the most important on the Pacific Coast, is
reached by Canadian Pacific steamer from both Vancouver and
Victoria, with a direct night service from the former and a day
service (forming a triangular route between the three cities)
from the latter. Seattle is a beautiful and progressive city,
with a rapidly increasing population. Situated on the east
side of Puget Sound, up the slopes of the hills that front the
latter, it has a fine harbor accessible to the largest vessels afloat.
Lake Washington, a body of fresh water about twenty miles long
and three miles wide, bounds the city on the east, and is now
connected with the Sound by the Lake Washington Canal, a
very# notable feat of engineering with a great and important
bearing upon Seattle's future. The down-town business section
of Seattle has many large buildings, including the L. C. Smith
Building, the highest in America outside of the Woolworth
Building in New York. Seattle has a very pleasing residential
Section, especially in the vicinity of the University of Washington, and many beautiful parks and summer resorts. A large
number of enjoyable trips can be made from Seattle, by train,
steamer and motor, such as to Bellingham, Everett, Tacoma, and
Mount Rainier, the snow-covered giant of the
Cascade Ran^e some fifty miles south that is
frequently visible from the city.
Lake Washington Boulevard, Seattle, with Mount Rainier in distance. 8
Across- Canada
*
BRITISH COLUMBIA COAST SERVICES
In connection with its rail services, the Canadian Pacific
operates an extensive steamship service on the Pacific Coast.
The vessels engaged are nearly all "Princess" boats, of beautiful appearance and handsomely equipped. The routes comprise:
A double daily service between Vancouver, Victoria and Seattle, a beautiful trip across the Strait of Georgia and down
Puget Sound. Both day and night steamers are operated, some
of which proceed direct from Vancouver to either Victoria or
Seattle, and some making the triangular voyage between the
three cities.
A day steamer between Vancouver and Nanaimo, on Vancouver
Island (see page 15), making two round trips daily during the
summer months and one round trip daily (except Sunday) during the remainder of the year.
The Gulf Islands route. On certain days of the week .(see
current time table), a steamer leaves Victoria in the morning
and makes a circuit of the islands in the Gulf of Georgia,
returning the same evening. On other days of the week services
run from Vancouver and Nanaimo.
Vancouver to Powell River, Union Bay and Comox, twice
weekly. Victoria to Vancouver, Nanaimo, Union Bay and
Comox, weekly.
Vancouver to Prince Rupert, via Powell River, Campbell River,
Alert Bay and Ocean Falls, weekly.
Victoria and the West Coast of Vancouver Island. The steamer
sails three times a month for Quatsino and Port Alice, at the
extreme northern end of Vancouver Island, making numerous
calls. The West Coast is deeply indented by inlets, with mountainous and heavily wooded scenery, and glimpses of logging
camps, canneries,
wh ales, and sea-
lions.
Vancouv 3r to Alask
(see page 10).
Hotel Vancouver ^
Indicates Double Track
BRITISH COLUMBIA COAST SERVICE 10
Across   Canada
Vancouver Station and Harbor
-TO ALASKA        ' / §
(For Map, see page 9)
From Victoria and Vancouver a regular Canadian Pacific
steamship service is maintained to Alaska by the two splendid
steamers, the "Princess Alice" and "Princess Louise". This
thousand-mile, four-day trip on salt water i& an entertaining one
that introduces the traveller to rugged, fiord-like scenery of a
type known elsewhere in Canada. The passage is a sheltered
one between the mainland and the long fringe of islands that lie
off the British Columbia and Alaska coasts.
Victoria weaving Victoria at night and Vancouver the fol-
Vancouver lowing night, the traveller has a very delightful
Alert Bay sail out of Burrard Inlet through the First Narrows and across English Bay. Should the time of
year be—as it ought, to be enjoyed to the utmost—tne summer,
this beginning of the trip to the Land of the Midnight Sun is
most enjoyable, for in July and August it is light until nearly
ten o'clock. Along: about breakfast time the steamer enters the
famous Seymour Narrows, one of the swiftest passageways on
this coast. About noon Alert Bay is reached. This quaint
Indian village is full of interest to the tourist, and the steamer
stops long enough to allow passengers to see the sights. It has
a mission settlement, a good hospital, and a cannery. Every
house has its totem pole, some of which rise to a height of
fiftv feet. Here, in fact,
may be seen the most complete collection of totem
poles to be found anywhere on the whole Pacific
Coast. Queen Charlotte
Sound is reached at early
evening, and if the heavens are clear, a sunset of
rare beauty will be viewed.
This three-hour ride
across the Sound is all
the . open water that. is
experienced upon the entire trip. Whales and
porpoises are frequently
seen. To the northwest
the dim outlines of the Queen Charlotte Islands may be seen.
Queen Charlotte Sound      Soon Rivers Inlet is passed, with its
Milbank Sound many canneries and fleets of fishing
Swan son Bay boats.   Farther on are Namu, with
Skeena River more canneries, and Bella Bella, on
Campbell Island, where an Indian
village and an interesting mission are situated. Through Lama
Passage tLe vessel finds its way out into Milbank Sound, where
Totem  Poles,  Alert  Bay To   Alaska
11
the channel is very wide, and the islands quite distant. During
the night the ship passes through Finlayson Channel and early
next morning a stop is made at Swanson Bay, a tree-bound place,
in the heart of which is situated an immense mill for the
manufacture of lumber and sulphite pulp.
Out into the channel the "Princess" steamer again finds its
way, and for most of a day plows steadily northward without
stopping. Granville Channel, Douglas Channel and then Lowe
Inlet, with its settlement lying close to the foot of a mountain,
is reached. Late afternoon brings the vessel to the mouth of
the Skeena River, where a large fleet of salmon boats are
usually encountered. The Skeena is at present navigable for 180
miles, and powerfully built stern-wheel boats leave every ».^ew
days  for  the  interior.
Prince Rupert Up the river about three miles is Port Essing-
Ketchikan ton.    It is not a very long run from Port Es
sington to Prince Rupert, the terminus of the
Grand Trunk Pacific Railway. Port Simpson is passed soon
after leaving Prince Rupert. This town is historic in its interests, it being the first of the northern settlements established by the Hudson's Bay Company. The old post used by
the company is still there, though in active times it was enclosed in a stockade fortress with guns in the bastions.
After Port Simpson the liner passes Cape Fox just as it
emerges from Chatham Sound. This cape is the extreme southeastern point of Alaska. Dixon Entrance is now passed and
again the islands stand at a distance. Soon the boat proceeds
up Revilla Gigedo Channel, and from there into the almost landlocked Tongas Narrows.
After that, Ketchikan, the port of entry, is soon reached and
the traveller steps on to Alaskan territory for the first time.
This is a busy town, as it is the outlet for an extensive copper
mining district and has an assay office. The "Princess" liners
always stop here to allow the passengers to look over the town.
The.Indian women, with their woven baskets, are among the
odd sights to be seen. Splendid specimens of basket weaving
may be obtained here. After leaving Ketchikan, the ship finds
its way into Clarence Strait passing en route Prince of Wales
Island on the left, and Etolin and Zarembo Islands on the right.
Wrangel The steamer usually arrives at Wrangel Nar-
Taku Glacier    rows in the evening, but owing to the twilights
in the summer months in these latitudes, daylight is always at hand to show the way.   The passage through
Wrangel Narrows is one of the most interesting of the entire
trip.   The channel is tortuous and very narrow.    Half-speed is
ordered and the vessel glides unharmed past jutting rocks which
4ie  close  to  the mirrored  surface  of the  waters.  Wonderful
shadows are on every side.    At the very end of the Narrows, a
mammoth mountain confronts the ship.   A sharp turn to the
right,    and    the
ship slides into a    ^
wide channel called   Frederick
Sound.  Here  one
obtains  the  first
glimpse    of    the
glaciers. The
Baird     and    the
Patterson are the
two most important    glaciers    in
this district.
Stephen's Passage  IS  now  en- Juneau 12
Across   Canada
Skagway
tered. The Sum-
dum glacier can.
be easily seen
while going
through this
passage. At the
head of Stephen's Passage is
Taku Bay, from
which the wonderful Foster j
glacier may be
seen. This monster is over one
hundred miles'
long and \ extends over that
distance to Atlin
Lake     in     the
Yukon Territory. It is nearly a mile wide on Taku Bay. To the
left on Foster glacier lies Windom glacier. All about the ship
are ice floes and bergs of every description, from tiny .cakes
to large icebergs whose colors are nothing short of wonderful. The steamship usually makes a call at Taku Harbor
to view the glacier, either on the north or southbound trip during the tourist season.
Juneau Shortly   after   entering   Gastineau   Channel,   a
Lynn Canal      sight   of  Treadwell,   the   famous   gold  mining
place, is obtained. Here are located the largest
quartz mills in the world, there being 900 stamps in operation
day and night. Near Treadwell is Douglas Island, the residential
district for the mining town. Across the channel from Douglas
is Juneau, the capital of Alaska, which nestles importantly under
the shelter of its mammoth mountain and takes life easy. It
is an up-to-date place, having the capitol buildings. Ample
time is given to inspect the town.
The ship's course rounds towards the narrow waters of the
Lyim Canal, after leaving Juneau, and an all-day journey in a
strright-away northern direction is taken. Famous glaciers
com> into view from time to time, the most noted of which is
the Davidson, which in the last few years has become inactive.
Late afternoon brings the now deserted town of Dyea into
sight, and the only bend in the entire canal brings Skagway, the
head portion of navigation, into view. The White Pass & Yukon
Railway has its southern terminus at this place.
Skagway Skagway is surrounded by monstrous snow-capped
Dawson mountains which seem ready to drop over and cover
up the town. As a
tourist resort it
offers an endless
program of attractions. Side trips
in every direction
are possible, while
fishing of all kinds,
and glacier inspecting and plenty of
mountain climbing,
are special things
in which the tourist may indulge.
The steamers remain long enough
at Skagway to allow   passengers   tO °ver the White Pass and Yukon Route SSSB
Indicates Double Track
ESQUIMALT & NANAIMO RAILWAY 14
Across   Canada
The  Midnight Sun,  Yukon  River
make the
round trip to
the summit of
the White Pass
by the White
Pass & Yukon
Railway.
Over this railway route — a
trip through
wonderfu 1
gorges and
along the
brink of deep
canyons, we
reach White
Horse, on the
Yukon    River.
Here steamers operated by the same company carry the
traveller to the famous gold-mining town of Dawson, in the
Yukon Territory. From Dawson other steamers descend the
Yukon River, and the Arctic Circle can actually be crossed
in the utmost comfort. From Carcross, on the way to White
Horse, a steamer service takes, one to the enchanting Lake Atlin.
ESQUIMALT AND NANAIIVIO RAILWAY: 198 miles
The Esquimalt and Nanaimo Railway, a subsidiary company
of the Canadian Pacific, serves the rich agricultural, lumbering
and mining regions along the east coast of Vancouver Island.
It runs north from Victoria to Courtenay, with branches to
Lrke Cowichan and Port Alberni, and takes the traveller
through magnificent rugged scenery. For the sportsman this
is a most attractive country, for it embraces within its territory
some famous salmon-fishing waters, such as Cowichan River and
Campbell River.
Victoria   Victoria will be found   fully described on page    4.
Leaving the station here, we pass Esquimalt, well-
known for its dockyard.
Colwood      A small farming suburb  of Victoria, comprising
Langford Plains, on which are located the famous
and picturesque Colwood Golf Links.
Malahat      The line gradually rises from Langford Plains to
Malahat, which is the summit of the railway crossing the Malahat Range, and from which there is a prolonged
view of Todd
Inlet and the
Saanich Arm.
The Malahat
Drive (in view
from the railway) crosses
this mountain,
and affords a
delightful trip
from Vancouver^ giving one
of the finest
views in British Columbia,
that of the
Strait of Juan
de   Fuca,   dot-
Beacon Hill Park, Victoria ted     With     IS- Vancouver   Island
15
lands, and over the
well cultivated Saanich district, with
Mount Baker rising
majestically some
hundred miles east.
Shawnigan   Lake
A beautiful sheet of
fresh water, with excellent fishing. Strathcona Lodge, privately
operated, from which
a splendid view of the
Lake is obtained, affords first class accommodation.
Cobble Hill   The centre of a
thriving    agricultural
district.
Duncan Population
1500. This
is the centre of a
flourishing agricultural and small farming. district, largely populated by retired
English people, with country homes, many of the residents supplementing their income by small farming. A branch of the
railway to the famous Cowichan Lakes leaves the main line
one mile north of Duncan, on which line there are several
sawmills, with logging operations on the lake, thirty to fifty
car loads of logs per day being hauled to the East Coast of
the Island for manufacture into lumber, etc.
Chemainus      One of the largest sawmills in British Columbia
operates at this point, the property of the Victoria Lumber and Manufacturing Company, Limited, the capacity
of the mill being over 200,000 feet per day.
Ladysmith   Papulation 3300. Located on Oyster Bay. Principally a mining town, and headquarters for the
Extension Mines, twelve miles distant, which are reached by
the Canadian Collieries' coal railway.
Cassidy    Site of the Granby coal mine, property of the Granby
Consolidated Mining,  Smelting & Power Co., Ltd.,
output from 600 to 1000 tons per day.
Malahat  Drive,  Vancouver  Island
South Wellington
mine, property of
the Canadian
leries (Dunsmuir)
Limited, with an
output from 600
to 1000 tons per
diem.
Nanaimo Population,
12,000. Distant
41 miles by water
from Vancouver,
B. C. A flourishing commercial
and mining city,
beautifully situated;    headquar-
Location of the old South Wellington coal
Loading Logs 16
Across   Canada
ters of the Western Fuel Company's extensive coal mines, and of
agricultural and herring fishing interests. The largest city on
Vancouver Island outside of Victoria.
The line rises from here to Wellington, a semi-terminal of
the railway, from which point the railway drops to Nanoose
Bay, where a beautiful view of the Gulf of Georgia is obtained,
and on which bay several sawmills are located.
Parksville Junction    The centre.of a substantial agricultural
district. The line to Port Alberni and
the West Coast of Vancouver Island, forty miles distant, deviates
from Parksville Junction.
Union Bay Shipping port for the Canadian Collieries Comox
mines, which are located some twelve miles distant
at Cumberland, and have an output of from 2500 to 3500 tons
of coal per day. Cumberland is a thriving town, of some 1200
inhabitants. Junction with the Canadian Collieries' railway
at Royston, forming a means of transportation from Cumberland.
Courtenay Population 1000. The present northern terminus
of the railway, and the most northerly large town
on Vancouver Island, in which the agricultural business of the
iamous Oomox Valley centres, this valley being the largest farming and most productive and promising on Vancouver Island. A
large Returned Soldier Settlement has been established at Mer-
ville. There are very extensive timber interests adjacent tb and
through this valley, making it an attractive location for future
settlers, as the timber is removed and land cleared up for settlement.
Cameron Lake Chalet     Snugly located at the southern end of
the Lake. Excellent fishing at the
proper season of the year, and a delightful resort for tourists
in limited numbers, Cameron Lake Chalet being owned by the
Company, and operated privately. A trail to the timber line
cf Mount Arrowsmith makes a delightful day or two's outing
foi mountain climbers. From Cameron Lake the line skirts
the foothills of Mount Arrowsmith (6000 feet high), of which
a magnificent view can be had as the train passes along the
higrh cliffs on Cameron Lake.
Arrowsmith     Elevation, 1277 feet.    Summit of the Beaufort
Range. From Arrowsmith the line skirts the
west side of the Beaufort Range, from which many glimpses of
the Alberni Canal, Great Central Lake and Sproat Lake, can be
had in  the  distance.
Port Alberni       A   thriving   city   with   a   great   future   as
a lumber manufacturing, fishing and ship^
ping port. One of the largest areas of standing timber on Vancouver    Island    is
tributary to the ^J^     >/;••_
Alberni Canal.
There are several fish packing industries
located at Port
Alberni and
down the Canal
to the outlet at
Barclay Sound,
and the canal
also affords
splendid, sport
for both salmon
and "tyee" fishing   in   season. Cameron Lake Chalet Fraser   Canyon
17
VANCOUVER TO REVELSTOKE: 379  miles
(For Maps, see pages 19 and 23)
(Altitudes are shown in feet, in italics)
Vancouver
Hastings
Barnett
Westminster Jct.
Port Moody
Leaving Vancouver
on the first stage of
the long transcontinental trip, we find
"open-top observation cars" provided
for travellers, which afford the utmost
opportunities for viewing the magnificent scenery. The locomotives on this
section, are oil-burning, which means an
absence of smoke and dust.
Following the south shore of Burrard
Inlet, we pass Port Moody, at the head
of the Inlet and once the terminus of the
Canadian Pacific Railway.
From Westminster Junction a branch
runs to New Westminster, 8 miles away.
This city, with a population of 17,000, is
an important one, the headquarters for
the salmon-canning industry as well as the.
site of several large sawmills. Steamers
ply regularly between here and Victoria.
Hammond
Haney
Whonnock
Mission
At Westminster Junction
we meet the Fraser River
—the chief river of British Canadian Pacific Empress
Columbia, which  We  Shall      Steadier to the Orient
follow  for   close   on   150
miles.      We cross the Pitt River and the Pitt Meadows.
The country through which we are now passing—practically
on sea-level—has a rapidly expanding small fruit industry. The
fields, in growing season, present to the traveller a very attractive picture. When we come to the crossing of the Stave River
we should look across the Fraser for a magnificent view of the
gigantic Mount Baker, in the State of Washington.
From Mission a subdivision runs to Huntingdon,  en the  International  boundary.
Agassiz has a Government Experimental
Farm and is also the station for Harrison
Hot" Springs. There are hot sulphur springs
on Harrison Lake, highly regarded for their
curative properties. Here we cross the
Harrison River just above its confluence
with the Fraser. Steamers bound for the
leave this point.    This is a trip well worth
Nicoamen
Harrison Mills
Agassiz'
Ruby Creek
Hope
Haig
Chilliwack district
taking, as
the Chilliwack Valley
comprises
over 55,000
acres of
rich agricultural land,
and is well
known for
i ts dairying.
The largest
fruit canning corn-
pan y in
British Columbia is at
Chilliwack;
Yale 18
Across   Canada
so are the two finest equipped creameries. Ruby Creek obtains its name from the garnets gathered in the neighborhood.
Soon the broad level fields begin to fold inwards as we approach the canyons of the Fraser River, which form a wonderful
prelude to the magnificence of the Canadian Pacific Rockies
beyond. From here on we begin the long climb that is necessary
to negotiate the mountains which interpose their giant bulk
between the provinces of Alberta and British Columbia. Nature
has thrown up this system on so vast a scale that their greatness cannot be grasped except by some comparison. The transcontinental trains take twenty-four hours to pass from Mission,
where one begins to enter the Rockies, to Cochrane, where one
finally leaves them. The simplest parallel is that of the Swiss
Alps. To traverse these by train takes only five hours. When,
therefore, the late Edward Whymper, one the most famous
mountaineers that ever lived, described the Canadian Pacific
Rockies as fifty Switzerlands thrown into one, this certainly
was no exaggeration.
We shall first climb steadily for over two hundred miles,
reaching an altitude of nearly 1700 feet, and then dip into a
valley until seventy miles further we cross the summit of the
Gold Range. Thence it is a sharp climb from the Columbia
River up to the summit of the Selkirk Range—an ascent of
2300 feet in forty miles. Then within a distance of one hundred
miles we shall descend and again ascend, this time to a height
of 5300 feet above sea level, to cross the main system of the
Rockies.
Across   the   river   from   Hope   is   the   village   of   the   same   name,
the   junction   of   the   Kettle  Valley   Railway.     (See page 48).
Yale
Spuzzum
North Bend
220 The way to the mountain passes is
399 through the canyons of the Fraser and
U93 Thompson rivers. Yale occupies a bench
above the Fraser river, in a deep cul-de-
sac of the mountains, which rise abruptly and to a great height
on all sides. It was formerly a gold mining town and an important outfitting point for" prospectors. Between here and
Spuzzum there is an interesting engineering feat, the four
tunnels of the Fraser Canyon, located in rapid succession. Between Spuzzum and North Bend two jutting promontories suddenly compress the river and force it to escape in a roaring
cataract through a bottle-necked outlet. This is the famous
"Hell's Gate". This section of the railway commands the admiration of
all passengers for the
way it has
overcome
apparently
insuperable
difficulties.
The railway
follows the
canyon, Jj at
often a con-
siderab le
height
above the
river bank.
The track,
hewn from
the solid
rock, not
only crosses
from     side
to    Side    in White's Creek Bridge, near Spuzzum |W
|'///|\V* '- {
KAMLOOPS
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Savona rljCj?,
Walhachin ">//rpc
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VANCOUVER  TO   KAMLOOPS 20
Across   Canada
Keefers
561
Lytton
693
Gladwin
758
Thompson
673
Drynoch
755
Spence's Bi
ridge
77U
Hell's  Gate,   Fraser  River
the canyon, but also tunnels through great rock spurs. North
Bend is a desirable stopping place for those Who wish to see
more of the Fraser Canyon than is possible from the train.
Along the way we can see the old
Government  road,   abandoned  now,
and often Indians spreading salmon
or scooping them out with their dip
reeds.     Six  miles  before   reaching
Lytton we cross  the canyon by a
steel cantilever bridge.   The scenery
grows wilder than
ever.   The     great
river is forced between    vertical
walls of black rock,
where,    repeatedly
thrown back upon
itself by opposing
cliffs,     it     madly
forms   and   roars.
The   little   trading town of Lytton
is the junction of
the     Fraser    and
Thompson   Rivers;
the     former     has
come   down   from
the north between
two great lines of
mountain      peaks,
and from now  on
we shall follow the Thompson.    The difference between the two
rivers is noticeable; the Fraser was a muddy one, the Thompson
is bright green.    Soon we find ourselves running upon a ledge
cut out of the bare hills on the irregular south side of the
river.    Tunnels penetrate the headlands and lofty bridges span
the ravines.   The mountains draw together and we wind along
their face and gaze upon the boiling flood of Thompson Canyon,
hundreds of feet below. j|jj jjtl
From   Spence's   Bridge   a   branch   of   the   Kettle   Valley   Railway,
runs   south  to   Brookmere   (see page  48).
Opposite Spence's Bridge we see a
track leading up country and are much
interested to learn that this is none
other than the old wagon road to the
famous Caribou gold country. Here
we cross the mouth of the Nicola River,
whose valley to the south is an important grazing and ranching country.
Ashcroft is the outfitting point for the Highland Valley and-
the gateway to the Caribou country and the immense fruit areas
of the Thompson Valley. It is, incidentally, famous for its potatoes. In addition to fruit-raising, the country around is
especially suitable for extensive cattle-raising.
At Savona the Thompson opens out into Kamloops Lake, a
beautiful sheet of water. The railway runs along its south
shore for twenty miles, and, because of the series of mountain
spurs projecting into the lake, a number of tunnels punctuate
this twenty miles. Valuable quick-silver mines are operated
in this region.
Kamloops 1159.   Pop. 5500, the chief town of the interior
country of British Columbia, is over a
hundred years old, having originally been a Hudson Bay post.
Situated at the confluence of the North anc1. South Thompson
Spatsum
860
Ashcroft
100U
Walhachin
1259
Savona
1163
Dherry Creek
11U
Tranquille
1U2 Thompson  Canyon
21
Thompson Canyon
Rivers, both draining fertile
valleys, it is a beautiful city,
with a climate that makes it
a most desirable resort. Trout
fishing and game add to its
charm for the tourist and
sportsman. The chief industries of the Kamloops district are ranching, mixed
farming, gardening, fruit
errowing, mining and lumbering. Much of the valley
land is cultivated under irrigation, and produces large
crops. The mining industry
is developing rapidly, the
■principal minerals being gold,
copper and iron. There is also
extensive operation in the
lumbering industry. The city
has a hydro-electric power
plant at Barriere, forty miles
up the North Thompson Valley and operates its own electric
light and water plants, which also furnish power for irrigation.
We are now approaching Lake Shuswap,
a large body of water of irregular shape
which affords wonderful trout-fishing.
With its bordering slopes it reminds the
traveller strongly of Scottish scenery.
Chase is the gateway to an extensive
territory for big game hunting, bird-
shooting and fishing. The various waters
in the vicinity are plentifully stocked with trout. To avoid the
circuitous course around the lake, the railway strikes through the
forest over the top of Notch Hill, Salmon Arm (population 2300)
is a very prosperous fruit farming community.
Sicamous is the junction of the main line with the Okanagan
Valley branch; it is also a favorite stop-over point for travellers
who, having traversed the canyons, wish also to see by daylight
the wonderful mountain scenery that lies between here and Calgary. To accommodate this traffic, the Canadian Pacific has
erected a comfortable hotel on the shore of the lake.
"There "is excellent trout fishing to be obtained in the Shuswap
Lake by the traveller who has a few hours to spend.
Contirmed on page 2U
Ducks
115U
Shuswap
1153
Chase
1183
Squilax
1288
Notch Hill
1691
Salmon Arm
1157
Sicamous
1153
;
, !
Kamloops 22
Across   Canada
i
§\
"  Viffff.fp
7"
In  the   Okanagan Valley
SICAMOUS TO PENTICTON:  155 miles
(Rail and Steamer Line)
(For Map, see page J^.9)
Sicamous
Enderby
Armstrong
Varnon
Okanagan Landing
From Sicamous a brrnch runs south to
the Okanagan Lake, connecting with a
Canadian Pacific steamer service to Penticton. Enderby is a progressive town
in a fertile fruit-growing and mixed
farming country, with considerable
dairying and also an enormous lumber output. Fishing is good
and the big game plentiful. Armstrong (poqulation 1700) is
another flourishing town with several indur ;ries and a prosperous tributary agricultural country. Armstrong is particularly
noted for the production of celery. Vernon (population 3500)
is the largest town, the judicial centre, and the central distributing point of the northern Okanagan Valley. It is the location
for the central co-operative fruit-selling agency for the entire
Valley. Near here is the famous Coldstream Ranch, with about
13,000 acres of fruit lands under irrigation. At Okanagan we
board a splendid steamer for the rest of the trip.
Killiney
Fintry
Okanagan Centre
Kelowna
Peachland
Summerland
Penticton
The steamer makes a number of calls
down the lake at the various landings.
The journey takes about six hours. This
is one of the most famous fruit-growing
regions of Canada. Journeying down the
lake, one sees striking examples of
"bench land" formation—orchards rising
tier by tier in what look like gigantic
steps. On these bench-lands, on the occasional bottom lands,
and even on the hilly slopes that descend into the water, grow
all kinds of sub-tropical fruit, peaches, apricots, cherries, apples,
plums, walnuts, almonds and grapes of superfine quality. Irrigation is practised, the wooden flume that carries the life-giving
water being a conspicuous object of the orchard country.
Kelowna is an important city with a population of over
3500. Tributary to it are some fifty thousand acres of first-
class fruit lands, much of which is under cultivation. . The
city has several fruit and vegetable packing plants.      It is a .»#
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KAMLOOPS
^nr^'i
Indicates Double TracW
KAMLOOPS TO REVELSTOKE
^
*M
Efi 24
Across   Canada
■■I
mm
mm
WSHM
Wm
Hotel Sicamous
pretty point, with a park with a mile lake frontage. Peachland, Summerland and Naramata are fertile fruit-raising districts, with a certain amount of cattle-raising a few miles back.
At the southern end of the lake is Penticton, where we join the
Kettle Valley Railway  (see page 50).
SICAMOUS TO REVELSTOKE  (Continued)
Malakwa
Craigellachie
Three Valley
Clanwilliam
1215 From Sicamous, in three-quarters of an
1225 hour we reach Craigellachie, where an
1636 obelisk alongside the track commemor-
1820 ates the completion of the Canadian Pacific Railway. It was here, on November 7th, 1885, that the rails from the east met the rails from
the west, and the long-cherished vision of a Canadian transcontinental railway became a reality. We are now nearing the
summit of the Gold or Columbia Range, and at Clanwilliam we
pass the highest point. The most conspicuous peak is Mount
Begbie. Four lakes, Griffin, Three Valley, Victor, and Summit,
occur at short intervals, and in turn force the railway into the
mountain sides.
Revelstoke 1J+9U   Revelstoke, a  flourishing city with a
population    . of
4,000,   lies   in   the   beautiful   Columbia
River Valley,  surrounded by lofty and
picturesque mountains, some clothed with
trees and verdure to their very peaks,
others crowned with rugged and rocky
spires on glistening glaciers.    It is the
gateway   to
the      Kootenay
and Arrow Lake
districts,     famous     as     fruitgrowing centres
and      is      surrounded by vast
areas of timber.
With   the  completion   of   the
auto   scenic
road       to       the Down the Arrow Lakes rrow   Lakes
25
top of Mount Revelstoke, added to the beautiful Columbia
River driveway extending twenty miles north, and other
roads to Arrowhead and the Okanagan Valley, the lover of
nature can enjoy the magnificent scenery from a car. Mount
Revelstoke is now a Dominion Park Reserve. Revelstoke is in
the heart of very fine hunting grounds, and the Alpine climber
will find whol3 worlds to conquer. In winter, Revelstoke is the
centre of a large winter-sport carnival.
REVELSTOKE TO NELSON: 184 miles
(Rail and Steamer Line)
(For Map,see page U9).
Revelstoke
Arrowhead
Halcyon
Nakusp
Burton
Needles
West Robson
Nelson
From Revelstoke a branch runs south to Arrowhead, whence a very delightful trip is made
down the Arrow Lakes to West Robson, at
Which point the rail line from Nelson to Midway is joined. (See page 52). The service
down this lake is provided by the excellent
and comfortable steamer service of the Canadian Pacific. The Arrow Lakes, lying in a
long, deep valley between the eastern slope of
the Selkirks and the Gold Range, are formed by the Columbia
Valley's broadening out on its way south. . The lakes are very
beautiful. Although virtually one, they are classified as two,
Upper and Lower, very much the same size and connected by a
wide but circuitous channel. The surrounding country has supplied lumber from the forests that clothes its slopes to many a
sawmill, while of recent years settlers have come in and made
clearings for orchards. The population, however, is still comparatively sparse.
The steamer touches at a number of points en route. Halcyon
Hot Springs are well and favorably known owing to the curative
properties of the waters, which contain a high percentage of
lithium. There is a comfortable Sanatorium hotel here. Nakusp
is the distributing centre of the upper lake, which is
here about three miles wide. Prettily situated, overlooking a crescent-like bay, it offers good bathing, boating
and   very   fine   fishing.
From Nakusp a branch line runs to Sandon and Kaslo   (see page
54).
Nakusp is the headquarters of the Arrow Lake lumber industry, the shipping point for vast quantities of lumber, poles,
fence posts, and other timber products. Along the lower lake
there has
been some
development in
fruit -growing,
very fine
cherries,
apples and
melons being
produced. The
steamer stops
at, amongst
other points,
Edgewood, Re-
nata and Deer
Park. In Revelstoke National Park. 26
Across   Canada
REVELSTOKE TO HELD: 126 miles
(For Maf, see page 27).
(The figures after the names of stations denote
altitudes, in feet)
We are now ascending the western
slopes of the Selkirk Range, the second largest of the various great
mountain systems that compose the
Canadian Pacific Rockies. The scenery is magnificently impressive, a^
foretaste of what we shall traverse!
for nearly three hundred
miles. From Revelstoke to
Glacier we follow the 111-
oillewaet River, which presently, owing to the presence of glacial mud, grows
pea-green in color. Twin
Butte takes its name-from
the double summit nearby
to the right, now  known   as
Revelstoke
1U9U
Greely
1667
Twin Butte
1877
Albert Canyon
222U
lllecillewaet
2711
Flat Creek
3052
founts Mackenzie and Til-
■3L^:Er
■
Albert Canyon
ley. In this district is the Jj
home of the woodland or
black-faced caribou, the
mountain goat, and the
grizzly, cinnamon and black
bear.
Albert Canyon is a deep
fissure in the solid rock, its
walls rising straight up on
both sides to wooded crags.
The railway runs along the
very edge of the gorge.
We see the river nearly
150 feet below, boiling angrily in a narrow twenty-foot flume.
Nine miles east is the Lanark silver mine, on the right. The mill
adjoins the track, and the cable on which the ore is conveyed
can be seen running up from the mill to the opposite slope
where the mill is operated. Continuing the ascent to Glacier,
the line touches for a moment on the base of Ross Peak, and
confronts Mount Cheops, on the other side of the lllecillewaet.
Glacier      3778   Glacier
S        *he #•'-{ ■■*!     <btt!J^f&
station for Glacier House,      'mm. •**&!?    J^^Mra
the  centre   of  the   finest -^c     .-. j   '        ? *"' %
mountain climbing region ,,jfl
of the Selkirk Range. With
the construction of the
Connaught Tunnel the location of the railway line
has been changed from its
original position, so that
the hotel, which adjoiner1.
the old station, is now a
mile and one-half from the
present one, whence it is
reached by a good automobile road. The hotel is
within thirty minutes*
walk of the lllecillewaet
Glacier, from which at
the left, Sir Donald   (10,808  feet)    rises    a lllecillewaet Valley ndicates Double Track
REVELSTOKE TO FIELD
* 28
Across   Canada
Glacier House
naked and abrupt pyramid, to a height of a mile and a quarter
above the railway.
This stately monolith was named after the late Sir Donald
Smith (Lord Strathcona), one of the promoters of the Canadian
Pacific Railway. Farther to the left are sharp peaks: Uto (9610
feet), Eagle (9353 feet), Avalanche (9387 feet), and Macdonald,
second only to Sir Donald. Rogers Pass and the snowy Hermit
Range, the most prominent peaks of which are called the Swisa
Peaks, are in full view. Again to the left, at the west end of
the Hermit Range, on the south side of Bear Creek, comes
Cheops (8506 feet), so named after the Great Pyramid, the tomb
of the Pharaoh Shufu (Cheops), who lived about 3,700 B.C., and
in the foreground, and far down among the trees, the lllecillewaet glistens across the valley. Somewhat at the left of Cheops
the shoulders of Ross Peak (7718 feet) are visible over the
wooded slope of the mountain behind the hotel, which is called
Abbott (8081 feet). Between Ross and Abbott in the background is an enormous wall of snow. This is the Mount Bonney
Glacier.
To the right of Ross, between Ross and Cheops, a glimpse is
caught of the Cougar Valley, where are the wonderful caves of
Nakimu. Turning again to face the great lllecillewaet Glacier a
V-shaped valley is seen on the right. This.is the valley of the
Asulkan brook, a gem of mountain beauty, where a series oi
white cascades foam through vistas of dark spruce and fir, where
falls leap from ledges above in clouds of flying spray, and shining open meadows lead the traveller to listen for the tinkle of
the Alpine herd. The peaks going from right to left are: Afton,
the sharp apex; the Rampart, an oblong wall; the Dome, a
rounded rock; Castor and Pollux, two sharp cpires farthest
south. To the left of the Asulkan Glacier comes a forested
dome, Glacier Crest, the western boundary of the Great lllecillewaet Glacier, which is banked on the other side by the lower
slopes of Sir Donald, from whose summit an immense number of
glaciers can be seen. Glacier House, which is another Canadian
Pacific Hotel, affords a most delightful stopping place for tourists who wish to hunt or explore the surrounding mountains or
glaciers. Here in the heart of the Selkirks every comfort ana
luxury are found, and here many gather annually to spend the
summer amidst the wonders of nature, the lllecillewaet Glacier
is exactly two miles away, and its slowly receding forefoot,
with immense crevices of abysmal depth cutting across the crystal surface, is only a few hundred feet above the level of Glacier Glacier 29
House.   To the left of the Great Glacier, and 3,000 feet above
the hotel, another view is from the trail at the foot of Sir Donald
An easy trail leads to Marion Lake, where it divides, one going
to Observation Point, affording a splendid panorama of Rogers
Pass, the other to the Abbott Alp, a beeautiful grassy upland.
On Mount Abbott is Cascade summer house, directly above the
mountain torrent seen tumbling down the green shoulder from
Avalanche Peak to the head of the Asulkan Valley, where the
ice flow of two main branches of the glacier meet. Good routes
have been also mapped by the guides up Eagle and Sir Donald,
the former being an easy climb. This peak is so named from
a large rock figure exactly resembling an eagle which is perched
upon the knife-sharp edge of the mountain. It is seen to best
advantage from the trail leading to Mount Avalanche.
The Asulkan Valley trail branches off from the main glacier
trail about a quarter of a mile from the hotel, and crossing the
Asulkan brook climbs up the east side of the valley to the forefoot of the Asulkan glacier, distant four miles from the hotel.
The summit of the Selkirk Range, as crossed by the railway,
is reached from Glacier by another fine pony trip, and from
here the trail to Rogers Amphitheatre may be taken,, where is
located a hut that may be used as a base for exploring and
climbing the neighboring peaks and glaciers. From Rogers Pass
there is another trail that follows along Bear Creek to Baloo
Pass. From here is reached the famous Nakimu Caves (Nakimu
being Indian for "grumbling caves"), a series of natural caverns,
with beautiful interior marble markings, situated on the lower
slopes of Mount Cheops, in the Cougar Valley. The return
journey from the Caves to the hotel may be made via a trail
and carriage drive that follows the lllecillewaet River. A glacial
stream has been caught and furnishes fountains about the hotel.
Game is very abundant throughout these lofty ranges, whose
summits are the home of the mountain goat.
Rogers     2555    Immediately   we   leave   Glacier   station   we
plunge into the Connaught Tunnel. Until the
end of 1916, the railway crossed the Selkirks through Rogers
Pass, following Bear Creek and then bending round to Glacier
and back again to the lllecillewaet River in a series of sharp
loops. This was a most spectacular route, affording some magnificent views of Mount Macdonald,
Mount Tupper, and other giant peaks;
but it had many disadvantages,    amongst   which
Mount Sir Donald 30
Across   Canada
^^*%
were track curvature and the necessity of maintaining
long   stretches   of
snowsheds.    These
difficulties were finally   overcome   by
the construction of
the     Connaught
Tunnel,     .under
Mount   Macdonald,
named in honor of
H.R.H.   the   Duke
of Connaught, then
Governor - General
of Canada.      This
tunnel is the longest       tunnel       in
America,   measuring    exactly    five
miles  from  portal
to   ~»ortal,   and   it
not only eliminated
track curvature to
an     amount     cor-
responding
to  seven  complete
circles,    but    also
lowered the summit attained by the railway by 550 feet, reduced the length of the line by AEk miles and dispensed with four
miles of snow-sheds. The tunnel is double tracked, and measures
29feet from side to side and 21 feet 6% .inches from the base
rail to the crown.   The method by which it was pierced involved
the tunnelling of a pioneer bore paralleling the centre line of
the main tunnel—a feature that was new and aroused the interest of tunnel engineers the world over.    Rogers Pass was
named for Major A. B. Rogers, by whose adventurous energy
it was discovered in 1884; and it forms now one of the beautiful
excursions from Mount Glacier.   Mount Macdonald (9488 feet)
towers nearly a mile alove the railwav in almost vertical height.
Leaving the tunnel, we catch a brief but precious glimpse of
Mount Tupper, through a gap in the cliff on the left.    We are
almost 1000 feet above the Beaver, whose upper valley can be
seen penetrating the mountains southward for a long distance.
The principal difficulty in construction
on this part of the line was occasioned
by   the   torrents,   many   of   them   in
splendid   cascades,   which   came   down
through narrow gorges cut deeply into
along which the railway creeps.    The greatest
ges crosses Stony Creek—a noisy rill, flowing
a narrow V-shaped channel 312 feet below the
Connaught Tunnel
Beavermouth
2U83
Donald
2579
Forde
2563
Moberley
2553
the steep slopes
of all these brid
in the bottom of
Mountain Climbing, near Glacier The   Columbia   Valley
31
rails—the highest bridge on the Canadian Pacific main line. A
little farther on, Cedar Creek is crossed, a little east of where a
very high bridge, spanning a foaming cascade, affords dhe of
the most beautiful prospects of the whole journey. So impressed
were the railway builders with the charm of this magnificent
pictures of mountains that they named this spot The Surprise.
From Connaught to Beavermouth we follow the Beaver River,
crossing it about two miles before reaching the latter as well as
crossing six streams flowing from the north. A last look backward will reveal a long line of the higher peaks of the Selkirks,
in echelon, culminating in the exceedingly lofty pinnacle of
Mount Sir Donald. At Beavermouth, which is the farthest north
station of the transcontinental route, we practically leave the
Selkirks proper, although for some way we follow the Dogtooth
Range, a spur of the system. Next we are in the upper canyon
of the Columbia River, the most important waterway that flows
into the north Pacific Ocean and which, rising in the north end
of. Lake Windermere, flows
north in a famous "Big Bend",
paraelieling the railway for several miles until it leaves it
at the lower slopes of the Selkirks to re-appear at Revelstoke
on its way south to the United
States. This is the solution of a
problem that sometimes puzzles
the traveller, that the Columbia
River should apparently be flowing towards the mountains instead of away from them. The
mountain ranges force the
river through a narrow gorge to
the high slopes above which
the railway clings. Immediately
above this canyon the Blue
Water river comes into the Columbia  from  the   south.
About two miles before reaching Moberley, on the right just
after crossing Blackberry Bridge, is the site of the oldest cabin
in the mountains—the cabin where a government survey party
under Walter Moberley, C.E., engaged in preliminary surveying
for the railway, passed the winter of 1871-2. They wintered
their stock on the shore of what is now called Lake Windermere.
|Jount Moberley, on the left at Moberley station (7721 feet) is
the most prominent peak for several miles.
Golden'    2583    Golden is an interesting town with large lum-
S bering  and  mining  interests,  and  commands
tne trade of the fertile Windermere Valley to the south. To the
left of the track, shortly before reaching Golden station, can be
seen the model Swiss village of "Edelweiss," erected by the Canadian Pacific for the Swiss guides whom it employs for the bene-
I?^.ountain climbers. Previous to the erection of this village,
which lies on the slopes of a hill and reproduces with remarkable
verisimilitude the characteristic architecture of the Swiss chalet,
the guides had always returned to Switzerland at the end of
each season, but now they live in Canada the entire year.
GOLDEN TO CRANBROOK: 166 miles
Swiss Guide's Chalet, near Golden
Golden
Spillimacheen
Edgewater
Lake Windermere
Goldle Creek
From Golden a branch line runs south
through the fertile Columbia Valley,
touching for a considerable part of the
journey the beautiful Lake Windermere,
and joining the Crow's Nest line at Col- $2
Across   Canada
l!
-
-.
Canal Flat
Wasa
Fort Steele
Bull River
Colvalli
Cranbrook
Lake Windermere Camp
valli. From Golden we travel past many
new settlements, from the clearings of
which smoke is sometimes still rising,
until we reach Spillimacheen, where there
is a wonderful view of the Selkirk
Mountains. The new motor road being
built through the Vermilion Pass from
Banff '(see page Ul) will join the government road at Sinclair,
sixty miles from Golden. Both at Sinclair and at Fairmount
near Lake Windermere, there are interesting hot springs. The
scenery of this valley ig^i|>lendid, and the canyons and creeks
on either side furnish excellent sport. On the left is the slope
of the Rockies—on the right, the panorama of the Selkirks. At
Lake Windermere station, the local train puts up for the night,
continuing southward in the morning. Lake Windermere is the
station for four neighboring villages: Athalmer, Wilmer, Windermere and Invermere, while on the shores of the lake, about a
mile from the station, a bungalow summer camp has been
located, making an admirable centre for excursions into the
beautiful country surrounding. After Lake Windermere, the
next important stopping point is Fort Steele, in a ranching and
fruit-growing district. Lead, copper, silver, gold and iron are
found. There are quantities of lumber available, with important sawmills at Bull River. Good fishing and hunting can be
obtained.
REVELSTOKE TO FIELD (Continued)
Glen ogle 3008 At Golden we begin ascending again. From
Palliser 3288    here to Field we shall climb j|00 feet in 35
miles, for we are now entering the Rockies
system proper, taking that name in its scientific sense of meaning one range only. For a considerable distance we follow the
noisy turbulent Kicking Horse River on its way to join the
Columbia. The canyon deepens until the mountain side become almost vertical. The roar of the river as it rushes from
side to side of the narrow gorge, the thunder of the train—pandemonium increased a thousandfold by the reverberations of the
canyon walls—gives an indescribable sensation.
Leanchoil 3682 At the base of Mount Hunter we leave the
Ottertail 3702 canyon, and the river widens somewhat.
Emerald 3895 The narrow valley of the Kicking Horse
divides the Ottertail Range to the south from the Van Home
range to the north. A vivid contrast in mountain formation
can be made between the two ranges. At Leanchoil we enter
the Yoho Park, one of the five national parks in the Rockies. Through     the    Rockies
Open Top Observation Car
On   the   right,   Mounts
Vaux and Chancellor are JS&S*.      ^
seen, the glacier on the ^
former   plainly   visible. "'-A
Mount Chancellor (10,731
feet) is one of the giant
peaks   of   the   Ottertail
range.    Between the two      _^M -.$3
mountains is what is
probably the best known
group of "hoodoos", but
they cannot, unfortunately, be seen from the
train, although two miles
west of Leanchoil, on the
right side, is a rocky bluff
where "hoodoos" in the
process of formation
through the action of
the elements can be
plainly viewed. One mile
before reaching Emerald
we can see Mount Good-
sir (11676 feet) on the
right, the highest of the
Ottertail group.
Field      U072    Field is the divisional point between the British
Columbia and Alberta districts of the railway.
Towering 6,000 feet higher than the little town is seen Mount
Stephen (10,U85 feet), and in front of it roars the Kicking Horse
River, which the railway will still follow for a considerable
distance.
Field is the gateway to a wonderful mountain resort, the
far-famed Yoho Valley, which stretches away to the north between great glacier-bound peaks. The Yoho Park, another
national park, has an area of 480 square miles. Among its
attractions are Takakkaw Falls, the Twin Falls, the Yoho
Glacier, etc. The Takakkaw Falls, the return trip to which can
be made in a day by either coach or pony along a good trail, are
among the most wonderful in the world. An immense volume of
seething, boiling water rushes over the precipice on the far side
of a narrow gorge, and descends the rock sides in clouds of foam,
a sheer drop of 1,200 feet. Farther up the Yoho Valley, following the Yoho River, is a rather more rugged country, affording a longer trip. Twin Falls, divided by a high rock
on the edge of the precipice, are of even greater interest than
the Takakkaw Falls, owing to the vast columns of steamlike
spray caused by the concussion of their
two columns of water with the rock floor
nearly 700 feet beneath. From here one
can penetrate still farther into the ranges
and reach the Yoho Glacier.
The trip from Field to Emerald
Lake   is   a   delightful   one.       An
excellent carriage
road  crosses  the     w
Kicking   Horse
River at Field to
the base of Mount
Burgess and leads
through a forest
of    balsam    and
spruce to  Emerald Lake, 7 miles
distant.      This
beautiful lake, Of Mount Stephen and Field 34
Across   Canada
Takakkaw Falls, Yoho Valley
w
most exquisite coloring and sublimity of surroundings, lies placid
under the protection of Mount Wapta, Mount Burgess and Mount
President. It is well stocked with fish, and its vicinity affords
many charming excursions on foot. A picturesque two-story log
chalet has been erected on the shore of the lake, and is operated
by the Canadian Pacific. Here the tourist may break his journev
en route to the Yoho Valley.
It is also possible to reach the Yoho Valley from Emerald
Lake. From Emerald Lake an excellent trail leads around the
lake to the Yoho Pass, (altitude 6,000), where it is joined
by the trail from Field over Mount Burgess. Reaching the
summit by pony, a wonderful view is obtained. Summit Lake, a
small but beautifully colored lake, is passed, and thence descent
is made into the Yoho Valley.. Yet another route to the Yoho
Valley is over the Burgess Pass. The pony trail from Field rises
up the wooded slopes of Mount Burgess to the pass (altitude
7,150 feet), from which a magnificent panoramic view of the surrounding mountain ranges may be obtained. Mount Bureress, a
sharp-topped mountain, 8,463 feet, is in the centre, with the
Kicking Horse River on the left and the road to Yoho Pass on
the right. Continuing along the slopes of Mount Wapta the trail
is almost level until the Yoho Pass is reached, whence descent is
made to either Takakkaw Falls or to Emerald Lake.
There are numerous other charming trips at Field, mostly of
longer duration, such as to Dennis and Duchesnay Passes, Lake
O'Hara and Upper Bow Lake. Mention must also be made of the
famous Mount Stephen fossil beds, reached, from Field by a pony
trail whichlt rises
6,000 feet above mm&mk. -
sea level. The fossil Jj MMM
beds are over 2,000 Jj
feet in thickness.       nr4
.-..-.   -i- .1—tjflrtWiSSa*
Emerald Lake \
The   Spiral   Tunnel
35
Spiral Tunnels, Field
FIELD TO CALGARY: 135 miles
(The figures after the names of stations denote
altitudes in feet
Hector   5218    From Field to  the Great Divide, a distance of
fourteen miles, the railway has to climb nearly
a quarter of a mile through the Kicking Horse Pass. Formerly
this was a
difficult track,
the gradient
being 4.5 per
cent, but by
two wonderful
tunnels, forming one of the
- most notable
en gineering
feats in existence, this difficulty has now
been eliminated, and the
grade reduced
to 2.2 per cent.
These tunnels
are the famous
"Spiral Tunnels". From
the   west   the
track enters the first tunnel, 2,900 feet long, under Mount Ogden,
and after turning a complete circle and passing above itself
it comes out 50 feet higher. (Mount Ogden, 8795 feet). The
track then turns westerly, and crossing the river enters the
second tunnel, 3255 feet in length, under Cathedral Mountain.
Again turning a complete circle and emerging above itself, it
runs out into daylight 54 feet higher.
The whole thing is a perfect maze, the railway doubling back
upon itself twice and forming a rough figure "8" in shape.
If the train is run in two sections, passengers are able to see
the other section at a higher or lower level (according to which
one they are in) making its way up the big grade. Kicking
Horse Pass owes its name to an incident of early pioneering
days in which a "kicking horse" figured literally.
Wapta Camp, on Wapta Lake (Hector Station) is an attractive summer resort for tourists, consisting of rustic bungalows
with a central community house.
The Great Divide    5298    Six   miles   before  Lake   Louise   is
the "Great Divide", which is at
ance the highest elevation of the Canadian Pacific Railway, the
boundary between Alberta and British Columbia, and the very
backbone of the conti- ^mm^
nent. It is marked by -*
a rustic arch spanning
a stream under which
the water divides,
by one of these
freaks by which Na-
• ture diverts herself,
into two little brooks
that have vastly different fates. The waters that flow to the
east eventually reach
Hudson Bay and the
Atlantic   Ocean;   the
The Great Divide
MA 36 Across   Canada
Chateau Lake Louise
rivulet that runs to the west adds its mite to the volume of the
Pacific. On the right is the granite shaft erected to the memory
of Sir James Hector, the discoverer of the Kicking Horse Pass.
This is the pass which permits the Canadian Pacific Railway to
cross the Rockies.
Lake Louise     50 UU    Twenty miles from Field we reach Lake
Louise. To reach the lake we must ascend another 620 feet, which we do by means of a light gasoline
railway. Turning a shoulder of the mountain, we come suddenly into full view of Lake Louise, named after Princess
Louise, wife of the Marquis of Lome, one-time Governor-
General of Canada. This is one of the most perfect gems of
scenery in the world—"a lake of the deepest and most exquisite coloring, ever changing, defying analysis, mirroring in
its wonderful depths the sombre forests and cliffs that rise from
its shores on either side, the gleaming white glacier and tremendous snow-crowned peaks that fill the background of the picture, and the blue sky and fleecy clouds overhead." On the shores
of this beautiful lake the Canadian Pacific Railway operates one
of its splendid hotels, the Chateau Lake Louise. No more beautiful spot and no more comfortable hotel could be chosen by anyone wishing to make either a short stay or a long one in the
Canadian Pacific Rockies. Many there are who are entirely satisfied to sit on the verandah watching the marvellous kaleidoscope of color that flits across the surface of the lake.
The principal mountains surrounding Lake Louise are (from
left to right as you stand on the hotel verandah): Saddle Mountain (7783 feet), Mount Fairview (9001 feet), Mount Aberdeen
(1030U feet), Mount Lefroy (11220 feet), Mount Victoria-
(11355 feet), the Beehive (7U03 feet), and Mount St. Piran (8618
feet). Victoria Glacier, which shuts off the southern end of the
lake, is an awe-inspiring spectacle. Along the westerly shore?
of the lake is a delightful mile-and-a-half walk affording splendid views of these gigantic peaks.
Amongst the numerous delightful excursions from Lake Louise
is that to Lakes in the Clouds, two gems that nestle high up on
the mountain side. The trail leaves the west end of the Chateau
and rises gradually to Mirror Lake (altitude 6650 feet), and
thence to Lake Agnes (6875 feet). There are beautiful.views
on the way up, and the trail is excellent. A charming tea house
has recently been established on the shore of Lake Agnes. The
trail continues around Lake Agnes and up a zigzag path to the
Observation House on the Big Beehive.    The trip can be made indicates Double Track
FIELD TO CALGARY 38
Across   Canada
Lakes in the Clouds
either by sure-footed
mountain pony or on
foot, and the round
trip distance is about
five miles. Return
can be made if desired
via the Little Beehive
and Mt. St. Piran, or
via the lower glacier
trail.
Another charming
trip is that to Moraine
Lake, a lovely mountain lake lying in the
"Valley of the Ten
Peaks". These ten
peaks, all of which
are over 10,000 feet
high, and the highest of which, Mount Deltaform, is 11,225 feet,
encircle the eastern and southern sides of the lake, and present a
serrated profile that affords a most majestic view. Lake Consolation, near Lake Moraine, affords good trout-fishing, and during the summer months, a small tea-house and camp is maintained on the shore of the latter. On the eastern shore of the
lake is the Tower of Babel (7580 feet), a mountain of somewhat
curious shape, on the other side of which is Consolation Lake.
Yet another fine pony trip is to Paradise Valley. Ponies may
be taken up Paradise Valley, via either the Saddleback and Sheol
Valley, or via the low trail. The journey is continued up the
valley to a short branch trail leading to the Giant's Steps, a
step-like rock formation over which the water glides in silver
sheets. The journey may then be continued across the valley to
Lake Annette (altitude 6500 feet), a tiny emerald sheet of
water on the side of Mount Temple, and thence back to Lake
Louise,   a   distance   of   thirteen   miles.
In a routhwesterly direction from Lake Louise is Lake O'Hara,
presenting in its surroundings features of wild Alpine grandeur
that cannot be surpassed. There is an excellent trail from
Hector, a few miles west of Lake Louise station, and the trip
affords an extremely delightful two days trip. Further pony
and camping trips of one or more days' duration can be made
in several directions, such as along the Pipestone River.
This trip leads north from
Lake Louise to an alpine
lake high up on a mountain
meadow amid high glacial
surroundings of spectacular
grandeur and beauty. The
lake is full of trout. The
camping ground is nineteen
miles from Lake Louise
station. Consolation Lake,
which is about three miles
from Moraine Lake, is also
a very profitable place to
fish for cut-throat trout.
j For those who wish to
visit glaciers, climb mountains, or make some of the
more strenuous trips
through ';he passes, Swiss
guides, whose services can
be obtained by visitors, are
attached   to   the   Chateau
Lake Louise.  There is good Lake Louise
trout-fishing at several points near Lake Louise. Lake   Louise
39
Moraine Lake and Valley of the Ten Peaks
Eldon U822    Leaving Lake Louise we have mag-
Castle Mountain    U633    nificent  views   of  the   surrounding
panorama of mountains. In front we
see Pilot Mountain, Copper Mountain, Mount Brett, and Vermilion Pass where the continental watershed sends the Vermilion
River westward in to the Kootenay. On the south is Storm
Mountain (10309 feet) and the snowy dome of Mount Ball (10825
feet). Loftiest and grandest of all towers Temple Mountain
(11626 feet). This great snow-bound mountain, whose crest
exhibits precipitous walls of ice flashing blue in the sunlight, is
the most conspicuous and admirable feature of the wonderful
valley.
Next we see to the left the bare, rugged and sharply serrated
Sawback sub-range, with a spur called the Slate Mountain,
in the foreground towards Lake Louise. Castle Mountain, a
sheer precipice that rises on the left almost 5,000 feet above us
is so named because no imagination is required to see in
it the outlines of the towers and battlements of some ancient
fortress. This mountain overlooks the railway for nearly eight
miles. A sharp turn, and on the H
right we see Pilot Mountain, ^a^^^^^m
a landmark of mountain trap- ikj^
pers visible from either end of
the Bow. Hole - in - the - Wall
Mountain (9183 feet), on the
left, has an interesting cavern
running into the mountain
for 160 feet which has
been used as a meeting place
by the Masonic Lodge of
Banff.
We follow the Bow River
into Banff through a beautiful
forested valley, skirting the
Vermilion Lakes and obtaining
an excellent view of Mount
Bourgeau on the right. Far
to the south these snow-peaks
tnclose Simpson Pass. Castle Mountain
Banff   U53U    The Rocky Mountains Park, a national park of
which Banff is the headquarters, is one of the
largest in the world.    It embraces parts of tho Bow,  Spray, 40
Across   Canad
a
Banff Springs Hotel
Kananaskis, Ghost, Red Deer, Panther and Cascade river valleys,
the Clearwater river forming the northern boundary. The park
stretches for 115 miles from south to north, the Canadian Pacific
Railway running through the Park from Seebe to the Great
Divide, a distance of about 70 miles from east to west. Besides
• he rivers mentioned, the Park also contains Lake Minnewanka,
Lake Louise, the Bow Lakes, Lake O'Hara, and others, and several impressive mountain ranges.
Within easy walking distance is Sulphur Mountain, a long
wooded ridge rising to an elevation of 8030 feet, which has an
observatory on its summit and the Canadian Alpine Club's permanent club-house on the slopes. The club has a membership
of about 500, and holds a camp every year somewhere in the
Canadian- Pacific Rockies. In the various mountain ranges that
make up the Canadian Pacific Rockies—the Rockies proper, the
Selkirks, and the Gold, Coast, Cascade, and Purcell Ranges—
there are, according to government measurements, no less than
598 mountain peaks above 5,000 feet in height above sea level.
This list includes only those peaks which bear names, and
does not profess to exhaust the innumerable mountains that
have not yet been named or measured. Of those actually listed,
there are 147 over 10,000 feet.
Cascade Mountain (9825 feet), faces the village like a glowering  giant.    The  sharp  pointed  edge  of  Mount  Rundle   (9665
feet) makes a
most striking
feature. Mount
Edith. (8370
feet) and
Stony Squaw
(6160 feet)
are close at
hand. Crossing
the Bow River
bridge from
the village, we
follow a road
to where the
Banff Springs Hotel stands on a height between the foaming
falls of the Bow and the mouth of the rapid Spray river. This
hotel, operated by the Canadian Pacific Railway, has been
constructed on a magnificent scale. From its verandah beautiful
panoramas are to be viewed. Just below the terrace is one of
Banff's three distinctive sulphur swimming pools, supplied with
sulphur water piped from Sulphur Mountain and averaging 90
Buffalo   at   Banff h
Banff
41
Sulphur Swimming Pool, Banff Springs Hotel
degrees Fahrenheit and possessing great curative value. The
pool is a beautiful one, affording excellent swimming; and a
semicircular cold water pool adjoins it on the crest of the hill.
The other two pools are at the Upper Hot Springs, on the
wooded slopes of Sulphur Mountain and reached by carriage
or on foot; and at the Cave and Basin, about a mile west of the
bridge, where the government has erected a handsome $150,000
swimming bath.
In an enclosed park about 1% miles to the other side of the
village are a number of specimens of native animals, such as
buffalo, elk, moose, mountain sheep and mountain goat. The
buffalo herd, with a somewhat larger one in another park to
the north, comprise the sole remains of the million bulfalo which
roamed the prairie fifty years ago. Long launch trips up the
river, tennis, driviner, motoring, swimming, horseback riding,
fishing, beautiful walks, and mountain climbing are some of the
diversions open to visitors. A nine-hole golf course, now being
enlarged to eighteen holes, is situated on the banks of the Bow
River at the base of Mount Rundle. These links occupy the
site of the headquarters of the Snaring Indians, so called on
account of their hunting methods. The tribe is now extinct,
but opposite the club house are the pits which they used as
winter quarters, and many flint spears and arrow heads have
been found. There are wonderful fossil beds on the south and
east sides of Lake Minnewanka, from which many very fine
specimens have been collected. An annual Indian "Pow-wow"
of sports, races, etc., is held during the month of July.
Of great interest
to automobile enthusiasts is the new
automobile
road   that
is     being
constructed by the
Dominion
Government, the British   Columbia
Government,
and the Canadian      Pacific
Railway, from On the Trail 42
Ac
ross   Canada
k
Mount Assiniboine
Banff to the Columbia Valley.
(see page 32). Its
course is southeast from Castle
Mountain, which
we have already
passed, through
Vermilion Pass,
over the Rockies,
and then through
some subsidiary
ranges until it
reaches beautiful
Lake Windermere.
Twenty miles
south of Banff is
Mount Assiniboine (11,800 ft.)
the "Matterhorn
of the New
World", the first
ascent of which
was made, after
many unsuccessful attempts, in
1901. The way
thither leads
through beautiful
valleys shaded with transparent blue lakes and park-like prairie
openings, and the journey is a particularly fine pony and camping trip.
Bankhead     4581    Leaving Banff, we leave the Bow River for a
Canmore      U295    time, and strike up the valley of the Cascade
River. Looking behind, we can see Cascade
Mountain towering above the valley. On the right is Rundle,
which was named in honor of an early missionary to the
Indians.
At Bankhead is located the Bankhead Mine, operated by the
Canadian Pacific and said to be the only producing anthracite
mine in Canada. Eleven coal seams have been found in this property, of which five are being worked so far. In connection with
this mine there is a briquetting plant consisting of two units
with a capacity of 500 tons in twenty-four hours. To prepare
anthracite coal for the market it is necessary to remove the
dust and impurities and separate it into different sizes. The
dust is converted into briquettes. The mine has a capacity of
1,500 tons per day, and employs an average of 300 men under
ground and 150 above ground.
Canmore is another coal - mining town. Here on the
right is obtained a striking profile of the "Three Sisters",
companion peaks that form one of the last notable sights
of the journey. The highest peak is 9733 feet in height. The
curious croups of
pillars on the right,
spme of them ten
times as tall as a
man, are made of
hard enough material to withstand the
weatherings that
have played havoc
with the surrounding
bank.    They    are
called  "hoodoos". The Three Sisters, Canmore \
Leaving    the   Rockies
43
Gap 4248    Presently we rejoin the Bow River, which
Exshaw 4261    we shall follow all the way into Calgary.
Kananaskis   4130    This river, although here a comparatively
small stream, is part of one of the greatest river systems of America, subsequently becoming a tributary of the South Saskatchewan River, which in turn joins the
north branch of that rivex to become the Saskatchewan River,
draining into Lake Winnipeg.
A bend in the road
brings us between two
almost vertical walls of
dizzy height, streaked
and capped with snow
and ice. This is "the
Gap", by which we
leave the mountains. On
our left is the Fairholme Range, opposite
it is the Goat Range.
The prominent peak
is Grotto Mountain
(8870 feet), and those
on our right are
Pigeon Mountain, Wind
Mountain, and the
Three Sisters. Contrast the ranges behind. Those on the left
are fantastically broken and castellated; the ones opposite are
massive snow-laden promontories, rising thousands of feet. They
are penetrated by enormous alcoves imprisoning all the gorgeous
hues of the prism.
The Gap
At Exshaw is located a large Portland cement mill, which has
an average output of 4,000 barrels a day. It draws its supplies
of limestone and shale from the excellent deposits close to the
mill. From here onward we first notice how an ordinary upland
stream differs from a glacier-fed river. The former, as it tumbles
from great heights, may be foamy and tumultuous, but the latter
;s always milk-green with a sediment of glacial silt. This silt is
composed of infinitesimally fine particles ground from the rocks
by the ice scraping over them.
Over the Kananaskis River, a little above its junction with
the Bow, is an iron bridge. Crossing this, we hear the roar of
the Bow's mighty cataract called Kananaskis Falls, named after
a mythical Cree chief and meaning "a tall straight pine with
branches near the top." The country in this region is full of
Indian lore. The Indians conceived the whole country as a great
giant, hence there are the Knee Hills the Hand Hills, Ghost Hills,
and many others.
Seebe
4182
Morley
4078
Radnor
8896
Cochrane
3750
Glenbow
8688
Brickburn
3485
Seebe is the site of the two hydro-electric power plants that supply Calgary
with the bulk of its electrical power.
The first plant was completed in 1911,
the second in 1915, at a total cost approximating three million dollars. Generators
with a total capacity of 29,500 horsepower aro installed in the power houses, and the v.It-
age is "stenned up" very considerably and transmitted over
high tension lines. The dam, consisting of a solid concrete
structure 600 feet in length and capable of discharging over
40,000 feet of water a second, can be clearly seen on the left
from the train.   The  same  company have  also built a dam
tP* 44
Across   Canada
across the Devil's  Canyon at Lake  Minnewanka  for  storage
purposes, for use in winter.
Morley is the modern home of the Stoney Indians, once a
very warlike race but now the most industrious of red men.
Still following the course of the Bow River, we enter the
rolling, grassy foothills, rising tier upon tier to the base of the
great ranges to which they are the outposts. At Cochrane we
are well within the foothill country. In the lower valleys can
be seen huge ranches, for this is a great stock-raising country,
and on the higher terraces can be seen great herds of cattle
and sheep. These transverse valleys are the groved courses of
ancient glaciers. Presently the foothills too give place, and are
succeeded by the first great stretches of level prairie, and we
run in between low hills to Calgary.
Calgary (Population 72,000, altitude 3439). Calgary is the
largest city in the Province of Alberta and also
between Winnipeg and Vancouver. Founded less than forty
years ago, it is now a flourishing industrial and agricultural
centre, with many manufacturing industries, and is well supplied
with clay and building stone deposits and is close to immense
developed coal areas and large developed water-powers.
At the west end of the station block is the imposing Canadian
Pacific Hotel Palliser. This handsome structure, completed in
1914, comprises ten floors in an "E" shape, which makes every
room an outside room. From the roof garden one can obtain a
beautiful view of the Rockies. At the east end of the platform is
the building of the Natural Resources Department of the Canadian Pacific, administering all the company's land, mineral and
timber interests in the West. The Canadian Pacific has a very
simple but excellent method of settling experienced irrigation
farmers on the land, giving twenty years for payment of the cost
of the land after a first payment of ten per cent has been made,
and then for a period of three years collecting only the 6 per
cent interest, thus enabling the farmer to get firmly established
on his land and his farm in full operation.- This method has been
the means of creating many fine homes and contented settlers.
• Calgary has modern facilities, electric power, -street cars, and
natural gas, which is piped from Bow Island at very cheap prices
for both manufac- ■ "% turing    and    domestic
purposes. The city s^r''*2_ ^'V      ^as     some     beautiful
parks    and    many"      ^^^^M m±. So\f courses, including
a municipal course.   ^m^S0^
<m
Palliser Hotel, Calgary Branches    from    Calgary
45
-—- r       ;':\_*,w~^iE uT
Calgary
CALGARY TO EDMONTON: 194 miles
(For Map, see page 61)
Calgary
Airdrie
Crossfield
Carstairs
Didsbury
Olds
Innisfail
Red Deer
From Calgary an important branch line runs
north to Edmonton, passing through and
serving an exceptionally rich region well
suited for mixed farming and especially for dairying. This district, as a matter of fact, is one
of the most successful dairying areas of Alberta,
which fact is testified by the large number of
creameries situated along the line. For about
thirty miles after leaving Calgary the line skirts
the extreme western boundary of the Canadian Pacific Irrigation
Block. As far as Crossfield the character of the country is
very similar to that along the main line east of Calgary —
undulating prairie with very little timber; but from this
point north, generally called "Central Alberta", the keynote
changes. The country is more wooded, bush will be seen everywhere, gradually increasing in size 'the farther north we go,
until at Edmonton the trees are almost continuous. At Olds
is one of the Agricultural Schools established by the Province
of Alberta, where practical courses in agriculture, animal husbandry and domestic science are available for farmers' sons
and daughters. Red Deer (population 3000), is the commercial
centre of this mixed farming and dairying district. Situated on
the Red Deer River about midway between Calgary and Edmonton, it is a well-established city, with many factories and
distributing houses. In the neighborhood are found coal, clay,
gravel and sand deposits.
From Red Deer a branch line runs west to Rocky Mountain House
(62 miles) *passing through a very beautiful mixed farming country
with large hay areas. Sylvan Lake, on this line, is a very popular
resort for Calgary and Edmonton people. At Rocky Mountain House
we cross the North Saskatchewan River, and westward a road lies to
the Brazeau coal fields in the foothills of the Rockies.
Blaekfalds     Leaving Red Deer we cross the Red Deer River
Lacombe and run through some very picturesque country,
well adapted to mixed farming and stock raising;
as a matter of fact, all the territory from Calgary north has
seen a large number of prize cattle raised. Lacombe (population 1800) is another important centre, and is the site of a Dominion Government Experimental Farm. About eight miles west
is another highly popular summer resort, Gull Lake.
From Lacombe a branch runs in an easterly direction .through Oentral Alberta and Saskatchewan, to Kerrobert (223 miles), where It
joins  the  line  running  north-westerly from Moose  Jaw  to  Macklin 46
Across   Canada
(see page 66). The region through which this line passes is a prosperous mixed farming one, with an important dairying industry.
Sodium sulphate deposits are found near Fusilier, coal mines at3
Nevis, and some fine clay deposits at Alix. Along "the line are some
flourishing towns, such as Clive, Alix, Erskine, Stettler, Gadsby,
Castor, Coronation, Consort, Monitor, Compeer, ste. From Coronation, an important centre and divisional point (population. 1,200), »n-
other branch runs north 25 miles to Lorraine.
Ponoka
Wetaskiwin
Millet
Leduc
Strathcona
Resuming  our journey towards  Edmonton, we
continue  through  the  same  prosperous  dairying and. mixed farming country. Ponoka is the
site of the. provincial asylum for the insane.   At
Wetaskiwin we meet the Winnipeg to Edmonton line  (see page 77). Wetaskiwin  (from the
Indian name "Hills of Peace") is a city of some 2,500 inhabitants, backed up §J|
by a good coun- m
try and a devel-                                        ,\
oped lumber industry    to    the
west, nearer the
ii o u ii t a i n s.
Coal, marl  and
clay are in the
vicinity.      Running   north   we
pass through  a
park-like   country, well settled
and   productive
of   good   crops
and    stock,    to
Str at he o n a,
which is now part of the city of Edmonton
Edmonton by a good street car service.
E- ? >
Parliament Buildings, Edmonton
It is connected with
Edmonton Alt. 2183. Population 66,000, capital of the Province . of Alberta, is situated on both
sides of the North Saskatchewan River. The portion on the south
bank was originally known as Strathcona, the two cities being
amalgamated in 1912. The Canadian Pacific enters Edmonton by
means of a magnificent steel high-level bridge, 2250 feet long,
152 feet above water level, which carries also treet car tracks
and traffic roads. This bridge was opened in 1913. Edmonton
was established as a trading post of the Hudson's Bay Company
in 1795; the magnificent buildings of the Province of Alberta
now being located on the site made historic by the original trading post of Fort Edmonton. The old Fort was dismantled only a
few years ago. The University of Alberta, the Robertson
Presbyterian College, Alberta Methodist College, and many
other educational institutions are situated here. The city is
run on very progressive municipal lines, and owns and operates
all its own public utilities. It is the distributing centre for the
vast Peace River country to the north and northwest, and is also
the centre of an important and rapidly developing coal industry,
the productioin of the mines in and around Edmonton being over
4,500 tons per day.
There are many points for summer vacation within easy reach,
including the very fine Lake Wabamun, which is well patronized
during the summer months. Sixty miles west of the city
at Rocky Rapids there is large water power available for
development. It will be noted with some interest that Edmonton is approximately the centre of the Province of Alberta
from North to South, and that there is yet a vast territory
to be developed. Southern   Alberta
47
EDMONTON, DUNVEGAN & BRITISH COLUMBIA
RAILWAY
The Edmonton, Dunvegan & British
tending northwestward from Edmonton
miles) with a branch from McLennan to
is now being operated by the Canadian
of the most fertile sections of the great
thus rendered accessible.
Columbia Railway, ex*
to Grande Prairie (416
Peace River (50 miles)
Pacific Railway. Some
Peace River district are
CALGARY TO LETHBRIDGE: 126 miles; and MACLEOD
108 miles
(For Map, see page 61)
From Calgary an important branch line runs
south to Lethbridge through a very prosperous
agricultural country. Midnapore is the site of a
well-known orphanage founded by Father Lacombe, one of tne most famous pioneers of the
West, West of Okotoks, in the Turner Valley,
is the Dingman oil field, which has been producing a high grade gasoline since 1916 and
where large natural gas deposits abound. The
towns in this region are well-developed and flourishing. East of Kirkcaldy and Blackie there is
some particularly good country. Nobleford is the home of one
of the largest individual farming organizations in Canada, owning and operating upward of 30,000 acres of land. It was on
this farm that a measured tract of land of one thousand acres
produced in 1916 an average of 54% bushels of Marquis wheat
to the acre, and on a tract of 1075 acres in 1915 produced an
average of 126 bushels of Banner oats to the acre. At Kipp we
meet the Crow's Nest Pass line (see page 58) and in a few
minutes are in Lethbridge.
Calgary
Midnapore
Okotoks
Aldersyde
Blackie
Kirkcaldy
Carmangay
Nobleford
Kipp
Lethbridge
Aldersyde.
High River
Nanton
Stavely
Claresholm
Macleod
From Aldersyde a branch runs direct to Macleod";
through an old settled country running right
back to the foothills of the Rocky Mountains,
which, for a considerable part of the journey,
are plainly visible on the western horizon. This
region is a great grain and stock country, famous for many years back as the location of some
celebrated ranches, of which the "Bar U', near High River, is
probably the largest. H.R.H. the Prince of Wales owns a
ranch near the Bar U. The country is a beautiful one, and in
the Highwood River district there is a well-known sporting ranch,
the "T. S." In the foothills are large coal measures and indications of iron ore deposits. Many very valuable clay deposits are found, and also a first class building stone. At
Macleod we join the Crow's Nest Pass line (see page 58).
The T. S. Ranch House, near High River. 48
Aero ss   Canada
SOUTHERN BRITISH COLUMBIA ROUTE
THE KETTLE VALLEY RAILWAY, HOPE TO  MIDWAY:
296 miles
(For Map, see page 49)
Altitudes   shown  in  feet
In addition to the main line, the traveller has an alternative
route through the mountains—that, namely, through the Lake
region of Southern British Columbia. This route comprises
first the Kettle Valley Railway as far as Midway, thence the
Canadian Pacific through the Crow's Nest Pass. The interesting and varied characteristics and resources of the country
traversed claim the attention of the traveller, whether sportsman in search of hunting grounds, fisherman longing for the
haunts of the speckled trout, sturdy miner, weary business man,
hardy woodsman, fruit grower, or artistic temperament who delights in the marvellous scenic attractions of the Kettle Valley
line. The "Coast Kootenay Limited" operates as a j through
train from Vancouver to Nelson.
Vancouver
Hope
Jessica
Portia
Coquihalla
Brodie
The through train follows the Canadian
150 Pacific route along the Fraser River for
1307 some 89 miles as far as Hope. Here it
1917 crosses the river on a half-million dollar
3652 steel bridge to the metals of the Kettle
3022 Valley line. The route we follow is the
Coquihalla Pass through the Cascade
Mountains, following up the Coquihalla River and climbing
somewhat abruptly. The scenery is characterized by rugged
grandeur; vegetation disappears, and the solid rock crags and
peaks stand out in prominence as if defying the hand of man.
But typifying the supremacy of technical skill, the roadbed, as it
follows up the gorge, is hewn out of solid rock. Here on a shelf
on the mountain side, or there piercing a jutting promontory with
a tunnel, it pursues its onward way. One of the crowning engineering achievements of the line will be seen at Othello, the
"Quintette Tunnels". Just before this station are located five
tunnels in such perfect alignment that a view is obtained through
all five of them at once.
At the portal of each
tunnel the walls rise sheer
for hundreds of feet, while .
the gap to the next
tunnel is bridged by a
steel span. Underneath,
the Coquihalla
River, now a raging torrent, zigzags its way between each of the tunnels.
Coquihalla Lake is a
gem of the mountains, its
Waters teeming with
trout.
From Brodie a branch
line of the Kettle Valley
Railway, 65 miles in
length, runs to Spence's
Bridge, on the main line
of the Canadian Pacific
Railway. (See page 20).
The route is through a
prosperous agricultural
and mining district.
From this branch, another, 7 miles long, runs
from  Merritt  to  Nicola. Quintette Tunnels, Coquihalla Canyon MEDICINE HATffl
Suffield
i Dunmore
Bow Island
!   I
Manyberries
I
Bassano
Lomond.     Barons
Blackie
Claresholm.
Grassy    VF<>Kanost
Cake    /
Taber*
Coutfe
irling
Raymond
Kipp\ |
O Cardston
MACLEOD [
CALGARY
. Nanton
ligh River
ALDERSYDE .1
Pmcher ggi
ML
,.,.vS)l"/'l      ..,
,.^»". ;  |
E.•••'--'"ii\E
•'/||V<-
lift*
„\\«lll,   "'       &"*■-
■\*-
d f    ..«• m^V*'*' .-•   "i»*7- ^ ■'mt\f>..m A'p<^*«Riv*>;,.iv      ,s     ~      v-     .«?
kCRAN brook .-
pdhmacheen r>  ,>(,;;; ^ ^^^I^S^S^
-->..;„ *«»*>* ;*""   V Q^ton^f |//^^,J3ormer,sFerrY,
^^^-'"1 *%&' --%>"".. v\W//;.:••"%- - v/resi<
b^>^*?/^CiOLDEN    ^></,?>"/^ ^'Kootenay.Landing
Sr:     §Yt/jy -•■ *"*■ "Vtfc* i" Kootenay LalteJ<i}2A—-^
■"'''/ii^''^'//ivv>-,//////# ^ht\w
ti?
C?^«    .-• o'""<->i 1-    ^.Lardeau
'|U** I
Sa
.... glacierjQ^^qJ
Procter
'o ^Vi?Sanc
1 South ^^^
MVA>
?int*
. *'/ip»*
%#3glocai
T7 CitV
•^"•^-g
REVELSTOKE  "^^
&£g^L
4.
«*
....  '(/.L
•im    ■i'1
«fr
•<i«P
^
WSP
*pv
•mo"
SPOKANE©
SICAMOUS
'fitYf'fF^-
Okanagari
JLanding
 Kelowna
4!^
W""'^
f\^-
jpjPhoehix ,
Greenwood v
IMIDWAY" 4%h%
«?,.
'/«'
Kamloops
Peachland^^
Nicola ^ fl Princeton
Carmii i""-.
PENTICTON
7/i««".
''//i**.
Merritt'
Fraser River
SPENCE'S BRIDG
3rookmere"
BRODIE
'■IIS5-
f
Ho^-e    |
vPETArN
f
*/ii*
J Mission
luntangdon
VANCOUVER
Indicates Double Track
VANCOUVER TO MEDICINE HAT
Via Kettle Valley Railway and Craw's Nest Pass
li 50
Across   Canada
■
Brookmere 3220 Leaving Brodie, which is situated on the
Tulameen 2941 Coldwater River, we ascend to Brookmere,
Coalmont 2574 and then descend again through the Otter
Princeton       2111    Valley, a rich agricultural district where
meadows and fields form a pleasant contrast to the mountain background. Otter Lake is one of the
most  beautiful   of
British  Columbia's ^k
many  inland  bod- ^g ;/|j|     -jfe™^
ies   of water,  and , «*S jjj! ^
abounds with fish.
Passing on along
the Tulameen
River we reach
Coalmont, at the
junction of Granite Creek, which
was the scene of
much activity in
placer mining in
the early days. In
this locality are deposits in more or
less degree of almost every known
mineral. From here
the descent is made to Princeton, a thriving little city at .the
Tulameen and Similkameen Valleys. Extensive coal fields are
operated here.
Fourteen miles to the south is the famous Copper Mountain mining
district,  to  which a branch  line  runs  from Princeton.
Okanagan   Lake
Jura
Osprey Lake
Kirton
West Summerland
pursuit well repaid.
3065 Following along a timbered belt for
3606 some fifteen miles, past a fertile
2999 agricultural district near Jura, the
1729 ■ ascent is made to Osprey Lake,
where the fisherman will find his
Then we follow up Trout Creek through
a picturesque canyon. From here we begin to descend towards
the Okanagan Valley, skirting first the edge of the West Summerland Valley. A view of the Okanagan Valley, "the California of Canada", suddenly bursts into sight, the placid Okanagan Lake with Lake Skaha to the south, and between them
PentictOn. Bordering the lake beauiful homes surrounded by
orchards reach to the mountain background.
Penticton      1132      Penticton (population 4,000), with its mild
even climate, never excessively hot or cold,
beckons one to forget care and become a child again among its
fruits and flowers.      Just
across the street from the ijm
station is the Incola Hotel,
operated by the Kettle
Valley
Railway,
a finely
appointed
hostelry.
The dining
room has
in store a
pleasan t
surprise—
eggs, butter, cream,
vegetables
i
^^^^^^^m
■gsaS&Ss*'"
Incola  Hotel,  Penticton Kettle   Valley   Route
51
and fruit fresh daily from the railway's experimental farm. Facing the hotel and just across the Lake Shore Drive is the bathing
beach, a most delightful fresh water beach, where bathing may
be enjoyed from early spring until late autumn. The beach of
pure sand slopes gradually out for several hundred feet. The
Aquatic Club building is adjacent, and its privileges are available to visitors. Excellent motor roads radiate in all directions,
and drives may be taken along the Lake Shore Drive to Summer-
land and Peachland, among the orchards, where in proper
season luscious peaches, pears, apricots, apples and grapes
may be gathered. To the south, around Lake Skaha, a magnificent view of the surrounding country is obtained, on past
Swan Lake to the international boundary, or to the westward
over a mountain pass to the Similkameen Valley, the
roads over the mountains being almost the equal of a
city boulevard. Near at hand from the Incola HoteL is
a nine-hole golf course. lushing for silverside trout is
good in both the Okanagan and Skaha Lakes, nearly
all the year around, and mountain trout are found
in abundance in any of the numerous streams flowing into the lake. In a two hours' journey by train
up the east side of the lake, those who are fond of deer
hunting will find splendid sport in proper season. The Okanagan Valley is becoming every year more and more of a popular
summer resort, especially with the people from the neighboring
prairie country, and Penticton has a growing tourist business.
Penticton is the southern terminus of the Canadian Pacific Railway
steamers on Okanagan Lake. (See page 22). A delightful trip up
the lake and return the same day may be taken on the palatial
steamers "Okanagan" or "Sicamous".
Leaving Penticton, we begin to climb
again, passing along the shores of Chute
Lake. A very interesting section of this
line is the Canyon Creek loops, which
present some novel engineering feats and some magnificent scenery. Through the rugged rock walls at the
entrance to the canyon is seen a glimpse of the fertile valley
below.
We can here take a last look backward.
The Kelowna Valley is seen in the distance,    a   panorama    beautiful    beyond
comparison, the orchard tracts reaching
from the shores of the Okanagan Lake
to  the  foothills  of the  mountains,  the
blossoms of fruit trees rrfingling with the verdant green of the
mountain side.    McCulloch is the summit.    Within a mile and
a half of this point are seven lakes, all of them abounding with
trout.    Bear hunting is good in this locality, also goat hunting
in  season.    At   Carmi   there   is   considerable   development   in
gold and silver mining.    Passing through a rich agricultural district    where
f ru it   and
grain  is  ex-
tensivel y
grown,      we
reach     Midway, the terminus of the
Kettle Valley
Railway,
whence    our
train  contin-
ue s     over
Canadian Pacific metals. Through the Boundary Country
Glen   Fir
2592
Adra
3208
Chute Lake
3911
McCulloch
4144
Carmi
2192
Westbridge
2070
Rock Creek
1994
Midway
1914 52
Across   Canada
MIDWAY TO NELSON: 126 miles
(For Map, see page 49)
Altitudes shown in feet
Greenwood        2464    From  Midway  Boundary  Creek is  fol-
Eholt 3096    lowed to Greenwood.    Greenwood is an-
Grand Forks 1764 other prosperous mining town. The entire district is highly mineralized with
gold, silver and copper, many different mines and aerial tramways being in view. From Eholt a branch extends to the various mines at Phoenix and its vicinity, properties which, though
not working at present, have in the past yielded enormous
profits. From here to Grand Forks the line follows the north
fork of the Kettle River. The surrounding country is magnificent; towering mountains alternate with charming vistas of
small lakes, ranches and the river. Far below the north fork
branch of the Kettle Valley Railway follows the river windings
to the timber and mining districts at Lynch Creek. Grand Forks
(vopulation 2000) is the business centre of the region; it is a
well-built modern town on the bank of the Kettle River, with
large cooper smelting, lumbering and fruit-growing interests.
At Cascade we are so close to the United
States boundary that it is actually within
sight. The falls of the Kettle River, just
west of the station, are the source of
much electric power development. At Gilpin the orchard district of the Kettle
some distance beyond Grand Forks, is
Cascade 1587
Farron 3985
Tunnel 3240
West Robson 1414
Castlegar 1418
Valley, which extends
entered.
Leaving Cascade the line
runs in sight of
Christina Lake,
a beautiful and
placid expanse
of water that
affords excellent
bass fishing and
is the site of
many summer
homes. There is
scarcely any
more beautiful
fifty miles of
travelling  in
North America than this section through which we are passing.
Farron is the summit of the range. Through Bull Dog Tunnel
the li-ie passes under the summit west of Columbia River; but
When we emerge at the east portal the character of the landscape has undergone an entire change. The railway descends in
full view of the Columbia River for twenty-three miles, on a
2.2 grade. At West Robson connection is made with the
Arrow Lake steamers to Arrowhead and Revelstoke (see page
25). At Castlegar the Columbia River is crossed by a steel bridge.
From Castlegar a branch leads south to Trail (20 miles) and
Rossland (32 miles). These points are located in the heart of
the copper-gold belt of British Columbia. At Trail are the great
smelting and refining works of the Consolidated Mining and
Smelting Company, which is the largest in Canada. This smelter treats gold, silver, lead, zinc and copper ores, and turns
out these metals in a refined state ready for the market. At
Rossland the mines have reached a high ^tate of development,
workings being down 3000 feet, and one company has 25 miles
of underground electric railway. This "Boundary country" is one
of the most prosperous mining regions of the whole of Canada.
Arrow Lakes Steamer The    Boundary    Country
53
4^&fe
Bilk
Brilliant 1478    Trom  here   on the  orchard  country  is
South Slocan 1637 massed, in full view from the train. At
Bonnington 1658 Brilliant is a very interesting settlement of Doukhobors, an intensely religious Russian sect who live strictly on communistic lines.
The settlement numbers about
five thous-
a n d, and
the excellent physical condition of their
lands shows
them to be
an intelligent agri-
c u1tura 1
people. The
picturesque
dress of
the   women
working   in Kaslo
the      fields
always attracts the traveller's attention. The railway now parallels the Kootenay River. At South Slocan is situated "The
Pool", one of the most celebrated fishing grounds in Canada, and
the home of a particularly sporting variety of rainbow
trout. From South Slocan a branch runs up to Slocan Lake
(see page 54). At Bonnington there is a splendid view of the
awe-inspiring waterfalls of the Kootenay River.
Nelson 1781 Nelson, with a population of 8000, and charming, situated on a commanding eminence
overlooking the West Arm, is the commercial centre of the Kootenay district, and practically of the entire Southern British
Columbia region. At the convergence of lake and rail systems,
it is an attractive city in which life passes very pleasantly.
The people of Nelson say, in fact, that God practised first on
Switzerland before making British Columbia, and compare the
location of their city to Lucerne. Nelson is the centre of the
"Boundary" mining district ^immediately behind it is a wonderful mountain in which is located the famous "Silver King"
mine from
which over
ten million
dollars o f
tre asure
have been
taken. Nelson has several sawmills that
supply the
prairies
and is the
market
place for a
very large
fruitregion.
In the
neighborhood are hot spring, glaciers, great cataracts, and fishing lodges,
within easy reach is excellent trout-fishing.
Through Journey to Medicine flat continued on paae 55.
Nelson 54
Across   Canada
NELSON TO KASLO: 54 miles
Nelson
Procter
Ainsworth
Kaslo
From Nelson a Canadian Pacific steamer service
runs daily (except Sunday) up Kootenay Lake
to the prosperous mining and fruit-farming district of Kaslo. Leaving Nelson in the afternoon
the route is back along the West Arm of the Lake
to Procter, and then north. The lake affords magnificent scenery
—on one hand soft and rounded landscapes, on the other deep
canyons, snowcapped and timber-covered mountains, and gla-
ciers. On the west side of the lake are the Selkirks, the
highest pe-'tk of which, Mount Loki, is near Kaslo, and on the
east side is the Purcell Range.
Ainsworth is a mining camp, the oldest in West Kootenay.
Across the lake lies the famous Blue Bell mine. It is an interesting sight to see the crushed ore being floated down the lake to
the smelter, most of it in4;his district being sent to Trail. Kaslo,
as the central point of
the north end of the lake,
is the chief distributing
point and residential centre for the surrounding
mining districts. It is a
charming spot that is
rapidly coming to the
front as a holiday resort
for prairie people. Good
boating, swimming and
fishing are to be obtained. A fairly large
amount of fruit is raised
around Kaslo, the Kaslo
cherries being celebrated. Trail Smelter
Kaslo From Kaslo  an extension  of the steamer service
Lardeau    runs up the Lake to Larrdeau (19 miles), near the
Gerrard     northern end, on a weekly service.    From Lardeau
there is  a rail  service   (33 miles)   to  Gerrard, at
the south end of Trout Lake.
KASLO TO NAKUSP: 66 miles
Kaslo
Sandon
Rosebery
Nakusp
From Kaslo a branch line runs to Nakusp, on
Arrow Lake (see page 25). Striking through the
deeply-eroded gorge of the Kaslo river, the line
brings the traveller to Sandon, on a spur line from
Parapet. Sandon is one of the most celebrated mining camps in British Columbia, as well as one of the steepest.
All this country is a great silver-lead territory. From Sandon the railway runs to Rosebery, on the northern shore of
Slocan Lake, and thence over a fairly considerable grade
to Nakusp.
NELSON TO ROSEBERY: 65 miles
Nelson
South Slocan
Slocan City
Silverton
New Denver
Rosebery
From South Slocan a branch runs up to Slocan
City, at the lower end of beautiful Slocan Lake,
a smaller brother of Kootenay Lake. From
here a Canadian Pacific steamer can be taken
up the lake to Rosebery. Silverton is a mining
camp with a large silver-lead output. New
Denver is more of a residential town, facing a
glacier of considerable size and with charming orchards, flowers
and gardens. At Rosebery the railway line from Kaslo to
Nakusp is joined. Kootenay   La k e
55
NELSON TO MEDICINE HAT: 466 miles
(For Map, see page 49)
Altitudes shown in feet
Nelson
Kootenay Leading
1781     Resuming    the    through    journey
1768    from Nelson, we take a Canadian
Pacific lake steamer for a journey
across Kootenay Lake for Kootenay Landing.    Our course first
of all is down the West Arm, a narrow sheet of water running
in a north-easterly direction.    Passing Procter, a popular summer resort that is also connected with Nelson by rail, we turn
into the Lake proper.    Kootenay Lake is a beautiful lake between two separate     ranges _ .•-.
of the Selkirks
and runs about
seventy   miles
almost     due
north  and
south.     On
either side, the
gigantic mountains,   dipping
sometim e s
steeply      into
the   water,   at
other       times
gliding as they
meet the lake into little ledges of fertile land, afford most magnificent scenery. The steamer trip occupies about four hours,
with calls at a number of small settlements en route. At Kootenay Landing we change to the waiting train that will bear us
eastward through the Crow's Nest Pass.
An Architectural Bridge, Spokane
Sirdar
Creston
Erickson
Yahk
1802 Leaving the lake behind, the well-known
1983 fruit district of the Creston Valley is en-
2106 tered. This is a famous strawberry • and
2817 apple-producing region, orchards having
already been planted capable of producing
500 cars annually. An important undertaking at Creston is
the Kootenay Flats! reclamation project, which involves ^ the
reclaiming of some 77,000 acres of rich delta land in British
Columbia and Idaho from the flood waters of the Kootenay
River. Plans for the carrying out of the scheme are now engaging the attention of the governments concerned. We are
now climbing towards the summit of the Selkirks. Crossing
the gorge of the Goat River Canyon, through which the river
flows in a raging torrent 165 feet below the railway bridge, we
follow Kid Creek. Near here are great iron deposits and large
tracts of timber. Next the railway penetrates a thickly
wooded, heavily-timbered country.
From Yahk a short branch runs south to Kingsgate, on the international boundary between British Columbia and the State of Idaho.
From the latter point the system of the Spokane International Railway
runs to Spokane, a distance of 151 miles. The route is along the picturesque Moyie River, the Kootenay River, and the Pend Oreille River
through the beautifully located towns of Bonner's Ferry and Sand
Point. This is an important lumbering, mining, dairying and fruitgrowing district. Spokane (population 125,000) is the metropolis of
the eastern part of the State of Washington, and affords access to
points in the United States in all directions. A through service is
maintained between Spokane and Calgary.
3045    We take a winding course along Moyie Lake,
8013    a beautiful sheet of water ten miles long.
The town is situated at the southern end,
near which are the St. Eugene group of mines.
Moyie
Cranbrook 56
Across  Canada
Crow's Nest Mountain
C r^a n b r o o k
(p o pul a ti c n
4000) is charmingly situated
in   a   hill - girt *
valley,   sur-        ,/
ro u n d e d by a     ,^Y
dense   forest i
growth, and ■.
overlooked   b y |§|yj||
the white tipped  §S!*|I
peak  of  Baker.
It is the centre
of trade for the
mining interests j
of'the locality
as-well as for
the rapidly
growing ranching industrv. In the lateral valleys are fine agricultural lands
that are rapidly attracting settlers. Cranbrook is the principal
lumber manufacturing point of East Kootenay.
From Cranbrook a branch runs to Marysville and Kimberley (19
miles). At Kimberley is the Sullivan Mine, said to be the greatest
known deposit of. silver-lead-zinc in the world, with $350,000,000
worth of ore blocked out. At Wycliffe is one of the largest lumbering enterprises in interior British Columbia.
Wardner      2484     For a while we now follow the west bank of
Colvalli 2652     the Kootenay River, past  Saunders Peak,
Caithness     2847    Mount Fisher, the Steeples, and Sand Creek
Range. This river, which is here nearly
800 feet wide, flows south into Idaho, but returns to pour its
flood into Kootenay Lake. At Gardner we cross it by a magnificent truss bridge with a swing span to allow of the passage of
steamers.
Colvalli is the junction point for the Lake Windermere branch to
G-olden on the main line (see page 31). From Caithness a shore
branch extends to Waldo  (10 miles).
Elko 3082    The Elk River Canyon, extending several miles
Fernie      3306    and   witnessing   a   600   foot   water   drop,   is
wild and beautiful. Tobacco Plains, to the
south is a fertile country which is attracting settlement. We
cross the Elk River, pass Morrisey Creek, and traverse thickly-
timbered woods, fir, tamarac and cedar growing in large quantities.
Fernie (population 4000) is a thriving mining town with
an output of about a million tons. It has some seven hundred
coke ovens in operation. The town is the wholesale distributing
and outfitting centre for a large district and one of the more
important points on the splendid government highway from
Alberta to the international boundary.
Natal 3775    Michel   is   the  junction   of  Michel   Creek
Michel 3861     with the Elk River.    As the train swings
Crow's Nest   4444    off to the  east, huge rugged mountains
appear on either side, and coal outcrop-
pings also. It threads its way along the steep side of the mountain. Then comes the "Loop", where the line makes some amazing turns and twists, doubling back to within a stone's throw of
itself at a higher level. Three miles are covered to make this
distance of less than 200 feet. Passing Summit Lake, we are
at the summit of the Rockies and on the boundary between
British Columbia and Alberta, 1
Ceow's   Nest   Pass
57
Looking to the
north - east, the
first view of
Crow's Nest
Mountain (9138
feet) is obtained.
This circular
monolith, its base
deeply tinted i n
purple and green,
its crown capped
in a dazzling
mass of snow and
ice, dominates the
entire region.
Various reasons have been advanced for the origin of the name
"Crow's Nest", but the soundest is apparently that it commemorates a massacre of the Crow Indians by the Blackfeet Indians
in the later part of last century, on the spot now covered by the
Frank Slide.
Ten miles before we reach Crow's Nest station, which is the
end of the British Columbia operating district of the railway,
we pass Crows nest Lake (altitude 4390 feet), a beautiful sheet
of water often called the birthplace of the prairie winds, although
the frequent calmness of the lake rather belies that description.
Mining, Crow's Nest Pass
Coleman
Blairmore
Frank
Hi Merest
4305
4228
4205
4114
Coal underlies a large portion of this region,
and is seen outcropping in many places.
Mines are in operation at several points, the
Crow's Nest Pass district oeing a very large
producing one. The mountains rise in great
masses on either side, entrance being* gained by a narrow defile
beside Turtle Mountain. Blairmore (population 1800) is a
r~ ^porous mining community, and Frank is another. The
latter was the scene in 1903 of a terrible catastrophe that is
still well-remembered—the "Frank Slide", when part of the
mountain slid down and wiped out the town. Some of the debris
can still be seen. The present town is situated some distance
from the old one.    Hillcrest is yet another mining town.
Cowley     3884    Near Cowley is lvlassacre Butte, commemorat-
Pincher   37&4    ing a tragic episode of the pioneering days
when the settler's life was harassed by hostile
Indians. Four miles east of Pincher, Pincher Creek is crossed
by a long bridge; in a valley to the right is an Indian Industrial School. Looking backward, the Rockies are almost
continually in view, rising sharp and clear out of the western
horizon, while in the intervening country is a .panorama of
undulating  plain.    The  numerous   streams  are  full  of  trout,
Lethbridge Viaduct 58
Across   Canada
Lethbridge
while farther on in the mountains the more venturesome sportsman can gratify his ambition amongst the grizzly and black
bear,  elk, mountain sheep  and mountain  goat.
The railway passes to the south of the Porcupine Hills, between which and the Livingstone range of the Rockies there is
an ideal farming country.    Still descending, we reach Macleod.
Macleod   3109    Macleod   (population 2000)   was   one   of  the
pioneer settlements of the south and the headquarters for this territory of the famous Royal Northwest
Mounted Police (now merged with the Royal Canadian Mounted
Police). It is a prosperous town in a big wheat growing territory, and is a coal and lumber distribution point. Irrigation
projects are contemplated in the district south of it.
From   Macleod  a   branch  runs   north   to   Calgary   via  High   River
(see page  47).
Monarch 3097 Monarch, another old trading post, affords on
Kipp 3053   a clear day a view of the Rockies, the square-
topped giant to the south, almost fifty miles
away, being the "Chief", which lies partly in Canada and partly
in the United States. Kipp, at the confluence of the Lethbridge
and St. Mary's River, is an old trading point that was the
scene of many a conflict between the Indians and the early
white  traders.
From  Kipp   a  line runs  north  to   Calgary,   via   Carmangay.     (See
page 47).
West of Lethbridge there has been completed by the Canadian Pacific Railway one of the most gigantic engineering
works in Canada. This is the bridging of the Lethbridge and
Old Man Rivers by two immense steel viaducts, one 5325 feet
in length with a maximum height above the river of 314 feet,
and the other 199 feet in length, with a height above the river
of 145 feet. The cost of these works exceeded two million dollars.
Nearly 650 cars were required to transport the steel used in the
construction of these viaducts.
Lethbridge 2976 (Population 14,500), is an important commercial city with five parks (one of which
faces the station), electric light and power, and splendid buildings. Situated on the Old Man River, it is a Canadian Pacific divisional and junction point, it is a prosperous wholesale as well
as an agricultural centre. The city has seven coal mines within
five miles, producing a high grade lignite coal that has a
market extending as far east as Winnipeg. Two of these, the
Galt Mines, operated by the Canadian Pacific, are right at the
city limits. The industries of Lethbridge include flour milling
and the manufacture of macaroni, while the wool shipments
are larger than those of any other point in Canada. A Dominion
Experimental Farm is located here for dry and irrigated farming experiments. I 1
Southern   Alberta
59
LETHBRIDGE TO COUTTS AND MANYBERRIES:   104 iniles
(For map, see page 49).
From Lethbridge a branch runs south to the International Boundary to Coutts, through the irrigated area
and a fine ranching and stock country. At Stirling a
branch runs west to Cardston (66 miles from Lethbridge), passing through a very fully developed agricultural country which was at one time a large producer
of sugar beets. This territory is settled to some extent
by the Mormons, who have very large agricultural in-
carry on an extensive cattle raising business.
Lethbridge
Stirling
Warner
Coutts
Raymond
Magrath
Cardston
terests and
Stirling
Foremost
Nemiscam
FakowfeL
Manyberries
From Stirling we turn east along the branch that will
eventually connect Lethbridge with Weyburn and the
Southern Saskatchewan line (see page 66). South
of Foremost a very heavy producing gas well was
brought in some years ago, and is now capped
awaiting development. There are several large lakes
in this territory, the biggest being Pakowki Lake. It is a somewhat
irregular country with large "coulees", such as Etzikom Coulee.
The country is still in process of settlement, but the towns are
building up as basinets develops. mmj
Coaldale 2821
Taber 2663
Grassy Lake 2644
Burdett 2568
The Canadian Pacific Railway owns an
irrigation block of some 120,000 acres
the    Lethbridge    territory,    settled
m
largely with American farmers, who
have made it one of the most prosperous agricultural communities of Western Canada. Improved
farms in this locality have changed hands at $150.00 and upwards per acre. It is a great alfalfa growing district, and the
beautiful table-land area around Coaldale will be especially
noticed. Farmers living outside the irrigation area are bringing
about an extension of the canals to cover many thousands more
acres, and the time is not far distant when all this south
country that is capable of irrigation will be served by the
ditch.
Bow Island
Dunmore
Medicine Hat
2612 North of Bow Island is a great natural
2899 gas area, from which the city of Calgary
2181 and other communities en route are supplied with gas through a pipe line some
170 miles in length. In this field there are wells producing
from one and a quarter million to twenty-nine million cubic
feet of^gas per day. Gas has also been found and is being drilled
for at Barnwell, 35 miles farther on, and at Monarch, beyond
Lethbridge. At Dunmore we reach the main line of the Canadian Pacific Railway, and thence double back seven miles to
Medicine Hat.
(For description of main route east of Medicine Hat see page 60)
yiifhE^
Irrigating in Southern Alberta.
IN *ef
Across   Canada
Canadian Pacific Supply Farm, Strathmore
CALGARY TO WINNIPEG: 832 miles
Calgary
Ogden
Shepard
Langdon
(For Map, see page 61)
Resuming the eastward transcontinental journey,
from Calgary onward we leave the foothill country
and are on the prairies proper. From here to
Winnipeg we will travel across them continuously.
This vast region of the prairies forms a mammoth
agricultural area of almost limitless possibilities. The three
provinces of Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta contain a
land area of 466,000,000 acres. Of this amount, the conservative
estimate has been made that at least 200,000,000 acres are first-
class agricultural land that will raise the finest of crops. At the
present time, less than 35,000,000 acres are actually under cultivation, and the population of this vast area is only roughly a
million and three-quarters. Of the remaining 165,000,000 odd
acres of available good farming land, considerably over 30,000,-
000 acres are within a radius of fifteen miles of existing railroads. From here, too, we shall steadily descend until at
Winnipeg we are over 2,600 feet lower than at Calgary.
Leaving Calgary, we pass a huge flour mill under construction, a cement plant, a packing-house, stock yards, and other
industries, and cross first the Elbow River, and then the Bow
River. At Ogden, on the north side of the track, are the large
construction and repair shops of the Canadian Pacific, the Ogden
Shops.
From Shepard to Grleichen there are two lines, one running to the
south and touching the-well-developed farming points of Strangmuir,
Carseland and Dalemead, the other, the old main line through Kamaka
and   Strathmore.
From Langdon a branch line runs north through the Irrigation
Block to Acme, whence it is being constructed into the Drumheller
coal fields. From Irricana, about 25 miles up this line, a branch runs
soith-easteily to Bassano  (see page 62).
Strathmore      We now enter the three million acre Irrigation
Namaka . Block of the Canadian Pacific, extending almost
to Alderson, a distance of over 140 miles. This
is the largest individual irrigation project on the continent, and
is divided into three sections. Work was completed about ten
years ago on the western section, and the greater part of the
land in that area has been settled. The eastern section, extending from Bassano to Alderson, is almost entirely completed, and
is now being settled. From Calgary for several miles eastward
the line traverses the Western Section, and the canals and
ditches are crossed at several points.. Irrigated farms are seen
on each side of the track. Strathmore is the headquarters of
the western section of the Irrigation Block. It has a large
Canadian Pacific -Supply Farm which suppliss, from its own
production and by purchase from surrounding farmers, the
western  dining car system  and hotels  of the company with Indicates Double Track
CALGARY TO WINNIPEG 62
Across   Canada
Bassano Dam
cream, butter, eggs, poultry, vegetables and other commodities.
There is not the same necessity for irrigation in this region
as there is in most "dry" regions of the United States, but the
advantage of irrigation to Southern Alberta is that it increases
the crop yield and ensures a crop every year. The growing
of many profitable crops not ordinarily raised in this region, such
as that very paying fodder crop alfalfa, is also made possible
by the use of irrigation.
Gleichen Near  Gleichen  is  a large  reservation  occupied
Cluny by the Blackfoot Indians, some of whom are fre-
Crowfoot        quently   seen   about   the   station.    There   is   an
Indian hospital and school here. The Dominion
Government is spending large sums of money to see that its
red wards are well cared for, and is assisting them to enter agriculture and other peaceful pursuits. Cluny has a large nursery
for supplying trees to prairie farmers. At Crowfoot again are
many Indians. We can get here what will be almost our last
glimpse of the Rockies—a magnificent line of snowy peaks extending far along the southern and western horizon.
Bassano At Bassano we are in the Eastern Section of the
Lathom Irrigation Block. The source for the water used in
this section is the great Horseshoe Bend Dam, three
miles from the town in the Bow River. By means of the dam,
the ordinary water level at the site is raised 45 feet, so
that the waters flowing from the far distant eastern slope of
the Rocky Mountains are diverted through a total length of
2,500 miles of canals and distributing ditches, over about 1800
square^ miles of fertile prairie country, irrigating approximately
one-third of that amount. Altogether the structure has a total
length of nearly 7O00 feet, being made up of two main parts—
a reinforced concrete spillway, 720 feet in length, with 24 electrically-operated erates, which permit of the free passage of the
river at highest flood, and a concrete-faced earthen portion of a
maximum height and width of 45 and 350 feet respectively.
Leading from one end of the spillway is the main canal, 90 feet
wide, capable of discharging 3800 cubic feet of water per second
at a depth of eleven feet, through headgates which form an
integral part of the main structure.
From Bassano a branch runs west and north through the western
section of the Irrigation Block, joining at Irricana a branch running
north from Langdon, on the main line, to Beiseker and Acme (see
page  60). .
BASSANO TO EMPRESS AND SWIFT CTJRRENT:  236 miles
Bassano From Bassano a branch runs east and then south as a
Rosemary        cut-off between  this point  and   Swift   Current,   on  the
Mllllcent main line (see page 64). Traversing first the Irrigation The   Irrigation   Block
63
Patricia Block,   we   pass   within   sight   of   many   well-cultivated
Denhart irrigated    farms,    which    have    transformed    the    dry
Jenner prairie into  a prosperous  and highly-producing region.
With the advent of a large number of experienced irrigation farmers, this district is rapidly growing in importance. Leaving
the Block, we run through a sparsely-settled country. A scheme is
now under consideration to use the waters of the Red Deer River to
irrigate all the country round Jenner.
Empress
Estuary
Leader
Prelate
Sceptre
Abbey
Cabri
Pennant
Success
Java
Swift Current
Empress is a divisional point that with the building
up of the surrounding territory will become an important commercial centre.The railway crosses the South
Saskatchewan River here, east of which it is joined
by the Red Deer River running northwest and acting
during part of its course as the northern boundary of
the Irrigation Block. A new branch is under construction from near Prelate in a south-westerly direction towards Medicine Hat. The country through
which we pass is a typical prairie one of good promise and excellent settlement, with many growing
towns.    At   Swift   Current  we   rejoin   the   main   line.
Brooks Thirty miles east of Bassano is Brooks, where
Cassils we pass another very important structure of the
. Irrigation Block in the Brooks Aqueduct. Here it
is necessary to carry water from the reservoir. Lake Newell,
across a long flat valley. This is accomplished by a reinforced
concrete flume two miles in length and in places over 50 fe^t
high. Its construction marked an interesting departure in the
matter of water transportation; it is the first aqueduct in which
the hydrostatic catenary, or elastic curve, has been adopted for
the shape of the water section. There being insufficient clearance for the flume to cross the railway overhead, the water is
carried underneath the track by means of an inverted siphon.
Bantry
Tilley
Kininvie
Alderson
Suffield
From Tilley on a very clear day the higher peaks
of the Rocky Mountains, nearly two hundred miles
distant, can be seen. Leaving the Irrigation Block,
we cross a fine stock raising country, where some
of the largest herds of Galloway cattle in Canada are to be seen.    The prairie is here seen to
advantage, and before August it is a billowy ocean of grass.
Cattle ranches are spread over it, and farms appear at intervals.
The entire country is underlaid with two or more beds of good
coal, and natural gas is freauently found in boring deep wells.
The Bow River occasionally appears to the south.
Leaving the main line at. Suffield, a branch turns west to Lomond,
skirting in part the Bow River and running through a territory of
which a large part is being put under irrigation. The many towns are
growing rapidly as settlement comes in to take up the vacant lands.
Bowell From Redcliff we can obtain a very fine view of the
Redcliff Bow River and of Medicine Hat. Natural pas plavs
a very important part in the industrial life of Redcliff e as it does of the larger city, glass, steel and other manufactures being established here. Running down the slope we
cross the South Saskatchewan River and enter Medicine Hat.
Medicine Hat     (Population 12,000, altitude 2181 feet), is the
city  that  Rudyard  Kipling  once  called  "the
town that was born lucky, with all hell for its basement."   His
Brooks Aqueduct
WW 64
Across   Ca na da
Medicine Hat
allusion was to the famous natural gas wells. The first well
was drilled in 1903; since that date 22 wells have been put
down to a depth averaging from 1000 to 1200 feet, and each
producing from two to three million cubic feet of gasper day.
The rock pressure is about 480 lbs. The area of the gas field,
so far as at present defined, is 108 square miles. The gas is
used by the many factories of Medicine Hat for power and by
the inhabitants for lighting, heating, and producing electric
light, its cost being 5 cents per thousand cubic feet for manufacturing purposes and 20 cents per thousand feet for domestic
purposes. One of the largest clay products plants in the west
is situated at Medicine Hat, which is also a large nour milling
centre, its three mills having a capacity of 4700 barrels per
day.
p|| From   Dunmore   the   important   branch   to   Lethbridge,   the   Crow's
Nest Pass, Nelson and Vancouver leaves the main line.  (See page 59).
Dunmore
Walsh
Kincorth
Maple Creek
Climbing again from Medicine Hat, and crossing the Seven Persons and Ross Creeks, we
notice the huge clay banks that are being
developed, with first-class bricks as the product. Walsh is the last town we pass in Alberta; we enter the province of Saskatchewan, the greatest
wheat-growing province of Canada, which produces over 60 per
cent, of the total wheat crop of the Dominion. Maple Creek is
a prosperous and well-built town of some 2000 inhabitants, in
a good mixed farming district. North of it is a fine grain
country, very well-settled, and south, towards the Cypress Hills,
are some interesting small irrigation projects. B|
Cross
Piapot
Crane Lake
Tompkins
Gull Lake
Seward
Eastward we travel through what was at one
time a purely ranching country but which is
to-day rapidly settling with first-class farmers.
Many of the small toWns have, sprung into
active existence within the past few years. South
are the Cypress Hills, a country valuable because of the commercial timber and extensive
clay deposits which it contains. It is still a great cattle country.
The hills increase in height as the range travels westward,
until an elevation of 4790 feet is reached.. Piapot commemorates
the name of an Indian chief who defied the Northwest Mounted
Police to move him from his reservation. His tribe numbered
several hundreds. Two policemen were sent—and suffice it to
say the Indians moved as per schedule! Gull Lake was at one
time the jumping-off place for the south country, but this traffic
is now handled by the branch line from Moose Jaw to Govenlock.
Entering Swift Current we meet the branch that serves as a
cut-off from Bassano (see page 62).
Swift Current    (Population 4500, altitude 2432 feet), is situated on a pretty stream, which, although in
summer somewhat shallow, is a very turbid body of water when Saskatchewan
65
the spring freshets are coming down. This is the end of the
AlBerta District of the railway, and the beginning of the Saskatchewan District. The city is an important one, with a large
distributing area for merchandise, reaching practically to the international boundary. Around it is a rich farming territory. A
government meteorological station is located here.
From Swift Current a short branch runs south and east, reaching
Blumenhoff, Neville and Vanguard. A new branch line is under
construction easterly from Wymark. Originally a ranching territory,
this area is now becoming settled, with grain farms and large
herds of dairy and beef stock.
Rush Lake
Herbert
Morse
Chaplin
Parkbeg
Caron
Leaving Swift Current, we wind around an unusually large roll in the prairie formation. The
prairie here is very undulating, and at times a
magnificent vista of level plain opens to the eye,
with thousands of acres of good arable land, both
cultivated and uncultivated. Rush Lake is a
hunter's paradise; there are literally millions of ducks in its
great lake and marshes during the breeding and shooting seasons. Herbert and Morse are growing towns with large tributary agricultural districts to serve. Caron supplies Moose Jaw
with part of its water supply. We pass through a somewhat
varied country where settlement has not yet spread itself over
all the available lands. Old buffalo trails can be plainly seen,
scarred and pitted on the prairie by their "wallows". In the late
eighties and early nineties great piles of buffalo bones were
stacked up, adjacent to the railway, for transportation to the
towns to be made into fertilizer. Practically the only remainder
of the huge herds of buffalo that roamed the prairies fifty years
ago are at Banff and Wainwright, in government enclosures.
Moose Jaw     (Population 25,000, altitude 1779 feet).    Moose
Jaw is the centre of a rich wheat-growing district, and an important divisional point. Its unusual name is a
contraction of an Indian word meaning "The-creek-where-the-
white-man-mended-the-cart-with-a-moose-jaw-bone,,—an illuminating sidelight on an episode of pioneering days. The city is
situated in a fine agricultural country extending from the elbow
of the Saskatchewan on the north to the Dirt Hills on the south.
The finest stockyards on the line between Winnipeg and the coast
are located here.      Mills and elevators indicate the district's
wheat-producing qualities, Moose Jaw being one
of the largest milling points in Saskatchewan. A
Dominion government interior terminal elevator,
with  a capacity   j f  3,500,000 bushels, lies  just
m-
Mooee Jaw 66
Across   Canada
west of the city. The city is an important wholesale
centre, and has cheap electric power. A new station is under
construction to handle the increasing business at this point.
Moose Jaw
Crestwynd
Expanse
Assiniboia
MOOSE JAW  TO GOVENLOCK:   263 miles
From Moose Jaw a branch runs south-westerly towards
the international boundary to Assiniboia, and then turns
abruptly to the west. The region through which we pass
is settling up fast, and is already a heavy-producing
one. Near Expanse is Lake Johnson, home of thousands
of wild duck and the Mecca of the sportsman every fall. Assiniboia
(population 1400) is a divisional point with large elevator capacity,
abundant lignite coal within seven miles, clay deposits, sand and
gravel in the immediate vicinity, and the centre of a rich grain-
growing district.
From Assiniboia a branch runs east to Weyburn, on the Soo Line
(see page 72) and continues to Stoughton on the Winnipeg-Regina
branch (see page 82). This line passes through a ranching country,
only partially settled so far but destined for great development.
Limerick
Meyronne
Kincaid
Ponteix
Gouverneur
Cadillac
Shaunavon
Eastend
Govenlock
The country west of Assiniboia is good rolling prairie,
with many large sheets of ..water. At one time a
considerable portion of this area.was devoted to ranching, but the process of the dissolution . of these big
ranches into small farms, familiar in many other parts
of the west, has taken place here also. Clay deposits
are plentiful and also small coal areas. Near Gouverneur is a large deposit of flint pebbles. Shaunavon
(population 1500) is the principal town of this territory.
Before the construction of the railway the only means
of  access   to  this  district was  by
Gull Lake and Maple Creek.      We
are  now  approaching  the  Cypress
Hills,  which lie  to  the  north  and
continue     westerly     towards .   the
south of Medicine Hat. At East-
end we cross the Frenchman river,
near which are large clay and sand
deposits,  with big possibilities for
the  development  of the  china and
pottery industry.
The line ends just beyond Govenlock, but will eventually be extended to Manyberies to meet the
line coming from Lethbridge, (see
page 59). When this gap is bridged
through trains will be run between
Winnipeg and Lethbridge via the
Arcola line, Stoughton, Weyburn
and Assiniboia.
Royal Canadian Mounted
Policeman
MOOSE JAW TO MACKLIN: 268 miles
Moose Jaw
Tuxford
Eyebrow
Tugaske
Elbow
Outlook
An important branch line runs north-westerly from
Moose Jaw to Macklin on the Winnipeg-Edmonton line
(see page 77). This line* passes through the rich agricultural regions of Western Saskatchewan. After climbing up a grade to a plateau, it enters a long stretch of
fertile prairie country extending to the Alberta boundary
and watered by the South Saskatchewan river. This
river is crossed at Outlook by a fine steel bridge, the third longest on
the Canadian Pacific System—3004 feet in length, 140 feet above
water level, and with eight truss spans supported by concrete piers.
Sovereign Crossing the river, we continue through a fertile grain
Rosetown and   mixed   farming   country,   with   many   prosperous
Plenty towns.    Rosetown   is   a   convenient  point   for  the  rich
Kerrobert        area   known   as   the   Goose   Lake   country.   Kerrobert
Luseland (population   1200),   is   an   important   town   with   some
Macklin district  government  offices.    It  is  a  railway divisional
point, branches running north-easterly to Wilkie and
westerly to Lacombe, on the Calgary-Edmonton line (see page 45).
Leaving Kerrobert we continue through the same kind of country to
Macklin, whence train can be taken either west to Edmonton or east
to Saskatoon and Winnipeg. This branch affords a direct route from
St. Paul to Edmonton.
Pasqua At Pasqua the branch to North Portal, where
Pense it connects with the Soo Line to Minneapolis
Grand Coulee     and St. Paul, leaves the main line.    (See page
72)> From here to Regina we cross the Regina
Plains, the extreme fertility of which is evident in the large The   Prairies
67
farms and splendid farm buildings on either side. This territory
is a thriving one, and fine herds of sheep and cattle are seen.
Regina (Population 45,000, altitude 1896 feet). Regina is
the capital and largest city of the Province of
Saskatchewan, one of the most important distributing points
west of Winnioeg for farming machinery and farm implements,
and the home of some large mail order houses. A huge oil refinery has been built at a cost of two million dollars, the oil
being brought from Wyoming. Regina has a very handsome
Parliament building, facing the placid Wascana Lake, and fine
exhibition buildings. It is a modern city with well-paved streets,
parks, large educational institutions, splendid buildings, and
numerous wholesale distributing houses and factories. It was
for over fortv years the headquarters of the Royal North-West
Mounted Police, one of the most famous bodies of constabulary in the world, whose exploits have been so often chronicled, both in
fact and in fiction, as to have become almost
historic. This force is now known as the
Royal Canadian
Mounted Police.
Provincial   Parliament   Buildings,   Regina
REGINA  TO   SASKATOON:   172  miles
Regina
Euston
Lumsden Beach
Regina Beach
Holdfast
Imperial
Simpson
Amazon
Young
Colonsay
Saskatoon
Covering a portion of the great summer pleasure
grounds of the people of Southern Saskatchewan,
a branch line runs northwest to Saskatoon, on the
secondary main from Edmonton to Winnipeg
(see page 78). Regina Beach, on Long Lake, within easy reach of the city of Regina, affords good
fishing and shooting. The lake is a magnificent
body of water where sailing, boating, and all
aquatic sports can be indulged in to the heart's
content. Along its beaches and up to the sides of
its treed banks are scattered hundreds of summer
homes. North of the lake open prairie land succeeds, well cultivated and well settled, with numerous prosperous
towns. At Colonsay the traveller joins the Saskatoon line.
Euston Another route to Saskatoon is by a branch from Euston
Bulyea connecting with the Brandon-Saskatoon line   (see page
Lanigan 68)  at Bulyea.    This branch passes through a very at-
Saskatoon tractive farming territory. The cuttings through all
this lake territory show very fine clay deposits, which
have been investigated and are due for development. The train service
between Regina, Moose Jaw and Saskatoon is a good one for the business man, with an overnight daily service via Colonsay and a morning
service (daily except Sunday) via Bulyea.
At Regina the important Winnipeg-Regina loop line via Arcola joins
the main line   (see page 82).
From Regina eastward we still traverse for
some distance the Regina plains, which extend
well to the north and also nearly down to the
international boundary. From here can be seen
the dark blue line of the Dirt Hills south of
Moose Jaw. Then we gradually draw away to a more wooded
district. Qu'Appelle is a pretty town well-known for its beautiful trees.. Twentv miles north are the Qu'Appelle Lakes and the
fort .bearing that name—an old Hudson's Bay post. Along the
valley, the <river and numerous lakes afford excellent fishing
and duels shooting. Indian Head (population 1600), an old-
established and prosperous town, has an experimental farm and
Balgonie
Qu'Appelle
Indian Head
Wolseley 68
Across   Canada
a forestry farm. At Wolseley (population 1200), the Canadian
Pacific has a nursery covering some 115 acres, where trees are
grown for the planting of prairie farms, and flowers and vegetables for the company's hotels and dining-cars. Wolseley is
also the headquarters of the conipany's horticultural branch,
which supervises the beautifying of the stations on its entire
system.
From Wolseley a branch runs through a prosperous grain and stock
country, well settled and with good business towns dotted through
an area that produces huge quantities of grain and other products
yearly, vj It has several lakes and summer, resorts, and good shooting,
and is well served by good roads, rural telephone service, and excellent
school facilities. At Reston this branch joins the line from Winnipeg
to Regina, Weyburn  and Assiniboia (see page 82).
Grenfell We are now traversing one of the most pictur-
Oakshela ^sque districts of Eastern Saskatchewan. Gren-
Broadview     fell was  one of tlie  earliest  established  towns
of this part of the province. Broadview is the end
of the Saskatchewan operating district of the railway and the
beginning of the Manitoba district!. Near the town is Lake Escape, with good fishing and boating.
Whitewood
Wapella
Moosomin
Fleming
Kirkella
Eikhorn
Virden
The numerous lakes and woods which we pass
make an attractive setting to a very productive
area. Moosomin (population 1500) is a large
progressive town in a fine dairying country.
To the south is the Moose Mountain region.
At Kirkella we enter the prosperous province
of Manitoba, the southern part of which was
the pioneer settlement of Western Canada. For
many years Manitoba had comparatively the smallest area of the
three prairie provinces, and was, because of its shape, sometimes
humorously alluded to v.s "the postage stamp province"; but the
extension of its boundaries to include a large area to the north
has now given it approximately the same area as Saskatchewan
and Alberta.?! Eckhorn has an Indian Industrial School. Virden
is a flourishing town with a population of 1600.
BRANDON   TO   SASKATOON:    397   miles
Brandon
Virden
Kirkella
McAuley
RocanviUe
Esterhazy
Neudorf
A service runs north-west from Brandon to Saskatoon
on the Winnipeg-Saskatoon line. Following the main
lino ts> "Virden, the train here takes the branch to
MeAuley, where it connects with another short branch
from Kirkella, also on the main line. The country
through which we are passing is admirably suited to
grain and mixed farming, and, after the province of
Saskatchewan is entered at Welwyn, we are into the
Qu Appelle Valley terirtory—a prosperous dairying country shipping
large quantities of cream, butter,! and live stock, and also a country
of beautiful scenery. The various towns are well built up and doing
a large local business, drawing fijom a tributary country well settled
with  enterprising  farmers.
Lemberg
Baicarres
Lipton
Southey
Bulyea
Strasbourg
Govan
Nokomis
Lanigan
After passing Neudorf we run through a grain farming
country of considerable importance, in part well treed,
and supplied with good water, and then on to prairie
lands that have always been productive of large crops. It
is a territory of lafge farms, good buildings, and well-
to-do farmers who have built up the country to a fine
state of cultivation. The towns are all active commercial centres, doihg a large and varied business. In
tributary territory jare lakes and local summer resorts.
Threshing in Manitoba Ma n i t o b a
Brandon
Saskatoon
good   shooting,   and   plenty   of   sports.    At   Bulyea   a
branch   line   runs   south-west   connecting   with   Regina
(see   page   67)   and   at  Lanigan   the   traveller   goes   either  west   to
Saskatoon or east to Winnipeg  (see page 78).
Routledge
Oak Lake
Griswold
Alexander
Kemnay
From here to Brandon we are descending to the
Assiniboine Valley, and travel through a prosperous farming community wherein are situated
many towns and villages definitely associated
with the agricultural products which are brought
to their graiij. elevators and stock yards. It
is a very attractive country, too, with many beautiful spots such
as Oak Lake, which has fine duck and prairie shooting in its
vicinity.
Brandon (Population 18,000, .altitude 1204 feet). Situated in
the centre of one of the richest agricultural and live
stock territories of Manitoba, Brandon is a railway divisional
point and an important commercial centre acting as a feeder to
nearly three hundred small towns, villages and hamlets. It has
flour mills, factories, distributing houses covering all lines of
farm machinery, and the largest seed warehouse in the West. It
is a modern city with complete educational facilities, churches
of all denominations, an Indian training school, and a Dominion
Government Experimental Farm. Beautifully situated overlooking the Assiniboine River, it is a homelike city with many
charming streets. It has a unique central heating system for
business premises.
From Brandon a branch runs in a northwesterly direction to
Varcoe and thence eastward to MacGregor. North of Varcoe another
branch runs to Minnedosa, on the Winnipeg-Edmonton line (see page
79), and from Forrest, between Varcoe and Brandon, there is yet
another running westerly to Miniota. These lines enter the heart of a
magnificent and fairly old settled district, with many prosperous communities, such as Rapid City) Oak River, Hamiota, Crandall, etc.
BRANDON TO ESTEVAN:   164 miles
Brandon From Brandon an important branch line runs in a south-
Souris westerly   direction   towards   the   international   boundary,
Hartney which it then parallels for a considerable distance. This
Lauder line is  the medium for intercommunication between the
network of branches that laces the southern regions of
Manitoba and Saskatchewan. At Souris it crosses the Winnipeg-Regina
loop line (see page 82). Hartney "is adjacent to large but as yet undeveloped electric power in-the SouHs River. At Lauder branches run
west to Alida .and • east to. Boissevain.   .     |^s     2       ]Y3p&y?
Napinka At Napinka we join the Southern Manitoba branch from
Melita Winnipeg via i.La Riviere (see page 83). Continuing
Plerson through an excellent farming region, we reach at Bien-
Gainsboro fait the centre of the Souris coal fields, where tae Do-
Oxbow minion Government, in conjunction with the two provin-
Alameda cial governments concerned, are erecting a briquetting
II
!
AJ <er~
70
Across   Canada
Reaping
Bienfait plant at a cost of some $600,000 to utilize and improve
Estevan the grade of coal for domestic consumption. The Souris
field is a somewhat low-grade lignite coal finding its
principal market in Manitoba. At Estevan we reach the junction with
the Soo Line from St. Paul and Minneapolis to Moose Jaw (see page
72). A branch continues westerly to Neptune through a ranching ana
farming country with good clay and salt lakes awaiting development.
Chater
Camp Hughes
Carberry
Sidney
MacGregor
We cross the beautiful Assiniboine River, and
climb again for some sixty feet to Carberry.
Camp Hughes was, during the period of the
war, the training ground for thousands of
western soldiers. Carberry is a prosperous
town of 1000 inhabitants, with a surrounding country indicative of the Portage Plains that we are approaching. It is for the most part a fertile and well-settled
area, with comfortable farm homes and large barn buildings. It
is a first-class grain and stock country, renowned for the prize
cattle which it raises.
From MacGregor a branch runs north to Varcoe and Minnedosa,
on the Winnipeg-Edmonton line   (see page  79).
Portage la Prairie Portage la Prairie (population 7000, altitude 858) is the centre of a large and
very fertile agricultural district, and an important railway point
served by many branch lines. It is situated a mile from the
Assiniboine River, 56 miles west of Winnipeg. It has large
flour mills, brick yards, and other industries, and in addition to
its present water supply the power lines of the Manitoba Power
Commission have now been strung into the city from the Winnipeg River, 125 miles distant. North of the city is Lake Manitoba,
a most excellent summer resort, with boating, fishing, and
summer cottages.
line
At   Portage   the   Winnipeg-Edmonton   service   joins   the   main
(see page  79).
High Bluff
Poplar Point
Reaburn
Marquette
Rosser
Between Portage la Prairie and Winnipeg we
traverse the Portage Plains, as level for the
most part as a billiard table. The country is a
great hay one, but also has considerable grain-
growing and dairying. At Reaburn we are at
the half-way point between Vancouver and
Montreal; not far away is Long Lake, a favorite resort for
sportsmen. Marquette is the home of the Indian tribe of that
name. We cross the Assiniboine River, the course of which is
marked by the line of trees seen along its route, and very
shortly are in Winnipeg, the "Metropolis of the Prairies."
Winnipeg Alt. 772 The population of Greater Winnipeg is estimated at 271,958, the city itself having
about 195,000. La Verendrye was the first white man to set
foot in Winnipeg, arriving in 1738, when he built a fort known
as Fort Rouge, which is now part of the city. Two years later
he built Fort Maurepas on Lake Winnipeg, as a point more suitable for trading with the Indians. In 1806 Fort Gibraltar was
built by the North-Western Trading Company, but ten years
later was destroyed. In 1822 a second Fort Gibraltar was built
and renamed Fort  Garry when the North-Western Company Winnipeg
71
amaglamated with the Hudson's Bay Company, In 1835 Fort
Garry was rebuilt by Governor Christie with stone, the walls
running 280 feet east and west and 244 feet north and south.
This was an important trading centre for the Western plains,
but as late as 1871 the population of Fort Garry was only 215
souls. To-day Winnipeg is Canada's third largest city. Situated as it is, at the junctioin of the Red and Assiniboine Rivers,
a ctiy of beautiful boulevards and parks, many golf links, and
summer and winter sports of all kinds, it is the home of a contented people.    It is the capital of the Province of Manitoba.
Winnipeg is the greatest grain market and grain inspection
point in the British Empire. It is the railway centre of the
West, and commands the trade of the vast region to the north,
east and west. Branch lines radiate in every direction. The city
is handsomely built, amongst the notable buildings being the
Provincial Parliament House.
The Royal Alexandra, owned and operated by the Canadian
Pacific Railway, ranks amongst the finest hotels in the world.
It was erected at a cost of $1,250,000, has been extended to twice
its original size, and is most handsomely decorated and furnished.
The hotel is adjacent to the railway station, a magnificent building which is the headquarters of the Company's western system.
Immense workshops of the Canadian Pacific Railway are in the
city, and the railway has also here the two largest train
yards in the world. One yard, which has been completed for
several years, has 110 miles of track. The second is even larger,
as it includes seventy tracks of a total mileage of 183 miles.
In connection with this yard development the Canadian Pacific
has a transfer elevator of a million bushels capacity. A land
office of the railway is located in the city, and here also are
the chief Western immigration offices of the Government, and
the immigration sheds. The C.P.R. owns large areas of good
agricultural land, and has a comprehensive colonization policy
for facilitating the settlement of practical farmers.
Since the advent of cheap hydro-electric power in 1911,
Winnipeg has made remarkable strides as an industrial centre.
It now supplies manufacturers with v\hat is claimed to be the
cheapest power in America. During the war period the city
constructed a $16,000,000 aqueduct carrying pure, soft water
from Indian Bay, a portion of Lake of the Woods which juts
across the Ontario boundary into Manitoba, with a capacity of
100,000,000 gallons daily. In Winnipeg and St. Boniface are the
largest western stock yards and packing houses, with enormous
flour mills, mills for other cereal products, rolling mills, iron
and steel works, and automobile assembling plants.
Transcontinental Journey continued on page 84'
Canadian   Pacific   Station   and  Royal  Alexandra  Hotel,  Winnipeg
I i 72
Across   Canada
Cattle Ranching in Saskatchewan
MOOSE JAW TO PORTAL: f 67 miles
Moose Jaw
Pasqua
Drinkwater
Rouleau
Wilcox
Milestone
Lang
Yellow Grass
Weyburn
(For Map, see page 73)
From Moose Jaw an important branch line
runs away southeast to the International
boundary, where it connects with the Soo
Line. This is the route of the through service
from Vancouver to Minneapolis, St. Paul and
Chicago. We leave the main line at Pasqua,
seven miles east of Moose Jaw, and enter a
very fertile area known as the Soo Line
country, flanked on the west by the Dirt Hills
and on the east by a continuation of the Regina plains. It has always been a good crop territory, settled
many years ago with farmers mostly from the United States,
who have prospered and built fine homes, and have well laid-out
and cultivated farms.
At Yellow Grass an extensive scheme is under way for the
reclamation of the marsh in that district. At Ralph work was
carried on during the war to test the value of large potash
deposits lying beneath the  surface.
Weyburn, centre of a very prosperous community and with
a population of about 3000, is the next large point of importance.
Connections are made at Weyburn east to Souris and Brandon,
and west to Assiniboia and Govenlock (see page 66).
Ralph
Halbrite
Midale
Macoun
Estevan
North Portal
We enter an interesting territory of large coal
deposits with many operating mines and very
extensive   clay   areas   supplying   material   to
numerous brick plants. The country is somewhat  rough,  and  is   drained  by  the   Souris
River.    Investigation has been carried on for
some years with a view to improving the value
of the coal measures of this district, and a briquetting plant
is under construction- to  be  followed  by by-products  plants.
This will enable a better class of domestic coal to be sold. Estevan is a flourishing centre with a population of 2500.   Here
connection can be made for the southern Manitoba lines lead-
in^ to Winnineg (see page 69). From the same point a branch
runs  west to  Neptune   (54 miles).   North  Portal  is  on  the
Canadian side of the Boundary—Portal on the American side—
and in a few minutes we are also on the Soo Line.
SOOLINE
Portal to St. Paul and Minneapolis: 562 miles
Portal The country along the Soo Line running through
Flaxton North Dakota and Minnesota may foi convenience It
H
rl  I
J
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^. Indicates Double Track .
moose jaw and Winnipeg to st.paul-minneapolis
w.A.<y 74
Across   Canada
Kenmare
Minot
Harvey
be split into three divisions. The first, travelling
eastward, is that newlv opened land area which is
now aptly called "Flaxland". During the past few
years the production of flax has increased prodigiously. It is the crop particularly adapted to the newly broken
soil of the Dakota Prairie. Frequently the production runs as
high as 20 bushels to the acre. From Flaxton a line has been
built westward into Montana through a splendid wheat country.
The present terminus of the branch is Whitetail, Montana. But
even here the lesson of diversified farming is being applied.
Considerable attention is paid to stock and sheep raising, and
wheat produces immense crops.
Fessenden
Carrington
Valley City
Enderlin
Hankinson
Fairmount
Elbow Lake
The  second  division  into  which  the  country
along the  Soo-Pacific Line naturally divides
itself may be called the great wheat belt of
the Northwest, running from Harvey, in the
north central part of North Dakota, to Elbow
Lake, in Minnesota, passing through Fessenden,   Carrington,  Valley  City,  and  Enderlin.
The great wheat belt of Minnesota and  the
Dakotas is fast learning the lesson which has been taught old
communities:  that is, that a single  crop will never make  a
country prosperous, no matter how profitable it may be at the
beginning.    The time will come when the land will cry out for a
change and diminished crops must result.    Fortunatelv the development of mixed farming has already begun.    At Hankinson
fruit raising experiments have resulted in establishing a fine
apple orchard, which is the bas's of considerable fruit growing
throughout North Dakota.    But for many years the Dakotas
and Minnesota will continue the bread basket of the continent.
Here are the bonanza farms which first surprised the agricultural world, and here the growing of grain first assumed its
wholesale proportions and character.
Glenwood
Brooten
Paynesville
Kimball
South Haven
Annandale
Maple Lake
Buffalo
The third natural region is entered after we
cross the Red River, and pass through the
lake country. Here the settlement is comparatively old, and the people are prosperous. They have passed through that
early period in farming when the farmer
depends upon a single crop, and have
learned the practical importance of diversification; and not only wheat, onts, and barley, but corn and other crops receive their share of attention.
This is one of the rich dairy sections of the state. Every little
community has its creamery, or milk station, and the people are
correspondingly prosperous and progressive.
Almost every station on the Soo-Pacific Line running east
into Minneapolis has its lake resorts. Often there are a number
of lakes of considerable area within a radious of five miles from
Horse Ranching The  Soo  Line
75
the town. Some of the finest lake
cottages in the Northwest are on
this line. Glenwood, Annandale,
Maple Lake and Buffalo are
particularly famous, Glenwood
being the location of the new
second state fish hatchery, although South Haven, Kimball
Prairie, Paynesville and other
towns are having increased attention and a corresponding appreciation from summer visitors.
At all of these lake resorts the
fishing is excellent. Disciples
of Walton come from as far as
Chicago and St. Louis for the fun
of catching the superb black bass
for which Minnesota lakes are
famous.
Minneapolis    Minneapolis and St.
St. Paul Paul,     the     Twin
Cities of the
Northwest, form the most important financial and manufacturing
centre between Chicago and Milwaukee, on the east, and the Pacific
Coast on the west. Practically two
municipal corporations, they are in
substance one large community of over 600,000 population. St.
PauHs the capital of the State of Minnesota and the older of the
"Twins". It is the terminus of nearly all the railway lines
in the Northwest and an important jobbing centre. Minneapolis
is younger, larger and more advantageously situated than St.
Paul. The principal advantage was primarily the immense
water power developed by the falls of St. Anthony, aggregating
40,000 utilized horse power, employed almost wholly in the
manufacture of flour. Minneapolis, due to the presence of these
mills, is the largest primary wheat market in the world. During recent years it has also become the leading flax seed market,
as the largest flax production in the world from the new lands
of North Dakota, which are tribuary, forms the basis of the
immense linseed oil production of the Twin Cities. Minneapolis
is the site of the University of Minnesota.
For Journey from Minneapolis and St. Paul to Sault Ste. Marie,
see page 111.
SOO LINE
Minneapolis and St. Paul to Chicago: 460 miles
I
A Western Canadian
"Land Girl"
Minneapolis
St. Paul
From the Twin  Cities the  Soo Line continues through to Chicago. Passing through
St. Pau) 76
Across   Canada
■
-
New Richmond the beautiful Minnesota country, the St.
Chippewa Falls Croix river is spanned by a mighty bridge.
Eau Claire Through Wisconsin the line runs through
Abbotsford an agricultural territory that is fast be-
Marshfield coming known as part of the best farming
Stevens Point land in the entire western country.     There
are thousands of beautiful lakes along the
right-of-way through the entire strife, and many are well known
as ideal summering places because of the fine summer homes
and the well-appointed summer hotels which are built along
these shores. The clear crystal waters of these lakes are well
stocked with game fish of all descriptions, the large and small
mouthed black bass being the most popular with the average
sportsman, although the mighty "'lunge", which often grows to
a weight of over forty pounds, is also a prime favorite.
Waupaca Amongst these beauty spots the best known are
Neenah Stevens Point, Freemont, Fond du Lac, Oshkosh,
Oshkosh Cedar Lake, and Waupaca.   Waupaca is one of
the most noted of the vacation spots within easy
reach of either Chicago, Milwaukee, or the Twin Cities. The
lakes of Waupaca are over twenty1 in number and form a chain
several miles in length. The irregular shores, with their hard,
sandy beaches, tempt the lover of bathing, while the launch or
canoe owne|* finds the place ideal for cruising.
Fond du Lac
Milwaukee
Waukesha
Mukwonago
Burlington
Silver Lake
several lakes
The line to Milwaukee branches off from the
main line at Rugby Junction, but through
sleepers are operated daily between Milwaukee
and the Twin Cities. Waukesha, Wis., is
famous for its wonderful water, which is
shipped all over the country. It is a city of
beautiful drives and handsome residences, with
nearby, while the Fpx river flows near the city.
Chicago Chicago is the second; largest city in the United
-.. I btates.# -Beautifully situated overlooking Lake Michigan, rt has the nigh skyscrapers and busy streets that endow
it with che typically American atmosphere. It has a great industrial area, many very attracts e residential sections, and
rapidly developing extensions of the central commercial district. It is one of the most important
railway centres of the continent, has
imposing public buildings and office
structures, and a fine shopping district.    I| is the headquarters cf the
meat-packing  industry
of the continent.
Michigan Boulevard, Chicago
The Journey beyond Chicago is continued on page 101. Y
Central   Alberta
77
EDMONTON TO WINNIPEG: 848 miles
(For Map, see page 61)
Edmonton    Generally speaking, the main line of the Canadian
Pacific Railway m-ans  the transcontinental  line
between Vancouver and Montreal.    But there is really another
main line, which
is that portion of ^^^^ ^m^^Si fete**^
the system over
which the through
trains between
Edmonton and
Winnipeg are operated. It is an
interesting trip
through a well-
wooded country,
the parklands of
Central Alberta,
the   grain  plains
Of Saskatchewan, Cowboys
and the magnificent scenery of the Qu'Appelle Valley.    The journey is commenced at Edmonton, which can be reached from Calgary by
the line described on page 45.
Wetaskiwin
Gwynne
Bittern Lake
Camrose
Ohaton
Bawlf
Daysland
Strome
Killam
Sedgewick
Lougheed
Hardisty
Amisk
Hughenden
Czar
Metiskow
Cadogan
Provost
Hayter
Macklin
Evesham
Rutland
Unity
Adanac
Phippen
Wilkie
The route from Edmonton is the same as the
Calgary-Edmonton line for a distance of 42
miles, until at Wetaskiwin we turn almost
due east. Our way takes us through a highly
prosperous agricultural district that is given
over particularly to dairying. Valuable mineral deposits are likewise common; near
Gwynne, for example, are some very fine clays
that can be utilized for brick-making. Bittern
Lake, a beautiful spot, is a large stock centre.
Camrose (population 2500) is a well situated
town doing a large business and from which
many lines of railway radiate. It is the centre
of a good coal area, with operating mines and
a big dairying and mixed farming district. It
is the home of the Alberta Scandinavian College, as well as high and normal schools. There
are good lakes and good shooting. The surrounding district is a fine wheat growing and
mixed farming area. Coal abounds in this
territory, and mines are in operation at Bawlf
and Rosenroll. The larger part of the Province
of Alberta appears to be underlaid with coal
deposits. At Sedgewick one of the first Canadian Pacific "ready made farm'' colonies,
numbering about 120 units, was. established. Lougheed is named after Senator Sir
James Lougheed. Hardisty, surrounded by good land and coal
and clay deposits, is the e^d of the Alberta District of the railway and the beginning of the Saskatchewan District. South of
Czar the Imperial Oil Company are drilling and testing for oil
in the Teat Hills. 4At Provost we are half way between Edmonton and Saskatoon, and at Macklin we enter tne province of
Saskatchewan. U^ackli^is the junction point for the line running south and east to Moose Jaw (see page 66). We continue
on the journey through an attractive wheat" growing country
and note that between Senlac and Evesham there is a salt lake
in course of development which produces, after drying, a very
fine salt suitable for table and other uses.   Wilkie is a divisional
nt.-
f 78
Across   Canada
y.'£y Reaping by Tractor Power
point, a town of commercial importance to the district, and from
it radiate three lines north and south serving a well developed
and productive country.
One branch connects with Kerrobert on the Moose Jaw-Macklin line.
Important points on these branches are to the south, Leipzig, Handel
and Kelfield, Broadacres, Tramping Lake, Revenue and Reford, while
to the north is Thackeray,  Cloan, Rockhaven and Cutknife.
Wolfe
Traynor
Oban
Biggar
Perdue
Asquith
At Traynor we run into one of the Canadian Pacific
Railway "Ready Made Farm" districts which have
been so successfully created in many parts of the
Western prairies. There are many lakes lying back
from the line which are popular local summer resorts. Near Oban there are a series of salt lakes
(sodium sulphate), such as the White Shore Lake,
which will be developed in course of time. Asquith is a prosperous mixed farming district; from here we can obtain a fine
view of Saskatoon, the river and the buildings.
Saskatoon      Alt. 1596. Population 26,000, is a city of rapid
growth, modern in every particular, with fine
business blocks, public buildings, paved streets, a beautiful river
boulevard, electric light and power, street railway and many
river bridges. It is a city of optimism and the centre of a large
territory for wholesale trade. There are many factories, including the large Quaker Oats Company mill turning out a thousand
barrels each day. The Dominion Government has here an
interior terminal elevator with a capacity of 3,500,000 bushels
that takes care of storage of grain and relieves the pressure
during the grain shipping season. There are large parks and
a fine baseball ground. Saskatoon is a city destined to build to
large dimensions. Its territory is fruitful and well settled and
its products mixed and numerous.
Sutherland
El stow
Colonsay
Plunkett
Lanigan
Leaving Saskatoon by a very fine steel bridge over
the North Saskatchewan river, we pass the University of Saskatoon, the home of higher education in the province for both Arts and Agriculture. Sutherland is a divisional point. Most of
the territory through which we are now passing
has been settled during the past twenty years. It is a good
territory, producing large crops and peopled with first-class
farmers.
YA:d    From Colonsay a branch iuns south to Regina and Moose Jaw  (see
page  67).
At Lanigan branches run south to Brandon (see page 68) and
Moose Jaw (see page 67). There is under construction in a northeasterly direction a new line to tap the more northerly parts of the
province. Saskatchewan
79
Wynyard
Leslie
Foam Lake
Yorkton
Saltcoats
Bredenbury
Churchbridge
Binscarth
Eastward we, pass through a mixed farming
territory, comparatively newly settled, with
much bush and plenty of ponds and sloughs,
which make it the paradise both of the ducks
and the hunter. South of Wynyard will be
seen the Big Quill Lake, on the shores of
which a summer resort has been established.
Wild geese, turkey, ducks and chicken provide good sport. Yorkton (population 4500) is
one of the most important
towns in this territory, sur-
ounded by an immense farming and well settled area of grain
gro wing and
dairy country. It
has a large
wholesale business. Saltcoats
derived its
name from a
large lake, and is
a well developed
town.      We pass
along through a thriving country until Bredenbury, the beginning of the Manitoba District of the railway, is reached.
At Binscarth a line runs northeast to Russell, and an extension
farther north in the direction of the Riding Mountains is now under
construction. The Riding Mountains are a. great field for the sportsman.
Saskatoon University
En route to Birtle we get a good view of the
valley, and at Birtle, the centre of a large mixed
farming area, is the home of Sam Larcombe, ar
expert in the growing of vegetables and grain,
and the winner of many prizes at agricultural exhibitions. Minnedosa (population 1500) is an important farming centre in a flourishing territory,
and quite a beauty spot.
From Minnedosa a divisional point on the Little Saskatchewan
River, a branch line runs south and west to Varcoe, Miniota, and
Brandon.     (See page  69).
Birtle
Kelloe
Shoal Lake
Strathclair
Basswood
Minnedosa
As we progress towards the Portage plains, the
country becomes rolling and well-treed. It is an
old and well-settled district, with many important
business centres, such as Gladstone, Neepawa and
others.   At Portage la Prairie we join the main
transcontinental  line   (see page  70)   and use its metals  into
Winnipeg.
Neepawa
Gladstone
Portage
Winnipeg
.
Canadian   Pacific   Railway   Yards,   Winnipeg 80
Across   Canada
*
WINNIPEG TO ST. PAUL: 464 miles
(For Map, see page 73)
Winnipeg
St. Boniface
Niverville
Otterburn
Arnaud
Dominion City
Emerson
From Winnipeg a branch runs due south to
the international boundary, where connection is made with the Soo Line. The route
is through the fertile valley of the Red
River; and it is interesting to remember
that Fort Garry (as Winnipeg was then
called) was reached by this route before
the building of the Canadian Pacific Railway, except that the river was used—first small boats that
drifted with the current, and then shallow steamers. St. Boniface is an independent city facing Winnipeg across the Red
River. Of its 12,000 population, a considerable proportion is
French-Canadian. It has a fine cathedral, college buildings, and
many manufactures, as well as the Union Stock Yards, where
thousands of head of stock are handled and transported east and
south every year. The country down to the border was amongst
the earliest taken up in Western Canada, and some of the
farms in this neighborhood have been under cultivation for
several generations. Round Dominion City are large gypsum
deposits which have been investigated and found highly suitable
for development. Emerson (population 1300) has grown rapidly
during the past few years.
Thief River Falls
Mahnomen
Ogema
Detroit
Henning
Parker's Prairie
Alexandria
Glenwood
Brooten
Minneapolis
St. Paul
At Emerson we cross the international
boundary and enter the United States,
travelling over the metals of the Soo
Line. The route is through the lakey
way of the Minnesota lakes, much resembling in outline a gigantic fish-hook,
with the eye at the Twin Cities, the
shaft running north-west as though in
ages past some titanic bass had struggled with it. This belt is not comparatively wide through the first hundred
miles of its length out from the Twin
Cities, but broadens as it turns northward through a territory
which is at once a beauty spot and a great black bass preserve.
West of this region the country smoothes down and sobers off
into the famous prairies of the Red River Valley, every foot of
which is capable of furnishing its quota of wheat, corn and
other cultivated crops. Eastward, the land varies from prairie
to pinery.
Thief River Falls is the junction for another branch of the Soo
Line that runs direct to Duluth. From the Canadian boundary
to Detroit (Minnesota), the country, although farmed to some
extent, is as yet almost virgin territory. For fishing and
hunting it is almost without a peer. The country supports
many business  centres.    Detroit is   an  old  established  town,
A Western Canadian Farm Home "V
Branches   from   Winnipeg
81
Winnipeg Beach
finely located in the midst of numerous lakes and having within
a small radius a great number of summer hotels.
Dent and Richville are located advantageously in splendid
farming terirtory, and are towns of great promise. From the
White Earth Reservation southward to Alexandria the scenery
in its nature varies little, being a succession of well-tilled farms,
of beautiful groves of magnificent timber, and of picturesque
sheets of sparkling spring water.
At Glenwood we join the Moose Jaw-St. Paul Line, and travel
eastward to Minneapolis and St. Paul through Brooten (see
page 74).
WINNIPEG TO RIVERTON: 84 miles
Winnipeg
Fort Garry
Selkirk
Matlock
Whytewold
Ponemah
Winnipeg Beach
Gimli
Riverton
A branch line runs north from Winnipeg
to Winnipeg Beach and Riverton. Skirting the banks of the Red River, we traverse first a well-settled suburban district,
and then a truck-gardening area, reaching
Lower Fort Garry, built by the Hudson's
Bay Company as a trading post in 1831.
Selkirk is the shipping point for the
steamers that travel aeross Lake Winnipeg to Warren's Landing, at the north end
of the lake. At this point are successful fisheries, lumber business and several factories. Matlock, Whytewold, and Ponemah are summer cottage points. Winnipeg Beach is perhaps
the most popular summer resort for Winnipeggers. It stands
on the shore of Lake Winnipeg, and has a beautiful beach,
dancing pavilion, hotels, yacht club, hundreds of summer cottages, and all the other appurtenances of a successful resort.
Gimli and Riverton are very progressive Icelandic settlements
whose principal industries are fishing and lumbering. The
region is also a large pulp-wood producing one. Across Lake
Winnipeg, stretching away from its eastern shore to the Ontario boundary, are the Rice Lake Gold Fields, now in process
of development.
WINNIPEG TO ARBORG: 76 miles
Winnipeg
Stony Mountain
Stonewall
Teulon
Komarno
Arborg
A* branch north from Winnipeg runs
through a successful market garden area
and a fine mixed farming district to the
commercial centre of Stonewall. At Teulon,
19 miles further, flax is being grown in a
commercial way for its fibre, so far with
great success. As we travel north-the
wooded country is reached and lumber becomes one of the principal industries of this territory. Arborg, the terminus of this
line, serves a flourishing country to the north and west. 82
Across   Canada
Dairy  Cattle
REGINA TO WINNIPEG, via ARCOLA: 366 miles
(For Map, see page 61)
Regina
Francis
Fillmore
Stoughton
Kisbey
Arcola
Carlyle
Manor
Reston
on the line
page 72).
Of the many branches that radiate from Winnipeg, one of the most important is that which
makes a long loop south of the main line between
Winnipeg and Regina. This passes through a
splendidly fertile country, well settled with prosperous farmers who mostly came in during the
pioneer days of Manitoba and are now reaping the
enjoyment of their leisure. Leaving Regina, we
turn towards the southeast.;*>, Stoughton is the
point from which a branch line runs -to Weyburn,
from Moose Jaw to Minneapolis and Stv Paul (see
Arcola (population 1000) is a progressive town with a pretty
summer resort named Fish Lake. Speeding on through a good
wheat growing district, we enter the province of Manitoba.
At   Reston   a   branch   runs   in   a  north-westerly  direction,   joining
the main  transcontinental line  at Wolseley   (see page  68).
Pipestone
Deleau
Schwitzer
Souris
Continuing eastward, we pass through a well-
settled prairie country that shows good crop
returns and has many important towns. The Arcola country has always been noted as a first-
class farming area, which condition is testified
to by the fine farm buildings that we see on either side. Schwitzer is the junction point for the line from Brandon to Estevan
(see page 69).
Souris  (population 1800) is beautifully situated on a small
river, and carries on a large business.
At   Souris   is   the   junction  point   with   the   Brandon-Estevan   line
(see page 69).
Glenboro
Cypress River
Holland
Treherne
Elm Creek
Continuing our journey eastward, we run
through a pleasing country of large farms,
well treed, with many lakes and a succession of fine towns and villages in a prosperous condition. This region produces large
crops, and on every side big herds of cattle
and dairy stock are to be seen.
Prom Elm Creek a branch runs south 12 miles to Carman,  a town
of   1200   population   and   great   prosperity.    %3*5
Starbuck
Keadingley
Winnipeg
Crossing the Assiniboine River into Headingley,
we meet the beginning of Winnipeg in the shape
of the Ftreet-car line, and in a few minutes reach
the Canadian Pacific station. Southern   Manitoba
83
NAPINKA TO WINNIPEG: 221  miles
Another
very important branch
line into
Winnipeg is
that which
runs due
south and
then east,
paralleling
the international boundary at a
not    very
great distance. This region is one of close population and large
production, the Red River Valley being noted for its fertile
soil. The country is well-treed ar.J pleasing to the eye, and supports large herds of fine dairy stock.
Sheep Farming on the Prairies
Napinka
Medora
Deloraine
Boissevain
Killarney
Cartwright
Crystal City
Pilot Mound
Wood Bay
Deloraine and Boissevain are highly prosperous
towns situated in the heart of a fine wheat-
growing district, and with beautiful summer resorts close bv. The country is a table-land one,
producing fine crops of wheat and other grains.
Napinka is the junction point of this line with the Brandon-
Estevan line (see page 69).
From Boissevain a branch runs to Lauder, on the Brandon-Estevan
line (see page 69) and from Deloraine another runs south-westerly
to Lyleton.
The country which we traverse is not only an
exceedingly prosperous one; it is also a beautiful one, and such points as Killarney and Crystal City have become popular summer resorts.
Killarney has a particularly lovely lake, with
good fishing and boating. The town has a
population   of  some   1200,  and   an   experimental   fruit   farm.
From Wood Bay a short branch runs south to the international
boundary, reaching a well-populated country with such important
towns as Snowflake, Mowbray and Windygates.
La Riviere The towns through which we are passing are
Manitou all fairly large,  and have a big trade.   At
Morden La Riviere, a divisional point, there are found
Winkler some very good red shales which produce a
Plum Coulee      high-class  brick.    Morden   (population  1500)
Rosenfeld is a flourishing centre, with a Dominion Gov
ernment Experimental Farm nearby and cement deposits fourteen miles distant.
From Rosenfeld a short branch runs south to Altona and Gretna,
connecting at the border with the Great Northern Railway.
Morris At Rosenfeld we turn north, and travel within a
Winnipeg       comparatively short distance of the left bank of
the Red River, which we follow into Winnipeg,
crossing the Assiniboine River just before reaching the city.
v-'i
''Countess of Dufferin"   (C.P.R. Locomotive No. 1)   in front of Winnipeg
Station 84
cross
ana
Portage Avenue, Winnipeg
WINNIPEG TO PORT ARTHUR: 424 miles
(For Map, see page 85)
Winnipeg
Bird's Hill
East Selkirk
Tyndall
Beausejour
Molson
From Winnipeg, the headquarters of the Western Lines system, of the Canadian Pacific, the
transcontinental journey ean be resumed. We
leave Winnipeg by a long bridge across the
Red River; from here to Molson there is,
besides the main line, a loop line via Oakbank. Looking south from Bird's Hill, the
C.P.R. grain storage elevator at Winnipeg will be noted. The
company has large railway yards for handling through freight
traffic, trains circling round the city by means of a double track
cut-off to relieve congestion.
At Tyndall are large limesone quarries, the product of which
has been used in the construction of many of the west's magnificent buildings. At Beausejour is a very large deposit of silica
sand suitable for glass-making.
From Molson a subdivision runs to Lac du Bonnet (21 miles)
adjacent to the Winnipeg River. This is the site of some of the
magnificent power plants supplying electric energy to Winnipeg,
St. Boniface and other points. From some eight power plants there
can be developed about 480,000 h.p., although so far only about 75,000
h.p.  is actually used.
Whitemouth      We are now leaving the great prairie region,
Rennie and a gradual change will be noted in the char-
In golf acteristics of the country. The level plains give
Keewatin place to bush, which in turn is succeeded by the
Kenora rocks and lumber of the Lake Superior country
which we are approaching. The railway traverses for nearly four hundred miles a wild broken region of
primeval beauty, with rapid rivers and many lakes, but uncultivated. Exploration has, however, established it to be a country
rich in mineral possibilities, with valuable areas of timber and
pulp-wood. At Ingolf we cross the western boundary of the
immense and highly varied province of Ontario. Keewatin, the
first point of any size that we pass, is practically a continuation
of Kenora summer resort, with its summer houses, boats and
fishing. It is a large flour milling and lumbering centre, surrounded by good timber and unlimited supplies of pulp-wood.
Extensive power development can be undertaken.
. Kenora (population 6000) stands at the principal outlet to the
Lake of the Woods, one of the finest tourist resorts in North
America. It derives its name from the first two letters of each
of three districts, Keewatin, Norman, and Rat Portage, and is
situated where the lake pours its waters into the Winnipeg River
by three distinct cataracts.   The lake, the largest body of water Indicates Do-ible Track
WINNIPEG TO TORONTO—LAKE  AND  RAIL  ROUTE 86
Across
Ca
na
Yachting at Kenora
touched by the railway between Lake Superior and the Pacific,
is of great beauty, dotted with hundreds of islands, on many of
which summer cottages have been built. The town is of great
importance industrially, with its large flour mills, lumber-yards,
boat building, and other factories. The tributary country is well
settled with farmers, and mining prospectors draw their supplies
from here, making it an active wholesale and retail centre.
There is abundant water supply and electric power available and
yet to be fully developed. The lake covers an area of one
thousand square miles, and affords fine pickerel, jackfish, and
maskinonge fishing.
Near Hawk Lake there are large areas of
granite which have been mined from time to
time for construction purposes. All through
this territory and around Vermilion Bay are
ideal camping spots. At Eagle River two
beautiful waterfalls will be noticed. Dryden
(population 1000) is a busy centre with a
large pulp and paper mill, some mining, and
a fairly considerable agricultural development. Wabigoon is the point of departure
for the Manitou mining region and also for the Seine and Rainy
Lake. It was in 1731 that this territory was first explored,
when La Verendrye made his explorations in search of the
western sea. All along this line will be noticed a series of very
beautiful and extensive lakes. At one time great activity was
displayed by prospectors in these mining areas, and the day
is doubtless not far distant when the territory will be reopened.
Hawk Lake
Vermilion Bay
Eagle River
Oxdrift
Dryden
Wabigoon
Dinorwic
Dyment
Raleigh
Between Winnipeg and Fort William a fairly
considerable ascent is made to cross the
watershed between the Red River Valley and
Lake Superior. At Ignace—a railway divisional point—we are almost at the highest
point of this watershed. There is excellent
trout fishing near most of the stations. From
Bonheur the Sawbill mining country is
reached by government wagon road. Reaching the highest point at Upsala, the railway then begins to
descend, following the Wabigoon and Mattawan Rivers; dotted
along this territory are small farms and lumber camps, scenes of
continuous activity. Murillo is the station for the Rabbit
Mountain silver district, and four miles from the station are the
Kakabeka Falls, of the Kaministiquia River, where the power
for the Twin Cities is developed.
Ignace
Bonheur
English River
Upsala
Raith
Kaministiquia
Murillo
Westfort The   Great   Lakes
87
Mffi®SK**feVSSSSiM»
Fort  William
Fort William The "twin cities" of Port Arthur and Fort
Port Arthur William have a distinction that is peculiarly
their own. Situated at the head of navigation
on Lake Superior, they form the funnel through which Western
Canada's huge grain crops find their way every year into the
markets of the world. Together they constitute Canada's greatest grain port. Hauled hither by railway cars from the west,
the grain is consolidated into great bulk, transferred to lake
steamers, and by them carried down the Great Lakes to Port
McNicoll, Buffalo and other ports. As many as 369,000,000
bushels of grain have passed through these two cities in one
year (1916). The total capacity of the seventeen great public
terminal elevators is in excess of 46,000,000 bushels.
Fort William (population 28,000) is situated at the mouth of
the Kami'nistiauia River, and is the divisional point between the
Eastern and Western Lines of the Canadian Pacific Railway,
and also the terminal of the Canadian Pacific's Great Lakes
steamer services. (See pane 88). Fort William was formerly a
very important Hudson's Bay Company's post, and was the great
rendezvous of the hunters, voyageurs and chief factors of the
company. Previous to that, a fort was established in 1731 at
the same spot by La Verendrye, the French explorer.
Port Arthur (population 18,000) is the judicial centre for the
District of Thunder Bay. It has a shipbuilding plant, pulp
and paper plants, lumber mills, blast furnaces, and ore and coal
docks, as well as elevators. It is a modern citv with substantial
buildings, hotels, wholesale houses, factories, fine hospitals and
an extensive school system. A fertile country suitable for all
agricultural pursuits, with large areas of lumber and pulp-wood,
surrounds it.
As a summer resort the Twin Cities have many attractions.
They are the gateway to a vast area of almost unexplored territory of forest, lake, stream and mountain. Excellent big and
small game hunting, including moose, red deer, caribou, and
brown bear, and superfine fishing—trout, bass, maskinonge—is
to be obtained. There are a number of popular summer resorts
in the vicinitv, of which Silver Island, some twenty miles to
the east, is the best known. Kakabeka Falls, twenty miles
west of Fort William along the Kaministiquia River, are ten
feet higher than Niagara, and can now be reached by a good
Port Arthur 88
Across   Canada
Canadian Pacific Great Lakes Steamship
automobile road. It is now possible to motor all the way from
Port Arthur to Duluth over the Scott Highway.
Power is supplied to the Twin Cities from Kakabeka Falls,
while a new plant under construction at Nipigon will give additional power. The surrounding district is well mineralized,
discoveries of iron, copper, silver, gold and pyrites having been
made. Pulp-wood is abundant, and much pine, tamarack, poplar,
birch and jack-pine is cut by the lumber mills.
The new million dollar coal dock of the Canadian Paclflc on
the McKellar River at Fort William, with a storage capacity of
over 800,000 tons, is one of the best equipped structures of
its kind on the continent. The river has been dredged out so
that the largest freighters plying the Great Lakes can have
easy access to the dock; the machinery, operated by electricity,
is capable of unloading a ten thousand ton freight steamer in ten
hours, and the coal can be transferred to cars for shipment by
rail in equally fast time. There are railway workshops and
yards here.
GREAT LAKES STEAMSHIP TRIP
FORT WILLIAM TO PORT McNICOLL AND
OWEN SOUND
(For Map, see page 85)
Fort William An extremely agreeable variation to the rail-
Port Arthur       way journey during the summer months is a
trip down the Great Lakes by a Canadian Pacific steamship, plying from Fort William to. Port McNicoll
twice a week and to Owen Sound once a week. The trip
takes a little less than two days. The steamers are Clyde-
built, offering luxurious accommodation for three hundred passengers. They have spacious decks, airy cabins, daintily furnished ladies' rooms, splendid ~ smoking rooms, and commodious
dining rooms, with a sheltered after-deck which is a verandah-
cafe, lounging place, and outdoor dance-room.
Plenty of breezes, beautiful scenery, and a comfortable ship-
life make this journey one to have a permanent place in the
memory. The route is across Lake Superior to Sault Ste. Marie,
through the, Soo Canal, thence across Lake Huron and into
Georgian Bay.
Leaving the "Twin Cities" we notice the striking headland
called Thunder Cape, a huge promontory that juts out into
the lake. Then we strike out across the majestic Lake Superior
—largest, deepest and coldest of the five Great Lakes, across Across   the   Great   Lakes
89
which we travel for over eighteen hours, losing sight of land
entirely. Then swinging into White Fish Bay, we near Sault
Ste. Marie, otherwise and better known as "The Soo".
Sault Ste. Marie This city is identified with a very well-
known canal, the one that registers a
greater volume of tonnage than either the Suez or Panama
Canals. The St. Mary's River is compressed here into long,
dangerous rapids, to overcome which two canals have been
built, one on the Canadian and one on the American side. The
Canadian Government canal, built from 1888 to 1895 at a cost
of "about four million dollars, is 7472 feet long, with a lock 900
feet long and 60 feet wide, raising the water level eighteen feet.
The traffic through the canal is mostly western grain and iron
ore coming down the Great Lakes. Sault Ste. Marie could
really be called the pulse of the grain traffic, for all the vast
volume of water-borne grain traffic passes through one of these
canals, in long steamers built especially for the business that
are known as "whalebacks". The whaleback fleet, in fact,
could move about eight million bushels of wheat simultaneously
in one voyage.
Sault Ste. Marie is also reached by the Soo branch of the
Canadian Pacific from Sudbury, and we pass under the large
bascule bridge which carries the railway over the river. (For
description, see page 112).
Leaving Sault Ste. Marie, we enter St. Mary's Channel and
then glide between the still green banks of St. Mary's River,
gay with cottages. Shortly we are on Lake Huron. This is perhaps the most delightful part of the journey, for we have
made numerous acquaintances, we have cooled off, and we have
acquired some startling appetites. We pass the numerous islands
of Lake Huron, the largest of whilch, Manitoulin, is on our left.
Port McNicoll       Passing Cape Hurd, standing guardian at the
Owen Sound entrance  to  Georgian Bay, we turn south
easterly to Owen Sound or easterly to Port
McNicoll, depending upon which steamer we are on. At either
port special trains carry us quickly to Toronto.
PORT ARTHUR TO  SUDBURY:   549  miles
(For Map, see page 85)
Fort William    Leaving   the   "Twin   Cities",   we  begin   the
Port Arthur      journey around the north shore of Lake Su-
Canadian Lock, Sault Ste. Marie Cana) fff"
90
Across   Canada
Thunder Cape. near. Port Arthur
Loon
Dorion
Hurkett
perior, and for almost two hundred miles are
in close proximity—frequently in full sight
of this magnificent lake, Which is the largest
of the five Great Lakes of America. Before
the traveller, as he sits in the observation car, a magnificent
panorama of impresive beauty unrolls. Our train runs
upon a ledge cut in the face of huge rock cliffs which rise steeply
from the deep, cold waters of Lake Superior—rock which is said
by geologists to be the oldest in the world. We plunge into deep
cuts, rock tunnels, and out again into dazzling sunshine which
turns to blue the distant islands fringing the shore and the distant promontories ahead and behind. Several times we catch
glimpses of Thunder Bay, with mighty Thunder Cape standing
out into the lake in its solemn and impressive aloofness. The
"Sleeping Giant", a huge promontory of basaltic rock on the
other side of the bay, is said by Indians to be the image of the
Great Spirit, keeping watch over his ancient treasure trove, and
it is his voice which gives the magnificent mount the name of
Thunder Cape. Just behind Thunder Cape, to give the legend
verisimilitude, lies Silver Island, a mine which in its day, before
it was flooded, yielded much wealth.
Pearl and Loon are favorite holiday resorts for residents of
the Twin Cities. Three miles before reaching Nipigon the railway, turns around the base of a bright red cliff known as Red
Cliff.
Nipigon Nipigon is a village at the mouth of the Nipigon
River, which descends in rapids at the point over
which we cross. The trip up the river across stormy Lake
Helen, past Camp Alexander—a permanent settlement—is a
magnificent one. Nipigon is the Mecca of trout fishermen the
world oyer. In the clear, cold waters of all the streams flowing
into Lake Superior are speckled trout of remarkable size, with
fighting qualities which prove them to be the gamiest of all the
finny tribe. But none is so wonderful as the Nipigon, which is
world-famous for the giant trout which are found in it. The
river is forty miles long, with numerous lake expansions and -
surging rapids. Local guides declare that the river can never
be fished out, that, notwithstanding the number of years it has
been fished, five-
pounders are still
common, and -that
proof of its unfailing yield lies in the
large#number of
devotees who return season after
seasori&The Nipi-
goii4s protected by
t ae P&yincial Government which has
set aside the lake
and the land for 20
miles around it as
a forest reserve. Nipigon Around   Lake   Superior
91
Rossport        In Lake Superior waters are caught the trout, and
Schreiber       whitefish served so tastefully in the dining-car.
Rossport is the headquarters of the lake fishing
industry, to reach which we follow the shore of Nipigon Bay,
separated from the lake
proper by a chain of islands. This territory west
of Heron Bay, the many
islands, and the Nipigon
Lake district, may be said
to be the finest country in
Canada for caribou and
moose. On islands such as
Simpson Island (reached
from Nipigon) these stately animals live undisturbed until tne sportsman
comes in the late fall.
Jack Fish takes its
name from Jackfish Bay,
around which we wind
so sharply that we can see ou^* engine from the^ rear platform of the observation car. Lake Superior is in size as large
as Ireland.
Schreiber is a railway divisional point. Inland from it is a
country with good mineral prospects. Much gold has been located, and it is confidently anticipated that it will prove to be in
paying quantities.
Mississauga River
Jack Fish
Coldwell
Peninsula
Heron Bay
Coldwell is a community of lake fishermen. At
Heron Bay we leave Lake Superior behind, and
plunge due westerly through the forests of the
Algoma region. Heron Bay is named from a
blue heron which was shot down into the lake.
White River
Franz
Missanabie
Dalton
Nicholson
White River is a railway subdivisional point,
where cattle in transit are rested, fed and
watered in the company's stockyards. Six
times our train crosses the White River after
leaving the station. We cross at Franz the
metals of the Algoma Central
Railway, which runs south to Sault Ste. Marie
(see page 112) and north to Hearst. The Indian
names to be found throughout this region
are suggestive to the traveller. Missanabie (meaning "the pictured waters")
is near the divide which separates the
waters flowing south to Lake Huron
from those running north into Hudson
Bay. This countrv is another network of waterways and excellent trout
fishing—indeed, sport of all
kinds — is obtainable.
From Missanabie, too,
some splendid canoe
trins   can   be   made
•.,... .. .
If*
Along the North Shore of Lake Superior 92
Across   Canada
either north or south into a counl:'T of wild and fascinating
beauty. From Dalton and from Nicholson come many of the
jackpine ties on which we ride.
Chapleau
IMemegos
Woman River
Ramsay
Biscotasing
Metagama,
Pogamasing
Chapleau  is  a  railway  divisional  point   of
some   2,500   people.      Here   the   Dominion
Government is building a new Indian School
at a cost of $100,000, and here is the only
hospital between Sudbury and Port Arthur,
maintained by the people of Chapleau, Nicholson, and White River, and named in memory
of Lady Minto, wife of a former Governor-
General of Canada.   Note again the melodious Indian names.
Biscotasing means "a narrows filled with water liles, connecting
two lakes," Metagama "a river widened into a lake," Pogamasing "shallow gravel rapids".    The Nemegosanda River, which
we cross after leaving Chapleau, means 'the river where the
trout live".    Biscotasing was established before the first spike
of the Canadian Pacific Railway was driven, for here the Hudson's Bay Company maintained—and still maintains—a trading
post   on   the   canoe   route   to   Flying   Post   and   James   Bay.
To-day a sawmill is operated.     From Biscotasing can be begun one of the finest canoe trips to be found anywhere  on
this continent, namely, down the Mississauga River to Blind
River,   on   Lake    Huron.      The   trip   is   not   a   hard    one
for those who have had experience in canoe work, and can be
made in two weeks.    From Biscotasing to Cartier, by the waters
of the Spanish River, as well as north of Nemegos, moose and
red deer are plentiful.
Cartier
Levack
Larchwood
Chelmsford
Azilda
Murray
Through a country of hills, lakes, bush, rock
and muskeg, abounding in game, we reach
Cartier, a railway subdivisional point. From
here it is a gradual descent of some five hundred feet to Sudbury. At Levack we see the
spur line which runs to the Mond Levack
Nickel Mine, which contains over five million
tons of nickel and copper ore. We pass the high falls of the
Vermilion River—creamy, foaming water cascading far below
the train—and reaching Larchwood, enter a stretch of rich farming country. As we approach Sudbury we strike evidences of
its famous industry—nickel mining. At Murray is the mine
of the British American Nickel Corporation.
Sudbury Here we are in the centre of the world's greatest
nickel deposits, a source of incalculable wealth. A
belt of some thirty miles by sixteen is estimated to contain anything up to five hundred million tons of combined nickel and
copper. Smelting is carried on a short distance from the city,
the process removing the large iron content and producing nickel-
copper matte suitable -for refining. The nickel content averages
3.09 per cent, and the copper content 2.12 per cent. From
mines and smelters in this distinct the InternationarNickeLCom-
pany, the. Mond- Nickel Company, and the British American
Nickel Corporation ship to their refineries at Port Colborne, in
Nev£ Jersey, and in South Wales. Sudbury supplies over two-
thirds of the world's consumption of nickel. Close by is the
immense Moose Mountain Iron Range, which contains one hundred million tons of iron ore. Backed by these tremendous resources, Jfc is not surprising that the streets and buildings of Sudbury are*those of a city. It is also a busy lumber town, and the
chief distributing centre of the north, and has a population of
9,000.
For Journey Sudbury to Montreal, see page 114, Georgian   Bay
93
SUDBURY TO TORONTO: 260 miles
(For Map, see page 85)
Sudbury
Romford
Burwash
Paget
Rutter
Big wood
The transcontinental journey can be concluded at
Toronto as well as Montreal, for there is a
through Canadian Pacific
daily service from the Pacific Coast and Western
Canada through to
,>*
Fishing, Georgian Bay
the "Queen City'
The junction point
is Sudbury, where
we turn towards
the south-east. The
route is for a considerable period
within a short distance — and occasionally within full
view—of Georgian
Bay, an arm of
Lake Huron, and one of the finest sporting regions of Canada.
Leaving the main line at Romford, seven miles east of Sudbury, we descend steadily to Wanup through a land of great rock
hills and tall pines, the railway winding through deep cuts which
challenge our admiration for the men who conceived and built
the line. The train runs through high rock cuts and around
many curves to Burwash, where is the Provincial Prison Farm.
Paget is the station for the first fine outdoor resort, Trout Lake,
distant about a mile and a half, and where a permanent camp is
maintained. The plentiful salmon trout have made this lake
famous, and during July and August the bass fishing is also
exceptionally good. From here to Bigwood we find a little
farming and stock-raising carried on, as well as lumbering;
worthy of special mention are the eight cheese factories of Rutter.
French River       Magnificent  steel  bridges  span the  French
and Pickerel Rivers. This is the same French
River that is the outlet from Lake Nipissing and which is
reached at its upper end from North Bay (see page 114). Like
the places subsequently passed on this line, French River is
within easy access of splendid fishing and shooting grounds.
In these vast fishing and hunting wilds, bass, maskinonge, pike
and pickerel offer great sport
for the fisherman, while for the
hunter there is the best of deer
shooting   to   be   had,   some   bear,
Shooting the Rapids, French River .
94
Across   Canada
Point au Baril
and an abundance of small
fur- bearing
animals and
game birds.
Comfortable
camps in the
district, espec-
iailly around
Dry Pine Bay,
are designed to
accommodate
women and
children as
well as men,
and the region
is now a high-
lv  popular  one  with  both   Canadian  and   American  vacation
seekers. ££
Pickerel Landing    Pakesley is the gateway to the newly-
Pakesley opened playground of Ka-Wig-A-Mog, the
Byng Inlet centre of a maze of land-locked waterways
many miles in length. Both Byng Inlet and Pakesley have extensive lumbering interests, the latter
place alone having an annual output of about thirteen million
feet. From Byng Inlet the Maganetewan River district is
reached. This river, which has many lake expansions, lies
almost due east from Georgian Bay, about twenty-five miles
south of the French River, which for some distance it practically
parallels, and with which connection can be made through intervening waterways. Between Naiscoot and Point au Baril the
beautiful Six-Mile Lake lies within 300 yards of the Canadian
Piacific track.
Point au  Baril    While the entire province of Ontario east of
the Great Lakes is a recreation ground for
the people of Canada and the United States, Point au Baril
has an added charm all its own. Between the station and the
outer fringe of the archipelago, a distance of about ten miles,
there are literally hundreds of islands threaded by numerous
and devious waterways. About the middle of June the fisherman
comes into his kingdom, for bass, pickerel and maskinonge are
plentiful, while in October the great salmon trout furnish exciting sport trolling amongst the reefs in the open bay. The canoe
trips from Point au Baril are almost indescribable for number
and variety, while the camper of one season is likely to return
again and again to the place where the waters of Georgian
Bay breaking over the protecting shoals lull him with their
soothing murmur. Steamers which enter Shawanaga Bay at
Point au Baril Lighthouse thread their way through the archipelago  for  twelve
miles     or     more. .***-*»*»•        -—■
Wild life is abundant—deer, black
duck and others.
Point au Baril possesses excellent
hotels and boarding houses, with a
daily steamer service to the station.
The origin of the ~fi|
name "Point au
Baril"  is   ascribed
to   the   erection   Of Parry  Sound Muskoka
95
a barrel on the point as a beacon by an early resident who
had seen his own precious cargo of choice liquor wrecked in
sight of land.
Nobel
Parry Sound
Barnesdale
MacTier
Nobel, eighteen miles beyond Point au Baril,
has some large explosive works. Parry Sound
(population 5000) has a large lumbering industry. The railway skirts the shores of
Georgian Bay, giving admirable views of that
great inland water, which has thirty thousand islands amongst
its other attractions. There are a number of very picturesque
sites for summer cottages, many of which have already been
utilized. Rose Point, one and one-half .miles from Parry Sound, is
a popular fishing resort. A great steel bridge, over a third of a
mile in length, spans the Seguin River. At the other end we
pass high above the little town of Parry Harbor. For a time
we run through the rocky bush and lake country of the Muskoka
District. MacTier is a divisional point, the end of the Algoma
District of the railway and the beginning of the Ontario
District.
Bala Bala is the gateway to the Muskoka Lakes, one of the
most widely-known and popular summer resorts of the
continent. The principal lakes are three in number—Muskoka,
Joseph and Rosseau. Round
their shores are
a large number
of summer settlements ranging in size to
suit all tastes
and in price to
suit all pockets,
and connected
by an excellent
steamer service.
All kinds of
aquatic sports
can be and are
enjoyed at Muskoka to the heart's content, aiAd the elevation of
the region, which is about 1,000 feet above sea level, ensures a
healthy atmosphere always charged with ozone, while the healing
balsamic odors of great forests of pine, spruce, hemlock and
cedar give to this district a wonderful reputation for the cure of
hay fever, consumption, and lung complaints,
Severn Falls Severn Falls, near Severn River, afford excel-
Medonte lent  pickerel   and  bass   fishing,   and  the  vi
cinity good camping sites, while the Severn
River forms a picturesque route for the canoe or launch trip
from the station to Gloucester Pool and the lower Georgian Bay
resorts. Soon after leaving here the character of the country
changes, and the forests, lakes and rocky formations give place
to placid meadowlands.
Medonte is the junction for the line that runs from Port McNicoll
to Peterboro.  (See page 109). A-«.4& -&. 'i*^M3fe*"■
-■%^
Bala—Gateway to Muskoka Lakes
Eady
Craighurst
Baxter
Alliston
Tottenham
We   run   through   a   succession   of  prosperous
villages,   centres   of  large   farming   areas,   as
we traverse the prosperous agricultural county
of Simcoe. From Baxter a short spur runs to
Camp Borden, which during the war achieved
the position of being one of the most famous
training grounds for-aviators on the continent, and is still a
large flying centre. Alliston has some flour mills and nursery
gardens. 96
Across   Canada
Bolton At  Bolton we  meet the  line  coming  from
Kieinburg Owen Sound, Walkerton and Orangeville (see
Woodbridge page 99).   Then for a considerable time the
Weston line  traverses  some   fine  farm lands,  with
West Toronto     many attractive-looking orchards.    Soon we
are nearing the suburbs of Toronto. Weston
is a very busy manufacturing suburb, with many large plants
adjacent to the tracks. At West Toronto we meet the line from
Toronto to Windsor, Detroit and Chicago.
Toronto Toronto (population over 510,000) is the capital of
Ontario and the second largest city of Canada, Beautifully situated on the shore of Lake Ontario, it is affectionately
called the "Queen Citv" by its citizens. It is the seat
of \ the University of Toronto and of the provincial
government.
Toronto has immense manufacturing establishments to the number of considerably over a thousand, and some of the largest commercial houses and banks in the Dominion. Its educational institutions are well known, as also is the charm of its residential districts. Its population is largely of English and Scotch extraction
or of United Empire Lolayist descent, but the city is distinctively North American in the intensitv of its activity and
energy. Through its crowded streets throbs a vast hum of
commerce.
The city has magnificent harbor accommodation, in addition to
which a thousand acres of waste land is being reclaimed adjacent to and on the harbor front. Electric power for its
industries is obtained from Niagara Falls, over eighty miles
distant. Toronto, is a very important railway centre, with
branches radiating in every direction, which are described on
other pages of this book.
Norcan mention of Toronto's famous Exhibition be omitted,
for this is the maenet which draws visitors from every part of
Canada and the United States every fall. It is the biggest
thing of its kind on the^ continent, and the attendance during the
two weeks of the exhibition's being open runs well over the
mililon mark. Representative displays of every kind of Canadian produet are brought together here, while there are numerous lighter attractions in the Grand Stand and Midway.
Toronto is very interesting historically. The name Fort
Toronto was given, after the
British conquest of Canada,
to a post established by the
French under the name of
Fort Rouille. But the real
o-rowth of the city began
with the immigration of
the United Empire Loyalists
into Ontario after the American War of Independence.
These settlers left the United
States because thev preferred
to remain under the British
flag, and it was their sturdy
-atriotism and the undaunted tenacity of their descendants, that transformed the
province of Ontario from a
wilderness into what it is
now,  the  "banner" province
Of   Canada. Yonge Street. Toronto
For description of route Toronto-Montreal, see page 105 Hamilton
97
TORONTO TO HAMILTON AND NEW YORK: 539 miles
(For Map, see page 103)
Toronto From Toronto through trains runs to New York
Sunnyside      via the C.P.R., T.H.  & B., M.C.R., and N.Y.C.
Hamilton        Leaving Toronto, a rapid run is made to Hamilton, in full view all the time of Lake Ontario.
Hamilton     (population   110,000)    is   beautifully   situated   at
Ihe head of the navigation of
the   lake,   on   a  land-locked
arm named Burlington Bay.
It is  one of Canada's most
progressive cities, sufficiently
so to justify its claim to the
title of l The Ambitious City".
It is the third manufacturing
citv * of  Canada  as  regards
value of output, for in recent
years, in addition to the large
number of native industries
that have establnished themselves her*1, there have also
been numerous branches established of important United
States factories. With cheap
electric power, natural  gas,
and excellent shipping facilities by both rail and water,
the city has close to 450 manufacturing plants. It is situated, also, in the heart of the productive fruit b°lt of the Niagara
Peninsula.    _
To a great extent, however, Hamilton has e*scaped being a
mere "factory town", for it has preserved the characteristics of
a charming residential city. It nestles in a green valley at the
foot of what is by courtesy called "The Mountain", with beautiful water vistas obtainable at many points. It has handsome
public buildings, very attractive residential sections, and tree-
bordered streets. Burlington Beach, where the bay joins the
lake, is a very popular bathing arid boating resort, with many
other beauty spots in close proximity, such as Dundurn Park.
The site of Hamilton was discovered by the French explorer
La Salle in 1669, although no settlement was attempted until
about a hundred years later. George Hamilton, who gave the
eity its name, made the first survey in 1813, at which time the
village numbered only 130 souls.
A branch line runs from Hamilton to Gruelph Junction, on the
Toronto-Windsor line (see page 105), through services being provided
between Hamilton and Guelph. A branch of the T. H. & B. also
connects Hamilton with Brantford  (see page 105).
Hamilton
w
Niagara Falls 98
Across   Canada
Welland From Hamilton to Welland we run over the
Niagara Falls   rails of the  Toronto,  Hamilton  and  Buffalo
Railway, and beyond that over those of the
Michigan Central Railway. The Niagara Peninsula, through
which we travel, is one of the finest fruit-producing regions in
Canada* grapes, peaches and all specimens of fruit are grown
in large quantities. Welland (population 9,500) is a flourishing
industrial centre on the Welland Ship Canal, which provides a
safe waterway for vessels between Lake Ontario and Erie, the
Niagara River being of course unnavigable. Niagara Falls
(population 12,000) is also an important industrial point quite
apart from its proximity to the famous Falls.* The district is
vividly associated with Canadian history, for it was near here,
at Cayuga Creek, that LaSalle launched the first sailing vessel
to spread sail on the Great Lakes, while the War of 1812 produced the outstanding figure of General Sir Isaac Brock, hero
of the battle of Queenston Heights.
Of Niagara Falls it is unnecessary to say much, such is their
hold upon everyone's imagination as one of the most remarkable
works of nature. While there are waterfalls of greater height
to be found, the immense volume of water, and the shear descent
of the unbroken plunge, give to Niagara a sublimity which
height alone cannot impart. The tumultuous rapids above the
falls, and the deep gorge below, add not a littla to the grandeur
of the^ scene. The falls attract every year hundreds of thousands
of visitors from all parts of the world, and now play as well an
extraordinarily important part in industry because of the
enomous amount of electrical power that is developed here.
The amount of water power actually available is 56,000 cubic
feet per second, equal to 650,000 h.p., of which about two-thirds
are on the Canadian side.
Buffalo Buffalo can be reached either by a loop line of the
New York New York Central from the American side of the
Falls, or direct from Welland via Bridgeburg. From
Buffalo the New York Central carries us fhrough Rochester,
Syracuse, Utiea and Schenectady to Albany, and thence down
the eastern shore of the Hudson River to New York. Several
through trains a day are run in each direction.
TORONTO TO WINGHAM AND TEESWATER: 130 miles
(For Map, see page 103)
Another very important branch line is that
to Brampton, Elora, Wingham and Teeswater. Leaving Toronto, we follow the
Toronto-Windsor line for 21 miles as far
as Streetsville Junction, where we leave it
to turn in a north-westerly direction. Brampton (population
4000^ is the centre of a very rich dairy and apple-growinq: district. It has numerous industries, including- several cut-flower
nurseries, one of which covers an area of 24 acres, boots and
shoes, etc. k
Toronto
Streetsville Jct.
Brampton
Inglewood
Cataract
Erin
Hillsburg
Fergus
Elora
ne arly
thirty
miles to
the west
stri n Jji
ing to-
gether
some
At   Cataract   a
branch runs for
Provincial Parliament Buildings, Toronto. Branches    from    Toronto
99
»
very prosperous towns and smaller industrial centres, Fergus, on
the Grand River, with a population of 2,000, has manufactures of
farm accessories and lime and building- stone. Elora, at the end
of J.he branch, has deposits of limestone of verv high qualitv
nearbTr and manufactures furniture. The surrounding country is
very beautiful.
Alton
Orangeville
Fraxa
Grand Valley
Arthur
Mount Forest
Harriston
Fordwich
Wroxeter
Wingham
Teeswater
3,000 inhabitants
Just beyond we join the Owen Sound line and
travel over it as far as Fraxa, where we turn
directly west. The succession of prosperous
towns continues. Arthur is a well-built trading centre for a large district. Mount Forest
(vopulation 2,000) has manufactures of
threshing machines, etc. Harriston (population 1,500) on the Maitland River, makes
stoves and furniture. At Wingham Junction
t^e line divides, one branch running north to
Glenannan and Teeswater, the other south to
Wingham. The latter is a very busy town of
with several small industries.
TORONTO TO OWEN SOUND: 121 miles
(For Map- see page 103)
Toronto
Bolton
Caledon
Melville
An important branch line is that from Toronto to
Owen  Sound,  on  Georgian  Bay.      Leaving-  Union
Station, the route is for some miles that to Sudbury,
until at Bolton we branch off and turn eastward.
From Caledon onwards we find ourselves in one of
the highest parts of Old Ontario—"the roof of Ontario", as it
has been called.    At Melville the line from Toronto to Wingham
joins us, and continues as far as Fraxa.
Orangeville
Fraxa
Shelburne
Dundalk
Saugeen
Durham
Hanover
Walkerton
Orangeville (population 2,500) is a very prosperous community, with several industries, including woollen mills. In fact, the country
through which we are passing is a succession
of very thriving small industrial centres set
in the midst of a rich and fertile agricultural
area. From Saugeen a branch line runs west
to Durham, Hanover and Walkerton, all situated on the Saugeen River, which falls into
Lake Huron. Furniture-manufacturing is an important business
in each town, which have also several other industries.
Flesherton
Markdale
Chatsworth
Owen Sound
The line continues in a north-westerly direction through several fine towns, and terminates
at Owen Sound, situated on an arm of Georgian Bay at the mouth of the Sydenham River.
Owen Sound (population 12,500) is one of the
two eastern terminals of the Canadian Pacific Great Lakes
Steamships services, and splendidly equipped steamers leave
here regularly during the
summer season for Port Arthur and Fort William. The
city has a fine, well-protected harbor, the sound bein°-
twelve miles long and navigable for the largest vessels. The beach nearby is a
popular summer resort. A
large number of industries
are located here, the principal being iron and steel,
furniture, agricultural implements, brick, etc. Electric powe1* is obtained from
Eue;enia Falls, 30 miles distant On the Beaver River. Inglis Falls, Owen Sound
i 100
Across   Canada
TORONTO TO GODERICH: 135 miles
(For Map, see page 103)
Toronto A branch service that reaches a highly prosper-
Guelph Jct. ous agricultural and industrial section of Ontario is that to Guelph and Goderich. Leaving
Toronto, we follow the Toronto-Windsor line for nearly 40 miles
to Guelph Junction, where we turn north-westerly. Guelph
Junction has also connections with Hamilton direct, and through
trains from the latter city to Guelph run daily.
Guelph (population 20,000) is the home of one of the best
known institutions of its kind in the world, the Ontario
Agricultural College. This college, which has l«rge grounds
ana handsome
buildings just
outside the city,
has an average of
1,200 students,
both men and women, from many
countries. The
city, which was
named after the
British Royal
Family, was
founded as far
back as 1827, and
in its laying-out
a very successful attempt at town-planning was made, with the
result that Guelph has a much more spacious atmosphere than
numerous cities that are considerably bigger. It is built on a
series of hills around the River Speed, one of the hills dominated
^y a very striking church. Guelph has a very busy industrial life,
and is a noted centre for grey iron castings; it also has a large
linen mill. The Ontario Winter Provincial Fair, held at Guelph,
»s an annual event which attracts a large attendance, and is one
of the best sheep shows in Canada.
Elmira The line continues in a westward direction through
Linwood a very fertile and productive agricultural district.
Listowel Elmira (population 2400) is a busy industrial town
making a variety of manufactured articles. At
Linwood a short branch runs up to Listowel (population 2800).
which has a large dyeing industry in development.
Ontario Agricultural College, Guelph
Millbank
Milverton
Blyth
Goderich
Huron County, which we soon enter, is a large
producer of flax. Goderich, the county town (population 5,000), is situated on the east coast of Lake
Huron, at the mouth of the Maitland River, which
is crossed by a fine bridge just before entering the
town. Situated on a high plateau, Goderich gains the full benefit of the breezes that make summer by the lakeside so refreshing, and has become a popular summer resort. There is a lovely
park overlooking
the^harbor, and
both bathing and
fishing are good.
Large deposits
of salt are found
in the vicinity,
and provide one
of the principal
industries, an-
othe^TO which is
that of flour milling.   . Goderich Harbor Connections   from Toronto    101
HI   Detroit
MICHIGAN CENTRAL RAILWAY
CHICAGO TO DETROIT: 283  miles
Chicago From Chicago through trains run to Toronto
Gary and Montreal,  first  over  the  metals  of the
Niles Michigan Central as far as Windsor, Ontario,
Kalamazoo and thence by Canadian Pacific Railway. The
Battle Creek     journey is through a succession of very pros-
Ann  Arbor perous small cities.    Gary, widely known as
the Steel City, was a desert of sand less than
25 years ago, but now boasts of a population of 55,000. Niles, on
the St. Joe River, is one of Michigan's oldest cities, and was,
in the early days, the Western terminal of the Michigan Central.
Kalamazoo has extensive manufacturing industries, and is the
centre of a large celery and peppermint growing territory.
Battle Creek has a well known sanitarium and manufactures
many brands of health food. Jackson is a rapidly developing
industrial and commercial city. Ann Arbor is a great educational centre.
Detroit Detroit is the fourth largest city of the United
States, an attractive and rapidly growing city that
is celebrated as the ce: tre > f the aut mobile busin js of the entire world. It has an immense production of automobiles, and
also of drugs, tobacco and shoes.
CANADIAN PACIFIC  RAILWAY
WINDSOR TO TORONTO: 226 miles
Windsor      The Detroit River (which has, within easy reach of
Windsor, a number of charming summer resorts)
can be crossed from Detroit by ferry; but the trains use the
Michigan  Central  Railway  tunnel underneath  the  river,  and
Windsor 102
Across   Canada
from here on we are on the metals of the Canadian Pacific
Railway. From here to Montreal, through the Western Ontario
peninsula, Toronto, along Lake Ontario, and down the St.
Lawrence, is what might be called a subsidiary main line of the
railway.
Along the shore of the Detroit River and the Lake St. Clair
are the "Border Cities", comprising the municipalities of Windsor, Walkerville, Ford, Sandwich, and Ojibway. These all adjoin
and it is difficult for the visitor to say where one ends and the
other commences. Windsor (population 35,000), the largest of
the Border Cities, has within the past few years developed
rapidly from an agricultural centre to an important manufacturing city with a large and varied output. This growth it owes
to a great extent to the fact that only the narrow Detroit River
separates it from the United States, and that a large number
of American industries establishing Canadian plants have found
this ease of access very desirable. In view of the fact that
Detroit is "America's Great Motorpoiis", it is not surprising
that Windsor and the adjoining municipalities should have become the largest automobile manufacturing centre of Canada.
Walkerville
Belle River
Tilbury
Chatham
Walkerville (population 7,000) has a large automobile, distillery, and other industries. Essex
and Kent Counties, through which we pass,
both produce quantities of tobacco and are likewise famous for corn. Tilbury (population
2000), is in the centre of a fertile farming district which also
supplies timber, crude oil, flax, fruits and vegetables. There are
large natural gas fields in the vicinity from which upwards of
twelve million cubic feet a year are produced. Chatham (population 16,000) is the centre of a prosperous agricultural section producing large crops of fruit, tobacco, sugar beets, and
flax. It has the second largest sugar beet factory on this continent, with a capacity of from 1200 to 1500 tons per day, a
large packing plant, and wagon-manufacturing and big automobile industries. It is a pretty city, with charming maple-lined
streets, fine parks, and many educational institutions.
Both well
Newbury
Glencoe
Komoka
Hyde Park
This Western Ontario peninsula is an extremely
fertile,   prosperous,   and   well-settled   region,   in
which occur at intervals small but exceedingly
thriving   industrial   centres.       The   counties   of
Essex, Kent  and  Middlesex  have  a  large   salt
area, from many wells in which brine is obtained
and  evaporated to  obtain the  commercial product.      Glencoe
(population 1000) supplies a fine farming district and has several sawmills and door factories.
London Population 60,000).
London suffers somewhat by the
ine vi t able
comparison
that the visitor makes
with the
great Old-
World metropolis, for it
not only carries the same
name, but
also pushes
the    parallel don Indicates Double Traru
DETROIT TO MONTREAL 104
Across   Canada
much farther, such as having a River Thames, being in a
Middlesex County, and possessing many streets with names
famous in the English capital, such as Cheapside, Piccadilly,
and Pall Mall. This condition is due partly to the fact that
the site of London was originally intended by Governor Simcoe,
in the early da^s of last century, for that of the capital of
the province of Upper Canada. But the paralll ends in
these names, for London is essentially a Canadian city.
It is the commercial, financial and educational centre of the prosperous Western Ontario peninsula, and a manufacturing ana distributing point of considerable importance. Its industries number over 250, producing over seventy different lines, notably
agricultural implements, stoves, biscuits, candy and cigars. Surrounding London is a fertile and well-cultivated agricultural
country. The city is a very attractive one, with fine public
buildings, large parks, and a charming residential section. London "grew up" as a backwoods settlement created by pioneers,
and attained the rank of a city in 1855. jl During the last thirty
years it has witnessed a very striking growth in its industrial
life. Within a hour's ride on an electric line is Port Stanley, a
very popular bathing and summer resort on Lake Erie.
Zorra
Woodstock
Zorra was settled by a colony of Highlanders in
1820. A short branch line rune to St. Mary s
(population 4000) beautifully situated on the
Thames River, and with several industries and large stone quarries, and cement works. Woodstock (population 11,000), is situated in the rich agricultural county of Oxford at the east end
of the beautiful Thames Valley. It is a great market place, the
produce of farm and garden being handled in large quantities,
while its industries have a big "output. Noteworthy amongst
them are organs, pianos, furniture, and textile products. Woodstock is regarded by its admirers as the prettiest inland city of
Ontario, its tree-shaded streets being delightful.
A branch line runs south-westerly from Woodstock to Ingersoll and
St. Thomas. Ingersoll (population 5500) is a pretty town that is
linked with a well-known brand of cheese that bears its name; it
also produces other kinds of dairy products and textiles. St. Thomas
(population 20,000) is a busy city at which a number of railways
concentrate, with several thriving industries. .From Ingersoll a branch
runs to Tillsonburg (population 3000), an old-established town with
both agricultural and industrial interests, and Port Burwell, a coaling
station at the mouth*of the Otter River, on Lake Erie.
Innerkip Most of the Western Ontario peninsula is of fairly
Drumbo old settlement. Old Country names abound, and
Ayr reveal the nationality of the pioneers as English
| and  Scotch, who  perpetuated  their  affection for
their motherland by bestowing such names upon what were then
dense forests.
Gait (Population 13,000), situated on the Grand River, is
sometimes called "The Manchester of Canada", for it
has a large volume of manufactured products, especially woollen
and knitted goods, machine tools, boilers, etc. Situated as it is,
in the centre of a rich agricultural district, it has also a large
milling business. In the neighborhood there is a plentiful supply of lumber, limestone and sand. Galt was named after John
Galt, the Scottish novelist, and it is a matter of history that
Hogg, the "Ettrick Shepherd" came very near to taking up a-
farm near here.
From Galt, the Grand River Railway, an electric railway, runs north
and serves an intensive industrial section and magnificent agricultural
district, in which are located numerous thriving cities and towns, such
as Kitchener, Waterloo, Preston and Hespeler, whose manufactured
products are known from the Atlantic to the Pacific. It operates in
close connection with the Canadian Pacific Railway, with a very frequent service.
From Galt the Lake Erie and Northern Railway, an electric line,
runs south through Paris, Brantford, Waterford, and Simcoe to Port
Dover, on Lake Erie.    Paris  (population 5000), on Grand River, has Western   Ontario
105
Galt
a large knitted-goods industry. Brantford (population 32000) derives its name from a celebrated Indian chief of the Six Nations
tribe. It is also noteworthy in another direction as the birthplace
of the telephone, and a monument commemorating Dr. Alexander
Graham Bell and his invention has been erected at the inventor's old
homestead. The city is an important manufacturing one, with a very
large output of agricultural implements. Simcoe has a large canning
factory. Port Dover has fisheries and nurseries, and is also a popular
bathing resort.
Guelph Jct.
Campbellville
Milton
Streetsville Jct.
Streetsville
Erindale
Cooksville
Guelph Junction is the junction for Guelph,
fifteen miles north, and Goderich, on Lake
Huron (see page 100). A line also runs
down to Hamilton, eighteen miles south-east.
Milton (populaton 1800) has several industries, of which the chief is brick-makinsr. At
Streetsville Junction the line from Elora,
Orangeville, Wingham and Teeswater joins
us from the north (see page 98). Streetsville stands beside the
rapids of the River Credit, once the scene of great lumbering
activity. The old village of Cooksville had the first vinery and
wine-making establishment of the district.
Islington
Lambton
West Toronto
Parkdale
Toronto
Station, Toronto,
the traveller can
of Canada or the
Lambton  has  a well-known  golf club,  and
here we enter the charming suburbs of Toronto. West Toronto is the junction point for
the Toronto-Sudbury line, route of the transcontinental service from Vancouver (see page
96).   Very shortly we  run  into the  Union
an exceedingly busy railway depot from which
reach almost any point in the eastern section
United States.
(For descriptive notes on Toronto, see page 96).
TORONTO TO MONTREAL: 340 miles
Toronto
Don
Leaside Junction
Agincourt
(For Map, see page 103)
The traveller to Montreal is offered his
choice of two routes—one via Peterborough and the Kawartha Lake district,
the other via Belleville and the Lake Ontario shore line. Several of the Canadian
Pacific trains use another C.P.R. station, namely, Yonsre Street
(formerly North Toronto) situated on the well-known thoroughfare of that name. Yonge Street Station is one of the handsomest in Canada, combining beauty and artistic properties with
utilitarian features, and designed in the style of the Italian Renaissance. The building is of grey limestone, and has a beautiful clock-tower 140 feet high. Leaving Toronto, we first cross
the River Don. At Agincourt the two lines to Montreal diverge;
for the tithe being we. will follow the newer one, the Lake On- -/gSff^
106
Across   Canada
tario shore line, which will introduce us to a succession of
prosperous manufacturing towns alternating with pretty summer
resorts. The line passes through a district well-known for its
fine apples, and the country has a very attractive appearance.
Whitby
Oshawa
Bowmanville
Newcastle
IMewton ville
Port Hope
Whitby (population 3000) is the site of a well-
known institution, the Ontario Ladies' College.
Oshawa (population 12,500) is a busy manufacturing town with large carriage, automobile
and other § lants, and is supplieu
with   power   from   the   Trent
River.    Here, in pioneer days,
was the beginning cf the portage from Lake Ontario to Scugog Lake, and the name of Oshawa is
an  Indian   one,   meaning   "the  carrying   place".
Bowmanville   (population  4000),  is
the centre of a rich apple-growing,
*nixed farming and dairying country,
with large automobile tire and other
factories.   It has a fine natural harbor, canable of accommodating   large   lake
vessels.    Port    Hope
(population   5000)   is
the   most   important
harbor   on   the   Canadian   side   of   Lake
Ontario between Toroato    and    Kingston.
The surrounding district is a good fruit-
farming one, and the
town has  several industries.     Port Hope
possesses a good bath- 0ntari° Ladies College* Whltby 1
ing beach, while, as one of the T;-teways to the Kawartha Lake
region, it is a stop-over point for devotees of the rod and gun.
Cobourg
Grafton
Colborne
Brighton
Trenton
Cobourg (population 5000), a picturesque little
town, is a popular summer resort, especially for
Americans, with fine-sanded sloping beaches, good
boating, and golfing. Twelve miles north is Rice
Lake, which can be reached by auto stage. (See
page 107). The town has a fine harbor, and is a
busy grain-exporting port.
Brighton (population 1500) is a beautiful town close to Presqu'
He Point, with a splendid bathing beach, good bass fishing, duck-
shooting, and a fine breezy atmosphere. It has become a popular summer cottage resort. Trenton (population 10,000), at the
mouth of the Trent River, is near the west end of the Bay of
Quinte.  Jt is the southern terminus of the Trent Valley Canal,
The Beach. Cobourg Lake   Ontario   Shore
107
Belleville Harbor
which is planned, eventually, to link the Georgian Bay with
Lake Ontario. North of the town and in the vicinity of Rice
Lake were formerly the headquarters of the Mississauga Indians, a branch of the Ojibways. The neighboring waters afford
good black bass and maskinonge fishing. There is a summer
line to Twelve O'Clock Point Park, three miles distant on the
western end of the Bay. Trenton is the seat of an extensive
lumber and milling industry, and the neighborhood also affords
iron, limestone and marble.
Belleville
Shannonville
Roblindale
Tichborne
On the south side of us now is the Bay of
Quinte, a long narrow arm of water that winds
in from Lake Ontario and into which several
rivers fall. This bay is very beautiful and at
several places can be seen from the train.
Belleville (population 12,500) is the commercial and educational centre of a fertile dairy, grain and fruit-growing country. It has a busy industrial life, including large cement
works, and there are talc and feldspar mines nearby, and
limestone quarries. The city is beautifully located on the Bay
of Quinte, and has fine black bass and maskinonge fishing.
Samuel Champlain, the ubiquitous and insatiable discoverer,
is reported to have wintered at Belleville, but it was not until
United Empire Loyalist days that any considerable settlement
was made. South of Roblindale are found large deposits of
marl, which is composed of ancient seashells disintegrated
and which is very valuable in connection with the manufacture
o£ building materials.
At Tichborne the line from Renfrew to Kingston crosses.
Going south we pass Harrowsmith and reach the . prosperous
city   of   Kingston    (population 24000) one   of   the   oldest   cities
in Canada, having been founded by Count Frontenac as Fort
Frontentic in 1673. Situated at the mouth of the Rideau
River, and at the point where the St. Lawrence River expands into
Lake Ontario, at the head of the Thousand Islands, it is an important   port,   with   a   number   of   large   industries,   including   knitted
goods   and
cottons. j*®**®®,^-.
Kingston ^«   --'"" *r~7>   ,<—
h a s a fi n e «&s> pp^4g£wwss**<"»
university e^^im^mmm^^mt^,.
in Queen's,
and also a
well - known
military college and a
school of
mines. In
the vicinity
are found
1 a r ge feld-
s p a r and
mica mines.
Kingston
is a popular
summer resort and the
gateway    to
s.P1«n.did Kingston
fishing
grounds.
The northern branch passes through a fine sporting district.    Good
fishing can he obtained at Bob's Lake, four miles from Tichborne, 108
Across   Canada
at Sharbot Lake, and at Calabogie, where black bass fishing on the
Madawaska River has always been very good. Cood deer hunting
can also be obtained at various points. The branch terminates at
Renfrew on the main line (see page 117).
Glen Tay At Glen Tay we rejoin the Peterborough line,
Perth passing several lakes, the largest of which are
Smith's Falls    Crow Lake and Christie Lake, both stations for
pretty summer resorts. Perth (population
4500) is a prosperous town with a number of mills. Quarries of
fine building stone and deposits of mineral phosphate are worked
in the vicinity.
Smith's Falls (population 7000) is the
end of the Ontario
operating district of
the railway and the
beginning of the Quebec district, and an
important junction
point for many
branches. It has a
number of important
manufactures, including agricultural machinery, for which
falls in the Rideau
River afford ample
water - power. Su-
p e r i o r bricks are
made here, and good building stone abounds.
Montreal  Harbor
Amongst the branches that leave Smith's Falls is one that runs
southeasterly to Brockville, situated at the eastern end of the famous
Thousand Islands of the St. Lawrence, which can be traversed in
either direction by steamer. Brockville (population 9500) is a solid,
prospering town with a number of flourishing industries, and the
centre of a large dairying district. Over two hundred cheese factories
are represented on its cheese board. Brockville took its name from
Sir Isaac Brock, the hero of the 1812 war, and is closely identified
with the history of Canada. A short branch runs north from Smith's
Falls to Carleton Place, on the Canadian Pacific main line (see page
117).
Merrickville     At Merrickville the line crosses, by a fine iron
Bedell bridge,  the    Rideau   River,   which,   with   the
Rideau Canal, forms an almost continuous
waterway between Ottawa and the St. Lawrence River. At
Bedell the line crosses a branch of the river.
At Bedell branch lines run both north and south. That to the
south runs through a prosperous mixed farming country to Prescott,
an old historic town at the foot of lake navigation on the St. Lawrence, *. and which played a very important part in the war with
the United States in 1812. It has a large grain elevator, with a
million bushel capacity. A car ferry operates across the river to
Ogdensburg, N.Y.    Population of Prescott 2800.
The north branch runs to Ottawa, and forms the route for the
Canadian Pacific Ottawa-Toronto service. The line follows the Rideau
Canal and River, from which it is never at a very great distance.
Kemptville (population 1300) on a branch of the Rideau River,
has a Government Demonstration Farm and Agricultural School.
Winchester
Chesterville
Finch
Apple Hill
Dalhousie Mills
St. Polycarpe Jct.
The counties of Glengarry and Stormont,
through which we pass, were settled
originally by British soldiers whose regiments had been disbanded in Canada.
Amongst these were some Highland regiments; and therefore good historic old
Scotch names are to be found plentifully
in this part of the country. Rich pasture lands on either side of
the line, and many fine herds of dairy cattle, are seen. Chesterville has a large condensed milk plant. At Dalhousie Mills we
en^er the Province of Quebec, Peter borough   Route
109
At St. Polycarpe Junction a branch line runs (29 miles) through a
fine mixed farming and dairying country to Cornwall, on the St.
Lawrence River. This charming little city, with a population of
9,000, is situated at the foot of the Cornwall Canal, a waterway
built to overcome the Long Sault Rapids, and was established in
1784. It has a number of industrial establishments utilizing the
plentiful water-power that is available.
St. Clet At Vaudreuil we join the Canadian Pacific main
Vaudreuil       line (see page 120), and cross the Ottawa River,
Montreal        a little above its junction with the St. Lawrence,
to the Island of Montreal. Running most of the
time in view of the mighty St. Lawrence, we are in a short time
passing through the suburbs of Montreal, and in a few minutes
thereafter finish our journey in Windsor Street Station.
(For descriptive notes on Montreal, see page 121)
Toronto
Agincourt
Claremont
Burketon Jct.
Dranoel
1
PETERBOROUGH ROUTE
If we travel the Peterborough route, which is
the older line, we leave Toronto in the same
way as far as Agincourt, where we turn more
northerly.    From Burketon Junction a branch
runs up to Bobcaygeon, on Sturgeon Lake, via
Lindsay,  where  it  crosses  the  Port  McNicoll
line.   This branch follows Lake Scugog and the
river of the same name for a considerable distance.    Bobcaygeon is the western gateway to
the Kawartha Lakes, comprising fourteen beautiful stretches of water which altogether aggregate one hundred and fifty miles, the principal
of which are Scugog Lake, Buckhorn Lake, and
Stoney Lake, together with the Otonabee River.
This region is a very popular summer resort,
with boating, bathing, fishing, golf and tennis,
and on the shores of
the various lakes are a
large number of delightful resorts.
From
Dranoel a
branch line
runs in a
north-
wes t er ly
direction to
Port McNicoll,
th r ou gh
Bethany,
Lindsay and Orillia. Bethany is the centre of a rich
agricultural country. Lindsay (population 8000) on the Scugog
River, is a busy little manufacturing point, with a Dominion Government arsenal. The neighborhood provides fine scenery and
good hunting and fishing, and Lindsay is a popular summer
resort. A branch runs up to Bobcaygeon, centre of the Kawartha Lake district. Orillia population 8500) is the gate to
the Couchiching*and Simcoe Lake region. Lake Simcoe, 35 miles
long by 15 miles wide, is three miles from the town and is connected with Lake Couchichingby the Narrows. Charming summer homes nestle along the elms, maples and poplars that fringe
these lakes, while there is good boating, bathing, fishing, duck-
shooting and golf. At Medonte the Toronto-Sudbury line is
crossed (see page 95). Port McNicoll, on Georgian Bay, is one
of the two eastern terminals of the Canadian Pacific Great
Lakes Steamship service. A large C.P.R. grain elevator with a
capacity of 4,200,000 bushels, a huge movable crane, and all the
!        ■*»»,.  w   *     i
Yonge Street Station. Toronto
ilSSI
nil
ff«5 112
Across   Canada
Nestoria mercial centres of Duluth and Su-
Ishpeming perior, at the extreme south-west-
IMegaunee ern   corner   of   Lake   Superior,   to
Marquette |y| Sault Ste. Marie.   Leaving Duluth
Sault Ste. Marie, Mich,     in the evening, Sault Ste. Marie is
|j|l reached   in   the   mornirigg and   a
through service is maintained betweeri - Duluth and ^Montreal. The territory traversed is historic, much ofj^the
havin^ been explored by the early French %voyageurs,
who were the first to map the south shore line of Lake
Superior. It is a country too, which is rich in minerals,
particularly iron and copper. Many of the mines may be viewed
fVom the train, and form an unusually interesting scene for
those wh^j are making their first trip through a mining
country.
CANADIAN PACIFIC RAILWAY
SAULT  STE.   MARIE  TO  SUDBURY:   179   miles
(For Map, see page 85)
Sault Ste. Marie, Ont.      (Population 23,000) is an important
city that lies on the St. Mary's River,
which separates it from the twin city of the same name situated
in the State of Michigan. Historically Sault Ste. Marie has
great interest. The first settlement was formed by French fur-
traders and Jesuit Fathers about 1632; and the small settlement
was named in gratitude in the Virgin Mary after a hard fight
with Indians. The village, then under British rule, was attacked
and pillaged by an American force in the War of 1812. The development of the city dates back hardly more than thirty years,
when the building of the ship canal and the coming of the Canadian Pacific Railway gave it a great impetus. Sault Ste. Marie
has great steel mills, with a monthly output of 83,000 tons oi
steel products and 50,000 tons of coke, paper mills, with a daily
output of 230 tons of paper and 300 tons of pulp and ground
wood, and large tar and chemical factories. There is still available some 15,000 horsepower furnished by the St. Mary's rapids,
and developed by the Great Lakes Power Company. The Canadian Pacific Great Lakes Steamship trip, from Port McNicoll or
Owen Sound to Fort William, traverses the Soo Canal, and a full
description of that wonderful engineering work will be found on
page 89.
Desbarats
Thessalon
Blind River
Cutler
Massey
Webbwood
The line to Sudbury traverses the great Mississauga Forest Rerserve, a block of land 2000
square miles in extent, exceedingly rich in
lumber resources and to some extent in minerals. The coi.:.try is wild and broken, a land
of stern rocky hills and swift eddying rivers,
fft-asefesesssfes^rtt
Canadian Pacific Bascule'Bridge, Sault Ste. Marie ■>»
Algoma
113
and the enthusiast for outdoor life will find through this
region some of the finest opportunities anywhere on the con-
To Desbarats, a popular* summer resort and the port for St.
Joseph's Island, we run through
trees and cottages, with the gleam
of the St.
Mary's
River on
the right,
and through
a pleasant
f arm ing
country.
From Thessalon steamers run to
various
points up
and     down.
the North Channel of Lake Huron. Cutler affords a
convenient spot from which to take the steamer to
Manitoulin Island, which lies in the North Channel. The
town of Blind Riv^r is the usual terminus of the long canoe
trir» down the Mississaugua River. (See under Biscotasing,
page 92).
Paper Mill, Espanola
Espanola
Worthington
Whitefish
Copper Cliff
Sudbury
the    Blind, the
This country along the shore of Lake Huron
is a busy lumbering one. Considerable towns
exist for the operation of planing mills, box
and door factories, saw mills, lath mills, and
basket and wood product factories. All the
rivers flowing from the north—the Spanish,
Thessalon, and other important streams
-have    brought    their    burden     of    logs,    and    here    by
the waters of Lake Huron, ^they are converted into commercial
articles.
Webbwood is a railway divisional point. Espanola (population
3500) has a large mill operated by the Spanish River Pulp and
Paper Company, producing 300 tons of newsprint daily.
At Worthington one of the Mond Nickel Company's
mines is located; at Turbine, the next station, the
International Nickel Company has a standard gauge railway    running    to    their    power    plant.      Whitefish    is    the
gateway to Lake
Penage, which affords some of the
best bass fshing
in Canada. At
Copper Cliff we
get a hint of the
principal industry
of Sudbury, in the
shape of the smelter of the International Nickel Company, which has a
maximum output of
6,000 tons of matte
per month, and
shortly thereafter
we reach Sud-
buiy on the Canadian   Pacific   main
Nickel Smelter, Sudbury line. g_^
114
Across   Canada
SUDBURY TO MONTREAL: 439 miles
(For Map% see page 115)
Sudbury
Romford
Coniston
Warren
Verner
Cache Bay
Sturgeon Falls
National Railway.
We leave Sudbury past the winding shores
of little Lake Ramsay, winding around
bays and thundering through rock-cuts. At
Romford the line to Toronto runs south
(See page 93). At Coniston we are still in
the nickel belt, as evidenced by the big
smelter which we see to the right just
before crossing the line of the Canadian
For twenty-five miles we now run through
well-settled, prosperous farming land. This section of the country was first settled just ahead of the advancing steel some
thirty-six years ago, by French-Canadians from around Papi-
neauville, Quebec, who came to Ontario with the railway construction gangs. Now some ten thousand people live in these
villages and in the many farming communities by which we
pass. The falls on the Sturgeon Diver, which give their name
to the town, provide the power for the Spanish River Pulp and
Paper Company, which produce 75 tons of newsprint and 100
tons of sulphite per day. Leaving the pleasant cultivated land,
we change suddenly to the bush of an Indian Reserve that skirts
the sandy north shore of Lake Nipissing, and soon slacken speed
for North Bay.
North  Bay    North Bay is the railway headquarters  of the
Algoma district. A town of some ten thousand
people, standing on the north shore of Lake Nipissing, it is a
centre from which six lines of railway radiate. One of these is
the Temiskaming and Northern Ontario Railway, which co-operates with the Canadian Pacific in a through sleeping-car service
to the well-known sporting and camping centre, Timagami, and
the famous silver and gold mining districts of Cobalt and Porcupine, both to the north. From a vacation standpoint, the
great charm of North Bay lies in the magnificent Lake Nipissing and the beautiful French River. Ninety miles long and
twenty miles wide, Nipissing is very close to being a "great"
lake. A steamer crosses its shining waters daily to the island-
studded mouth of the French River, which falls into the Georgian
Bay (see page 93).
Thorncliffe
Bonfield
Rutherglen
Resuming our journey eastward, we follow the
trail of the first adventurers to penetrate this
northern half of the American continent.    The
North Bay Indicates Double Tr^n
SUDBURY TO MONTREAL II
1
116
Across   Cana da
Eau Claire       hardy  and heroic  French  pioneers  discovered.
this route—up the St. Lawrence, Ottawa and
Mattawa Rivers, across Lake Nipissing, and by French River
into the Georgian Bay—long before they dared the risk of the
upper St. Lawrence. It thus came about that five years before
the^ Pilgrim Fathers landed at Plymouth Rock, Samuel Champlain reached Lake Huron by this route and began the exploration of Lake Huron. Twenty years later, Jean Nicollet paddled
through the Strait of Michilimakinac into Lake Jftchigan, and
white men stood on the site of Chicago almost before they knew
that Lakes Ontario and Erie existed.
As we recline in the padded armchairs of the observation car
and watch the shining metals glide away, we can perhaps
vision those grim men toiling up the river beside which our
varnished cars speed so swiftly. The country is a mixture of
farming and lumbering sections. The names of the villages tell
something to the inquisitive traveller—Bonfield, "the rich land",
Rutherglen, with its suggestion of the austere beauty of the
Scotch Highlands, and Eau Claire, meaning "the spring of clear
water".      IE mm
Mattawa
Klock
Deux Rivieres
Adelard
Stoned iff
Mackey
Moorlake
We speed eastward through some typical
north country—a land of rock, lake and
timber and of the clearings of enterprising
farmers. The chief industry is lumbering,
and each village has its sawmill or is engaged in shipping pulpwood to the mills.
Fishing and hunting may be obtained in
abundance, particularly at Klock, Deux Rivieres, and StoneclifL Mattawa (meaning "the meeting of the
waters") stands at the confluence of the Ottawa and Mattawa
Rivers. Formerly an important Hudson's Bay trading post, it
is to-day the base of all expeditions into the primitive country
of Lake Timiskaming. Near the town are some large deposits
of mica.
From Mattawa, winding
along the bank
of the Ottawa
River, a
branch line
runs to Timiskaming and
Kipawa. The.
country
around Kipa-;
wa is well
known to the
experienced
s p ortsman .
The ' 'hiding
place", as its
Indian name
signifies, is
the centre of
an intricate
pH network of
lakes and
rivers,    and
the angler need be neither very patient nor very skilful in order to'
take from the-Kipawa district a few of its abundant pickerel, pike,
trout, whitefish and bass. In the town, of Timiskaming we encounter the great pulp and paper industry of the north. An interesting
visit can be paid to the great paper plant which is being established here. Into one building the logs of pulpwood can be seen
floating, to emerge a quarter of a mile away from a great roller and
to be stacked in the shipping room in the form of white, wet
masses  of  sulphite.
Kipawa
Chalk River
Thistle
Petawawa
Pembroke
Chalk River is the end of the Algoma operating
district of the railway and the beginning of the
Quebec district. Petawawa was the site, during
the  war, of a large  military camp  and  the The    Ottawa   Valley
117
Meath training-ground,   notably,   of  many  crack   ar-
Cobden tillery batteries.    Pembroke  (population 8500)
Haley's is the chief town of the Ottawa Valley and the
centre of a choice farming district. There are
many industrial enterprises operating in Pembroke, including
lumber mills and the various other industries related thereto.
Situated on Alumette Lake, an expansion of the Ottawa River,
Pembroke is an attractive residential town. A good boat service on the Ottawa River (which is navigable for fifty miles
west) affords access to the many summer resorts in this section.
Renfrew^ Renfrew is a thriving town on the Bonnechere
Sand Point       River eight miles from its confluence with the
Braeside Ottawa, with a population of 6,500. The town
has flour mills, and other industries, and deposits of graphite and molybdenite in the vicinity.
From Renfrew a branch line runs to Kingston, on the St. Lawrence
River. The line crosses the two routes from Montreal to Toronto
at Sharbot Lake and Tichborne respectively, and passes through a fine
fishing and hunting district.     For description of route, see page  108.
A branch line runs 23 miles from Renfrew to Eganville, which
is situated adjoining large tracts of timber.
Arnprior
Pakenham
Almonte
Carleton Place
All this section, to Carelton Place and beyond, is a wt 11-cultivated farming district.
The large, clear streams which rush down
from the west to meet the Ottawa offer as
good fishing as does the larger river, maski-.
nonge, trout and bass being common. The towns along the railway are frequent and busy, and at many points favorable to
the establishment of sawmills due advantage has been taken of
the fact.
Arnprior (population 4700), situated at the confluence of the
Ottawa and Madawaska Rivers, has large sawmills, the largest
lumber yard on the continent being located here. In addition
to developed waterpower, there is over 250,000 horsepower within
ten miles of the town as yet undeveloped. We are still following
the beautiful Ottawa Valley. Pakenham and Almonte are important manufacturing points. Almonte (population 3000), has
large woollen mills, iron works, and other industries with a large
supply of water power available. The town is beautifully situated in the midst of a prosperous farming community. Carleton
Place (population 3900) has railway workshops, woollen factories, and other industries. One mile away is Mississippi Lake,
offering good fishing. M
Parliament Buildings, Ottawa 118
Across   Canada
From Carleton Place a branch line runs to Smith's Falls (on the
Montreal-Toronto line) and Brockville on the St. Lawrence River.
For description of route,  see page 108.
Ashton
Stittville
Hull West
Hull
As the traveller follows the south bank of the
Ottawa River for some distance the traveller
is much interested in the enormous quantities
of saw-logs held in "booms" for the use of the
mills below. Britannia is a popular summer re^
sort for Ottawa people, who take advantage of its
proximity to the city by making it their home. Entering
Ottawa the railway line crosses the Ottawa River twice, first
to Hull and then back again by the Royal Alexandra Bridge.
Hull (population 32,000). which faces Ottawa across the river,
is in the Province of Quebec. It is actively engaged in the various industries arising from the lumber trade.
Ottawa The capital of the Dominion of Canada stands at the
junction of the Rideau and Ottawa Rivers, the
picturesque grandeur of its site being second only to that of
Quebec. Ottawa is the residence of the Governor-General, the
meeting place of the House of Commons and the Senate, and
the headauarters of the Government administrative departments.
The Parliament Buildings, the first foundation stone of which
was laid in 1860, were partly destroyed by a disastrous fire in
1916, but the reconstructed central 'building, whiph has just
been completed, is a magnificent pile that fitly replaces it.
Rideau Hall, the Governor-General's house, is a charming residence within the city limits that is the centre of much of
Ottawa's brilliant social life. Amongst the many interesting
places that Ottawa has to visit are the Royal Mint and the Vic-
oria Museum, but by no means less engrossing are the many
lumber mills in the lower town, through which pass the thousands of logs floated down the Gatineau and other tributaries
of the Ottawa River. Because of the wonderful water-power
furnished by the Chaudiere Falls, which here interruut the
navigation of the Ottawa River, these mills can easilv handle
all the lumber from its large triubtary districts. The citv
stands on high erround, and has a large. mileage of well-laid
driveways as well as many beautiful parks, of which one of the
finest is Major's Hill Park, overlooking the river. From here
a beautiful panoramic view of the river, the city of Hull, and the
dark blue Laurentian Mountains in the background can be
obtained. Near Ottawa are many popular summer resorts.
The population of the city is 127,000, which is, of course, considerably augmented during the legislative seasons.
(Continued on page 120).
OTTAWA AND MANIWAKI: 82 miles
(For Map, see page 115)
Ottawa
Hull
Chelsea
Cascades
Wakefield
From Ottawa a branch line runs north through
the beautiful Valley of the Gatineau, one of the
most widely known summering, places in the
Province of Quebec. Crossing from Ottawa to
Hull, one enters the valley, which, almost from
here, takes on the appearance characteristic of
the whole. Low rolling hills on the one hand, and on the other
the silvery Gatineau, with "dead heads" here and there serv*n<?
to remind the traveller that the river carries one million logs
to the mills at Ottawa every season. Chelsea sees a large number of commuters leave the train, for a short bus ride from the
station are the well-known resorts of Kingsmere and Meach's
Lake. Kirk's Ferry, Cascades, Farm Point and Wakefield are
popular summer resorts, with good bathing, in the midst of a
good agricultural territory, North   from   Ottawa
119
Alcove
Kazubazua
Gracefield
Blue Sea
Burbidge
Maniwaki
even   in   the   days   of   the   "voyageur"
The railway line twists and turns with the windings of the river. Though summer gives the traveller but scant idea of the enormous activity of the
lumber trade which brings the shantymen from
far and near, to spend the long winter months in
the forests which clothe the Laurentian Hills to
their  rounding   summits,   history   tells   us   that
lumbering was the
industry of
the Gatineau
Valley.': Today, with the
im p r ovements
made by modern ingenuity,
it still holds
first place, and
"■ though to the
* outsider the
Gatineau Valley is a place
to spend long,
happy summers, to those
who know it
represents untold    wealth
and untiring effort. At Kazubazua is one of the best trout
streams in the Gatineau district. Gracefield is a thriving village
that is the point of entry to the hunting and fishing territory of
the Pickanock, which is also accessible from Fort Coulogne on
the Waltham branch.
OTTAWA TO WALTHAM: 80 miles
Chutes  Paugan,  Gatineau  River
Ottawa
Hull
Aylmer
Quyon
Wyman
Shawville
Campbell's Bay
Fort Coulonge
Waltham
(For Map, see page 115)
From Ottawa an important line crosses the
river and follows for a considerable distance
the north shore of the Ottawa river, reaching the Waltham district. This region, like
the Gatineau, is a great lumbering one; it is
also .a fine sporting country that affords excellent fishing. Aylmer, on Lake Deschene,
' is a popular summer resort for Ottawans,
Quyon, one of the oldest settlements of the
district, has back of it many lakes and
streams offering fine fishing. The surrounding country is a
rich and productive agricultural one, with Shawville as one of
the principal centres. Between Shawville and CampbelPs Bay
is a very beautiful valley, consisting of rolling downs dotted
with large farm-houses. Campbell's Bay, facing Calumet Island, hc.s fine pike, pickerel
and bass fishing. Fort Coulonge is prettily situated at
the junction of the Coulonge
and Ottawa Rivers. The Ottawa is calm and narrow here,
and one may ferry across to
Pembroke, on the main line
(see page 116). Waltham is
within a short distance of
some wonderful fishing waters, ag well as being near
Fort. William, the summer
resort opposite Petawawa* Lumbering 120
Across   Canada
OTTAWA TO  PRESCOTT
From Ottawa a branch line runs to Kemptville, Bedell (on the
Montreal-Toronto line), and Prescott, on the St. Lawrence River.
Through trains from Ottawa to Toronto are run daily over this
line via Bedell.    For description of route, see page 108.
OTTAWA TO MONTREAL  (Continued)
Navan
Hammond
Pendleton
Caledonia Springs
Vankleek
Leaving Ottawa the train skirts the
Rideau Canal. This canal connects Ottawa with Lake Ontario at Kingston, and
leaving the Union Station, in the heart of
the city, we follow its banks for a time.
From here to Caledonia Springs we traverse a country of small villages and a fertile and prosperous
agricultural development. Caledonia Springs, in the centre of
this fine farming district, is widely known because of the medicinal value of its waters, which are now bottled by the Caledonia^
Springs Company. Vankleek is a thriving village with various
sawmills and other industries depending on the lumber trade.
Rigaud Nine miles east of Vankleek the train crosses the
Hudson boundary between Ontario and Quebec and en-
Vaudreuil       ters the latter province.    From here to Ste. Anne
de Bellevue the Ottawa River expands into the
Lake of Two Mountains, which the railway skirts for several
miles and on whose shores are a number of popular summer
resorts, such as Point Fortune, Hudson and Como. On the
opposite shore of the lake stands the Trappist monasterv of
Oka, whose silent inmates are largely engaged in agriculture
and dairying* Rigaud Mountain, seen on ihe left, is sharply
contrasted in its rocky bareness with the luxuriant vegetation
of the surrounding country. Legend describes it as "the Devil's
Playground". From Rigaud a branch line runs to the summer
resort of Point Fortune, seven miles north on the Ottawa River.
Directly opposite, on the other side of the river, is the village
of Carillon, in which a memorial indicates the point where
Doilard des Ormeaux and a little band of French-Canadian
heroes withstood in 1660 the attacks of an army of Iroquois—
one of the finest episodes in early Canadian history.
At Vaudreuil the Toronto-Montreal line from the south-west joins
us.     (See page 109).
Ste. Annes At Vaudreuil we cross the Ottawa River to Isle
Beaconsfield      Perrot, and then again by a fine steel bridere,
Dorval directly under which are the locks which lift
steamers and barges over the rapids, to Ste.
Anne de Bellevue (or Ste. Anne's). Here we are at the extreme
western end of the Island of Montreal, which lies between the
Ottawa and St. Lawrence Rivers. The Ottawa has several channels, the principal of which flows at the back of the island, and
henceforth the
mighty stream
that we frequent^
M see on the
right hand of the
track is the noble
St. Lawrence, the
principal river of
Canada. It expands into Lake
St. Louis, along
whose shores are
a succession of
towns and villages exceedingly Macdonald College, Ste. Anne de Bellevue Ottawa   to   Montreal 121
Windsor Street Station. Montreal
popular "as summer resorts—Beaconsfield, Pointe Claire, Dorval,
i p rt riTTift   etc
At Ste. Anne's is Macdonald College, where courses in practical
agriculture, domestic science, and pedagogy are conducted. Surrounding the buildings are well-cultivated fields and experimental plots. On the opposite side of the track is a large military hospital. Ste. Anne's is interesting to students of literature, for it was here that the poet Moore wrote "The Canadian
Boat Song". Beaconsfield has a popular golf club facing the
track, and Dixie is the home of the Royal Montreal Golf Club.
Dorval has a well-known race-track. Lachine, which we do not
see, but which can be reached by street-car, is closely linked
with Canadian history. It was the scene of a most bloody massacre in 1689, and was the point of departure for early trading
and military expeditions. Its very name is reminiscent of the
obsession of a pioneer explorer, that he had at last reached
China.
Montreal West     Passing Sortin, distributing point for freight
Westmount entering Montreal, we reach Montreal West,
whose extremely pretty station is the junction point for lines to St. John, Halifax, New York, Boston and
Portland (see page 00). Westmount is a beautiful residential
suburb on the slopes of Mount Royal; and thence the railway
lines run through the city on a high stone viaduct into the Windsor Street Station, Montreal.
Montreal Montreal, chief city and commercial metropolis of
Canada, is situated on an island formed by the St.
Lawrence and Ottawa Rivers, on the site of the ancient Indian
village of Hochelaga, visited by Jacques Cartier in 1535. It
not only enjoys the distinction of being a great ocean port
nearly a thousand miles inland, but in point of foreign commerce it is the second port in North America. The city is 150
miles above salt water, but is 315 miles nearer Liverpool
than is New York. The broad St. Lawrence forms a highway
upon which large ocean-going steamers can safely ascend to
Montreal, which has nine miles of fine wharves of concrete, vast
warehouses, f&% huge elevators with a total capacity of over ten
million bushels, and a large floating drydock.
The city has a far-reaching trade and great manufacturing
establishments. But although it is one of the busiest cities in
Canada, it has a very historical atmosphere, and confronts the
visitor at many points with links with the great past. The city,
established as a trading post 250 years ago, was, for a-number
of years, the focal point in the struggle between the French and
the Indians, and later between the French and British. It was
the last place yielded by the French in 1760.   The Chateau de 122
Across   Canad
Ramezay was the official residence of the French Governor, and,
preserved now as a museum, is the repository of a very valuable
collection of historical documents, pictures, and curiosities.
Prominent from every part of Montreal is Mount Royal, a
large and beautiful public park. From the Lookout a wonderful
panoramic view of the city and river can be obtained. Nestling
in the shelter of the mountain is McGill University, one of the
most famous educational institutions of this continent. The
Universite de Montreal ministers to the French-speaking population. The population of Greater Montreal is 900,000, about
three-fifths of whom are French-speaking, indeed, Montreal is the fifth largest French-speaking city of the world.
Throughout the city are numerous handsome buildings maintained by religious bodies, such as churches, convents and
hospitals. Notre Dame, on Place d'Armes, is the largest; this
fine church can easily accommodate ten thousand people. St.
James Cathedral, facing Dominion Square, is a replica of St.
Peter's at Rome.
Lachine, where the visitor can "shoot the rapids", Caughna-
waga, an Indian village nearby, Sault au Recollet and Laprairie,
all deserve a visit. So does Bonsecours Market and some of
Montreal's fine streets, such as Sherbrooke, one of the most
stately in Canada, or St. Denis, through which throbs the French-
Canadian life of Montreal more vividly ^erhaps than through
any other. Equally notable is the financial district, with its
narrow streets, the uptown shopping district and the pretty
suburbs.
Montreal is the headquarters of the Canadian Pacific Railway,
the greatest transportation system in the world. Windsor
Street Station is a huge grey stone building rivalling in
architectural interest any of those in the city. It has eleven
tracks, a large concourse, magnificent waiting rooms, restaurants, etc., and several floors of offices above. In the east
end of the city are the company's Angus Shops, the largest on
the continent, with the most modern equipment for locomotive
and car building and repairing. They cover an area of 200
acres, employ 8,000 men, and can turn out a complete passenger
and freight train every day.
Among its many good hotels, Montreal has the Place Viger,
erected and operated by the Canadian Pacific. This imposing
structure is named in honor of the first Mayor of Montreal, and
faces the quiet and graceful square of the same name, about 1%
miles from Windsor Street. It is only a few minutes' walk from
the business portion of the city and the steamship docks. From
the Place Viger Station, at the rear of the hotel, trains start
for Quebec, the Laurentians, the North Shore of the Ottawa
River, etc.
Place Viger Hotel, Montreal
Mi——=	
— ■	 Eastern   U.S.   Connections     123
NEW YORK AND MONTREAL
Adirondack Route, via New York Central: 469 miles
Is by the New York Central, up the east shore of the
picturesque Hudson River to Albany, N.Y.; thence via Utiea
and the attractive summer resorts of the Adirondack Mountains
(Saranac Lake, Paul Smith's, Loon Lake, etc.), crossing the
St. Lawrence River on the Canadian Pacific Bridge above the
Lachine Rapids, and into the Windsor Street Station at Montreal.
This trip may be pleasantly varied in summer by taking the
steamer in the morning from New York up the Hudson to
Albany, and thence by rail as above.
NEW YORK TO MONTREAL: 384 miles
Delaware  and   Hudson  Route
Another route is by New York Central to Troy, thence by the
Delaware and Hudson Railroad via Saratoga Springs and the
west shore of Lake Champlain. This route can be varied in
summer via steamer through Lake George and Champlain at an
expend-ture of about twelve hours' time and a slight additional
cost in price of ticket.
BOSTON AND MONTREAL:  340 miles
From Boston there is a through service by Canadian Pacific
trains. The route traverses the most interesting parts of New
England, skirts the White Mountains of New Hampshire, and
runs through the rich valleys of Northern Vermont, with the
Green Mountains in view, and along Memphremagog, and
through the English settled portions of Southern Quebec xo
Montreal, crossing the St. Lawrence by the Canadian Pacific
bridge, just above the city, and stopping at the Windsor Street
Station.
PORTLAND,   MAINE,   AND   MONTREAL:  282   miles
Via the White Mountains
From Portland, the route lies through Southern Maine and
Central New Hampshire, entering the famed White Mountains
at North Conway, and crossing the startling Crawford Notch to
Fabyans and Lunenberg, and   thence   to
St. Johnsbury, Vt., from Hftlfl. fri.fi which the same
route as from Boston is Vm Jkfifet followed      to
Montreal.      Maine Cen- VUGr tral  trains  run
from    Portland   to    St. fc W Johnsbury,
where connection is made MjafSMSL       with Boston and
Maine,
Pacific
trains.
Chateau de Ramezay, Montreal 124
Across   Canad
OTTAWA TO MONTREAL: Via North Shore: 120 miles
Ottawa
Hull
East Templeton
Buckingham Jct.
Plaisance
Papineauville
Fassett
Calumet
Staynerville
Besides the main line, the Canadian
Pacific Railway operates a branch which
links up the old towns a^id villages on the
north shore of the Ottawa River with
Montreal and Ottawa. Leaving Ottawa
by the Royal Alexandra Bridge, we cross
the Ottawa River to Hull, which is in
the province of Quebec. Like all the
cities and towns in this part of the country, Hull's prosperity depends largely on
the lumber industry. Every spring enormous quantities of logs
come floating down the Gatineau, and these are converted into
lumber in the various sawmills of Hull. Its population (32,000)
is mainly French-Canadian. Between Hull and Gatineau station
the line crosses the Gatineau River, whose valley is one of the
most beautiful in Canada. Buckingham Junction (population
3,800), is the station for Buckingham, a few miles up the River
du Lievre.    As is usual in this vicinity, most of the industries are
directly dependent on the lumbering trade, but in
the neighborhood there are phosphate and plumbago mines  as well  as mica,  all  of which are
worked.
There     is
abundant
electric
power
available.
The     trees
about   here
are   especi- |
ally lovely,
and at Calumet, where
the railway
crosses
the     River
Rouge,   the
scene   is
."•"Kg*-
Chaudiere   Falls,   Ottawa
very pretty in an unpretentious style.
Lachute
St. Scholastique
St. Augustin
Ste. Therese
Mile End
Montreal
Lachute, one of the most important
towns between Montreal and Ottawa, is
the centre for all the little lumbering
towns in the district. Its population is
2,400; it has several factories connected
with the lumber trade. Lachute is well
known as a training centre for school
teachers. The railway skirts the river, now coming quite close,
again drawing away so that one moment our eyes rest on the
leafy green of the forest trees, and next catch a glimpse of
the silvery Ottawa. At Ste. Therese we meet the branch coming
down from the Laurentian Mountains (see page 125), while an--
other short one runs down to St. Eustache, a popular summer
resort on the north branch of the Ottawa River. At St. Martin
Junction we meet the line from Quebec. Mile End is the station
for the northern suburbs of Montreal, and shortly afterwards
we run into the Place Viger Station.
MONTREAL TO MONT LAURIER:  158 miles
Montreal
Mile End
Laval Rapides
St.  Martin  Jct.
Ste. Rose
Within easy reach of Montreal lies a most
delightful summer resort, the beautiful
Laurentian Mountains. The train leaves the
Place Viger Station, and strikes north
across the Island of Montreal.    In a few Laurentian   Mountains
125
Ste. Therese minutes the broad and rapid Back River
St. Janvier (or Riviere des Prairies) is crossed and we
are on a smaller island, the He Jesus. St.
Martin Junction is the diversion point for the line to Quebec.
Ste. Rose is a charming summer colony on the shore of the
Riviere des Milles Isles, after crossing which we are on the mainland. Ste. Therese is a quaint little French-Canadian town from
which branches run west t6 Ottawa and St. Eustache and east
to St. Lin, a prosperous little agricultural town. ;4^
St. Jerome
Shawbridge
Piedmont
Ste. Adele
Ste. Marguerite
Val Morin
At St. Jerome we really enter the Laurentians proper, and begin a long climb of almost a thousand feet. Shawbridge is beautifully situated on the North River -^- the
Riviere du Nord that is our companion for
most of the journey. Piedmont is the site
of the Y.M.C.A. camp for boys: Ste. Adele
is a pleasant little village on the shores of Round Lake, about
a mile from the station. Ste* Marguerite is a very popular point,
from which Lac Masson, Lac Charlebois and Lac des Isles — to
mention only the biggest of about eighteen lakes —r can be
reached to the east, and Lac St. Joseph to the west. Val Morin
lies on Lac Raymond, the site of numerous summer
cottages,
and with a very
charming setting. This whole
Laurentian region is one of
mountain,
lake, forest, and
river, with excellent fishing,
bathing and
boating, a gay
social life, and
good hunting
in  the  fall.
Ste. Agathe
Ivry
St. Faustin
St. Jovite
Lac Mercier
Fishing   near   Labelle
Ste. Agathe is another very popular rp»ort.
Within a distance of eight miles one may find
thirty-three lakes, of which the picturesque Lac
des Sables is the nearest. Further away is Lac
Archambault, a somewhat wilder resort. Ivry,
a fashionable summer colony, gives access to
Lac Manitou, site of a well-known fishing club. St. Faustin is a
very attractive resort on the shore of Lac Carre (Square Lake),
within easy reach of Lac Superiur, Lac des Quenouilles^ and
others. St. Jovite is a pretty town from which Lac Ouimet,
which has a large summer settlement, is reached. The railway skirts the eastern shore of Lac Mercier, which has a fine
bathing beach. Overshadowing it is Mont Tremblant, the highest mountain in the Laurentians (2474 feet), which js said by
the superstitious to tremble at certain hours. At its foot is
the beautiful Lac Tremblant. This region is a fine trout and
pike fishing one. ..».. |P
Labelle Labelle is named after Father Labelle, the
Annonciation       missionary  priest who  was  the  pioneer of
Beilerive this whole section.  From here on we traverse
Nomininigue        a somewhat wilder region, with a sparse popu-*
Lac Saguay lation and with lumbering as the principal
Barrette occupation.     Near Nomininigue we pass big
Mont Laurier       and little Lacs  Nomininigue,   the  latter  of
which, 35 miles in circumference, is the biggest in the Laurentians. Although not so popular a summer
resort as those which we have already passed, it is well-known 126
Across   Canada
to fishermen. The thirty-two miles between Nomininigue and
Mont Laurier are almost a sealed book except to the lumberjack. The railway curves tortuously through a wildly picturesque country, past countless lakes and streams, well stocked
with a variety of fish. Mont Laurier, the terminus of the line,
gives access to a fine territory offering numerous attractions—
fishing of the very best, camping, and hunting. Lac des Isles,
nearby, is dotted with twenty-seven islands on which many
summer homes have been established.
^MONTREAL  TO  QUEBEC:   172   miles
(For Map, see page 127)
IVlontreal
Mile End
St. Martin Junction
St. Vincent de Paul
Terrebonne
Mascouche
WEpiphanie
^avaltrie
Lanoraie
Berthier Junction
The trains for Quebec leave Montreal
from the Place Viger Station, adjo*nin°;
the hotel of the same name, and for
some distance run throurh the populous
suburbs of Montreal. Between Pla^e
Viger Station and Mile End we pass on
the riVht the large Angus Shops of the
Canadian Pacific, covering an area of
200 acres. At St. Martin Junction we
diverge from the line which runs to the
Laurrntian Mountains (see page 12A).
St. Vincent de Paul has a somewhat sinister appearance, for the
provincial penitentiary is situated here. At 1 errebonne (povula-
tion 2300), the Riviere des Mille Isles, one of the two forks' of
the Ottawa River, is crossed. Here are the limestone quarries
which furnish most of the stone used in the neighboring cities,
in railway bridges^ and other heavy masonry.
From Lanoraie a branch runs north to Joliette, St. Felix, a-nd St:
Gabriel, through a rich agricultural country. St. Gabriel, on Lac
Maskinonge, is a well-known summer resort with very fine fishing.
principally for that giant of Canadian waters, the "lunge". Berthier
Junction is the station for a populous river-landing of the same name,
reached  by  a   small  branch.
Maskinonge
Louiseville
Yamachiche
Point du Lac
Louisville is near the St. Leon Springs, wh*ch
have some repute owing to their saline waters.
From here one catches a glimpse of the Lake
St. Peter.
The route to Quebec lies across the lowlands which stretch
between the St. Lawrence and the hills lying at constantly increasing distances from it. This plain is cut into the long narrow strips characteristic of French-Canadian farmlands. There
are two reasons for the peculiarly shaped farm. One is that the
continual sub-division of bequeathed estates left no alternative,
the other is that a water front was absolutely necessary to each
farm, so they extended in long strips, thus giving each farmer a
narrow frontage on
the river. The hypothesis is fully justified in either case.
All along one is
struck by the conspicuous part the church
and its allied interests play in village
life. Everywhere the
church and the
presbytery are the
most prominent
buildings in - the
compact little villages
one    flies    past    so
quiekly. The Old Ramparts, Quebec Indicates Double Track
MONTREAL to QUEBEC and MeADAM 128
Across   Canada
Chateau  Frontenac  and  Dufferin  Terrace,  Quebec
Trois-Rivieres     Three Rivers, to give  the city its English
equivalent, is so called because it is situated
at the triole mouth of the St. Maurice. This city is at the head of
tide waterin the St. Lawrence. It was founded in 1634 and
played an important role in the early history of Canada. Three
Rivers has a fine harbor and can accommodate any sized vessel
afloat. The city has important Catholic institutions, and is the
centre of the paper, oulp and lumbering industries of the region.
It has six large lumber mills, a cotton mill of 75,000 spindles,
four iron foundries, shipbuilding plants, steel foundry, woodturn-
ing plant and others. Three Rivers is the sh." .ping centre of a
large agricultural district, while the city itself numbers a population of 82,000.
From Trois-Rivieres a branch line extends northward to Shawinigan
Falls and Grand Mere, along the west shore of the St. Maurice
River .ft The falls near Shawinigan Falls are 165 feet high, and can
develop 200,000 horse-power. This electric power is widely used in
the various industries of the town, prominent amongst which is the
pulp and paper industry. The town has a population of 11,000.
Grand Mere (population 7000) has also enormous water-power resources and a big pulp industry.
From Piles Junction a branch runs north to St. Maurice, St. Nar-
cisse and Grandes Piles, through a country which produces an enormous amount of lumber. This country, through which the St. Maurice
River flows, is also a remarkably attractive one for the sportsman,
for the numerous streams are well stocked with fish, specially the
gamy speckled trout, while moose are plentiful. A small branch also
rt'^m runs from Piles Junction down to Cap de la Magdeleine, which has another well-known  shrine.
We pass through a number of ancient settlements   originally seigneuries fronting upon
the  St. Lawrence.    Frequent rivers tumble
down from the hills and so supply these villages with abundant water power.   The fishing in these useful streams is not to be despised, and one of them, the Jacques Cartier,
is a noted salmon river.   All the villagers are
quaint and picturesque,  and  French  is  the
universal   language.      Portneuf   (population
2000), is on the Portneuf River, thirty-five
miles before reaching Quebec.    It is a thriv-
factory town deriving power from the Shawnigan Power Company, and operates several paper mills. Lorette is
mainly a settlement of Christianized Huron Indians, founded
two hundred and fifty years ago.
Quebec | Quebec (population 120,000) was the cradle of New
'L^fyf% Felice and of the civilization that now extends from
the Atlahtie to" the Pacific. The grandeur of its site, the beauty
of its scenerTr r,nd the poignancy of its checkered history endow
it""with a special appeal to the people of all North America.
The city occupies the base and summit of a lofty crag projecting
0les function
Champlain
Batiscan
i-a Perade
Grondines
Lachevrotiere
Portneuf
St. Basile
Pont Rouge
Belair H
Lorette
St.  Malo >*
Q uebec
129
into the St. Lawrence
River. It was discovered in 1535 by
Jacques Cartier, of
Rrit'any, the exact
place where he wintered being marked
"by a monument at
the junction of the
•St. Cnarles and Lorette Rivers. In 1608
Ohamplain founded
the city. (Quebec became the stronghold
of Canada, until captured .by the British
under Wolfe, in 1759,
after one of the most
celebrated fights in history.
Ste. Anne de Beaupre
The city retains much of its olid French tradition. The architecture of the city is French, with some buildings of the eighteenth century which no vandal hand has attempted to destroy,
others more modern but carefully built in an artistic attempt
to duplicate the essentially French strain of the old. Then
the quaint older part of Quebec, with its steep cobbled streets,
its confusion of high gabled roofs, its quiet allevs bringing one
suddenly to a dim historic spot, its convents, its churches, its
monks, its habitants, its leafy squares and countless statues,
have an individuality which cannot be duplicated elsewhere on
the continent.
Quebec has the most sympathetically conceived hotel in the
world, reproducing in every stone of its irregular shape, towers
and cupolas, the architecture of an eighteenth century French
chateau. This is the Chateau Frontenac, a large structure on the
very verge of the upper town, commanding magnificent views
over the broad St. Lawrence. Internally, the hotel is conducted
on a scale commensurate with the notable service of the Canadian Pacific Railway, of whose transcontinental chain of hotels
it is one. In front of the hotel runs the fine Dufferin Terrace,
a famous quarter-mile board-walk named after a celebrated
Governor-General of Canada,
Amongst the charming excursions within a short distance of
Quebec is that to Ste. Anne de Beaupre, which is reached by an
electric line in about one hour's ride. Here is situated
one of the most famous shrines of the New World, with
remarkable curative powers.
Quebec  has   also   large   industries,   chief   of  which   is   the
shoe industry.    It is  also a very
important port, for several trans-
Atlantic    liners    dock    here,    including   those   of    the   Canadian
Pacific   Steamship   Services.   The
city is well served with railways,
and   in   addition   to   those   which
follow   the   nojrth   shore   of
the      river,      it     has      on
the     side     of     the     river,
the    Quebec / Central    Railway,   giving   access   to   the
jfclastern     Townships,     Boston,    New    York    and    St.
John.. s(See next page). Wolfe-Montcalm Monument, Quebec 130
Across   Canada
iE TO QUEBEC
Quebeo  Central   Railway:   143   miles
(For Map, see page 127)
Sherbrooke
From Sherbrooke the Quebec Central Railway
runs north, serving the choicest portion of the
immense area of arable and mineral land- that lies south of the
St. Lawrence River. The main line runs from Sherbrooke to»
Quebec, and branches from Megantic to Tring Junction. Originally, intended as a colonization railway, this line has become
part of the trunk line between Quebec and Portland, Boston and
New York. It forms, via the Canadian Pacific Railway and
Megantic, a short line between St. John and Quebec. Through
services, with dining, parlor and sleeping car accommodation,
are provided over these routes.
East Angus
Garth by
D'Israeli
Coleraine
Black Lake
Thetford  Mines
East Broughton
Leaving Sherbrooke and following the St..
Francis River, the first point is East Angus,
where one of the largest paper - mills in
Canada is located. At Weedon are the
largest copper mines east of the Great
Lakes. Garthby and DTsraeli are pretty
villages on the shores of Lake Aylmer.
From here we enter the Thetford District,
the principal seat of the asbestos mining industry of the worldo
These mines constitute one of the most prosperous industries
in the Dominion of Canada, and are the chief factor in the
control of the asbestos industry, the production aggregating
90 per cent, of the world's consumption. Coleraine, Black Lake
(which have also valuable chrome iron* deposits), Thetford
Mines, Robertson, Leads and East Broughton are the principal points at which mines are situated. Asbestos is mined
in pits, a fine view of which can be obtained as we pass.
Tring Jct.
Valley Jct.
St. Anselme
Harlaka Junction
Ley is
Quebec
Tring Junction is * the junction for the
branch from Megantic, which forms a
through route tp St. John. From Valley
Junction another branch extends to St.
Joseph, Beauceville, St. George and on to
Lake Frontier through an extensive
lumbering region. The Chaudiere Valley,
through which we now pass, affords a panorama of highly
cultivated fields extending for miles, as far as the eye can
reach, which in autumn, with the golden lines of harvest time,
present a picture of matchless beauty. The Chaudiere Valley
was the route by which Benedict Arnold reached Quebec in
1775. Next passing through a succession of typical French
Canadian villages conspicuous by their white cottages and
ever-recurring churches, we begin to approach the St. Lawrence,
which presently bursts into sight, affording magnificent views
of the beautiful Isle of Orleans, the Montmorency Falls, and
Quebec. L^vis was the terminus
of the railway, and Quebec had
to be reached j by ferry, but a
cut-off has recently been com-
p 1 e t e d to ____l
<fY-;t."
the Quebec
Bridge
which affords en-
^mi'8
trance into
Quebec,
where the
Palais Station is used.
(For description of Quebec, see page 129).
Asbestos Mill Eastbound   from   Montreal   131
Lachine Bridge, St. Lawrence River, Montreal
MONTREAL TO ST. JOHN AND HALIFAX
760 miles
(For Map, see page 127)
Montreal The Canadian Pacific route to the Maritime
Montreal West      Provinces is through the Eastern Townships
Highlands of Quebec, across the State of Maine.  Leav
ing Windsor Street Station, Montreal, we
travel the main line as far as Montreal West, and then turn
southward towards the St. Lawrence River. First we cross the
Lachine Canal (used by vessels to overcome the dangers of
navigation in the Lachine rapids) by an electrically operated
«wing bridge that opens to permit the passage of canal traffic.
Passing the pretty little village of Highlands, we reach the St.
Lawrence River, the grandest of all Canadian waterways. To
cross it the railway uses a fine steel bridge 3657 feet in length
and about 60 feet above water level. This bridge, which is double
tracked, contains twenty spans, of which the two longest are 408
feet each, and has 19 piers. A little below the bridge are the
famous Lachine Rapids.
Adirondack Jct.     Adirondack Junction is the junction point
St. Constant for the New York Central route to New
Delson York,  and  Delson  for  tne   Delaware   and
St.   Philippe Hudson route. St. Johns (population 12000)
St. Johns is a busy and prettily situated town on the
Iberville west bank of the Richelieu River, with num-
Farnham erour. industries; for many years it has been
a garrison town. Iberville is a pretty little
town much frequented in summer by Montrealers, situated on
the east bank of the Richelieu River. This river, leading into
Lake Champlain, was of immense strategic importance in the
days when French and English were battling for the supremacy
of North America, for by it the French could penetrate to the
heart of the
English settlements o n
the Atlantic
seaboard,
and vice
versa. There
are still remains of several old forts.
Lake Oham-
plain is a
beautiful
sheet     of
Old Fort Lennox, near St. Johns 132
Across   Canada
water about
twenty
miles south
of St. Johns,
s p readi n g
for many
miles in a
picturesque
setting o f
high cliffs,
forests and
beaches,
and affording fine canceing sailing, motor-boating and swimming. Farnham is a prosperous town on the Yamaska River,
with a tobacco stemmery and some other industries. It is an
important railway town.
From Farnham a branch runs south to Stanbridge, through a comely-
looking agricultural country, and another north to St. Hyacinthe, a
large town that has leather, woollen and machinery industries, a
famous organ factory, and a number of educational and religions institutions of the Catholic faith. * Beyond it is Abbottsford, St. Hugues,
and St. Guillaume, a large agricultural centre.
Lake Memphremagog
Brookport
Adamsville
West Shefford
Poster
South Stukeley
Eastray
From Brookport the line to Boston and
Portland leaves us and turns to the southeast. Passing through a beautiful agricultural country, through Enlaugra and Sutton,
it reaches Newport, Vermont, at the southern end of Lake Memphremagog. Here the
Boston and Maine Railway begins, connecting at St. Johnsbury with the Maine Central to Portland.
From Foster other branches run north and south. That to the
south reaches the beautiful little Brome Lake, which is a favorite summer resort for Montrealers. Knowlton, on the shore of the lake, is a
pretty town with some good hotels, excellent bathing and boating, and
some bass fishing. Here is held each year the well-known Knowlton
Conference. The branch that goes north reaches Waterloo, another
summer resort that has also several thriving industries, Actonvale.
Drummondville, a town of 4000 inhabitants, and several prosperous
smaller ccmmuLlties.
From Eastray branches ran both north and south. That to the
south runs through a rich farming district to Mansonville and North
Troy, Vermont. That to the north reaches the thriving little in-?
dustrial   centres   of   North   Stukeley   and   Windsor   Mills.
Orford Lake Continuing our journey we pass Lake Orford.
Magog Magog  (population 5000)  is the station for
Lake Memphremagog, a magnificent sheet of
water thirty miles long, dotted with many islands surrounded
by rugged, heavily wooded hills, and justly popular with tourists. Its two famous mountains, Orford and Owl's Head (the
former of which, 2860 feet, lies a little to the north of the track,
and the latter 2484 feet, is about half way down the lake) are
the highest of the whole region. From Magog a steamer makes
trips down the lake daily during the summer season, touching,
according to the day, at all important points, such as the
Hermitage, Bryant's Landing, Knowlton's Landing, Georgeville,
Perkin's Landing, and the fashionable resort of Newport, Vermont, at the southern end. Leaving Magog we travel for awhile
along the banks of the Magog River, passing the long and
narrow Magog Lake.
Sherbrooke (population 25,000) is the metropolis of the Eastern
p Townships.  Situated at the confluence of the Magog
and St. Francis rivers, it is a beautiful residential city in the
heart of a very rich dairying district. It has a large industrial
life, with a production of over fifty million dollars a year, deriving power from the falls of the Magog River in the heart of
the city. In close proximity to Sherbrooke are a number of
highly popular summer resorts. j§| The   Eastern   Townships
From Sherbrooke the Quebec Central Railway runs north to Quebec (see page 130), while the Boston and Maine Railway affords a
through route from Quebec via Sherbrooke to Boston, with the New
Haven Railway connecting with New York.
Lennoxville
Birchton
Cookshire
Bury
Scotstown
Spring   Hill
The "Eastern Townships" which we are traversing is an old and well-settled section of Quebec that has a very prosperous agricultural system as well as a flourishing industrial life distributed through numerous small cities. The
region was originally settled by Scotch soldiers
after the conquest of Canada in 1759, but these
intermarried very ^^
largely with the
French- Canadian
inhabitants, with
the consequence
that one finds
nowadays many
French - speaking
people bearing
good old Highland — and also
Irish — names.
Lennoxville is the
seat of Bishop's
College and Bishop's College School—two very well-known educational institutions that give a leisured, cultured air to the town. Cookshire
and Scotstown are prosperous little towns in a fine dairying
country.
Megantic Megantic (whose name is an Indian word signifying "the resort of fish") is a rare spot for campers
and sportsmen. Bass and trout are plentiful, and there are
moose _and plenty of deer, as well as an abundance of small
game. The lake, which has an altitude of 1,300 feet, is twelve
miles long by from one to four wide. A steamer service connects
the town with Piopolis, Woburn and Three Lakes. Twelve miles
north of Megantic are Spider Lake and Trout Lake, at the
former of which is located the Megantic Fish and Game Club.
(Population of Megantic 4100).
At Megantic we join the Quebec Central Railway from Levis (see
page 130). Megantic is also the divisional point between the New
Brunswick and Quebec operating districts of the C.P.R.
Sherbrooke
Lowelltown
Skinner
Holeb
Jackman
Long Pond
Somerset
Moosehead
Greenville
At Lowelltown we enter the State of Maine,
but continue through the same fine sporting
country. From Jackman the Moose River and
its chain of lakes, where game is very abundant,
are easily reached. Long Lake is a link in this
chain. Moosehead is a small station on the
shore of one of the grandest of all Maine waters,
the well-known Moosehead Lake. This lake,
forty miles long and from one to fifteen miles
wide, has wild and varied scenery, its waters are well stocked
with trout of great size, while in the vicinity are admirable
shooting grounds where one may bag such game as moose, bear,
deer and caribou. There are several hotels that offer good accommodation. From Greenville Junction steamers run to all the
points of interest, including Mount Kineo and the popular hotel
at its foot, Mount Kineo House.
Onawa The country which we traverse is one of
Brownville Jc.        comparative   wilderness,   the   scenery   of 134
Across   Canada
WSm),
Moose Hunting in New Brunswick
Lake View which is magnificent.     Lake Onawa is a
Mattawamkeag       lovely stretch of water.   At Wilson Stream
the railway runs close to the base of Boar-
stone Mountain. At Mattawamkeag we cross the Penobscot
River. Many canoeists, descending the river from Moosehead
Lake—a trip that offers great inducements in the way of fishing
and attractive scenery—make this section their objective.
From Mattawamkeag the Maine Central Railway diverges to the
south and runs to Portland, via Bangor and Augusta. A large number
of highly ]>opular summer resorts are in close proximity to this line
' and its branches, such as the widely-known Poland Spring House,
Belgrade Lakes, etc. From Portland the Boston and Maine Railway
carries the traveller to Boston, through such famous bathing beaches
at Kennebankport and Old Orchard. A through service is maintained
between St. John, Portland and Boston.
Danforth At Vanceboro we cross the international boundary
Vanceboro and are back on Canadian soil again, this time in
McAdam the Province of New Brunswick.   Vanceboro lies
close to the beautiful St. Croix River, itself the
outlet of the boundary chain of lakes, and is an excellent point
for the sportsman. The country which we are approaching is a
rugged one, full I
of    lakes     and i J
streams and
dotted here and
there with little
lumbering v i 1-
lages. The pro-
viiice of New
Brunswick is a
paradise for
sportsmen; not
only are many
kind s o f big
game to be
found within its
borders, from
the majestic
moose downwards, but its countless streams teem with fish, including
salmon, trout, and bass. McAdam is the central point from which
vast areas of this fine sporting country can be reached. There is
a good Canadian Pacific hotel at the station.
«gp
McAdam Indicates Double Track
MeADAM T<? ST.JOHN and HALIFAX 136
Across   Canada
Algonquin   Hotel,   St.   Andrews-by-the-Sea
From McAdam one branch runs north to Edmundston, traversing
one such country, alternated at intervals by well-populated farming
communities and logging areas. From Debec a small branch runs to
Houlton, Maine. Continuing to the north, we pass through Carleton
County, one of the finest agricultural counties in Eastern Canada, and
reach Woodstock, a prosperous little town with a population of some
four thousand. At Newburg we meet the line from Fredericton. Beyond Woodstock is a rich agricultural area, with large fruit-growing
interests and a tremendous amount of lumbering. From Perth Junction a branch line extends eastward to Plaster Rock, reaching the
famous Tobique River, one of the greatest salmon-fishing regions of
Canada. From .Aroostook another branch runs westward to Fort Fairfield, Caribou and Presqu Isle, through a big pulp-producing country. Continuing north, C4rand Falls, which is at the head of navigation
of the Bt. John River, has enormous^ hydro-electric resources, only
very partially developed so far, and a big lumbering business. Edmundston, at the end of the line, is a large town with a French-
Canadian population, a fine sporting centre and again a lumbering
centre.
From McAdam another branch line runs south to St.Andrews-by-
the-Sea, a pretty and very fashionable seashore resort situated on
Passamoquoddy Bay. As a summer resort this is not surpassed by
any point on the Atlantic Coast. Here the visitor finds agreeable
boating and bathing, tennis, riding, driving, a fine eighteen-hole golf
course, a salubrious climate, and enjoyable social pleasures. The
Algonquin Hotel—the first of the chain of luxurious Canadian Pacific
Hotels that span Canada from Atlantic to Pacific—is the centre of
social life at this resort. A through service from St. Andrews to
Iv! ontreal is maintained in the summer. It is interesting to note that
this railway is one of the oldest in Canada. It was incorporated in
1836, with the idea of being carried through to Quebec, thus to afford
a through route from the Atlantic Ocean to the St. Lawrence.
Construction was not, however, commenced until 1852, and the ambitious scheme fell through.
Prince William
Harvey
Rooth
Fredericton Jct.
We are now in the basin of the great St.
John River, which is 450 miles long and is
navigable for a hundred miles;  it passes
through a district of great beauty and fertility, possessing rich, natural resources in
timber, coal, lime, gypsum, etc.  Fredericton Junction is the junction point for Fredericton and the northern part of New Brunswick.
Fredericton—(Population 8000) is the capital city of New Brunswick,
the site of a Dominion Experimental Station, and the
University of New Brunswick. It is rapidly gaining prominence as an
industrial centre, and is a well-known base for hunters and fishermen.
The moose country of Queen's County is reached in a few hours. The
city is a big wool centre. It has a beautiful residential section. Frdm
Fredericton the line continues north-westerly to North Devon and Newburg, passing through a busy agricultural region that has also some
very large cotton mills. At Newburg the branch from McAdam to Edmundston is joined (see above).
The Fredericton & G-rand Lake Coal and Railway Company, and the
New Brunswick Coal and Railway Company's line runs from Fredericton to Norton, passing through Minto, N.B., where there are large
areas of coal lands, and where ten coal mining companies are operating. It crosses the Salmon River at the town of Chipman, and the
Washademoak River at Cody's. Both these places have freight and
passenger boats running to and from St. John, N.B. The line
runs through heavy timber country west of Minto, and there is
good hunting for deer and large  game. New   Brunswick
Hoyt
Welsford
Westfield Beach
Grand Bay
Fairville
vellous is at the Reversible Falls at St.
John. The St. John,
flowing into the bay,
has a drop of from
seventeen to twenty-
five feet, in a narrow
gorge of great beauty; but when the tide
rises, the water more
than overcomes this
difference of level.
The salt water rises
steadily and forces
its way up the river
bed; as it ebbs again,
the half-fresh, half-
salt water has to find
its way out, and does
Whirlpool
At Westfield Beach we come into sight of
the St. John River on the left hand side,
making a big bend from Fredericton to its
outlet at St. John into the Bay of Fundy.
The Bay of Fundy is noted for its tremendous tides.    Of these, the most mar-
Fredericton Cathedral
so at speed comparable to that of Niagara
At half-tide vessels can pass through the falls.   The railway
crosses them by a steel cantilever bridge and enters the city.
St.John (Population 63,000) is the largest city of New Brunswick. Located on the northern shore of the Bay of
Fundy, at the mouth of the great River St. John, it is essentially
a maritime city, the alternate winter port of the Canadian Pacific, and its fine docks and harbor are always interesting. It is
the winter terminus of fourteen lines of ocean steamers operating
to all parts of the world. It has three grain elevators, two of
which, with a million-bushel capacity each, are operated by the
Canadian Pacific Railway. Large extensions are being made to
the harbor to provide berths for the biggest types of ocean vessels and to provide for a dry dock 1150 feet in length. St. John
has many industries, including foundries, sugar refining, cotton
mills, lime kilns, etc., and huge lumbering interests. The city was
founded early in the seventeenth century by the French, but its
growth dates really from 1783, when five thousand United Empire Loyalists settled here. In 1877 the- greater part of St. John
was destroyed by fire, but it has since been rebuilt. The site of
Fort La Tour, the Champlain Monument, and the Martello Tower
■*>"
St. John 138
Across   Canada
are amongst the reminders of an historic past that still exists.
Across the harbor is West St. John, reached by a steam ferry.
From St. John the Canadian Pacific steamer "Empress" makes a
daily (except Sunday) trip across the Bay of Fundy to Digby, N.S.,
(see page 140) reaching that town in three hours and there connecting
with the Dominion Atlantic Railway north to Halifax and south to
Yarmouth.
WEST  ST.  JOHN TO  ST.  STEPHEN:   83  miles
West St. John
Prince of Wales
Musquash
Lepreaux
St. George
Brunswick
St. Stephen
From West St. John, on the opposite side of the
harbor, an important branch line skirts the shore
of the Bay of Fundy and reaches an attractive
fishing and hunting region. West St. John (population 8000) has a number of interesting historical
associations, and possesses a striking Martello
Tower on its heights. A number of industries
centre in the town, which has also the Immigration Sheds that receive incoming Atlantic ships. Musquash is a port
and a lumbering centre. Lapreaux has waterpowers which will bo
developed for St. John. St. George (population 2000) is situated on
the Magaguadavic River, which empties into Passamaquoddy Bay, and
is a port of call for coasting steamers. The Magaguadavic Falls supply power for a pulp mill and several granite works, and there
are lumber mills within the town and good lake and sea fishing
nearby. Patronized by moose hunters and trout fishermen, Brunswick is the junction point for St. Andrews-by-the-Sea (see page 136).
St. Stephen (population 3600) contains some of the largest manufacturing plants in the province, and lies at the head of St. Croix navigation. It is also the southern gateway for automobile tourists
entering the province of New Brunswick. A small branch runs down
to Milltown, where lumber plants and a large cotton mill are located.
Hampton
Norton
Sussex
Petitcodiac
Salisbury
For the time being we will travel on to Halifax
by the all-rail route, which is over the lines of
the Canadian National Railway around the two
arms of the Upper Bay of Fundy, Chighecto
Bay and the Basin of Minas. Rothesay is a
pretty town, the residence of wealthy St. John
people. From here to Hampton we pass on the left the Kennebecasis River, which opens out into a deep and wide estuary of the
St. John River, with both shores fringed with wooded uplands.
The valley of this river contains some of the finest farms in the
province; to the east and south are found a great many small
lakes, where trout are abundant. Hampton is another favorite
summer resort. From Norton the line of the Fredericton and
Grand Lake Railway runs to Fredericton {see page 136). Between
Sussex and Petitcodiac is a fine farming country that affords
many pretty views. Petitcodiac is a region settled originally by
Dutch Loyalists from Pennsylvania.
Reversible Falls, St. John The   Bay   of   Fundy
139
Moncton (Population 20,000) is situated on a bend of the
Petitcodiac River in the midst of i very fertile farming region. It is one of the important centres of the Canadian
National Railway, has many important industries, and is a
large shipping centre for the Maritime Provinces. Within eight
miles of the city natural gas has been discovered and in the
same territory oil in paying quantities has also been found. An
interesting feature of the river is the "bore" of the incoming
tide, when the water rushes in with great force in a huge wave,
often seven feet high. Moncton is an outfitting point for hunters
for northern New Brunswick.
Painsec Jct.
Sackville
Amherst
Springhill Jct.
Oxford Jct.
Truro
From Painsee Junction, a branch line extends to Point du Chene. Sackville has a
fine college and Methodist academies, and
is situated in a choice grazing country.
Railway connection is made from here to
Cape Tormentine, from which Prince Edward Island is reached by a car ferry that
maintains   rail   connection   between    the   mainland   and   the
island    the    year    round.      Amherst     (population    11,000),
at   the    head   of    Chignecto    Bay,    is    a    handsome    little
city with several busy manufactures.   A few miles distant are
the remains  o f
Fort Cumberland,
of historic interest as the scene
of   hard - fought
battles    between.
British     and
French in the
early days   o f
Canada,   l^ear
Spring   Hill   are
important   coal
mines, and from
here a branch line
extends    to    the Lumbering, New Brunswick
watering-place of Parrsboro on the Minas Basin. Oxford has extensive factories, a profitable industry being the manufacture of
the celebrated Oxford cloths. From Oxford Junction a branch
runs to Pugwash and to Pictou. From Truro a branch line runs
to join the Dominion Atlantic Railway at Windsor (see page
142), while the main line of the Canadian National Railway turns
east to New Glasgow, Mulgrave and the Sydneys. From North
Sydney a capital steamer service connects with Port au Basques,
Newfoundland.
Brookfield From Truro we turn almost due south towards
Windsor Jct. Halifax. At Windsor Junction we meet the
Halifax line of the Dominion Atlantic Railway coming
|| from the north-west, and use the same track
into Halifax, passing through Bedford, at the head of the noble
water called Bedford Basin.   Soon we are in Halifax.
j|j|§L   (For descriptive notes on Halifax, see page 142).
DOMINION ATLANTIC RAILWAY
YARMOUTH  TO  HALIFAX:   217  miles
Yarmouth      An^ alternative route to Halifax from St. John
which offers many attractions—especially during
any of the summer months—is to cross the Bay of Fundy in the
Canadian Pacific steamer "Empress" to Digby, and there take 140
Across   Canada
Waterfront at Yarmouth
the Dominion Atlantic Railway to Halifax. This line, a subsidiary of the C.P.R., follows the western shore line of the province of Nova Scotia along the Bay of Fundy, and crosses the
peninsula to' Halifax. It traverses one of the most beautiful
and romantic sections of Canada—the famous "Land of Evangeline", scene of the poetic tragedy of Lonfellow. The southern
terminal of the line is Yarmouth, at the tip of Nova Scotia.
Yarmouth (population 7200) is the second largest lumber-exporting port in Nova Scotia. It has a somewhat English air, owing
to its shipping, ship-building, its colony of ship-captains, and
its hawthorn-hedge enclosed lawns. Picturesquely situated along
a slope parallel with the harbor, Yarmouth looks across to bold
wooded islands and wide flats which the flood tide transforms
into a placid lake.   From here a steamer service runs to Boston.
Meteghan
Weymouth
North Range
Digby
Weymouth is a pretty little summering place,
with a fine bathing beach. Back of the line is
a good hunting country.     Digby, where the
 Isteamer from St. John arrives, is a favorite
summer resort, providing excellent bathing,
boating and sea-fishing. It is also extensively engaged in sea-
fishing, and gives its name to one popular delicacy—the "Digby
Chicken", a kind of small herring. It has a number of very good
hotels, including "The Pines", operated by the Dominion Atlantic
Railway during the summer months.
Bear River Bear River is a beautiful little village, and,
Annapolis Royal    with many others within easy reach, is very
popular as a summer resort. It is romantically situated in a deep valley at the mouth of a small river.
Bear   River   is j%s
famous     wher-   mm^mmmimm •-.. ~~
ever       cherries   .^     ., EEE-YY^^'E: __i
are eaten.    An-     r   \ -"^Ee.e --'•«' **i -w -^Urr*^* 'sf-^\*
napolis Royal is
one of the most
historic towns
in Canada. Built
by the French,
rnder the name
of Tort Royal"
in 1006, it was
some 150 years
the     scene     of \^m^mb^^^^™^™?   .,___     ^_
part of the long
and       bitter Old   Fort,   Annapolis   Royal
^llPg The   Land   of   Evangeline     141
struggle between French and English for possession of the New
World. From its founding until when in 1710 it passed into the
hands of the English, its story is an endless succession of captures, re-captures, and changing masters, and even for forty
years after 1710 it was in an almost continuous state of siege.
The fort is still in good repair, although of course, practically
useless, and is used as a museum. Annapolis Royal is the starting place for many excursions into the lake-strewn regions of
central Nova Scotia, such as the Liverpool Lakes and Kedgema-
koogee.
Bridgetown
Middleton
Berwick
Kentville
The line continues through a delightfully pretty
and fragrant countryside, with many popular \
summer resorts. At Middleton the line of the
Halifax & South-We^ j ern Railway to Lunenburg
on the east coast oi Nova Scotia, is crossed.
Kentville (population 2400) is the business centre of the Annapolis Valley, with many fine buildings and leafy streets. The
"Cornwallis Inn", a modest but comfortable hotel, is operated
by the Dominion Atlantic Railway..
From  Kentville   a  short  branch  runs  north  to   Kingsport,   on  the
Basin   of   Minas,   whence   steamer   can   pe   taken   for  Parrsboro,   on.
the further shore.    A branch also runs from this one to Weston.
Wolfville Wolfville, a few miles further, slopes gently towards the Basin of Minas. From the heights above
it one beholds a noble sweep of country extending for twenty
or thirty miles in all -directions.' It is the heart of Evangeline
Land, and before its windows unrolls a superb view. Far to the
north, the rugged Cape Blomidon stands sentinel by the Basin
of Minas. The surrounding country is singularly charming,
with a quiet pastoral atmosphere. All this district is a famous
apple-growing one, and in early summer, when the apple blossoms are out, the scene is one of great beauty. Wolfville is an
old town, with two well-known educational institutions, Acadia
College and Acadia Seminary.
Grand Pre     As we continue along the Minas shore, we gaze
on fields from which mists of memory rise, for
this country was the scene of the Expulsion of the Acadians in
1755. Whether or not this deed was a justifiable one from the
military standpoint is, perhaps, not to be discussed at this late
date; the only thing that really matters is that Evangeline endowed a beautiful country with undying graciousness of memory.
Grand Pre still stands, still the attraction of thousands of visitors, and it is here, near the station, that the Dominion Atlantic
Railway has now consecrated "Evangeline Park." This park, a
field of some sixteen acres, is that which encloses what local
legend calls "Evangeline's Well"—an old-fashioned well with a
pole hoist—and a row of fine old gnarled willows; more particularly, it contains a magnificent bronze statue of Evangeline,
by  the  well-known ^ French-Canadian       sculptor,
Henri Hebert, and a v small chapel erected by the
fraternal society of the descendants of the Acad
ians, La Societe de l'Assomption.
Evangeline Statue, Grand Pre 142
Across   Canada
An  Acadian  Vista
Hantsport Windsor (population 3500) is a charming old-
Windsor world town, with a very picturesque water-side;
i it has also, in King's College, the oldest university in the British Empire outside of Great Britain. It is a
large lumber-shipping port, and has some valuable mineral deposits in the vicinity.
From Windsor a |||g
branch line runs
through a succession of pretty villages to Truro, a
distance of 57
• miles. Truro (population 6000- is a
delightful thriving
town in the midst
:«*" of    most    pictures
que    country,    and
| possesses     one     of
the   finest   natural
parks of the  continent. It has an experimental       farm,
several   flourishing
industries,   and   in
the vicinity lumber,
iron and coal. Good
trout   fishing   is   to
be^  found    in    the
neighborhood,    and
in the Stewiacke Mountains there are moose, as well as grouse, ducks,
and   other   birds.     Truro   is   the   junction   point   with   the   Canadian
National Railway from Halifax to St. John (see page 139).
Mount Uniacke     At Windsor we must leave the sphere of
Windsor Jct. the Fundy tides, for the river drains into
the Basin of Minas, an arm of the Bay of
Fundy. Two hundred miles distant from the mouth of the inlet,
the river rises, twice a day, forty or fifty feet, and, ebbing, leaves
the bed exposed.
Halifax— (Population 70,000) Capital and commercial centre
, of the picturesque province of Nova Scotia, Halifax is
charmingly situated on one of the most magnificent natural
harbors of the world. It is one of Canada's two Atlantic winter
ports, with an important trade to Europe, the United States, the
West Indies, etc., and is also a large naval and military station.
It is strongly fortified, chief of the fortifications being the
Citadel, elevated 256 feet above sea-level, and commanding
the city and harbor. Halifax was founded in 1749, when 5000
British immigrants established themselves in an enterprise promoted by the Earl of Halifax. It speedily became a great naval
station, from which campaigns were launched against the French
and the "Thirteen Colonies". When the independence of the
latter was acknowledged, Halifax grew suddenly by the immigration of some thousands of United Empire Loyalists.
Halifax is beautifully situated, with two large expanses of
water available for all kinds of aquatic sport, Bedford Basin
and the North-West Arm. Across the latter is the charming
suburb of Dartmouth.
Halifax from the Citadel
IfrifWnHi
——— —— Across   Canada
143
INDEX TO STATIONS
On its own system alone the Canadian Pacific has nearly 2,300 stations,
On those which it controls or operates, in Canada and the United States,
and on other systems, there are (including only through routes connecting
with the Canadian Pacific) over 600 more. To keep this index within
reasonable length, therefore, certain of the smaller points have been
omitted. They can be located, if described, by finding the nearest junction
or divisional point. BXE Kill
Abbotsford, Que 132
Actonvale, Que.... 132
Adamsville, Que... 132
Adirondack Jt. Que. 131
Agassiz,    B.C 17
Agincourt, Ont.105, 109
* Albert Canyon, B.C. 26
Alderson,    Alta 63
Alert  Bay,   B.C 10
Alexander, Man 69
Alexandria,   Minn... 80
Alliston,    Ont 95
Almonte,    Ont 117
Alton, Ont ^...99
Amherst, N.S. ...139
Annapolis   Royal,   N.
S  140
Ann Arbor, Mich. 101
Annonciation, Que. 125
Arborg,    Man 81
Arcola,    Sask 82
Armstrong,   B.C 22
Arnprior, Ont. .. 117
Arrostock, N.B. ..136
Arrowhead, B.C. ..25
Arrowsmith,  B.C.   ..16
Arthur,    Ont 99
Ashcroft, B.C 20
Asquith,   Sask 78
Assiniboia.   Sask.   .. 66
Aylmer,  Que 119
Ayr,   Ont 104
Bala,   Ont.    95
Baicarres,   Sask.    .. 68
Balgonie,    Sask 67
Banff, Alta...39, 40, 41
Bankhead,   Alta.    .. 42
Barrette,  Que 125
Bassano,   Alta 62
Batiscan, Que 128
Battle Creek, Mich. 101
Baxter,    Ont 95
Beaconsfield, Que.. 120
Bear  River,   N.S... 140
Beausejour,   Man 84
Beavermouth,  B.C...30
Bedell,    Ont 108
Belair,   Que 128
Belle  River,   Ont... 102
Belleville,   Ont 107
Berthier,    Que 126
Berwick,  N.S 141
Bethany,   Ont 109
Biggar,   Sask .78
Binscarth,   \Man 79
Birchton,    Que 133
Birtle,   Man 79
Biscotasing, Ont 92
Black   Lake,   Que.. 130
Blairmore,   Alta 57
Blind River, Ont... 112
Blue Sea,  Que 119
Blyth.    Ont 100
Bobcaygeon, Ont... 109
Boissevain,    Man. 69-83
Bolton,  Ont 96   f»9
Bonfield,   Ont 114
Boston, Mass 123
Bothwell,    Ont 102
Bow Island, Alta...59
Bowmanville,   Ont.. 106
Braeside,    Ont 117
Brampton,    Ont 98
Brandon, Man. 68, 69
Brantford, Ont.. 97, 105
Bredenbury, Sask. . 79
Brickburn, Alta....,43
Bridgetown, N.S... 141
Brighton, Ont. .. 106
Brilliant, B.C. ...53
Broadview, Sask. .. 68
Brockville,   Ont.   ..108
Brodie,   B.   C 48
Brookmere,   B.C.   ..50
Brooks,   Alta 63
Brooten, Minn. .74, 80
Brownville Jct., Me. 133
Buckingham   Jct.,
Que.   ifi 124
Buffalo,  N.Y 98
Bull River, B.C. ..32
Bulyea, Sask. ..67, 68
Burketon, Ont. ...109
Burlington, Wis.  ...76
Bury,  Que 133
Byng Inlet,  Ont.   ..94
Cache Bay,  Ont.  ..114
Calabogie,   Ont 108
Caledonia   Springs
Ont.  .  120
Calgary, Alta. 44, 45,
    47,   60
Calumet, Que. ... 124
Cameron Lake; B.C. 16
Campbell's   Bay,
Que 119
Campbell River, B.C..8
Camp Hughes, Man. .70
Camrose,   Alt.    ....77
Canmore,    Alta 42
Carberry,    Man 70
Cardston,   Alta 59
Caribou,  Me 136
Carleton Place, Ont.
ifi
Carlyle,   Sask 82
Carman,   Man 82
Carmangay, Al(ta.  .47
Cartier,    Ont.    .....92
Cartwright,  Man.   .. 83
Castlegar,    B.C 52
Castle Mountain,
Alta    ... 39
Castor,   Alta 46
Cataract,   Ont 98
Chalk River, Ont. .116
Champlain, Que.  .. 128
Chapleau,    Ont 92
Chase, B.C 21
Chatham, Ont. ... 102
Chatsworth, Ont. ...99
Chelmsford, Ont.  ...92
Chelsea,   Que 118
Chemainus, B.C. ...15
Chesterville, Ont... 108
Chicago, 111. ..76. 101
Chipman, N.B. ...136
Chippewa Falls, Wis. 76
Claresholm,    Alta... 47
Coaldale,    Alta 59
Cobalt, Ont 114
Cobden,  Ont 117
Cobourg,   Ont 106
Cochrane, Alta;..43, 44
Colborne. Ont 106
Coleman,  Alta 57
Colonsay, Sask. 67, 78
Colvalli, B.C.   ..32,  56
Como,    Que 120
Coniston, Ont 114
Cookshire, Que. ..133
Copper Cliff, Ont... 113
Coquihalla, B. C. .48
Cornwall, Ont. ...109
Coronation, Alta. .. 46
Courtenay, B.C. ..16
Cowansville, Que.  .132
Cowley,   Alta 57
Craigellachie, B.C...24
Cranbrook, B.C..32, 56
Creston, B.C 55
Crowfoot, Alta 62
Crow's Nest, B.C 56
Crystal City, Man...83
Danforth, Me 134
Daysland, Alta 77
Dawson, Yukon  12
Debec,   N.B 136
Deloraine,   Man 83
Delson,   Que 131
Detroit, Mich.  80, .101
Didsbury> Alta 45
Digby, N.S.  ..138, 140
D'Israeli, Que 130
Dominion City, Man.80
Dorion,   Ont 90
Dorval, Que 120
Drinkwater, Sask. ..72
Drumbo, Ont 104
Drummondville,
Que 132
Dryden,  Ont 86
Duncan,. B.C 15
Duluth, Minn Ill
Dundalk, Ont. ...99
Dunmore, Alta.  59, 64
Durham,   Ont.    99
East Angus, Que.  .130
Eastray,   Que 132
Eau  Claire,  Wis 76
Edmonton, Alta.46, 77
Edmundston, N.B.. 136
Egansville, Ont. ..117
Eikhorn, Man.  .....68
Elko,   B.C 56
Elm   Creek,   Man...82
Elmira,   Ont.   -. 100
Elora,    On 98
Emerald,   B.C 32
Emerson,  Man 80
Empress,   Alta 63
Enderly,   B.C 22
Erin    Ont 08
Erindale,   Ont.    ...105
Erskine,  Alta 46
Espanola, Ont 113
Esterhazy,  Sask.   ...68
Estevan, Sask 70, 72
Euston, Sask 67
Exshaw,   Alta 43
Fairmont, N.D 74
Fairville, N.B 137
Farnham, Que. ... 131
Fassett,    Que.     ... 124
Fergus, Ont 9&
Fernie,  B.C 56
Fessenden,   N.D 74
Field, B.C 33,  34
Fillmore,   Sask.    ... 82
Finch, Ont.   108
Flesherton, Ont. ... 99
Fon   du   lac,   Wis.   76
Fordwich,  Ont 99
Fort Coulonge, Que. 119
Fort Fairfleld, Me.. 136
Ft William Ont87,88,89
Foster,   Que 132
Francis,  Sask 82
Frank,   Alta 57
Fraxa,   Ont 99
Fredericton, N.B. 136
>edericton Jc. N.B. 136
French River, Ont... 93
Galt,   Ont    104
Gary, Ind 101
Gerard,   B.C 54
Gimli,-Man 81
Glacier, B.C. ..26, "28
Gladstone,    Man.... 79
Gleichen, Alta 62
Glenboro, Man 82
Glencoe,   Ont 102
Glen Tay, Ont. 108, 110
Glenwood, Minn 74, 80
Goderich, Ont 100
Golden,   B.C ..31
Govan,   Sask. 68
Govenlock, Sask. ... 66
Gracefield,    Que.... 119
Grafton, Ont 106
Grand Bay, N.B..137
Grand Falls, N.B. 136
Grahd Forks, B- C... 52
Grand 'Mere, Que. 128
3rand Prairie, Alta.47
Grand Pre, N.S... 141
Grand Valley, Ont..99
Grandes Piles, Que. 128
Great Divide, B.C..35
Greenville Jct, Me. .133
Greenwood, B.C..".".. .52
Grenfell,   Man.   %... 68
Jretna,  Man 83
Griswold, Man 69
Grondines,   Que.... 128
Guelph,   Ont 100
Guelph Jc,Ont. 100, 105
Gull Lake, Sask 64
Haig,   B.C.. 17
Halifax, N.S... 139-142
Hamilton,   Ont 97
Hamiota,  Man 69
Hammond,   Ont.... 120
Haney,    B.C 17
Hanover,   Ont 99
Hardisty,  Alta. '&...11
Harlaka  Jc,   Que..130
Harriston,    Ont 99
Harrowsmith,   Ont.. 107
Hartney,   Man 69
Havelock,    Ont 110
Herbert,    Sask 65
Hespeler,     Ont 104
Highlands,   Que.... 131
High   River,   Alta...47
Hillsburg,   Ont 98
Holdfast, Sask 67
Holeb,  Me 133
Hope,  B.C 17-48
Houlton,    Me 136
Hoyt,   N.B 137
Hudson,   Que 120
Hull,   Que	
118, 1*9, 124
Huntingdon,  B. C.... 17
Iberville,  Que 131
Ignace,    Ont 86
lllecillewaet,  B.C 26
Imperial,   Sask 67
Indian Head,  Sask..67|
Ingersoll,   Ont 104
Innerskip,   Ont 104
Innisfail,   Alta 45
Irricana, Alta 62
Ishpeming, Mich....112
Islington,   Ont 105
Jask Fish,  Ont 91
Jackman,   Me 133
Jackson.   Mich.   ... 101
Joliette,   Que 126
Juneau,   Alaska 12
Kalamazoo,   Mich...101
K aministiquia,   Ont.. 8 6
Kamloops,    B.C 20
Kananaskis.   Alta... 43
Kaslo.  B.C 54
Kazubazua,   Que... 119
Keewatin,   Ont 84
Kelowna,  B.C 22
Kemptville, Ont 120
Kenmare, N.D 74
Kenora,   Ont 84
Kentville,   N.S 141
Kerrobert,   Sask 66
Kecliikan, Alaska.... 11
Killarney,    Man 83
Kingsport,   N.S 141
Kingston, Ont. 107, 117
Kipawa,  Que 116
Kipp,   Alta 47,   58
Kirkella, Man 68
Kitchener,   Ont 104
Knowlton,   Que 132
Kootenay Ldg., B.C.55
Labelle,   Que 125
Lac du Bonnet, Man.84
Lachevrotiere,   Que. 128
Lachute,    Que 124
Lac Mercier, Que...l2fr
Lacombe,   Alta 45
Ladysmith,   B.C 15
Lake Louise, Alta....36
Lake View, Me 134
Lake Windermere,
B.C 31
Langdon,   Alta 60
Lanigan,   Sask.67,68,78
Lanoraie,  Que 126
La   Perade,   Que... 128
Lardeau,   B.C.......54
La  Riviere,   Man.... 83
Lavaltrie,  Que 126
Leader,    Sask 63
Leanchoil, B.C 32
Leduc,   Alta 46
Lemberg,   Sask 68
Lennoxville, Que... .133
L'Epiphanie, Que... 126 144
Across   Canada
Lethbridge,  Alta.
 47,  58",   59
Levack,    Ont 92
Levis,   Que 130
Lindsay,   Ont 109
Linwood,   Ont 100
Listowel, Ont 100
London;   Ont 102
Long Pond,  Me.   ..133
Lorette,   Que 128
Lorraine,    Alta..' 46
Louiseville,   Que 126
Lumsden B'ch, Sask.67
Lyleton,    Man 83
Lytton.  B.C 20
MacGregor, Man..69, 70
Macklin. Sask..66, 77
Macleod,   Alta...47,   58
MacTier.    Ont 95
Magog.   Que 132
Magrath, Alta 59
Manistique. Mich... 111
Manitou,   Man 83
Maniwaki,   Que 119
Manor,   Sask 82
Mansonville, -Que... 132
Maple Creek, Sask...64
Markdale.   Ont 99
Marquette, Mich 112
Marshfield,   Wis 76
Marysville,   B.C 56
Mascouche, Que 126
Maskinonge,   Que.... 126
Massey,   Ont 112
Mattawa, Ont 116
Mattawamkeag.  Me. 134
McAcfam,   N.B 134
McAuley,   Man 68
McLennan,   Alta 47
Medicine Hat, Alta,
 59.    63
Medonte.  Ont 95
Megantic,    Que 133
Melita,   Man 69
Merrickville.   Ont... 108
Merritt,    B.C 48
Metagama,   Ont 92
Meteghan, N.S 140
Meyronne,   Sask 66
Michel,  B.C 56
Middleton, N. S 141
Midway,   B.C 51
Mile End. Que.124, 126
Milestone,   Sask...... 72
Millbank,   Ont 100
Milltown,   N.B 138
Milton,  Ont ..105
Milverton,    Ont 100
Milwaukee,   Wis 76
Miniota,    Man 69
Minneapolis,  Minn.
 75,  80,   111
Minnedosa,    Man 79
Minot,    N.D 74
Missanabie,  Ont 91
Mission,   B.C 17
Moncton,   N.B 139
Mont-Laurier, Que.. 125
Montreal, Que. 109,  121
123,   124,   126,   131
Montreal West, Que.
••••• 121,    131
Moosehead,   Me 133
Moose Jaw, Sask.
 65,  66,  72
Moosomin,  Sask 68
Morden,   Man 83
Morris,   Man 83
Morse,    Sask 65
Mt.   Forest,   Ont 99
Mowbray,  Man 83
Nakusp,  B.C 25, 54
Nanaimo,   B.C 15
Nanton,    Alta." 47
Napinka,   Man..69,   83
Neenah,  Wis 76
Neepawa, Man 79
•Negaunee.   Mich 112
Nelson.  B.C.
 25.   53,   54,   55
Neudorf,   Sask 68
Newburg,    N. B 136
Newbury,  Ont 102
Newcastle,   Ont 106
New  Denver,   B.C....54
Newport,   Vt 132
New Westminster,
B.   C 17
New York, N.Y. 98, 123
Niagara Falls, Ont..98
Niles,   Mich 101
Nipigon,   Ont 90
Nokomis,  Sask 68
Nominingue, Que.. 125
North Bay, Ont.... 114
North Bend, B.C...If
North Devon.N.B... 136
North Portal, Sask..72
North Stukely, Que. 132
North Troy, Vt 132
Norton, N.B..138. 136
Norwood,   Ont 110
Oak  Lake,   Man 69
Ocean Falls, B.C 8
Ogden, Alta 60
Okanagan Ldg., B.C.22
Okotoks,  Alta 47
Olds,   Alta 45
Orangeville.   Ont 99
Orillia,   Ont 109
Osceola,   Wis Ill
Oshawa,    Ont 106
Oshkosh,  Wis 76
Ottawa, Ont.
118,  119,  124
Otterburne,    Man — 80
Outlook,   Sask 66
Owen Sound, Ont. 89,99
Oxbow,    Sask 69
Pakesley,   Ont 94
Palliser, B.C 32
Papineauville, Que.. 124
Paris,   Ont 104
Parksville Jc, B.C...16
Parrsboro,  N.S 141
Parry Sound, Ont. ..95
Pasqua, Sask...66, -72
Peace River,  Alta...47
Peachland,    B.C 22
Pembroke  Ont 116
Pendleton,   Ont 120
Penticton,   B.C..22,   50
Perdue,   Sask 78
Perth,   Ont.     108
Perth Jct,  N.B....136
Peterboro,   Ont 110
Pickerel Ldg., Ont. .94
Pierson,   Man 69
Piles  Jct,   Que 128
Pilot  Mound,   Man..83
Plaisance,   Que 124
Plaster Rock, N.B..136
Plum Coulee, Man..83
Pogamasing, Ont 92
Point au Baril, Ont. 94
Point du Lac, Que. 126
Ponoka,    Alta 46
Pont Rouge, Que. .128
Portage  la  Prairie,
Man 70
Portal,   N.D 72
Port Alice,  B.C 8
Port Alberni, B.C... 16
Pert Arthur,   Ont
 87,   88,   89
Port Burwell, Ont.. 104
Port Dover, Ont.... 105
Port Hope, Ont... 106
Portland, Me.. 123, 13*
Port McNicoll, Ont.89
Port Moody,   B.C....17
Portneuf,   Que 128
Powell River,  B.C....8
Prescott,   Ont 108
Presqu Isle, Me 136
Preston Springs.Ont.104
Prince Rupert, B.C.. 11
Provost, Alta  77
Quebec,   Que.. 128,   130
Qu'Appelle,   Sask 67
Quyon,   Que 119
Rapid City, Man....69
Raymond,   Alta 59
Redcliff,  Alta.    63
Red   Deer,   Alta 45
Regina,  Sask 67, 82
Renfrew,    Ont 117
Reston,  Man. 82
Revelstoke, B.C.
 24,   25,   26
Rhine] ander.    Wis.. Ill
Rigaud, Que 120
Riverton, Man 81
RockhaVen, Sask. ... 78
Romford,   Ont.93,   114
Rosebery, B.C 54
Rosetown, Sask 66
Rossland, B.C 52
Rouleau, Sask 72
Russell, Mna 79
Ruth'ergien,  Ont.   ..114
Ste.  Adele, Que 125
Ste. Agathe, Que...125
Ste. Andrews, N.B..136
Ste Annes,   Que 120
St Augustin, Que. .124
St. Basile, Que 128
St. Boniface, Man...80
St.   Clet,   Que 109
St. Constant, Que.. 131
St Eustache, Que... 124
St. Faustin, Que... 125
St. Felix, Que..... 126
St. Gabriel, Que... 126
St. George, N.B... 138
St. Guillaume, Que. 132
St Hugues, Que... 132
St. Hyacinthe, Que. 132
St Janvier, Que... 125
St.   Jerome,   Que...125
St.   John.   N.B 137
St.  Johns,  Que 131
St. Jovite,  Que.   ...125
St.   Lin,   Que 125
St.   Malo.   Que 128
St. Marguerite, Que. 125
St.   Martin Jct.,
Que.    ......124.   126
St. Marys, Ont 104
St Maurice, Que... 128
St. Narcisse, Que.. 128
St.   Paul.   Minn	
 75,   80,   111
St. Phillippe, Que. 131
St,   Polycarpe,   Jct.,
Que 108
Ste.  Rose,  Que 124
Ste.    Scholastique,
'Que .2 124
St Stephen, N.B..138
Ste   Therese,   Que..
      124,    125
St. Thomas, Ont.. 104
St.Vin devPaul, Que. 126
Sackville,    N.B 139
Salmon Arm, B.C..21
Saltcoats,   Sask.   ... 79
Sandon,    B.C 54
Sand Point, Ont... 117
Saskatoon, Sask. 67, 78
Sault Ste.  Marie.  Ont
 89,   112
Sault Ste. Marie, Mich.
 Ill,   112
Schreiber,   Ont    91
Scotstown,    Que.... 133
Seattle.    Wash 7
Sedgewick,   Alta 77
Severn   Falls,   Ont.95
Selkirk,    Man 81
Sharbot   Lake,   Ont.
 110,    117
Shaunavon, Sask. ..66
Shawbridge, Que. ..125
Shawinigan Falls,  Que.
     128
Shawnigan, B.C.... 15
Shawville,   Que.  ... 119
Shelburne, Ont 99
Sherbrooke,    Que.
 130, 132
Shoal Lake, Man. .. 79
Sicamou s,   B. C.. 21,   22
Simcoe,    Ont 15>5
Skagway, Alaska ..12
Slocan City, B.C...54
Smith's Falls,  Oni. 1 OS
Souris,   Man 69,   82
Spence's   Bridge,   ..
B.C 2V
Spillimacheen, B.C. .81
Spokane, Wash.  . ■... 55
Spuzzum, B.C 18
Starbuck, Man 82
Stavely, Alta 47
Staynerville,    Que.. 124
Stettler,   Alta 46
Steven's Point, Wis..76
Stirling, Alta   59
Stonewall,  Man 81
Stoughton, Sask ... 82
Strasbourg, Sask.... 68
Strathcona, Alta. ..46
Strathmore,    Alta... 60
Streetsville, Ont 105
Streetsville Jct.   Ont.
 98.   105
Sturgeon Falls, Ontll4
Sudbury    Ont. P2,93,113
    114
Summerland,   B. C... 22
Superior,    Wis Ill
Sussex,    N.B 138
Sutherland,    Sask... 78
Sutton, Que  132
Swift Current,   Sask.
   63,   64
Sylvan   Lake,   Alia
Taber,   Alta	
Teeswater,   Ont	
Terrebonne, Que...
Thessalon,   Out	
thetford Mines, Que
Thfcf   River   Falls,
Minn	
Tichborne,   Ont	
Tilbury    Ont..   	
Tillsonburg,    Out...
Timagami,  Ont	
Timiskaming,  Que..
Toronto, Ont.  .-96,
98, 99, 100, 105,
Tottenham,   Ont....
Trail,  B.C	
Treherne,   Man.
Trenton,   Ont	
Tring   Jct.    Que...
Trois Rivieres, Que.
Truro,   N.S... 139,
Tuxford,   Sask.   ...
Tweed,   Ont	
Tyndall,   Man	
.45
.59
.99
126
1L2
13()
.80
107
102
101
114
116
97,
109
.95
52
.82
106
130
128
142
.66
116
.84
Union Bay, B.C.. .16
Unity,   Sask 77
Val Morin, Que... 125
Valley City. N.D...74
Valley  Jct.   Que... 130
Vanceboro,   Me 134
Vancouver,    B.    (!...
..-. .5,  6,   10,   17,   48
Vankleek,    Ont 120
Varcoe, Man 69
Vaudreuil, Que.109, 120
Verner, Ont 114
Vernon,  B.C 22
Victoria,   B.C	
....f|..4, 5, 10, 14
Virden,  Man 68
Wakefield,  Que 118
Waldo,    B.C 56
Walkerton, Ont ...99
Walkerville Jct.Ont 102
Waltham, Que 119
Wapella,    Sask 68
Warner,   Alta 59
Warren.   Ont 114
Waterloo   Ont 104
Waukesha,   Wis 76
Webbwood,    Ont.... 112
Welland,   Ont 98
Westfield Beacli,N.S137
Westfort,   Ont 86
Westminster    Jct.,
B.    C 17
Westmount, Que 121
Weston,   N.S 141
Weston,   Ont 96
West   Robson,    B.C.
 I ...25,   52
West St. John, N.B. 138
West Shefford, Que.132
West   Terento,    Ont.
 96,   105
Wetaskiwin, Alta.46, 77
Weyburn,    Sask 72
Weymouth,   N.S..    140
Whitby,   Ont 106
White Fish, Ont... 113
Whitemouth, Man.. .84
White River, Out...91
Whytewold,    Man... 81
Wilcox, Sask 72
Wilkie,   Sask 77
Winchester, Ont. ..108
Windsor, N.S. 139, 142
Windsor, Ont 101
Windsor Mills, Quel32
Windygates, Man.  .. 83
Wingham.   Ont 99
Winkler,   Man. 83
Winnipeg, Man. 70, 79,
80, 81, 82, 83. 84
Winnipeg   Beach,
Man  81
Wolfe, Sask 78
Wolfville,    N.S 141
Wolseley,   Sask 67
Woodbridge,   Ont 96
Woodstock,   Ont 104
Woodstock, N.B... 136
Wroxeter,    Oht..... 99
Wyman,  Que 119
Wynyard,    Sask. 79
Yahk,   B.C 55
Yale, B.C 18
Yamachiche,  Que... 126
Yarmouth,    N.S 139
Yellow Grass, Sask. .72
Yorkton,   Sask 79
Young. • Sask 67 TABLE OF MILEAGES
(By  Direct  Route unless  otherwise   stated)
Montreal Toronto    Winnipeg Chicago    Vancouver
Banff, Alta  2326 2147 914 1694 560
Belleville,  Ont  221 119 1352 632 2826
Boston,   Mass        340 598 1752(a) 3226(a)
Brandon,   Man  1545 1365 133 1341
Brantford,   Ont.   (b). . 405 65 1297 2771
Broadview,   Sask  1676 1496 264 1210
Brockville, Ont        156 239 1472 751 2947
Buffalo,   N.Y.    (c)  441 101 1333 613 2807
Calgary,   Alta  2244 2065 832 1612 642
Chalk River, Ont  242 1169 2644
Chatham,   Ont        519 179 333
Chicago,   111  853 512 913 2254
Detroit,   Mich, g  569 229 1197 283 2671
Duluth,    Minn  1038(d) 859(d) 404 1878(e)
Edmonton, Alta.  (f)   . . 2438 2259 1026 1806 836
Edmonton,  Alta,   (g) . . 2260 2081 848 2117
Field,   B.   C. §/.  2380 2201 969 1749 505
Fort  William,   Ont.    .. -992 813(h) 419 1893
Fredericton,   N.   B.    . . 459 798 1871 1312 3345
Galt,   Ont        398 57 1290 455 2764
Glacier,  B.C  2466 2286 1054 1834 420
Guelph,  Ont.   .        395 54 1287 488 2761
Halifax,  N.S.* (i)   .-. . .       677 1018 2089 1530 3563
Hamilton,   Ont.   (c)    . .       380 40 1272 491 2746
Ignace, Ont  1140 960 272- 1746
Kamloops, B.C  2635 2456 1224 2004 250 -
Kenora, Ont  1286 1106 126 1600
Kingston,   Ont.   . .        208 209 1442 721 2916
Lake   Louise,   Alta.    . . 2361 2181 949 1729 525
Lethbridge,    Alta.    (f) 2370 2191 959 1739 768
Lethbridge,    Alta.    (j) 2183 2004 772 1544 863
Lindsay,   Ont        294 67 1196 581 2670
London,   Ont 1 455" 115 1311(k) 398 2785(k)
Medicine Hat, Alta.   . . 2068 1888 656 1436 818
Minneapolis,   Minn.   .. 1119(d) 939(d) 453 460 1794
Minneapolis,   Minn.   .. 1313 (k) 972(k)
Montreal,  Que  340(1) 1412 853 2886
Moose   Jaw,    Sask.    .. 1810 1631 398 1178 1076
Nanaimo,   B.O.    (m) . . 2927 2748 1515 2295 41
Nelson,  B.C.   (n)     2690 2511 1278 2058 563
Nelson,   B.C.   (H      2537 2354 1122 1894 513
New Westminster, B.C. 2877 2698 1466 2246 25
NewYork,  N.Y        384 539(c) 1796(a) 3270(a)
North Bay, Ont   360 1053 2526
Oshawa, Ont   303 37 1271 550 2744
Ottawa, Ont    Ill 265(1) 1300 777 2775
Owen Sound, Ont    461 121 1353 633 2827
Pembroke, Ont   220 1191 2665
Penticton, B.C. (o). . 2706 2527 1294 2074 489
Penticton, B.C. (j) .. 2795 2616 1383 2156 251
Peterboro, Ont    262 78 1311 591 2785
Portage la Prairie, Man. 1467 1288 56 1418
Port Arthur, Ont. ....   988 809 424 1898
Quebec, Que    172 513 1584 1025 3058
Regina, Sask  1768 1589 357 1220 1117
Revelstoke, B.C  2506 2327 1095 1875 379
St. John, N.B    482 822 1893 1334 3367
St. Paul, Minn  1109(d) 929(d) 464 449 1805
St. Paul, Minn  1302(k) 961(k)
St.  Thomas,  Ont.   . ?. .       462 121
Saskatoon, Sask.  (q) . . 1940 1761 529 1749 1204(r)
Saskatoon,  Sask.  (s) . . 1892 1713 480
Sault   Ste.   Marie,   Ont.       618 439
Seattle,   Wash  3050 2870 1638 2418 164
Sherbrooke,   Que        106 447 1518 959 2992
Sicamous,  B.C  2551 2372 1139 1919 335
Skagway,   Alaska     3874 3695 2462 3242 p       988
Smith's   Falls,   Ont.    .       129 212 1444 724 2918
Spokane, Wash,   (j)   .. 2576 2396 1164 773
Sudbury, Ont        439 260 973 772 2447
Swift Current,   Sask... 1921 1741 509 1289 965
Toronto,    Ont        340(1) 1232 512 2706
Trenton,    Ont        231 109 1341 621 2816
Trois   Rivieres,   Que...          95 436 1507 948 2981
Truro,  N.S        696 1036 2107 15~48 3581
Vancouver,   B.C.   (f) . . 2886 2706 1474 2254
Vancouver, B.C.  (j)   .. 3046 2867 1634 2407
Victoria,   B.C  2969 2789 1557 2337 83
Windsor,   Ont r.       567 226 1199(k)       286 2673(k)
Winnipeg,  Man  1412 1232 913 1474
Woodstock, Ont        428 88 424
(a)  via Montreal,     (b) via Hamilton,     (c; yia Toronto,   (d)  via Sudbury,
(e)  via Winnipeg,  (f) via Calgary,   (g)  via Saskatoon,   (h)   655 miles via
Port McNicoll and steamship,  (i) via Digby; 83 miles further via Moncton.
(j)  via southern route, (k)  via Chicago.   (1)  via Lake Shore; 2 miles less
via Peterboro. (m) via direct steamer, (n) via Revelstoke. (o) via Sieamous.
(q) via Regina. (r) via Edmonton, (s) via Wynyard. CANADIAN
STEAMSHIPS
PACIFIC
LIMITED
TRANS-PACIFIC
Vancouver via Victoria to
Japan, China and the Philippines
by   the   four   magnificent   liners:
Empress of Canada    - - 22,500 tons
Empress of Australia - 21,400 tons
Empress of Russia -    - - 17,000 tons
Empress of Asia     -   - - 17,000 tons
Largest, fastest, and finest on the Pacific Ocean.
Fortnightly sailings (commencing summer, 1922) to
Yokohama, Kobe, Moji,
Shanghai,  Manila   and
(Additional Freight Services to
Nagasaki,
Hong    Kong.
Singapore, etc.)
CANADIAN   PACIFIC   RAILWAY
§ TRAFFIC  AGENTS
1 WILLIAM   BALLANTYNE, ||
General Passenger Agent, (Ocean Traffic), Montreal, Quebec. CANADIAN),il4 PACIFIC
STEAMSHIPS
LIMITED
EMPRESS   EXPRESS   SERVICE
. _ i       ——————       i 11 —.^»^»^—
§ Quebec  to
Cherbourg, Southampton, and  Hamburg.
Via   the   sheltered  St.   Lawrence   route
By the magnificent steamships :
Empress of  Scotland,   (25,000 tons)
(Largest liner in Canadian Service,)
Empress of France  (18,500 tons)
London and Paris in a week;    Berlin in nine days.
REGULAR    SERVICES '.' |§j
Montreal and Quebec to
Liverpool, Glasgow, Southampton, Antwerp,
.-   :'■    and Italy. |-   ' M ' -.^  |
(Steamships sail from St. John, N. B. in winter.)
St. John-Boston to Cuba and Jamaica.
Additional Freight Services to London and Bristol.
*^%i^^^^^*«s^^
«w
CANADIAN   PACIFIC   RAILWAY
H TRAFFIC AGENTS |
W. G. ANNABLE,  |     jf     §§§
Asst.  Passenger Traffic Manager, (Ocean Traffic),  Montreal. BUREAU OF CANADIAN INFORMATION
The Canadian Pacific Railway has established a Bureau of Canadian information as a branch
ofits Department of Colonization and Development, with the object of disseminating'reliable
and up-to-date nformation as to agricultural and industrial openings in all parts of Canada.
WESTERN C\NADA FARM LANDS
The Company has yet for sale several million acres of choice farm lands in Western Canada, at
low prices and on long terms of payment. In certain districts'Iands will be sold without settlement restrictions, but the Company is prepared to grant special concessions to those who will
settle upon and deyefop their farms.
IRRIGATED FARM LANDS
In its irrigation districts in Alberta, the^Company haa irrigated lands for sale a reasonable
prices and on terms extending over twenty years. Under certain conditions loans for improvements will be granted purchasers of irrigated jlands in amounts up to two thousand dollars, to
be repaid with land instalments.
EASTERN CANADA FARM LANDS
Lists of selected improved farms, available for sett'ement in Ontario, Quebec and the Maritime
Provinces, with the names and addresses of their owners, may be obtained on application at
any office of the Department.
INDUSTRIAL INVESTIGATION AND RESEARCH
Investigations, looking to the utilization of undeveloped natural resources and
waste products and new industrial processes, are being carried on by the Research
Section of the Department. Inquiries as to promising fields for investigation in
this connection are invited.
INDUSTRIAL  OPENINGS
Reliable information as to sites for new industries in all parts of Canada, and of
special business openings in the growing towns and cities along the lines of the
Canadian Pacific Railway in both Eastern and Western Canada, will be gladly
furnished on request.
CANADIAN INTELLIGENCE SERVICE
Well equipped Canadian reference libraries have been established by the Department at Montreal, New York, Chicago, and London, England. These libraries
contain the fullest information on all matters relating to Canada and her undeveloped resources, and are kept supplied with the latest information pertaining to new
developments through the medium of a news service organized through the cooperation of the other departments of the Company's service. The information on
hand in these libraries is available without charg« to those interested, and inquiries
addressed to any office of the Department will receive prompt atteiition.
DEPARTMENT OF COLONIZATION AND
DEVELOPMENT, CANADIAN PACIFIC RAILWAY
MONTREAL:—C.P R. Bureau of Canadian
Information; H. P Timmerman, Industrial
Commissioner, Windsor St. Station.
CALGARY:—M. E. Thornton, Supt. of U.S.
. Agencies, Dept. of Natural Resources Bldg.
CHICAGO:—C.P.R. Bureau of Canadian Information, 165 East Ontario Street.
H. C P. CRESSWELL, Superintendent,
MONTREAL, Que.
WINNIPEG:—J.  M   Sweeting, Industrial
Agent, C.P.R DepoL
NEW YORK:—C.P.R. Bureau of Canadian
Information, Madison Avenue and 44th St.
LONDON:—A. E. Moore, Manager, 62-65
Charing Cross.
J. S. DENNIS, Chief Commissioner,
MONTREAL, Que.
PRINTED    IN    CANADA. ll
CANADIAN   PACIFIC
HOTELS
Name of Hotel, Plan,
Distance from Station
and   Transfer   Charge.
St. Andrews, N. B.
The Algonquin—
1 mile—50 cents.
McAdam, N. B.
McAdam Hotel—
At Station.
Quebec, Que.
Chateau Frontenac-
1 mile—50 cents.
Alti
tude
Season
A   150
E
Montreal, Owe.     ?>%.> r
Place Viger Hotel—
At Place Viger
Station.  1% miles from
Windsor Station-
50 cents.
Winnipeg, Man.
The Royal Alexandra—E
At Station.
Calgary, Alta.
Hotel Palliser-
At Station.
445.
300
CO
a
O
o
»
Banff, Alta.
Banff Springs Hotel—
l$js mjles—50 cents.
E
57
760
3425
4625
June 20-
Sept. 30
All year
All year
Recreations
AH year
Lake Louise, Alta.
Chateau Lake Louise— E
3}4 miles—50 cents.
Narrow Gauge Railway.
Emerald Lake (near
Field), B. C.
Emerald Lake Chalet— A
7 miles—$1.00.
Glacier, B. C.
Glacier House— A
1^ miles—50 cents.
Sicamous, B. C.
Hotel Sicamous— A
At Station.
Penticton, B. C.
Hotel Incola—
Near Steamer Wharf.
Cameron Lake, B.C.
Cameron Lake Chalet-
Vancouver Island.
Vancouver, B. C.
Hotel Vancouver—        E
}_ mile—25 cents.
5670
All year
All year
May 15-
Sept. 30
4066
4086
1146
Victoria, B. C.
Empress*Hotel— E
200 yards.—25 cents
100
Sea
Level
June 1-
Sept. 30
July 1-
Sept. 15
Julyl-
Sept. 15
All year
All year
May 1-
Sept. 30
All year
All year
Golf, Bathing, Boat-
ing,: Yachting
(Passamaquoddy
Bay, St. Croix
River).
15    Hunting in Season.
324 Scenic and Historical
interest, Golf,
Motoring (Plains of
Abraham, St. Anne
de Beaupre).
114 Historical and Scenic
interest. Mt. Royal
and St. Lawrence
River.
389 Golf, Motoring, centre of Canadian
West (Site of old
Fort Garry).
5 Golf, Motoring, Fishing (Trout).
280 Mountain drives and
climbs, Golf, Bathing, Fishing (Trout),
Boating, Riding
(Rocky Mountains
Park).
Boating, Mountain
climbs, Pony trails,
Fishing (Trout),
Riding.
265
16
86
61
62
488
278
Boating, Fishing
(Trout), Pony trails
to Yoho Valley,
Takakkaw Falls,
Riding.
Pony trails, Climbs,
Exploring Glaciers,
Riding.
Boating, Fishing
(Trout) (Sicantous
Lake).
Boating Okanagan
Lake,Fishing (Lake
Trout).
Fishing (Trout), Boating, Splendid forests (Salmon fishing adjacent).
Golf, Motoring, Fishing, Steamboat excursions.
Golf.Motoring, Yachting, Sea and stream
fishing.
A—American Plan.   E—European Plan.
ANDREW ALLERTON, General Superintendent,
Canadian Pacific Hotels, Montreal.
»wj m I
TRANSCANADA
TRANSATLANTIC
TRANSPACIFIC

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