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Westward across Canada by Canadian Pacific : the scenic dome route Canadian Pacific Railway Company 1954

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Across Gknmm
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FORT WILLIAM       SUDBURY        OTTAWA    MONTREAL Across Canada by Canadian Pacific
Travel, even the luxurious travel of today, in the
comfort of Canadian Pacific "Scenic Domes", is an
adventure. Travel, the Canadian Pacific way from
tidewater to tidewater across the wide provinces
of Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan,
Alberta and British Columbia is an adventure in
which the traveller of today follows the trail-
blazing of a glorious past into a boundless future.
The Canadian Pacific transcontinental main line
retraces in the 20th Century the routes of many
brave and pious explorers of the 17th Century.
It follows the track of such heroes as Pere Marquette, LaSalle, Radisson, Nicolet, Champlain,
Thompson, Fraser, Mackenzie, Joliet, Du Lhut, whose
names are indissolubly imprinted upon the histories
of Canada and the United States.
"Across Canada by Canadian Pacific", prepared
for riders of the longest "Dome" route in the world,
is based upon the railway practice of dividing
the track into Sub-Divisions. While the timetable
shows the distance between Montreal and Vancouver as 2881.2 miles and between Toronto and
Vancouver as 2,703.6, the "Mileage Boards"
found on telegraph poles along the right of way
start afresh at the eastern boundary of each
sub-division. For instance, Pembroke, 219.4 miles
from Montreal, is indicated on the track side by
Mileage Board 93 of the Chalk River Sub-Division.
In order to pinpoint points of interest in the scenery
for ready location from a moving train, reference
is made throughout this book to the nearest
mileage board and each sub-division traversed is
named at its start. Following the operational
practice of dividing the line from east to west,
these pages divide the Canadian Pacific transcontinental main line — the "Scenic Dome" route
— from Montreal and Toronto to Vancouver. At
the side of each page a yellow plan map bears
the names of all stations on that page. Because the
Canadian Pacific main line travels generally in an
east-west direction, "north" is used throughout
the book to indicate scenes and places on the
right as you travel from east to west.
Explorers of the river routes that first opened the
Great Lakes and the rivers to the Gulf of Mexico;
discoverers of the great prairies that sweep
majestically upward from lake level to the Rockies;
pioneers who traced mighty streams through the
mountain barriers to the Pacific Ocean, all led
the builders of the world's first transcontinental
railway. These great men of the past lead you,
who sit in the air-conditioned comfort of a high-
level "Scenic Dome", through forests and lakelands, along the edge of the rich Pre-Cambrian
Shield, through gentle farm-lands, by inland seas,
between great wheatfields, beside roaring streams
that point their silver arrows through the mountain
passes. In the wake of the explorers you see,
through the picture windows on four sides of you,
mines, mills, factories, great cities; Ottawa, North
Bay, Sudbury, Port Arthur-Fort William, Winnipeg,
Brandon, Regina, Moose Jaw, Swift Current,
Medicine Hat, Calgary, Vancouver: the pleasure-
lands of the Gatineau, Muskoka, French River,
the North Shore of Lake Superior, Lake of the
Woods, Banff, Lake Louise and the British Columbia
Montreal-Sudbury Pages 3 fo 5
Toronto-Sudbury     .......    Pages 6 to 7
Sudbury-White River .   .   .   .   .   .   . Page 8
Regan-Fort William  Page 9
West Fort William-Kenora    •.-".   .   . Page 70
Keewatin-Brandon   .   .   .   ...   .   . Page 11
Kemnay-Moose Jaw    .   .   .   .   .   .   . Page 7 2
Boharm-Medicine Hat  Page 7 3
Redcliff-Calgary        Page 76
Robertson-Banff  Page 17
Castle Mountain-Hector .   .   .   ... Page 7 8
Field-Golden  Page 7 9
Moberly-Revel stoke     .  Page 20
Three Valley-Salmon Arm   ..... Page 21
Tappen-Kamloops  Page 22
Tranquille-Spence's Bridge .   .   .   .   . Page 23
Drynoch-North Bend    . Page 24
China Bar-Vancouver .   .   .   .   .   .   . Page 25
Triangle Service  Page 26
Crowsnest Pass-Coquihalla Canyon     . Page 27
Front cover picture is an artist's conception of Canadian Pacific Scenic Domes in the Bow River Valley. The World's Longest "Dome" Ride
Historical Reminders
Amherst—Baron Jeffery, Field Marshal (1717-97),
Commander in Chief in North America 1758, Governor of Virginia 1763.
Brebeuf—(1593-1649),    born    in    France,    Jesuit
Missionary to the Hurons, martyred  by the Iroquois
Brule — Etienne, born end of 16th Century, reached
Canada as a boy in 1608, accompanied Champlain
1615. In 1618, explored south through Pennsylvania
to Chesapeake Bay. Died 1633.
By — John (1781-1836), military engineer, 1826
constructed Rideau Canal. Bytown (now Ottawa)
named after him.
Champlain — Samuel de (1567-1635), first visit to
America  1598, founded  Quebec 1608.
du Lhut — or Duluth, Daniel G. (1640-1710), born in
France, explored Sioux country 1681. Duluth, Minnesota, is named for him.
Fraser—Simon (1776-1862), born in New York,
partner in North West Company, explored Fraser
and Thompson Rivers.
Joliet—Louis (1645-1700), born in Quebec, co-
discoverer with Marquette of the Mississippi.
LaSalle—Rene Robert Cavelier (1643-87), born in
France, Seigneur of Lachine, explored Ohio River,
Lake Michigan and Upper Illinois searching for China;
reached Texas by sea.
La Verendrye—Pierre Gaultier de Varennes (1688-
1749), born Three Rivers, Que., fur trader and explorer.
Macdonald—Sir John Alexander (1815-1891), born
in Scotland, lawyer and statesman in Upper Canada,
first Prime Minister of the Dominion, considered "Chief
Architect of Confederation".
Marquette — (1637-75), born in France. 1666, Jesuit
missionary to Canada, shared discovery of Mississippi with Joliet.
Nicolet — Jean (1598-1642), born in France, came to
Canada 1618, explored Lake Michigan as far as
Green Bay, senior official of Company of One
Hundred Associates.
Radisson—Pierre Esprit (1636-1710), born in Paris,
reached Canada 1651, explored Great Lakes,
credited with foundation of Hudson's Bay Company.
Strathcona — Lord (1820-1914), Sir Donald Alexander Smith, born in Scotland, became resident governor of Hudson's Bay Co. in Canada; one of the
founders of the Canadian Pacific Railway, later
President of the Bank of Montreal and Canadian
High Commissioner in Great Britain.
Thompson—David (1770-1857), 1808-9 explored
Columbia River; 1816-26 surveyed Canada U.S.
Winchester Montreal West, last stop on the
Sub-Division island of Montreal, is the junction
for Quebec, the Laurentian Mountains, Saint John,
Halifax, Boston and New York. North of Sortin
lies the great Cote St. Luc marshalling yard of
the Canadian Pacific, directly south is the indus
trial suburb of Lachine, population, 27,773,
named for LaSalle's dream of a route to China
beyond the rapids. In modern contrast is Montreal's
great international airport at Dorval. Golf links
and bright new housing developments line the
track to St. Anne's where Du Lhut defeated Iroquois
warriors in 1690. lie Perrot, across the east channel of the Ottawa River, was Lord Jeffery Amherst's camp in 1760 before the capitulation
of the French. Vaudreuil, on the mainland, junction
with the main line to Toronto, played a part in the
war of 1776, when de Lorimier captured an invading American force. On both sides of the island
the Ottawa River flows into the St. Lawrence —
greatest river draining to the Atlantic coast of
North America. Its 1,900 miles drains 359,000
square miles of Ontario, Quebec and north-eastern
United States.
M. & O. From   Vaudreuil,   named   for   an
Sub-Division early Governor of Canada, the line
follows the Ottawa River, the route of early explorers. Isle Cadieux, a flag station, marks Point
Cavagnal where an early missionary, Pere Gar-
reau, was martyred by Iroquois Indians in 1656.
Across the Ottawa, now widened into the Lake of
the Two Mountains, the gleaming spire of Oka
Church marks the site of an early Hudson's Bay
Post where J. G. McTavish, who went to the relief
of David Thompson, the mapmaker and explorer,
in 1811, settled down as factor. The lake broadens
out at Hudson Heights to be joined at Rigaud,
population, 4,287, site of a strange geological
formation known superstitiously as "The Devil's
Garden", by the Rigaud River. Before St. Eugene
is reached, the boundary into Ontario is crossed.
From here to Ottawa, farms replace the forests
that made many fortunes a century ago. Vankleek
Hill, population, 1,500, named for Simeon Vankleek, a Royalist from Dutchess County, N.Y., serves
a   rich   farm   area,   Alfred,   population,   3,000,
Ottawa,   showing   the   Rideau   Canal,  Victoria   Square   and
Parliament Buildings
formed in 1798, bears the name of a son of
George III. At mileage 50.1 the South Nation River
is crossed. Plantagenet, also settled in 1798, bears
another royal name. Bourget, once known simply as
"The Brook", was named for Bishop Bourget, head
of the Roman Catholic diocese of Montreal. The
Rideau River, named by Champlain on an early
voyage, is crossed at mileage 85.9. Ottawa,
capital of Canada, population, 202,045, and
Hull, Que., across the Ottawa River, population
45,000, in addition to many other industries, are
lumbering centres. The area was first seen by
Champlain, de Vigneau and Brule. First called
Bytown, Ottawa was started by Colonel By,
builder of the Rideau Canal, in 1827, incorporated
as "Ottawa" in 1854 and chosen as capital of
Canada in 1858. Hull, processor of paper, matches,
textiles, cement and meat products, is the junction
for the Maniwaki and Lachute Sub-Divisions of
the Canadian Pacific. At mileage 89.4, the line
crosses Brewery Creek, scene of ornithological
studies by Rt. Hon. Malcolm Macdonald. The
Canadian Pacific main line crosses the river twice
here and gives a magnificent view of the Canadian
Parliament Buildings, the Rideau Locks, Chaudiere
Falls and the industries. Carleton Place, Arnprior
and Renfrew typify the solid economy of this part
of prosperous Ontario.
Carleton Place After its two crossings of the
Sub-Division Ottawa in the capital area, the
transcontinental line skirts the river for a few miles.
By another route than that of Pere Marquette,
who, with fur trader Louis Joliet, his co-explorer of
the Mississippi, Ohio, Arkansas, Illinois and Chicago
Rivers, paddled up the Ottawa to Mattawa 350
years ago, the transcontinental line taps a rich
agricultural country. Carleton Place, junction for
Smiths Falls, is a manufacturing and market centre
with a  population of 4,700.
Chalk River Almonte, population, 2,617, named
Sub-Division for the Mexican General, is a textile centre. Note, south of track, the clever use of
mill tailraces in landscaping of gardens. At mileage 24, the line crosses Canada's Mississippi
River. Pakenham, marked by attractive falls south
of the railway, commemorates General Sir E. M.
Pakenham, killed at the Battle of New Orleans in
1815. Wide meadows and well-tended grain and
root crops characterize this part of Ontario. At
mileage 39, the Madawdska River is seen to the
south and the track crosses it at mileage 40. Arnprior, population, 4,500, devotes itself to textiles,
boat-building, electronics, dairy products, lumbering and construction. Its name, like that of Braeside,
where the Ottawa River is visible south of the track,
is Scottish in origin. Sand Point, named for the
bar which juts into Chats Lake, faces Norway Bay.
Renfrew, a town of 7,069, is noted for castings,
woodworking, refrigerators, airplane engine parts,
plastics, flour and feed and textiles. The Bonne-
chere River is crossed at mileage 59.8. Payne,
junction for the Eganville Sub-Division, and Haley's,
where magnesium is mined and the Chenaux Falls
Plant of the Ontario Hydro-Electric Power Com
mission is located, and Cobden, livestock centre
named for the 19th century British statesman, are of
interest. At mileage 75, Muskrat Lake lives up to
its name and at mileage 79, the Spring and Fall
migrations of Canada geese are a sight worth
seeing. The stopover flocks sometimes are numbered in thousands. Snake River Station marks the
crossing of Snake River. The Muskrat River, mileage
84.4, separated from the Ottawa by a narrow
range of hills, flows in the opposite direction. Many
eagles nest in this area. Mileage 91 shows part of
23-mile-long Allumette Island in the Ottawa River.
Pembroke, county seat of Renfrew, a city of more
than 13,000, marks the limit of Champlain's 1613
exploration of the Ottawa River. This busy city,
named for Pembroke in Wales, makes box shooks,
match blocks, matches, office furniture, pulp,
lumber, veneer and electrical appliances. Between
mileage 98.5 and 101, conservationists will be
interested in the obvious signs of reforestation.
Petawawa, population, 1,100, is the station for
a large army training centre, used, as the surrounding countryside gives evidence, by mechanized units. The name is an Indian word for "murmuring water" which is crossed at mileage 104.
At mileage 105, north of the track, the entrance to
Petawawa Military Camp is known as Montgomery's Crossing after Viscount Montgomery,
famous World War II Field Marshal. At mileage
106.5, the artillery range is visible. Chalk River,
end of the Sub-Division, is served by the Chalk
River, for which it is named. At Deep River, five
miles from here is Canada's atomic energy plant,
specializing in the production of atomic energy for
peacetime purposes.
Typical Ontario woodlands North Bay The North Bay Sub-Division is char-
Sub-Division acterized by geographical qualities
of equal interest to the sportsman and the industrialist. The conformation of the land that makes this
territory interesting to sportsmen endows the area
with power potentialities. The stretch between
mileage 7 and mileage 14 is well known as good
deer country, Bass Lake at mileage 9 is said to
have been so named because very few bass have
been caught in it. Between mileage 12 and 13, Hart
Lake is renowned for good pickerel fishing. At
mileage 14, Moor Lake lies south of the track.
Moor Lake Station serves the hydro-electric power
station opened at Des Joachims in 1950. The
Canadian Pacific main line track was diverted to
permit dams for this new development which
generates 480,000 h.p. Lakes north of the track
at mileage 16.5 and south at mileage 18 break
the wooded landscape and at mileage 19, there is
a good view to the north of the Laurentian Mountains across the Ottawa River. At mileage 22.4, a
sawmill on a backwater of the Ottawa River
indicates the country's character. North of the
track at mileage 26.5, the now widened Ottawa
River to the north covers the former main line visible
here at low water, as it is at mileage 28, just east
of Stonecliffe Station. Your whole train is visible
at mileage 30.5. Near where the track crosses
Grant Creek, a curve of almost 90 degrees skirts
the lake edge and the former track is visible
between mileage 31 and mileage 32 where the
diversion ends. Here the transcontinental line leaves
the Ottawa River. Near Bissett, at mileage 38, the
transcontinental line crosses a bridge once featured
by Ripley. Three bridges cross each other and
Bissett Creek, the C.P.R. at the top, a highway
bridge and a local road bridge. Between mileage
39 and mileage 40, rapids, falls and a lake interest
fishermen south of the track and at mileage 44.5
beaver dams and lodges are visible in the surrounding marshland. The Ottawa River is seen
again to the north at mileage 50 and at Deux
Rivieres, the Magnassippi joins the Ottawa River,
the "two rivers" being selected as a name by
early French settlers. Another curve of almost 90
degrees at mileage 50.5 marks another diversion
of the transcontinental line with the former right-of-
way again visible under water on the north side.
At mileage 61, on islands in the Ottawa River,
have been found traces of camp sites of the early
explorers whose route to the west still parallels
the Canadian Pacific main line. More beaver dams
and lodges north of the track at mileage 63 indicate the industry of Canada's national animal and,
at mileage 67, the Mattawa River parallels the
track. To the north a high bridge carries the Anglier
Sub-Division across the Ottawa. Mattawa, population, 3,300, a forest products centre, marking the
junction of the Mattawa and Ottawa Rivers, is
aptly named by the Indian word for "meeting of
waters". Here Champlain ended his journey of
exploration and here, two years later, he started
up the Mattawa to Lake Nipissing, the French
River, Georgian Bay and Lake Huron, a route
followed   for   many   years   by   early   explorers.
Mattawa has been a trading post since 1784.
From Mattawa, the Ottawa River swerves northward and the Mattawa River parallels the Canadian Pacific transcontinental line to North Bay,
north of the track. This is trapping and hunting
country and such sights as Earl's Lake, mileage
74.5, and the beaver lodges easily seen in lakes
at mileages 77 and 79, make it easy to believe
that Radisson, Marquette, Nicolet, LaSalle and
other pioneers fared well during their arduous
journeys. At mileage 83, the line crosses the Amable
du Fond River (trout). South of the track at Eau
Claire are beaver-filled lakes. Look north at
mileage 94 between Rutherglen and Bonfield for
a glimpse of Lake Talon, part of the chain of
lakes that formed the early canoe route to the
west. Bonfield, formerly named Callander, is a
lumbering centre. At mileage 98, north of the track,
Bonfield Falls are visible. Between mileage 98.5
and 102.5 Lake Nosbonsing, south of the track, is
known for bass, pickerel and maskinonge fishing.
At Corbeil, an arm of Lake Nipissing known as
South Bay leads up to the naming of the city
that ends this sub-division. North Bay, population, 19,891, a stopping place for Champlain in
1615, is an important centre. Diamond drilling
equipment, lumber and building products, castings,
dairy products, dressed lumber and forest products;
the headquarters of the Canadian Pacific Algoma
District and the provincially-owned Ontario Northland Railway to Hudson Bay, make this market
for 120,000 acres of general farming land a
busy place. Islands visible to the south mark the
westward channel of the explorers, and four miles
south along the coast is the site of a post of great
importance in the days of the fur trade.
Cartier Westward   from   North   Bay,   the
Sub-Division Canadian Pacific transcontinental
line skirts the north shore of Lake Nipissing past the
sites of forts built by the North West and Hudson's
Bay Companies. South of the track between
Mileage 2 and Sturgeon Bay is an Indian Reservation. After mileage 5 the lake is out of sight.
Beaucage, named for the first family to settle in
the area, marks the western limit of the historic
lake. Meadow Creek, crossed at mileage 12.9,
takes its name from the pastureland for which
Meadowside was named. Sturgeon Falls, named
for the cataract on the Big Sturgeon River, crossed
just west of the station, makes barrel and keg
staves and wood-pulp board — using many woods
of no other value. Founded in 1885, the town's
name was obvious to fishermen. Clues to early
denizens are given by Bear Creek, mileage 39
and Stag Creek at mileage 41.5. Markstay,
lumber and pulpwood centre, is named for an
English village. West of the station, the line
crosses the North Veuve River, and between
mileages 57.4 and 58.6 crosses the middle branch
five times. The river, bridged at mileage 67.3,
gives its name to Wanapitei, and Coniston, named
for the novel by the American author, Winston
Churchill, with a population of 2,425, has a matte
smelter, four blast-type furnaces, a concentrator
and a sintering plant.
DEUX RIVIERES Automatic Block Signals
While the red, yellow and green lights that you see
from the "Scenic Dome" are welcome because they
add colour to the journey by day or night, they
have more serious business to do. These are the
lights of the Automatic Block Signal System — an
intricate series of electrical sections called "blocks",
into which the transcontinental main line is divided.
Entrance of the train into each block is governed
by the colour light signal which tells the engineman
whether he may enter the block or if he must stop.
More complicated than highway traffic signals,
but governed by easily interpreted rules, block
signals sometimes require two or more colour
lights to convey their full meaning.
Under certain rules, for instance, a stop signal
may command an absolute stop, requiring the
train to stop and stay there. In some cases, it may
be a "permissive" stop which allows the train to
proceed in accordance with the rules after coming
to a stop.
Red, yellow and green lights are used in modern
signal practice; some lights flash on and off intermittently. In certain locations, semaphore signals
are used and the position of the blade in daytime
has the same meaning as the colour light signal.
S.S. "Assiniboia" and "Keewatin", Canadian Pacific passenger
liners in the Great Lakes Service, provide a steamer interlude
in the transcontinental journey between Port McNicoll and
Fort William. Picture shows arrival at Port McNicolPs flower-
gardened pier and station.
Mac Tier Earliest recorded visitors to the area
Sub-Division between Toronto and Sudbury were
Champlain and Brule in 1615. Much of their route
paralleled the sides of a triangle, Toronto-North
Bay-Montreal. West Toronto, once known as
Toronto Junction, is the junction for Windsor, Owen
Sound, Wingham and Chicago. As with other large
cities, Toronto's suburbs radiate for considerable
distances. Weston, population, 8,677, has foundries, woodworking, aircraft, agricultural machinery, bicycle and camera factories. As the suburbs
fringe into farmlands the rolling country gives
promise of the agricultural bounty for which this
countryside is noted. South of the line across the
low hills near mileage 10, Toronto's famous
Hospital for Sick Children has a fine building.
Woodbridge on the Humber River, has textile
factories and a famous Fall Fair. Originally called
Burwick, for Rowland Burr, who settled there in
1837, it owes today's name to a bridge built by
a man named Wood. Kleinberg was named for
Miller Klein, who built the second mill on the Humber
River and Sam Bolton, early settler, left his name
to his village. Tottenham bears the name of
Tottenham, England, Beeton that of an old-established family. Neat rows of trim sheds lining the
fields in this part of the country indicate a major
crop, tobacco. Alliston, population 2,186, is famous
for its native son, Sir Frederick Banting, co-discoverer of insulin. Ypres, named for a famous
Canadian battle of World War I, is the junction for
Camp Borden, largest military establishment in
Canada. Its 50 square miles includes training centres
or detachments of almost every armed service of
army and air force. At mileage 62.5, south of the
track a lake enlivens the scenery, mileage 65.5
has an interesting log structure still in use. An
Ontario Provincial Forestry Station keys the extensive reforestation evident in this sandy country,
at mileage 66. Midhurst, named for an English
counterpart, and a high bridge at mileage 68
from which a fine view can be enjoyed, a sawmill
— prophetic of the changing character of the
countryside — at mileage 77, dot the extensive
reforestation area. Tied by its present transportation importance to the early history of
Huronia, Medonte is the junction for Port McNicoll,
terminus of Canadian Pacific Great Lakes Steamships that ply between that port, Sault Ste. Marie
and Fort William, historic highway to Western
Canada, and the central and southern states.
Father Brebeuf, travelling via the Ottawa, Mattawa and French Rivers in 1626, explored this
area, to return later with Lalement, Jogues and
Daniel. Near Port McNicoll, The Martyrs' Shrine
commemorates the four, two of whom were tortured and killed at St. Louis, not far from Medonte.
At Lovering outcroppings of the hard rock
Canadian Shield are noticeable, as are meadows
to the south. Severn Falls takes its name from
the Severn River which is crossed here. At mileage
111.5 a long finger-lake points North and a
mile and a half west a "pot lake" attracts the
eye. Bala, marked by the Miskosh and Moon
Rivers, by Bala Falls south of the line and Lake
Muskoka to the north, is the gateway to the Muskoka Lakes, a favourite summer holiday area. At
MacTier the Ontario and Algoma Districts of the
Canadian Pacific meet. Parry Sound The transition from farm land
Sub-Division through wooded holiday lakes to
the Ontario Forest takes place between MacTier
and Romford, western end of the Parry Sound
Sub-Division, in a way marked by the changing
scenery that unrolls on all sides for the sightseer in
his comfortable seat in a Canadian Pacific "Scenic
Dome". Game, less evident in cleared land except
for occasional red-fox and ground hog, includes
deer, beaver, porcupine, skunk, mink and muskrat.
Toward the western limit the Canadian Shield
takes over with rocks, pot lakes and coniferous
trees in place of the more open country between
Muskoka and Lake Ontario. Lake Stewart, at
mileage 1.2 and Lake Joseph, mileage 3.5, two
of the Muskoka Lakes, lie north of the track. Rosseau Road perpetuates the old stage route to
Rosseau Village. In defiance of the major land
characteristics, a farm, sited on a lake north of the
line enlivens the scene at mileage 15. Lakes both
sides of the track mark mileage 16.5 and a half
mile west the line crosses Otter Lake narrows. The
Boyne and Seguin Rivers cross on their way to
Georgian Bay at mileages 20 and 22.6. Parry
Sound, population 5,000, deals in forest products,
dressed lumber, wood products and boat building,
is a gateway to Georgian Bay and noted fishing
and hunting centre. The high railway bridge across
the Seguin River gives an excellent view of Seguin
Falls on the north and the town lying picturesquely
in the valley. At mileage 26 a good view of
Georgian Bay rewards a southward look and at
27.5 Portage Lake connects with the Seguin
River and Mill Lake. Georgian Bay is in sight again
at mileage 28, and from the same window, mileage
29, the model town which houses employees of the
explosives plant at Nobel, named for the Swedish
inventor and philanthropist who established the
Nobel Peace Prizes. Another industry at Nobel is
a test plant for aircraft engines. Many lakes of
varying sizes line the track on both sides and alert
watchers may hope to sight deer and other small
game. At mileage 40 the buildings of Shawanaga
Indian Reserve attest Canada's interest in aboriginal tribes, and four and a half miles west the line
crosses the Shawanaga River, to be paralleled to
the south by a chain of lakes between mileages 45
and 46. Pointe au Baril, originally identified by a
barrel on a pole, at the apex of a narrow inlet
of Georgian Bay, is a popular summer resort south
of the line well seen from the high bridge at mileage 49. Sharp eyes may spot beavers at work in a
typical pond north of the line at mileage 51. At
mileage 55 the Naiscootyong River is crossed. The
tourist resort to the south is not far from the
"Naiscoot", or Burnt Point, which commemorates a
legendary fire that destroyed Indian hunting
grounds. Byng Inlet, named for a former Governor-
General of Canada, Lord Byng of Vimy, marks the
mouth of the Magnetawan River, crossed by a
bridge nearly 300 yards long. Britt, with a population of 1,200, is a lake port, unloading large
cargoes  of  coal   from   United   States  lake   ports
Bala Falls
destined to Northern Ontario. At mileage 67.5 a
steel arch and concrete bridge carries a highway
over the railway and the Still River. Trim white
buildings, a flagpole and radio antenna south of
the line at mile 68 house the Still River Detachment
of Ontario's alert Provincial Police. Little Key River
is crossed at mileage 72.6 and lakes become more
frequent both sides of the track and to the north
at mileage 80.5 the Pickerel River flows parallel
for half a mile, when it swings south beneath the
tracks on its hurried way to Georgian Bay. Near
mileage 83, the French River, famous in Canadian
history, makes its way west through rocky banks.
North of the line at mileage 83.4, perched high on
the rocks, is a popular tourist resort catering to
golfers, fishermen and boating enthusiasts. Between
mileages 95 and 98 beaver lodges are visible in
lakes both sides of the line and deer and occasional elk are seen from time to time. The line
crosses Kakakiwaganda Lake at about mileage
103. Pot lakes — with no apparent source or
outlets — characterize this rocky country and
there are many in the Sudbury Game Preserve
between mileage boards 104 and 110. The Wana-
pitei River is crossed at 112.9. A lone farm stands
out sharply against the surrounding bush at mileage 116 and at mileage 117.5, north of the track,
the Coniston refinery shows up. Another sight of
the big plant marks mileage 120.5, and all around
the geological formation of striated rock, tilted by
some ancient upheaval, shows the difficulties that
beset the engineers who blasted out the railway.
At Romford the Parry Sound and Cartier Sub-
Divisions merge and Canadian Pacific transcontinental trains from Toronto and Montreal follow the
same route across Canada.
Cartier South   of  the   line   Ramsey   Lake,
Sub-Division handy terminus for bush airplanes,
stretches from Romford to Sudbury, headquarters
of the Sudbury Division and junction for the Nickel
and Webbwood Sub-Divisions. Incorporated as a
city in 1930, Sudbury was established in 1883 when
the Canadian Pacific Railway was built and copper
ore, economic basis of the city's early prosperity,
was uncovered. Today, in addition to nickel and
copper mining, smelting and refining, this city of
60,239 population deals in rough and dressed
lumber, concrete, glass and paint, brick and cement
blocks, steel fabrication, concentrators, mining
equipment, tile, building products, ties and smaller
industries. At mileage 81.5 workings of nickel and
copper mines show to the north, and southward,
huge stacks indicate a smelter. Azilda, first station
to the west, commemorates Mrs. Azilda Beaudouin,
first white woman settler. South of the track, near
mileage 89, is Whitewater Lake. The Whitson
River is crossed near Chelmsford, named for a
town in the county of Essex, England. Larchwood
was named by a lumber developer for the
preponderance of this timber in the district. The
river crossed at mileage 9.7 is the Vermilion. A very
popular name in areas where Indians searched for
red earths for war paints, it occurs all across the
map of Canada. Levack, population 2,000, serves
nickel mines in its locality and is the junction with
the mine railroad. At mileage 104.5 the lake to the
south, generally rough due to prevailing winds,
gives its name to Windy Lake station. Cartier,
junction of the Cartier and Nemegos Sub-Divisions,
serves three lumber camps in addition to its railway duties.
Nemegos North of the line, at mileage 1, is
Sub-Division Hess Lake. On the same side at
Geneva station is the lake of the same name. To
generalize a little, the Canadian Pacific main line
between Cartier and Kenora, penetrates the
"Great Lakes Forest Region" and there are many
evidences of lumbering to be seen. Such woods as
white, red and jack pine; tamarack, hemlock,
balsam »fir, white spruce; sugar, red and silver
maple; red, bur and white oak; yellow birch; white
elm; white and black ash; white elm and hazel are
seen. At mileage 17.5, south of the track, the Spanish
River, scene of many a log run, parallels the train.
Pogamasing station serves woods operations along
the river which is crossed by the train at mileage
25. To the south, Pogamasing Lake is in sight
between mileages 26 and 28 and at the latter
point the Spanish River runs along north of the
track to mileage 30. Metagama, meaning "river
flows out of the lake", is a famous starting point
for hunters and fishermen. An arm of Biscotasing
Lake is crossed at mileage 52.5 and the lake itself
at mileage 54. Biscotasing, another Indian word,
means "body of water with long arms" — another
example of the picturesque tongue that named so
much of Canada! Here are tourist camps and a
district headquarters and woods flying base of
the Ontario Forestry Service. At mileage 78 the
water to the south is Cavell Lake. The line crosses
Turnbull River at mileage 80, Turnbull Lake lies
south. Woman River station is named for the fast
water flowing from the north. The Wakamagasing
River is crossed at mileage 95. The saw and
planing mill at Sultan handles lumber, ties, pit props
and pulpwood. There are so many rivers and
streams in this game-filled area that only a few
have names. The river crossed twice at mileage
99 is The Ridout, which parallels the north side of
the track past Ridout station. At mileage 105.5
the line crosses the Kinogama and the Apiskana-
gama at 107.5. The Kinogama is crossed again at
mileage 111.7 and an arm of Nemegos Lake at
120. At Nemegos, which means "flowing water",
the Nemegosanda River is crossed. North of here
claims have been staked for iron, phosphate and
titanium. The Nebskwashi River marks mileage 135.
Chapleau, junction of the Nemegos and White
River Sub-Divisions, population 3,936, is an educational and banking centre and district headquarters
of the Ontario departments of Lands and Forests,
and Game and Fisheries. On the station lawn a
monument commemorates Louis Hemon, author of
the Canadian classic "Maria Chapdelaine", who
died there. The Kebsquasheshing River flows through
White River Lakes, on both sides of the track
Sub-Division at mileage 3, continue to offer
glimpses of wild-life to the alert watcher. Herring
and ring-billed gulls are common and sharp eyes
will identify robins, cardinals, catbirds, bobolinks,
red-winged blackbirds. Nostalgically named Windermere Lake is a Forestry headquarters. The track
follows the southern boundary of the Chapleau
Game Preserve. Near mileage 32 the line crosses
Goldie Lake. At mileage 44 Lake Ogawisi lies
north, mileage 46 marks Carry Lake (south) and a
creek that serves Pickle Lake north of the track.
Dog Lake is crossed at mileage 57. Missanabie,
Indian for "big water", was a station on the old
fur route by water from James Bay to Lake Superior.
Two rivers, the Lochalsh and Lochlomond, crossed at
mileages 61.6 and 64.2 and Lochalsh station
testify to Scottish settlers. Wabatongushi Lake lies
north of Lochalsh. At mileage 79, Hobon Lake to the
south heralds Franz, junction with the Algoma
Central and Hudson Bay Railway. An arm of Esnagi
Lake is crossed at mileage 87 and a power dam
is visible south of the track. The Magpie River is
crossed at mileage 88.2. Amyot, a tourist centre,
shows Negwazu Lake to the south. The lake parallels
the line to mileage 115. The White River is crossed at
mileage 117.6, the Pickerel at 122.6 and the
White River again at 129.2. Still in the coniferous
belt, with jack pine as the most important source of
pulpwood, White River, junction of the White
River and Heron Bay Sub-Divisions, is a meteorological reporting station which frequently registers
very low temperatures.
Heron Bay The White River is in sight (south)
Sub-Division at mileage 6 and is crossed at mileage 12.2. At 15.3 the line crosses the Bremner
River and an arm of White Lake (north) at mileage
19. Regan is the supply point for local woods
operations. Pulpwood cut in this area is driven
down the White River to Lake Superior for rafting
to Sault Ste. Marie. At Mobert, a  contraction of Montizambert, the Hudson's Bay Company post,
established before the Canadian Pacific was built,
still operates. There is an Ojibway Indian settlement
here. Tumbling rapids and fast white water to test
paddlers' skill to the utmost abounds in this country.
At mileage 24.7 the White River is crossed and
within one mile at mileages 32.9 and 33.9 the
Cedar River is bridged twice. Cedar Lake (north)
continues to mileage 36, Cedar Creek is crossed at
35.5 and Cache Creek, feeding Cache Lake
(south) at 39; at mileage 40.5 the lake itself is
spanned. Hemlo annually floats 150,000 cords
down the Little Black River, which, after barking,
is handled by flume, visible from the Scenic Dome,
to Heron Bay harbour. Little Black River is crossed at
mileage 50.4 and Big Pic River at 54.4. Heron
Bay was named for the Jesuit missionary, Pere
Heron. Lake Superior (south) is visible at mileage
56.4. Formerly known as "Peninsula", Marathon,
population 3,000, takes its name from paper
mills that produce 325 tons of sulphate per day.
Wood for the mill is driven down the Pic River to
Lake Superior and towed to Peninsula Harbour
where large rafts are frequently seen. Now the
main line follows the deeply indented, rock-bound
north shore of Lake Superior, with starkly picturesque rocky country to the north and the limitless
expanse of the great inland sea southward. Cold-
well, a commercial fishing village, and Neys,
highway construction headquarters, the Little Pic
River (mileage 81), Prairie River, mileage 90, and
Steel River, spanned at 94.8, and Jack Fish catch the
eye. By day or night the horseshoe curve around
Jack Fish Bay is an attention-holding sight. Watch
here in breeding season for little flotillas of wild
duck. At mileage 102.7 a monument marks the
joining of east and west construction in the district
in 1885. Terrace, once known as "Black", population 1,597, has a 325-ton paper mill operated by
power from the Ontario Hydro-Electric Power
Commission plant on the Aguasabon River, which is
crossed at mileage 110.5. The power development (112.8) generates 53,000 h.p., a 3,500-foot
tunnel leading the water from Hayes Lake under
the track to the power house at the lake side.
Schreiber, junction of the Heron Bay and Nipigon
Sub-Divisions, has a population of 1,840.
Nipigon Between Schreiber and  Fort Wil-
Sub-Division liam the Canadian Pacific main
transcontinental line follows the contour of Lake
Superior's rocky north shore, leaving the coast from
time to time by short cuts across promontories.
Rossport station is a shipping point for Lake
Superior trout. The Pays Plat River is spanned at
mileage 22.4. Pays Plat Bay, Crow Point, Gravel
Bay, Rainboth Point, Mountain Bay and Grant
Point face south to Isle St. Ignace — all sailors'
landmarks in Nipigon Bay. At mileage 33.2 the
track bridges Big Gravel River, the Jack Pine
River at mileage 45.4, Kama Bay at 50 and the
Jackfish River at 53.5. Mileage 62.4 marks the
Nipigon River and the name, meaning "clear,
fast water", is given to the town of 2,166 population. Ground wood pulp, fishing camps, summer
resorts and a hydro-electric development on the
southern tip of Helen  Lake (north)  are the local
Busy Marathon
industries. Near mileage 65 an arm of Nipigon
Bay is crossed. Red Rock, population 1,868, named
for the local rock formation, centres round a wood-
pulp board, container board and paper industry
with a daily tonnage capacity of more than 800.
Black Sturgeon River, bridged at mileage 73.9,
is said to have been well named. The line crosses a
15-mile wide peninsula between Red Rock and
Hurkett —- a centre for commercial fishing and
woods operations. Both feeding Lake Superior, the
Wolf (83) and Coldwater Rivers (84) intersect
the line. Dorion, a commercial fishing port that
once boasted lead and zinc mines, is mineral-
minded again with diamond drills working on the
old properties. Ouimet bears the name of Hon.
Gideon Ouimet, minister in Sir John A. Macdonald's
cabinet and Pearl, that of the rrver bridged at
mileage 96.3. North of the line, at mileage 101,
Loon Lake names the station for Sibley Provincial
Park. The latter, a wild life sanctuary, extends
southwestward for 24 miles to end in the craggy
promontory known to travellers by Canadian
Pacific Great Lakes Steamships as "The Sleeping
Giant" — one of the guardians of Thunder Bay.
The bay is sighted at mileage 123, a magnificent
natural harbour guarded by Thunder Cape and
Pie Island. Here the twin cities of Port Arthur and
Fort William, combined population 66,000, known
as "The Lakehead" ports, handle upwards of
2,500 ships with a tonnage, in the open season,
of around 7,000,000 every year. Grain elevators
line the miles of waterfront, the passenger liners
"Assiniboia" and "Keewatin" sail twice weekly for
Sault Ste. Marie and Port McNicoll. Other manufacturing, grossing upwards of $75,000,000
annually, adds to the prosperity of the great ports.
Fort William, at the mouth of the Kaministiquia
River, is the junction of the Nipigon and Kaministiquia Sub-Divisions of the Canadian Pacific. Time
changes here at the meeting of the central and
eastern standard time zones. Westward travellers
retard watches by one hour.
Kaministiquia The first post at the mouth of the
Sub-Division Kaministiquia River was built by
French settlers in 1678, but the city owes its name to
the fort constructed by William McGillivray of The
North West Company in 1801-3. Surrounded by
15-foot palisades, the fort buildings included a
metal-roofed powder magazine and the famous
Great Hall which was parchment-windowed, hung
with paintings — including King George III, Lord
Nelson and the Battle of the Nile. David Thompson's map, now in the Ontario archives in Toronto,
held one place of honour, a bust of Simon McTavish,
head of the company, the other. From the great
fort explorers and traders, by canoe and portage,
pioneered the route now approximated by the
Canadian Pacific main line. They saw, but not as
well as modern travellers from their "Scenic
Domes", Mount McKay (south), paddled the Kaministiquia River, which is bridged near West Fort
William, the Keebing River (mileage 7.6). Their
names included La Verendrye, Lord Selkirk,
Alexander Henry, Cqdotte, Colonel Wolseley, and
rugged though the territory may seem to railway
travellers, to them, threading their way from lake
to lake it was really gruelling travel. After
Murillo, named for the famous Spanish artist, at
mileage 18, the Kaministiquia is seen south of the
track, five miles west the tributary Strawberry
Creek is bridged. Vegetation here, as across the
Great Lakes, includes sumach, hawthorn, raspberry,
blackberry, honeysuckle and thimbleberry bushes
in addition to conifers. Kaministiquia, named from
the graphic Indian word for "twisting water",
serves a farming and mink-ranching district. The line
here crosses the Matawan River and again at
mileage 25.5. At mileage 32 Sunshine Creek is
crossed half a mile east of Finmark. Buda commemorates Budapest. Near mileage 48.5 several
tributaries of the Oskondaga River pass under the
line and southward, at mileage 51.5, lies McGhie
Lake. The Savanne River, visible (south) at mileage
58, and the station (71.3) where the north branch
of the same river is crossed, get their name from
the Indian, Savannah — a level tract of land.
An odd name, remember your French lessons?—Lac
des Milles Lacs — titles the water the line crosses at
mileage 71, actually the northeast arm of the
"Lake of a Thousand Lakes". The hardy voyageurs
who made the early trips through this beautiful,
but rugged, land of forests, lakes and streams,
would have had it easier had fire-watchers' towers
— like that north of the track at mileage 85,
been in existence. Fishermen will look hungrily at
the long lake south of the line at mileage 86.5,
and at the Firesteel River, spanned at 88.5. Nib-
lock station commemorates a former railway
superintendent. At mileage 100 amateur naturalists will scan the banks of Beaver River, and ornithologists the skies above Hawk Lake (108) south
of the track. English River, station and river are
close together, and Scotch River (mileage 112) tell
the nationalities of their namers, as does the
Megikons, the east branch of which is crossed at
mileage 126. Raven Lake borders the track to
the south at mileage 128. Mileage 138 marks the
crossing of the swift Gulliver River. Ignace, with
Azimik Lake to the south, marks the boundaries of
the  Kaministiquia  and   Ignace  Sub-Divisions.
Ignace The   fact   that   today's   short-cut
Sub-Division across Canada by Canadian Pacific follows in the main the routes of early explorers
is emphasized again by the naming of Ignace.
In the absence of factual data, but in the light of
the frequent recurrence of the French spelling of
the name of the Patron Saint of the Jesuit Order,
it is a safe assumption that Ignace was named by
an adventurous priest accompanying, as so many
did, an early trail blazer. Osaquan takes its name
from the river crossed at mileage 6. Raleigh,
named for the famous Sir Walter, is noted amongst
fishermen for its trout and pickerel. Tourist camps
are established on Raleigh Lake south of the track.
Tache bears the name of a former Bishop of St.
Boniface, Manitoba. The Wabigoon River, bridged
at mileage 27.7, is named from the Indian "white
flower", possibly trillium or water-lily — both
abound. Dyment, shipping point for farms, lumber
camps and a gold-mining area, might add to the
wild life already listed possible sights of meadow-
larks and mourning doves. Dinorwic marks the
junction of a former trail known as the North
Highway and the Trans-Canada Highway. It was
a Hudson's Bay Post in the days of the fur trade. To
the south Dinorwic Lake, which connects with
Wabigoon Lake, attracts many anglers and at
mileage 50 the line crosses a wide inlet of Lake
Wabigoon. At mileage 53 the line passes between
Thunder Lake to the north and Wabigoon Lake.
The Wabigoon River is crossed again at Dryden,
a town of 3,000, named for the late Hon. John
Dryden, Minister of Agriculture. Oxdrift, a shipping
point for high-grade clover seed, owes its unusual
name to the fact that a herdsman reported to
railway construction engineers that oxen missing
from his tally had "drifted away". The water
crossed at mileage 75 bears the somewhat
delicate name of Aubrey Creek but Minnitaki on
the nearby station board, has a less delicate
connotation, being the Indian invitation to "take a
drink". Beaver Creek, one of the many of this
name crossed by the Canadian Pacific transcontinental line between eastern and western tidewaters, is crossed at mileage 77.4 and Eagle River,
another name to be seen frequently, is a hunting
and fishing centre whose river feeds Eagle Lake
south of the track, the northern tip of which is
seen again at mileage 88. Vermilion Bay, again
with a connotation of war paint, today is a lumber
and pulpwood centre with tourist and fishing camps
on the lakes and rivers seen both sides of the line.
The great Thomas A. Edison was honoured by the
namers of the next station. Scovil takes its name
from the lake visible to the south and at mileage
139 the line crosses the southern tip of Island Lake.
Originally named Rat Portage because of the
muskrat crossing seen by La Verendrye after the
establishment of his fort on the west shore of the
Lake of the Woods, Kenora played an important
part in the early history of North American exploration being on the route of the La Verendrye
expeditions to the headwaters of the Missouri River.
10 In 1899, the nearby village of Norman was united
with Rat Portage and the new name taken from
KE for Keewatin, NO for Norman and RA for Rat
Portage was established. Today, with a population of 9,103, this newsprint, brewing, commercial
fishing centre on the northern tip of the Lake of the
Woods, is the tourist entrance to a great holiday
land famous for its thousands of wooded islands
ideal for boating, swimming and fishing. Here the
Canadian Pacific established Devil's Gap Lodge,
a very popular holiday and fishing resort well
known across the North American continent. A
Canadian Pacific divisional headquarters, Kenora
marks the junction of the Ignace and Keewatin
Keewatin Keewatin, Ojibway Indian word for
Sub-Division "home of the north-east wind",
population 1,634, mills 12,000 barrels of flour a
day and processes lumber. It is the starting point
for tourist expeditions to the Sturgeon River and
Black Sturgeon Lakes area. This seems to be a
country of manufactured names, Laclu is a French
contraction of nearby Lake Lulu. Busteed is named
for a former Canadian Pacific General Superintendent. Deception Lake is crossed at mileage 15
and north of the track, at mileage 19, there is a
lake to tempt anglers. Proximity of this countryside
to the metropolitan centre of Winnipeg is indicated
westward by the number of summer camps seen
both sides of the track, the lakes north and south
of Ingolf, farthest west settlement in Ontario, being
typical. At mileage 33.4 the provincial boundary
between Ontario and Manitoba is crossed and a
bridge at mileage 35.5 crosses Caddy Lake,
Manitoba. In this area, the central coniferous
region merges into prairie country, the transition
being marked by a marshy fringe from the neighbourhood of mileage 50 to approximately mileage
90. Darwin commemorates Charles Darwin, famous
scientist and author of "The Origin of Species", the
Bog River is'crossed at mileage 69 and the Whitemouth River is crossed at mileage 71.3. Whitemouth,
a prosperous business centre serves a district population of 3,000. The naming of Shelley attests to the
literary tastes of the surveyor who presumably
selected his favourite poet, Percy Bysshe Shelley,
for commemoration. Whether Julius was named for
the Roman Emperor is not known. At Molson the Lac
Dubonnet Sub-Division which links Great Falls to the
north with Winnipeg, via Tyndall, noted for its
quarries, crosses the main line at Molson. Lydiatt is
the western boundary of the belt of marshland
separating the prairies from the central coniferous
region and prairie land characterizes the country
between here and Winnipeg, known to La Verendrye in 1738 when he established Fort Rouge. The
real settlement of the Winnipeg of today, with a
population of 354,069 in its metropolitan area,
began with the building of Fort Gibraltar by men of
the North-West Company in 1806. Further development came five years later when the Earl of Selkirk
bought control of the Hudson's Bay Company in
order to obtain a grant of 100,000 square miles of
Red River lands for colonization. Wiped out three
years later by North-West traders, the colony
soon regained its feet and Winnipeg has developed
ever since. Financial and commercial headquarters
for Western Canada, Winnipeg's industries include
slaughtering, meat packing, flour and feed,
printing, publishing, general manufacturing, clothing, brewing, baking and transportation, it being
the focus of rail travel to the major points of the
compass. Fort Garry, a stone building established
by the Hudson's Bay Company, is maintained
today, and a relic of early Canadian Pacific days,
the earliest locomotive, "The Countess of Dufferin",
may be visited while the transcontinental train is in
the station. Here is the Canadian Pacific Royal
Alexandra Hotel, the magnificent Manitoba Parliament Buildings and, of course, the confluence of
the Red and Assiniboine Rivers that made the site
so attractive for settlement. Winnipeg, capital of
Manitoba, is the boundary of the Keewatin and
Carberry Sub-Divisions.
Carberry West   of   Winnipeg   the   Second
Sub-Division Prairie Plain, travelled by La Verendrye and his sons, 1736 to 1743, first white men in
the Red River country, is a granary of magnificent
proportions. Its settlement and development were
directly traceable to the building of the Canadian
Pacific Railway in the 1880's and the interrelation
of grain and transportation are nowhere more
clearly demonstrated than in the great marshalling
yards through which transcontinental trains all pass
west of Winnipeg station. To many the first sight
of the prairies comes as a shock — thanks to
graphic descriptions of "flat, treeless plains"
common to early geographies and school books.
The "grasslands" so adversely reported on by
early surveyors have today become a pattern of
wheat-lands divided into farms ranging from 320
to 480 acres in extent, mostly provided with trees
for wind-breaks around buildings, water holes and
in strategic places to guard against soil erosion.
From the elevation of the air-conditioned all-around
windowed "Scenic Dome" the widened field of
vision shows the gently rolling character of the
landscape not easily seen from ground level. Lord
Selkirk, who measured land in his treaty with the
Indians by "as far as a horse can be seen across
the prairie" could have widened his boundaries if
the chiefs had had today's point of vantage.
Busy Stevenson Field Airport (mileage 5.7), north
of the. line, is an international field. Canadian
Pacific Airlines serve Churchill on Hudson Bay
from here. South of the line, the Assiniboine River
which bore the canoes of the traders and, later, the
York boats of Hudson's Bay Company factors,
parallels the railway. Ox-waggon trails across the
trackless prairies in the early 19th Century may
actually have traced our path — at least as far as
Portage la Prairie before slanting north and west
towards the fur country. Portage la Prairie, population 8,500, junction with the Minnedosa Sub-
Division, a marketing, manufacturing and dairy
centre, owed its first settlement to Pierre Gaultier
de Varennes, Sieur de la Verendrye, Canadian-
born explorer who, with his sons Jean, Pierre, Louis
and Francois, established Fort la Reine there in
1731. Paddling from Montreal by way of the
Ottawa, Lake Huron, Lake Superior, Pigeon River
(west of Fort William), the Lake of the Woods, the
Red and Assiniboine rivers, they discovered that
only 15 miles separated the new fort from Lake
Manitoba and established the portage which
opened a route via Lake Winnipeg and the
Hayes or Nelson Rivers to Hudson Bay. After
their father's death, Pierre and Louis became the
first white men to see the Rocky Mountains, probably
somewhere in Wyoming. Pierre, North Dakota,
named for the explorer, was the spot selected by
him for the burial of a memento, which was unearthed in 1913. MacGregor, junction with the
Varcoe Sub-Division, was named for a doctor.
Douglas owes its sometimes martial air to the proximity of Shilo Military Camp. At mileage 131.3, the
Assiniboine River is crossed on the outskirts of Brandon, population 21,214, junction of the Carberry and
Broadview Sub-Divisions. This mid-prairie city houses
an Experimental Farm, Mental Hospital, Indian
School, Provincial Exhibition and Brandon College.
Broadview Where the Assiniboine and Cree
Sub-Division tribes roamed and hunted before
the white man came, the Second Prairie Plain maintains its modern farming character. Alexander,
characterized as are most prairie stations, by local
grain elevators, chose the second name of Sir
John A. Macdonald, Prime Minister at Confederation, for its own; Griswold marks an Indian Reservation; and Oak Lake, proud of the tourist resort to
the southwest, commemorates its watering place.
The bridge at mileage 46.1 crosses Gopher Creek
which was the name originally given to Virden
(pop. 1,760), junction for Neudorf Sub-Division.
Elkhorn's name commemorates a find of top
specimen elk horns made by surveyors of the line.
Kirkella is the junction with McAuley Sub-Division.
Mileage 74.7 marks the boundary between the
provinces of Manitoba and Saskatchewan. Fleming, Saskatchewan, commemorates Sir Sandford
Fleming, former engineer in chief of the Canadian
Pacific Railway, noted surveyor who mapped two
passes through the Canadian Rockies, and originator of the idea of Standard Time. Moosomin gets
its name from an early Indian chief. Red Jacket is
thought to commemorate the North West Mounted
Police, and Wapella is an Indian word for "white
snow". Broadview, junction of the Broadview and
Indian Head Sub-Divisions, is also the boundary of
the Central and Mountain Standard Time Zones.
Here westward travellers retard their watches by
one hour.
Indian Head Oakshela, from the Indian word for
Sub-Division "child", has an altitude of 1,959
feet. Sharp eyes may pick out gophers, coyotes,
jack rabbits, western meadow larks, Brewer's blackbirds and hawks throughout the prairie region. This
country forms part of "Palliser's Triangle", an area
surveyed by Captain John Palliser for the Colonial
Office of Great Britain, 1857-60. His expeditions
took him from Lake Superior to beyond the Canadian Rockies. Actually, the triangle was a five-
sided, irregular area, the southern part, which the
Canadian Pacific traverses, being classified as
"arid". Look at it today! Thanks to later reports,
which stressed the summer rainfall, cereal experiments were made and the prairies came into their
Moose Jaw Aquatic Club
own as a great wheatland. Plant breeders, under
the direction of the Department of Agriculture, developed rust-resistant, quick-ripening "hard" wheat,
today grown on 25,000,000 acres. Indian Head,
population 1,500, in addition to bricks and milling
products, has a forest nursery station, experimental
farm and entomological laboratory. History does
not seem to record who was calling when Qu'Appelle was named. The naming of Pilot Butte, if
you note the lone hill north of the track, becomes
obvious. Tree-shaded Regina, population 74,000,
originally enjoyed the name of "Pile of Bones",
a translation of "Wascana" which still applies to
attractive Wascana Lake within the city limits.
Capital of Saskatchewan and seat of the Provincial
Legislature which, like the Canadian Pacific Hotel
Saskatchewan, stands high above the town as a
landmark for miles across the prairie, Regina is
the training headquarters of the Royal Canadian
Mounted Police and the original headquarters
of the force which was first known as the North
West Mounted Police. Pasqua, where the Soo Line
connection links Minneapolis, St. Paul and Chicago
with the Canadian Pacific main line, is the Indian
word for Prairie. Moose Jaw, population 26,000,
junction of the Canadian Pacific Indian Head
and Swift Current Sub-Divisions, is Saskatchewan's
third largest city. At the confluence of Moose Jaw
River and Thunder Creek, Moose Jaw flouts the
prairie tradition with an active aquatic club seen
from the train just south of the track. The city busies
itself with elevators and milling, cold storage,
meat products, oil refining, insulation, dairy products, machinery, furs and hides, sash and doors,
bags, blankets, seeds, rubber products and a
number of smaller industries. The location was first
chosen by Captain Palliser in September, 1857,
the first settlers arriving in the spring of 1882 a
few months before the Canadian Pacific line was
built. The city's water supply is brought by a 70-
mile canal from the South Saskatchewan River.
Moose Jaw's 16 parks total 256 acres.
12 Swiff Current Boharm, named for Lord Strath-
Sub-Division cona's home in Scotland, at an altitude of 1,802 feet above sea level, gives evidence
that the prairies, sloping generally from east to
west, are yet far from flat, since McLean to the
east has an altitude of 2,294 feet which, compared
with Broadview, 1,967 feet, shows a considerable
hump between the two points. Westward, the line
maintains a steady climb towards the foothills.
Caron, another grain shipping point, was named
for Sir Adolphe C. Caron, former Canadian
Minister of Militia. A combination of French "mort"
and Indian "lach" resulted in the word Mortlach,
the name of a local slough "Death Lake". The
sloughs of Saskatchewan are of immense interest
to wild life conservationists and hunters, as they
serve as feeding and breeding places for green-
neck mallard, black duck, pintail, canvas back,
Widgeon, teal. Also seen in this part of the country
are the California gull and Franklin's gull, prairie
chicken, sharp-tailed grouse, Hungarian partridge,
snipe, ptarmigan. At mileage 99, Swift Current
Creek, north, parallels the line to mileage 110.
Aikins was named for Sir James Aikins, former
Lieutenant Governor of Manitoba. Saskatchewan's
252,700 square miles extending northward to the
sixtieth parallel of latitude enclose many different
types of country. From the central part of the
province northward, a land of lakes and forests
forms ideal holiday country. In the Saskatchewan
River Delta muskrat is especially plentiful. There,
other fur-bearing animals are mink, weasel,
squirrel and beaver. The northern area is a range
for barren land caribou, deer, elk, moose and
antelope — all carefully protected by closed
seasons and hunting regulations. Ducks breed in
the northern country, too. Lumbering is carried on
in the Porcupine and Pasquia Hills regions and the
Torch River area. The Alkali Lakes seen from time
to time through southern Saskatchewan yield
sodium sulphate for paper mills in Ontario and
Quebec and the copper-nickel refineries at Sudbury, Ont. At mileage 110, a 1,000-foot bridge
spans Swift Current Creek, a tributary of the South
Saskatchewan   River.   Swift   Current,   population
577755755:. ■.. ■
Typical prairie scene
8,000, altitude 2,432 feet, junction of the Swift
Current and Maple Creek Sub-Divisions handles
grain, creamery products, tanning and castings.
The city's tree-lined streets and parks are in direct
contrast to the dry surrounding hills which lend
themselves for the study of soil and crop problems
of semi-arid areas, carried out at the Dominion
Agricultural  Experimental  Station.
Maple Creek Buffalo, once monarchs of the
Sub-Division prairie and major source of food
for the nomadic Indians who ranged this countryside, are now practically unknown, except in
Government-protected herds. They played an
important part in the construction of the Canadian
Pacific Railway whose construction gangs feasted
on the trophies of hard-riding, sharpshooting professional hunters attached to commissariat units.
Harvesters from eastern Canada once thronged
West on "Harvester Excursions" to help garner the
crops. Today, throughout the west, tractor-combines load threshed grain right from the stalk to
waiting trucks and "threshing-gangs" are unknown. North of the line, between Beverley and
Webb, Gander and Goose Lakes, a few miles
apart, attest the migration of the great Canada
geese every spring and fall. Antelope is named for
the river crossed at mileage 29 and a large lake
north of the track where this graceful game was
once plentiful. At Gull Lake the Gull and Antelope
Rivers are crossed and southward, mileages 39-40,
Whitegull Lake parallels the line. Two lakes are
seen north of Sidewood, another, at mileage 59,
lies south. Piapot, on the eastern slope of the long,
shallow bowl of which Medicine Hat is the low
point, commemorates an Indian Chief of the '80's.
The creek also named for him runs south of the
track for five miles. Watch for wild fowl around
an unnamed lake at mileage 75.5, and at Hay
Lake, northward from 80.4. Maple Creek, population 2,500, ships grain for the surrounding territory,
its name is from the water bridged at mileage 84.9.
Hatton is the junction with the Hatton Sub-Division,
and most westerly station in Saskatchewan, the
boundary with Alberta lying midway between it
and Walsh, Alta. Boxelder Creek is spanned near
mileage 111. Between mileage 115.7, Mackay
Creek, and Irvine, named for Col. Irvine of the
Royal North West Mounted Police, four more
creeks are bridged. Ross Creek flows south of
Irvine, where Cross Creek is spanned. Seven
Persons Creek, crossed at mileage 146.2, owes its
somewhat strange name to the killing, south of
here, of seven Blackfoot Indians by warring Assini-
boines. Medicine Hat, population 17,925, claims
natural gas, chinaware, clay products, porcelain,
brick and tile, concrete and flour milling amongst
its activities. Here the Maple Creek and Brooks
Sub-Divisions join and a line branches south for
the Canadian Pacific route through the southern
Rockies via the Crowsnest Pass and Coquihalla
Canyon. Originally called Saamis — Indian for
the tepee of a medicine man — Medicine Hat is
built on the southern terraces of the South Saskatchewan River at its junction with Ross and Seven
Persons Creeks. Industries, homes and a number of
large greenhouses are heated by natural gas.
Across Canada by Canadian Pacific
. .■■:■:■■':.   ■■■■■■■■■.■
Tranquil pastel shades, harmonious as your own home
decoration; soft, clear lighting; luxuriously comfortable
chairs—moveable for chummy groupings; wall-to-wall
carpeting sympathetic in pattern to the decorative scheme;
wide picture windows—these
characterize the Main Lounge
of the Canadian Pacific Scenic
Dome Lounge Sleeper.
Named for famous national
and provincial parks, the new
cars are disc-braked for
smooth starts, smooth running,
smooth stops. The Mural
Lounge, snugly ensconced below the upper level Scenic
Dome of Canadian Pacific's
smart, new Lounge Sleeper
Car, is original. Intimate as an
exclusive club, each Mural
Lounge of the 18 "Park" cars
on the transcontinental route
has an original mural of the
national or provincial park for
which the car is named, covering two walls, signed by a
member of the Royal Canadian Academy of Arts. Banquette seats, thoughtfully arranged, and an etched-glass
third wall enhance these
unique rooms. THE SCENIC DOME
Scenery along the world's
longest "Dome" ride, across
Canada from tidewater to
tidewater, is enjoyed most
from the upper level "Scenic
Dome". Vision all-around and
as high as the sky is provided
by glare-proof picture-windows. Twenty-four seats,
spaced for comfort and upholstered for ease, fitted with
individual ash trays and armrests are points of vantage in
air-conditioned spaciousness.
Deluxe Scenic Dome Coaches
are the ultimate in luxurious
economy for transcontinental
travellers who go the Canadian Pacific way. The "Skyline" coaches feature a Coffee
Shop for economical meals in
addition to the 24-seat upper-
level Scenic Dome and 26
reserved seats with adjustable full-length leg rests for
travel comfort by day or
night. Wide, picture windows,
decorator design and wall-to-
wall carpets add to their
economical luxury.
The World's Longest Dome Ride
Brooks In the 175.8 miles between Medi-
Sub-Division cine Hat and Calgary the track
rises 1,257 feet, a forerunner of the climax of
the long western slopes beyond the foothill city.
The 1,000-foot wide Saskatchewan is crossed at
0.3. Redcliff, population 1,700, making glass,
brick and chinaware, takes its name from the
nearby river bank. Mileage 19.5 bridges one of
the many irrigation canals that supply this thirsty
area. The Suffield Sub-Division branches at Suffield, site of a Defence Research Board field
experimental station. Alderson bears the name of
a Canadian general, Commander of Canadian
troops in 1915-16. Sir Leonard Tilley, early statesman, lends his name to a grain shipping point
where 25,000 acres are irrigated, at mileage
53.4. Brooks, population 2,500, is headquarters
of the Eastern Irrigation District which supervises
167,000 acres irrigated from the Bow River.
Canning, seed and commercial fishing are other
industries. Pheasant and duck are hunted in the
area. Cassils Sub-Division is met at Cassils, where
4,200 acres are irrigated. Lakes break the landscape southward, at mileage 76, to the north at
mileage 87.6. Lord Lathom, director of an early
ranching company, is remembered at the next
station. A bridge (mileage 96.6) crosses a canal
of the Canadian Pacific Irrigation District established by the railway to aid farming, and Bassano,
junction of the Bassano and Irricana Sub-Divisions,
shows 1,000 acres of irrigated farm lands. Crowfoot commemorates a famous chief of the Blackfeet
who, with the Sarcees, Blood and Piegan tribes,
were early inhabitants of this part of the country.
Cluny, too, was named for an Indian chief. A tributary of the Bow River is spanned near mileage 122.
Gleichen, a flour-milling point, serves an area with
12,000 irrigated acres and is headquarters of the
Blackfoot Reserve. Indus bears the name of the
great river in India which is used as a source of
irrigation in that country. Nearing the junction of
the Third Prairie Plain with the foothills of the
Rocky Mountain System, the land contours here are
more sharply marked than on the central and
eastern prairies. Valleys are deeper and wider,
rivers flow at greater speeds and have some
evidence of the glacial silt they carry from the
moraines that clog their icy sources. Climatic
conditions are affected by the proximity of the
crags and peaks to the west and "The Chinook", a
wind that seems almost fabulous to non-residents,
in the winter frequently raises temperatures from
sub-zero readings to thaws in a matter of minutes.
Often spoken of in this country, but never photographed, was the sleigh equipped with runners in
the front and wheels at the rear, with which farmers
outran the following Chinook! Ranching in this
area had its start in 1874 with the importation of
range cattle from the United States. In 1882
government regulations allowed the leasing of
tracts up to 100,000 acres. At the turn of the
century the historical pattern of agricultural
settlement asserted itself and larger ranches
began to disappear with the encroachment of
farmlands on the ranges. Today average ranches
are of about 2,000 acres owned by the rancher
Chuck-waggon race
and 8,000 acres of provincial land under lease.
The first irrigation ditch recorded was dug in 1879
and seven years later 79,000 acres were under
irrigation. More than 10 times that area is now
irrigated in Alberta alone. Canadian Pacific
irrigation work started in 1906 and the company,
which pioneered the Eastern and Western Irrigation Districts had spent more than $25,000,000
by 1917 when the districts were formed. At
Shepard, junction is made with the Strathcona
Sub-Division. Ogden, with the "Ogden Shops" of
the Canadian Pacific, marks the eastern fringe of
Calgary, variously and affectionately referred to
in different stages of its history as "Cowtown",
"Foothills City" and "Oil City". All three names are
well justified. Calgary, founded as a North West
Mounted Police post, called Fort Brisebois, in 1875,
became Fort Calgary later in honour of Calgary
on the Isle of Mull. Its location at the confluence of
the Elbow River and Nose Creek with the important
Bow River, was a natural one. For years its principal
interest was the surrounding cattle ranching, greatly
accentuated by the advent of the railway. Later,
discovery of the Turner Valley oilfields and the
more recent "strikes" to the north, gave the city
of 127,001 great importance to the oil industry.
"Cowtown" traditions are kept alive by the annual
"Calgary Stampede" when the whole city decks
itself in "chaps", sombreros and spurs to celebrate
the riding, "bronco-busting" and chuck-waggon
races in which famous riders, men and women,
compete. The Canadian Pacific hotel, named for
Captain Palliser, pinpoints downtown Calgary. Industries include: oil-drilling specialties; meat products; sash and doors; structural steel; castings;
fertilizers and chemicals; concrete blocks; prefabricated buildings; leather; oil-refining; cereals;
sheet metal; paper products; pipe castings and
explosives. Dinosaur Park on St. George's Island
is notable for life-size models of prehistoric animals
found in the region. The city stands 3,438 feet
above sea level. Here the Brooks and Laggan
Sub-Divisions  meet.
16 Laggan The main and north channels of the
Sub-Division Bow River are crossed at mileage
7.7, and the Bow Valley, here barely defined in
the rolling land that conjoins the prairies and the
foothills, is devoted more to range land than
agriculture. Cochrane, serving farmers and ranchers
almost evenly, is a trading centre. The Bow,
south of the track between mileage 25.7 and
Calgary, crosses to parallel the line on the north.
Radnor, site of the Ghost Dam, was named for
Wilma, daughter of the Earl of Radnor. Morley,
with a population of 30 whites and 700 Indians, is
headquarters of the Stoney Indian Reservation.
Its Indian School, with an average attendance of
60, has a staff of 10. Traditional designs in
leather, bead and quilt work are a specialty of
The Stoneys, who take part each year in Banff's
"Indian Days", at which, in addition to outdoor
demonstrations of dances, riding, roping, etc., the
lovely work is shown in competition for prizes.
Ozada, a Stoney word meaning "forks of the
river", well describes the junction of the Kananaskis and Bow Rivers which takes place at mileage
51.8. At Seebe, the Stoney word for "river", are
the Horseshoe and Kananaskis dams and power
plants, and a mile west, 53.1, the Bow River is
bridged again. Kananaskis, where lime products
are produced, was named by Palliser for a legendary Indian. To the south the Bow widens into Lac
des Arcs with Pigeon Mountain directly south at
Exshaw. Mallard and Canada geese frequent the
lake in their seasons. North of the line near mileage
62 sharp eyes may detect bighorn sheep on the
steep slopes of the geological formation known as
The Gap. This shoulder of the Fairholme Mountains
forces the river into a sharp bend. Canmore,
named for Malcom Canmore, early Scottish king,
with a population of 1,400, is a coal mine centre.
Southwest, the Three Sisters, an aptly-named
triple-peaked mountain, calls to camera fans.
North of the line, near mileage 71, the eastern
boundary of Banff National Park is marked by a
gateway  on  the  highway.  In  the  2,500  square
Former monarchs of the plains at Banff
miles of the park, all living things — birds, animals,
wild flowers and trees — are protected by the
Government of Canada, and many travellers,
delighted with the sight of "tame" wild animals
from passing trains, have blessed the wise statesmen who marked out this great sanctuary. As a
tribute to the conservationists, the Canadian
Pacific selected names of national and provincial
parks to designate 18 "Scenic Dome" Lounge
Sleeper Cars in its transcontinental service. Carrot
Creek, bridged near mileage 72, flows from the
Fairholme Mountains to the north. South lies
Mount Rundle (9,665 feet). Mounts Peechee
(9,615 feet), Girouard (9,875) and Inglismaldie
(9,715) lie to the north. Also to the north, marked
by thin rivulets that turn into thundering cascades
seen closer, is Cascade Mountain (9,826). East of
Cascade Mountain the Cascade River is crossed,
parallels the track for a few hundred yards and
turns sharply south to join the Bow. Tunnel Mountain,
south, is a contrast to the flat lands at the feet of
Cascade and Stoney Squaw Mountains. Here, north
of the track, is the Royal Canadian Army Cadet
Corps Camp and the wild animal paddock maintained by the National Parks Department for
buffalo, rocky mountain goats and bighorn sheep.
Make a note, if you're staying on the train this
time, to come back for a visit. Banff, with a winter
population of 2,500, is a town of 8,000 in the
summer. Headquarters of the national park are
located here, a detachment of the Royal Canadian
Mounted Police, hospital, movie theatre, hotels,
boarding houses and tourist bungalows cater to
thousands of visitors every year. Beyond the town,
where the Spray and Bow Rivers meet between
the 1st tee and fairway of the championship golf
course, the valleys enclosed by Sulphur, Rundle
and Tunnel Mountains are dominated by Banff
Springs Hotel — built of stone quarried locally —
massive and hospitable as a baronial castle in
Scotland. This Canadian Pacific resort, one of the
holiday wonders of the world, fits the keynote of
gracious living into the outdoor symphony of cascades, rapids, mountain trails and scenic grandeur
played by the Canadian Rockies. Natural sulphur
springs provide medicinal bathing; buses and cars,
mountain ponies and bicycles are available for
sightseeing, a scenic ski-lift on Mount Norquay
opens incredible vistas. The Alpine Club of Canada
maintains a headquarters on the slope of Sulphur
Mountain and The Trail Riders and Trail Hikers of
the Canadian Rockies, both with international
membership rosters, at Banff Springs Hotel. In the
town, Banff School of Fine Arts, an extension of the
University of Alberta, opens from mid-June to
mid-August each year a summer school of art,
drama, handicrafts and music, culminating in an
annual festival.
South, at mileage 90, the turrets of Banff Springs
Hotel are visible a mile away over the points of
deep green lodge-pole pines, to the north the
Vermilion Lakes are favourite feeding grounds for
moose. Between Banff and Lake Louise the narrow
meadows flanking the Bow River are a favourite
feeding area for deer and elk, occasionally a
bear — sometimes with her cubs — may be seen CASTLE MOUNTAIN
Sure-footed bighorn sheep
begging for "handouts" on the Banff-Lake Louise
highway, north of the track. North of the lakes is
Mount Norquay; south, the Bourgeau range. Near
mileage 83, to the north, is Mount Edith (8,370')
and, nearer the track, a huge cave known as the
Hole-in-the-Wall. The Bow River changes in
character as the land rises. Its colour takes on the
milky jade typical of glacial waters. The lowering
peaks south of the track are: Mount Bourgeau
(9,517'), in the distance; Massive (7,990') closer
at hand and Pilot Mountain (9,6800 directly
south of mileage board 93. From this point the
pass widens. Redearth Creek on the south and
Johnston Creek west of Mount Ishbel on the north,
enter the Bow River within a mile of each other.
Copper Mountain (9,160') immediately south of
where Johnston Creek joins the Bow River, warns
you to look north for the south-eastern slopes of
Mount Eisenhower (9,030'), the fortress-like mountain whose base parallels the track for the next
eight miles. Formerly known as Castle Mountain,
this tremendous formation, battlemented like a
medieval castle, was renamed to honour General of
the Army Dwight D. Eisenhower, brilliant Supreme
Commander of the Allied Forces in Europe, six
years before his election to the Presidency of the
United States. Storm Mountain, south of mile 106,
usually lives up to its name, its 10,309-foot peak
often being wreathed in clouds. Nearby, north of
the tracks beaver often build dams at the water's
edge. From here to Lake Louise Station, south of
the track are the many glaciers on the slopes of
the Bow Range. Tall peaks that tower above the
nearer mountains include Bident (10,109'), Quadra
(10,420'), snow-covered Mount Babel (8,590') and
the ten Wenkchemna Peaks that surround the
famous Valley of the Ten Peaks. Tallest of all, four
miles south of mileage 112, is Mount Temple
(11,626'). To the north are Protection Mountain,
Redoubt Mountain (9,510') and Ptarmigan Peak
(10,050'). From mileage 112 to Lake Louise, still to
the south, are Saddle Mountain, Fairview Mountain
and, seen between these two, Sheol (9,118'),
Haddo (10,073'), Mount Aberdeen (10,340') and
Mount Victoria (11,355'). Victoria's magnificent
glacier overhanging Lake Louise, and first sight
to greet visitors at Chateau Lake Louise, sheds its
waters through the lake and by way of Louise
Creek to join the Bow River near the station. From
Lake Louise Station motor roads lead: to the
Chateau, a thousand feet higher; Moraine Lake
Lodge in the Valley of the Ten Peaks; the Columbia
Icefield, eighty-five miles to the north where the
Athabaska, Dome and Saskatchewan Glaciers
combine to form 150 square miles of ice; Lake
Wapta Lodge; Yoho Valley Lodge; Emerald Lake
Chalet and Field. Chateau Lake Louise, on the
northern shore of the glacial lake for which it is
named turns its sun-drenched wings to one of the
world's most beautiful scenic spots, the Victoria
Glacier. Its deeply wooded mountain trails are
favourites with riders. There is boating on the lake,
outdoor swimming in a sheltered, warmed pool and
many miles of Alpine flower trails around the lake
and surrounding hillsides for nature lovers. As at
Banff Springs Hotel, its neighbour 40 miles east,
orchestras play for week-night dancing. Stephen,
B.C., one mile and 52 feet above sea-level, is
the highest point on the Canadian Pacific Railway.
The south side is still the more spectacular as the
line curves to the left around the Beehive, Mount St.
Piran (8,681') and Mount Niblock (9,754'). Near
mileage 121 look just south of the track for the
sign, "The Great Divide", which marks the boundary between Alberta and British Columbia, the
peak of the watershed. Beneath this sign a small
brook becomes two smaller streams that find their
way westward to the Kicking Horse River, the
Columbia and the Pacific; eastward to the Bow
River and eventually Hudson Bay and the Atlantic.
The station at Stephen is 219' west of the Continental Divide which also marks the boundary of
Yoho and Banff National Parks. Summit and Sink
Lakes, altitude 5,339, mark the entrance to the
Kicking Horse Pass. Southward stand Pope's Peak
(10,360') and Narao Peak. Named for Sir James
Hector, surgeon and geologist on the Palliser
expedition, Hector station is reflected in Wapta
Lake, source of the Kicking Horse River, with Mount
Bosworth (9,083') and Paget Peak (8,407') to
the north.
Six miles west, as the crow flies, but eleven and a
half miles by train, and 1,265' downhill lies Field. In
this eleven and a half miles is centred some of the
finest scenery and the most interesting engineering
feat on the Canadian Pacific transcontinental line,
the world-famous Spiral Tunnels. From mileage
126, Vanguard Peak, Cathedral Crags (10,071')
on the south, balance Mount Ogden and the iush
Yoho Valley to the north. The difference between
crow flight and railway mileage becomes apparent
as the track twice reversing by means of two spiral
tunnels descends 105.7' in less than a mile.
Between mileage 127 and 127.5 to the north of the
track and below it can be seen the entrance and
exit of the second tunnel from which the track
continues westward. At mileage 129.1, the train
enters   the   first   spiral   tunnel,   under   Cathedral
18 Mountain (10,454') and in three-fifths of a mile
turns almost a complete circle to emerge, headed
northeast, 55.7r lower. The track continues downgrade, crossing at mileage 130.6 the fast-running
Kicking Horse River, to mileage 131.3 when almost
another circle is made in close to 1,000 yards with
the track headed westward again and an upward
look to the south shows the track and tunnel
entrance at 129.1. Northward a closer view is
obtained of the Yoho Valley and to the south
Mount Stephen (10,485'), below, the Kicking Horse
River, already a sizable stream, makes its way
along the pass and, to the north, Mount Field
(8,645') and Mount Wapta (9,106') guard the
Yoho Valley entrance. Beyond them are Burgess
Pass and Mount Burgess (8,463'). As first constructed in 1882-83, the line between Hector and
Field climbed laboriously up the heavy grade,
parts of which now form the highway crossed by
today's line, which was relocated 1907-8 when the
spiral tunnels were driven through the solid rock.
The upper spiral tunnel, for the statistically minded
is 3,255' long, its curvature is 288 degrees. The
VAkGl/ARD PKt><»;xE
lower spiral tunnel is 2,922', its curvature is
226 degrees and it emerges 50.4' below its
entrance. At mileage 133.6 a base metals mining
concentrator processes lead and zinc, mined from
shafts in Mount Stephen and across the river in
Mount Field. Field, in Yoho National Park, junction
of the Laggan and Mountain Sub-Divisions, is also
the junction of the Mountain and Pacific Time Zones.
Westbound travellers retard their watches one
hour. Bears begging for tidbits are quite often
seen at the eastern end of the platform. No matter
how pathetically they look at you, don't yield to
temptation and feed them. They are as tame as
any wild animal accustomed to human beings can
be, but they have no manners and do not know
how sharp a supplicatory paw can be. Also, there
is a heavy fine imposed for feeding wild animals
— this is for your own protection. Take all the
pictures you  like — from  a   reasonable  distance.
Mountain Across  the  river,  well-engineered
Sub-Division motor roads lead up the scenic Yoho
Valley to Takakkaw Falls and westward past the
"Natural Bridge", bored through solid rock by the
Kicking Horse River, then north through the valley
of the Emerald River to Emerald Lake, site of
another Canadian Pacific resort, Emerald Lake
Chalet. The line parallels the Kicking Horse River
to its junction with the Columbia River at Golden
and in this thirty-five mile stretch the change in
altitude is 1,489 feet. North of the track the Kicking
Horse River winds its way at ever-increasing speed
through rock-strewn rapids and gorges, and the
ever-present lodge-pole pine climbs to the timber-
line with, here and there, stands of poplar, marked
at grazing level by the teeth of countless winter-
feeding elk. Deer, bear and moose are quite
numerous here, too. South of the track west of
Field are Mount Dennis (8,326'), Mount Duchesnay
(9,592') and to the north the broad divided
valley formed by the Amiskwi River and Otterhead
Creek. The line threads its way between the Van
Home Range, north and the Ottertail Range, south.
At mileage 13 look south for Mount Vaux (10,881')
and beyond it to the glacier between Allan and
Hanbury Peaks. At mileage 15.3 the track turns
sharply to skirt the Beaverfoot Range (9,000') to
the south for several miles. The Kicking Horse
River races at foaming speed into the narrow lower
Kicking Horse Canyon, which the track follows
almost to Golden. Mileage 19.2 marks the western
boundary of Yoho National Park. The Canadian
Pacific crosses the Kicking Horse River five times
between mileages 21.4 and 33, and is crossed
itself by the highway at mileage 26.5. Carefully
scan the canyon wall on the south side, near
mileage 29, for the "Old Man of the Mountain".
Five hundred feet above the rails, at mileage 31.7
is the highway. From the train this mountain road
looks as if it were supported on stilts. North of the
track, mileage 35, is Moberly Peak (7,721') and,
south, the canyon winds out into the Valley of the
Columbia. Golden is the junction for Lake Windermere  Sub-Division.
For nearly thirty miles the Canadian Pacific now
follows the Columbia River by taking advantage of
a fairly broad and fertile valley around the northern spur of the Dogtooth Mountains. A picturesque
sight on the north side of the track, just west of
Golden, is Edelweiss, a village of typical chalets
built by the Canadian Pacific for the Swiss guides
employed by the company for mountain climbers.
Frequent sharp spurs of the Van Home Range on
the right and the Dogtooth Mountains on the left
give rise to a succession of fast running, picturesque
creeks and rivers, the largest of which is the
Blaeberry, which joins the Columbia at mileage
44.8. To the north is Willowbank Mountain, soon
after which the line swings west again, crossing the
Columbia at mileage 52.5, half a mile west of
Donald, named for Sir Donald Smith (later Lord
Strathcona), and entering a spectacular canyon
where it parallels the Columbia to Beavermouth,
mileage 63, named for the junction of the Beaver
and Columbia Rivers. The level country between
Golden and Beavermouth is home to large numbers
of deer and moose. But it takes a keen observer to
spot them through the heavy growth. Now the
Columbia swings north in the magnificent "Big
Bend" and forces its way through the Selkirks.
The Canadian Pacific crosses the Beaver River a
mile and a half west of Beavermouth, with the
first peak of the Selkirks, Cupola Mountain
(8,678'), due north and again follows a sharply
defined narrow valley south-westerly to Rogers,
mileage 67.8, named for Major Rogers, who discovered the pass. From Rogers the line climbs
again, this time to cross the Selkirks, next of the
mountain barriers. For eighteen miles the track
follows, at ever-increasing heights, the valley of
the Beaver River, south of the line. Wide flats and
dead forests tell of long-gone inundations. To
the north, as the train skirts the lower slopes of
Mount Rogers (10,525'), steep, tree-covered slopes
march down to the valley. Mileage 70 is the eastern
boundary of Glacier National Park, Mountain
Creek is bridged at 70.7, Raspberry Creek at
73.7. Two mountain cascades, crossed between
mileage 74 and Stoney Creek Station, are spectacular. Pouring down the mountainside, Surprise
Creek, no bigger at its greatest visible height than
a pencilled line, cuts its way through a gorge
spanned by a truss bridge and splashes, noisily
and picturesquely in a foaming cascade to the
river bed 170 feet below. The bridge crossing
Stoney Creek, almost a twin brother of Surprise,
presented a stiff engineering problem. Here, the
steep sides of the gulch through which the torrent
speeds, drop 270 feet below the track level.
The contour of the land calls for a curve at the
western end of the bridge and, to cross the Stoney,
it was necessary to build an arch bridge, the
western end of which is slightly curved. Although
not thought of as such in the engineers' plans, this
unusual structure is an ideal site for photographs,
the curve of the train enabling it to be shown in
pictures shot from the "Scenic Dome". Three miles
west, at mileage 80.2, an even greater problem
faced the engineers who built the line. Mount
Macdonald (9,482') was in the way, its peak more
than a mile above the track level. To avoid it the
first line was built through Rogers Pass, compelling
a climb of five hundred feet in five miles and
needing, for its protection from slides, more than
four and a half miles of snow sheds, some of which
and the piers of old bridges can be seen to the
north. In 1916, by the boring of the Connaught
Tunnel, the climb was cut in half, the distance was
shortened by four and a third miles and curves
equal to seven circles were done away with. A
mile of solid rock is the roof of Connaught Tunnel,
which is of concrete construction, twenty-nine feet
wide and twenty-one and a half feet high. Fresh
air is forced through by giant ventilating fans at
the western end. Glacier is a challenge to the
senses with its magnificent panorama of peaks,
precipices and glaciers. South and east of the
station look up the valley for the lllecilewaet
Glacier, outlet for the lllecilewaet snow field,
forcing its way between Lookout Mountain and
Perley  Peak.   Beyond,  thrusting   its  peak  10,808
feet into the blue is Mount Sir Donald. A mile from
the station up the slope of Mount Abbott to the
south, ruined piers of an old bridge show where the
Rogers Pass line crossed Loop Brook before the
tunnel was bored. Glacier is the station for
Glacier National Park, 521 square miles in area.
Between Glacier and Albert Canyon you may
spot mountain goats and sheep just below the snow
line and travellers carrying binoculars should look
on the slides and burns for grizzly bear in this
district. The altitude changes by nearly 2,300 feet
between Glacier and Revelstoke, a fact well
illustrated by the speedy, foaming waters of the
lllecilewaet River whose headlong rush westward
parallels the Canadian Pacific most of the way.
North and south of mileage 88 are Cougar
Mountain and Ross Peak. Southward Mount Green
(8,860') marks the western boundary of the valley
of Flat Creek which opens a vista to the south at
mileage 93.2. Snow sheds and tunnels near mileage
94 testify to the engineering difficulties overcome
when the line was put through. Ten crossings of
the lllecilewaet River are made between Glacier
and Revelstoke. Glacier Park's western boundary
is crossed at mileage 95.5, and between mileages
102 and 103 Albert Canyon, a narrow hundred-
and-fifty-foot gorge through which the river is
forced, parallels the rails to the north. The slow
passage of the train gives you a chance to see this
fern-wreathed gorge. To the south lies the Albert
snowfield and near mileage 109 its tip may be
seen on the east slope of Albert Peak 9,998 feet
high. To the north, bounded on the east by Woolsey
Creek, lies Mount Revelstoke National Park, Twin
Butte Creek is crossed at 113.5, and southward,
as the valley widens out, at mileage 115, is Twin
Butte. Greely Creek, named for the famous editor,
is spanned at 118.8. The lllecilewaet, crossed at
mileage 122.3, pours through rocky Box Canyon
(mileage 123.2). Revelstoke, population 3,500, is
a lumbering centre and junction of the Arrow Lake,
Mountain and Shuswap Sub-Divisions. Don't miss
the station gardens, a bank of lovely flowers, and
an exhibition Kiosk which is a key to the area. At
the end of the station-building a miniature Dutch
windmill decorates a prosaic water hydrant.
Every season this windmill serves as a background
for personal photographs.
Use  your exposure-meter when photographing in  the  clear
mountain air, light values are sometimes deceptive. Shuswap Of   the   Columbia    River's   1,150
Sub-Division miles, the 459 miles in Canada
drain an area of 40,000 square miles, serve the
lumber industry and generate thousands of horsepower. From its source in the giant snow-dome
that forms the Columbia Icefield, reached from
Lake Louise station 86 miles to the south, this
mighty stream, by the time the Canadian Pacific
main line crosses it at mileage 1.7, has wound its
way at varying speeds west and south in its search
for the wide waters of the Pacific. David Thompson,
the explorer and mapmaker, traced the Columbia
from its source to its mouth. In 1807, he made his
way to the Icefield via the Saskatchewan and in
the following years explored the river, evading
hostile Piegan Indians who had attacked Lewis
and Clarke in 1805, to the point where the
American expedition had struck the Columbia and
followed it to its mouth. His is still the sole comprehensive survey of the entire river. Southward, The
Columbia broadens into the Arrow Lake system,
served for many years by that most romantic of
all vessels the "stern-wheeler". S.S. "Minto", last
of Canada's stern-wheelers, has now been retired.
Variously described as the. Fraser Uplands or
Fraser Plateau, the country traversed by the
Shuswap Sub-Division, averaging an altitude of
1,200 feet above sea-level, grows Ponderosa pine,
the inevitable lodge-pole pine, Douglas fir and —
a change from the high country — large areas of
grassland. South of the track flows the Tonkawatla
River, also to the south Mount Begbie (8,946')
and Mount Macpherson (7,893') are visible and
Mount Revelstoke still commands the northward
view. At mileage 8.6 an overhead wooden bridge
carries the highway, three short tunnels momentarily obstruct the view of Eagle Pass and Summit
Lake between mileages 9 and 9.5. Snowsheds,
mileage 13.5, are a reminder of railroading
difficulties to be surmounted. At obviously named
Three Valley, Wap Creek flows from the south
into Three Valley Lake and at mileage 15.4 the
line crosses the Eagle River which necessitates two
more bridges within three miles. The mountains
to the north are the Gold Range (7,000'), southward Mount Griffin (7,120') of the Hunter Range
and, near mileage 22, are beautiful Kay Falls.
The transcontinental line, paralleling the Eagle
River, threads its way between the Hunter and
Shuswap Ranges, crossing the river three times
between mileages 24.6 and 26.3. North of the
track at Craigellachie (28.3) a simple cairn marks
the spot where the "last spike", driven November
7, 1885, completed the world's first transcontinental railway. For the record, it was a good, workable
spike, not a gold or silver one as some legends
claim. Eagle River is bridged at mileage 31.3.
Malakwa is the Indian word for mosquito and
fishermen in the local waters well understand its
choice for this station's name. The Eagle is spanned
again at mileages 32.8, 37.1 and 40.4. Solsqua,
Indian for bear, is another example of apt naming,
though few bears have been reported there
recently. At mileage 43.8 the eleventh crossing of
the Eagle River in the space of 28 miles is made,
and  at 44.4, Sicamous Narrows, eastern end of
Eagle Pass
Shuswap Lake, is bridged. Sicamous, lake mail port
and junction with the Okanagan Sub-Division, is
another Indian word — meaning "places cut
through". This is great duck country and the wild
migrants become tame enough to paddle close
for bread thrown on the quieter backwaters. Lumber, logs, ties, and saw and planing mills are the
local industries. Trout fishermen find this junction a
good starting point. South of the track lies Larch
Hills provincial forest, to the north Shuswap Lake,
a three-sided rectangle of which Salmon Arm,
paralleling the line is the south side, almost surrounds Bastion and Vella Mountains, behind which
White Lake has a fabulous reputation amongst
anglers. Canoe is a lumbering and farmers'
exchange warehouse centre. With a population of
2,000 Salmon Arm deals in dairy products, feed,
poles, lumber, boxes and packing. About half a
mile wide, the lake between Sicamous and Salmon
Arm is a favourite feeding area for wild duck.
The South Thompson River, followed by the line
for much of the way between Salmon Arm and
For Camera Fans
In general, the precautions you take in shooting
through windows should be observed in making
photographs from the "Scenic Dome".
For colour transparencies of the various popular
makes, colour compensating filter No. CC30-R is
advised with exposure increases as recommended
for this folder on Daylight Type film. In order to
get exposures, either with colour or black and
white film, the use of an exposure meter is recommended, readings being taken from within the
"Scenic Dome". Where no meter is available, an
exposure increase through top or side windows of
one full camera stop is general practice.
Either the front or rear seats offer the best opportunities for pictures but please remember that
receding scenery sets up focusing problems. It is
generally considered that the best way to avoid
reflections is to expose as close to the glass as
possible and, of course, avoid halation by shooting
away from the sun. Train movement effects are
lessened considerably for lateral photographs by
using a 45° angle.
Orchards like  this  earn  British  Columbia's apple  reputation.
Kamloops, draws on the reservoirs of Shuswap and
Little Shuswap Lakes. This river, important to the
economy of British Columbia, is another example
of the far-reaching influence of the North West
Company, it having been discovered by Simon
Fraser in the first decade of the 19th Century and
named for his contemporary, David Thompson.
The tributary Salmon River is bridged at mileage
64.8. Between Tappen and Carlin, which bear the
names of an early contractor and lumber operator
respectively, the line parallels White Creek
(north), leaving it at a 90° angle to pass between
Notch Hill to the north and Mount Hilliam, Black and
Squilax Mountains to the south. The land, northward, slopes gently down to the main body of
Shuswap Lake — said to contain more varieties
of trout and other sporting fish, including steel-
head salmon trout and salmon from the Pacific,
than any other fresh water in British Columbia.
At mileage 84 the western tip of Shuswap Lake
narrows to enter Little Shuswap Lake a mile west of
Squilax (87.5), Indian for "sheep". Chase Creek
is spanned at mileage 93.5. The high land to the
south, Ptarmigan Hills, is much gentler in appearance
than were the mountains of the Rockies, the Selkirks
and the Monashee Ranges. Now, the track parallels
the South Thompson River. The Shuswap Lake area,
more densely populated than any territory in
western British Columbia, is a prosperous fruit and
mixed farming belt. Between mileage 126 and
Kamloops sites of semi-subterranean prehistoric
Indian nouses have been discovered between the
Canadian Pacific transcontinental line and the
South Thompson River. Kamloops, junction of the
Shuswap and Thompson Sub-Divisions, has a
population of 14,000. The city was founded as a
Hudson's Bay Company post in 1812. Fort Thompson
was built in 1813 by the North West Company and
named for David Thompson, explorer of the Kootenay District and Columbia River — probably when
Simon Fraser named the Thompson River. Today's
name is an anglicized spelling of the Indian
word "Kumeloops", meaning unknown. Cattle,
forest products, canning, fruit and vegetable
shipping and registered seed are the major
local industries. Many lakes and streams in this
district are well-stocked with game trout. You will
see many irrigated farms and broad cattle ranches
and this countryside also contains gold, copper and
base metal mines.
Canadian Pacific Hotels
Canadian Pacific owns and operates:
Cornwallis Inn, Kentville, N.S.,
McAdam Hotel, McAdam, N.B.,
The Chateau Frontenac, Quebec, Que.,
The Royal York, Toronto, Ont.,
The Royal Alexandra, Winnipeg, Man.,
The Saskatchewan, Regina, Sask.,
The Palliser, Calgary, Alta.,
The Empress, Victoria, B.C.,
and is joint operator with the C.N.R., of the
Hotel Vancouver, Vancouver, B.C., all year round.
The Algonquin, St. Andrews, N.B.,
The Digby Pines, Digby, N.S.,
Lakeside Inn, Yarmouth, N.S.,
Devil's Gap Lodge, Kenora, Ont.,
Banff Springs Hotel, Banff, Alta.,
Chateau Lake Louise, Lake Louise, Alta.,
Emerald Lake Chalet, Emerald Lake, B.C.
during the summer season.
22 Thompson From almost true north, the North
Sub-Division Thompson joins the south branch to
start the westward flow as The Thompson. Historians know that David Thompson, for all his
exploration, never saw this river that is a flowing
monument to him, and feel reasonably sure that
in his lifetime he did not learn that his name had
been given to it. At about mileage 4 the river
begins to widen into Kamloops Lake and, on the
north side, is joined by the Tranquille River near
mileage 65. The river and station take their name
from an early chief of gentle disposition, but are
better known in history for the discovery, in 1856 or
57, by prospector James Huston, of gold — start
of the Cariboo gold rush of that time. Six tunnels,
five of them in a mile and a quarter, were driven
through the glacier-scarred rock between mileages
8.5 and 13.8 and across the lake, opposite mileage
11, stands Battle Bluff, the bluff itself stained red,
scene of fierce Indian struggles long ago. Cherry
Creek, named for the river crossed near the station,
serves some of the finest ranching land in Canada
— look for log ranch-houses and farms. Near
mileage 22.5 the line bridges Durand Creek.
Savona perpetuates the name of an Italian immigrant who ran a ferry across the western end of
Kamloops Lake in 1861. Walhachin, from the
Indian "Wallacheen" meaning "land of plenty",
was the scene of an early experiment in irrigation
when a group of Englishmen watered an orchard
and brought fine apples to bear. Then the bugles of
1914 blew, they crossed the Atlantic to war —
and none returned! A few trees, unkempt and
untended still bear lonely fruits. Ashcroft, named for
the English birthplace of Judge Cornwall, was a
gold-rush town, born of the Cariboo discoveries,
today it is noted for the quality of its potatoes
and tomatoes. The rock formations of Black
Canyon, mileage 52.5, squeeze the river in a
roaring boil of white water and Glossy Mountain,
to the south, rears bald contours to a peak of
6,500 feet, Pukaist Creek is bridged near mileage
65, Pimainus Creek, at 67. Spatsum takes its name
from wild cotton that grows locally, Toketic, in
Indian, means Pretty Place. At mileage 71, the
track bridges the Nicola River. At Spence's Bridge,
once known as Cook's Ferry, the Merritt Sub-
Division connects the transcontinental line with the
Canadian Pacific route across the southern Rockies.
As the banks of the Thompson come together
railway and river both seek the lowest possible
levels through the Thompson Canyon. Drynoch
bears the name of the seat of the Clan McLeod
on the Island of Skye. The highway crosses overhead at mileage 81.4 and for a while, follows the
route of the old Cariboo Trail and at 84.6 the
Nicoamen River is bridged by the railway. The
Thompson  piles  higher  and  higher  as  its  banks
The Thompson River
close in until, at mileage 87.5, the gorge graphically known as "The Jaws of Death" forces it to its
highest speed. Sage-brush, dwarf jack pine,
poplar and some bull pine grow in this area and
The Thompson River near Spence's Bridge
the soil and rocks take on strange hues-—yellows,
purples, crimson. Northward, near mileage 91,
The Painted Canyon lives up to its name, and,
opposite mileage 93.5 a green granite crest
which overhangs the gorge is known as Botanie
Crag, taking its name from the creek that flows
into the Thompson. Northward from about mileage
95 the canyon flattens out, and across the narrow
plateau the Fraser River pours southward to join,
or be joined by the Thompson. At Lytton Simon
Fraser found a well-established Indian community, apparently centuries old. Traders made use
of its junction of the Fraser and Thompson and, of
course, it came into its heyday in the time of the
gold rush. Here can be seen the same phenomenon
as at the confluence of the Ottawa and St. Lawrence, with one clear and one muddy river
flowing together in sharp definement for some
distance. The Fraser, like the Ottawa, is drab; the
Thompson, filtered through lakes as is the St.
Lawrence, is clean. Near Cisco, named for the
late Chief Siska, at mileage 101, the Canadian
Pacific crosses to the right bank of the Fraser
and continues on a track hewn from the rock
ledge, passing through three tunnels between
mileages 101.2 and 102.7. The old Cariboo Road
toiled high above the river. Kanaka, takes its
name from an old placer mining bar across the
river once worked by Hawaiian native labourers.
Kwoiek Creek, named for Kwoiek Peak, north of
the line, is spanned at mileage 104.6 and Skow
Wash Creek at 106.3. To the south is Kanaka
Mountain. The Salmon River is bridged by the
track at mileage 113. The bench lands are wider,
altitude at Chaumox — translated as "Too Hot" —
is only 568 feet above sea level and tiny gardens
and orchards — some in Indian Reservations —
are much more common than at higher levels.
North Bend, junction of the Thompson and Cascade
Sub-Divisions, is mainly a railway town noted for
its rich foliage and flower-filled gardens, of which
those at the station are a notable example.
Cascade Still  hemmed   between  mountains,
Sub-Division but keeping as close as possible to
water level, the track between North Bend and
Vancouver has a gradient of a little less than 4
feet in a mile. Its last 80 miles are through the
almost level valley of the Fraser by now a wide,
navigable river. West of North Bend, the stark
beauty of the Fraser Canyon, coupled with the
equally stark history of its early development is
memorable. At mileage 5.5, the Scuzzy River, flowing from north of the track, enters the Fraser.
Under the railway bridge is a series of basins, up
which salmon leap during the spawning season.
These mitigate the fierce Scuzzy Rapids, before
conservation a death trap for many fine salmon.
Between mileages 7.4 and 8, the gorge narrows
into a rock formation aptly christened "Hell's
Gate". Below it is "The Devil's Wash Basin", a
spinning whirlpool. Williams Creek (9.2) and
White's Creek (9.7) are crossed as the track winds
its way beside the rushing river between the
canyon walls. There are many outstanding views
and, at Spuzzum (15.5), once a Hudson's Bay
trading post, a steel and concrete bridge spans
the Fraser on the site of the first bridge ever to
cross it. The first bridge, built by Joseph Trutch, was
the first suspension bridge west of the Rockies,
built on wooden towers and wire cables woven at
the site. Spuzzum River is crossed at mileage 17.1.
Simon Fraser, discoverer of the river, who had
literally clawed his way down river on a series of
ladders built by the Indians, rested on the narrow
bench at Spuzzum, which was used as an Indian
burial ground. Well worth seeing is a giant rock
(22.5) in the middle of the river against which
the Fraser rages vainly and torments itself into
twisting eddies and backwaters. Yale was formerly
head of navigation on the Fraser and the start of
the Cariboo waggon road. Built in 1862-5 under
the orders of Governor James Douglas, this 400-
mile road was used by thousands of miners to
carry millions of treasure from the famous Cariboo
gold field. In 1848 a trading fort was built for
the fur brigades. Emory Creek is crossed at
mileage 31.2, Haig bears the name of the British
"T/ie Jaws of Death"
24 Hell's Gate
Field Marshal, and Odium, named for Canadian
General Victor Odium marks the canyon's end
which coincides to the south with the mouth of the
Coquihalla Canyon and is the junction of the Banff-
Lake  Louise transcontinental  line with the Coqui-
"Friend/y Folk"
Ever notice how friendly railwaymen are? You see
crews of passing trains wave to each other. Section
men miles away from anywhere stop work and
wave as the train goes by — and you wave in
return. This is friendliness, but it is more than that.
Everyone on the Canadian Pacific is concerned
with the welfare of your train and the hands flung
high in greeting tell a story to the crew of your
train. Watch a little more closely and you will see
that section men divide forces as you pass, one to
each side of the track. They have been keeping a
watchful eye on the running gear of the train and
the "highball" is an assurance that everything is in
order on both sides. This combination of efficiency
and friendliness spreads beyond the railway
family and trainmen can tell you of many instances
where residents near the track "check the train"
and give the proper signals.
halla Canyon-Crows Nest Pass route of the Canadian Pacific through the Southern Rockies. Wild
roses climb on any convenient hold and in every
way the scenery recedes from the stark, bare
grandeur of the mountains into a gentler domesticated pattern. At mileage 48 is Ruby Creek, which
owes its name to the garnets found in the neighbourhood. This is the heart of the fruit and dairy
lands. Close to stations along the way activities
are divided between sawmills and packing plants
to which strings of trucks bring fresh gathered
crops. Agassiz, population 2,600, is the station for
Harrison Hot Springs and site of a government
experimental farm. Ferries serve the Chilliwack
Valley, noted for its fine dairy herds. From Mission
City, population 5,000, and junction with Mission
Sub-Division, a busy centre for fruit growing and
dairy country, the "Scenic Dome" vantage point
shows snow-topped Mount Baker forty miles south
in the State of Washington. In a few miles now,
on-shore breezes reaching inland bear the tang
of the great Pacific Ocean and at Port Hammond,
population 3,000, the track leaves the Fraser and
heads northwest to cross, by a long bridge,
mileage 109.7, the Pitt River, tide-water! The
Coquitlam River is spanned at 112.3. Coquitlam,
population 3,000, is named for the nearby Indian
Reservation. At mileage 115 look north for the
eastern end of Burrard Inlet and the old station of
Port Moody which was the original terminus of
the Canadian Pacific, Canada's first transcontinental railway. Now the many activities of a busy
harbour —fishing shacks, deep-sea fishing craft,
drying nets, piers, docks and factories lead you
into Vancouver, population 530,000, terminus of
the Canadian Pacific Railway, gateway to Alaska
and the limitless  Pacific Ocean.
The signals pictured above all instruct the train to
proceed. For brief notes on the Automatic Block Signal
System, see page 6.
Canadian Pacific Highlights
In 1953, 95,211 people were employed by all
services of the Canadian Pacific. Canadian Pacific
Railway operated 17,003 miles of track with
1,594 steam locomotives, 365 diesel electric units.
Canadian Pacific operates 1,191 coaches, 643
sleeping, dining and parlour cars, 1,038 baggage,
mail and express cars. Canadian Pacific operates
9 inland steamships, 11 ocean steamships and 17
coastal  steamships.
25 fflfflp 11
.-.   .-;-
■CCTJ  •
Vancouver, end of steel for the world's first transcontinental railway, is Canada's gateway to the
Orient and the South Pacific. Canadian Pacific
"Empresses of the Air" fly passengers north to
the Orient, south to Hawaii, Fiji, Australia, New
Zealand, Mexico, Peru — north to the Arctic.
Vancouver's golf courses, parks, fine buildings, sea
beaches and pleasant climate attract visitors from
many countries. Fast Canadian Pacific "Princess"
liners, from piers a stone's throw from the station,
give fast day and night service to Seattle, Nanaimo
and Victoria on pleasant Vancouver Island, the
Gulf Islands, British Columbia ports and Alaska.
Princess liner near Victoria
Victoria, temperate capital of British Columbia, is
the entrance to the year-round playground of
Vancouver Island. Here The Empress, westernmost
of the Canadian Pacific chain of hotels from sea
to sea, vine-clad, set in its own lOVi-acre garden
facing the harbour, close to business and shopping
centres, is the focal point of local society, headquarters for visitors. Golf, motoring, tennis, sailing,
swimming, riding, picturesque parks and scenic
drives are the background of a holiday life that
includes shopping for woollens, diamonds, silverware, linens and many other imports.
§ ti   i,   *   ,,   "l      J    ■*:   '
' I Mi.'t  IaYE
The Empress Hotel, Victoria
J Mountain scenery near Coquihalla on the Canadian Pacific
Coquihalla Canyon-Crowsnest Pass route through the southern
Canadian Rockies.
Just as Canadian Pacific crosses the prairies by
two routes, so it provides an alternative route
through the Rockies south of the main transcontinental line. From Vancouver to Odium, where the
Coquihalla Canyon-Crowsnest Pass route turns
southward across the Fraser to enter the Coquihalla Pass, the route is the same. The Canadian
Pacific southern route through the Rockies follows
the spectacular Coquihalla Pass, Okanagan Lake,
the Kettle Valley, the southern reaches of the
Columbia River, Kootenay Lake, and the Crowsnest Pass to Fort MacLeod, Alberta, whence the
main line can be rejoined at Calgary or Medicine
Hat. The "Kettle Valley" route, so named for an
early railway, shows another aspect of the Canadian Rockies noted for such engineering feats as
the 3,476-foot climb up the side of the Coquihalla
Canyon  from  Odium  to   Brookmere;  the   Bellfort
loop; the bench-lands; magnificent views of Okanagan Lake as you climb from Penticton to 4,150-
foot McCulloch; water-level vistas of fast running
white water, the shore of Lower Arrow Lake —
which is really the Columbia River, Kootenay Lake,
and the last big climb to Crowsnest Pass 4,450
feet above sea  level.
This trans-mountain line serves a rich mineral and
orchard country, and is the Eastern and Western
outlet for such busy centres as Trail, Nelson,
Penticton, Cranbrook, and Fernie. Much of its
spectacular quality arises from the feats of bridge
and track engineers in the building of the line
which happily resulted in providing a number of
vantage points for the enjoyment of breath-taking
vistas. World-travellers familiar with both routes
frequently debate their relative merits. Perhaps
you'll have time to explore the "Kettle Valley"
on your return journey and decide for yourself. WESTWARD
Across Canada
** QsutukJukM Guifcc
Ihe dynamic policy that led to the building of the world's first transcontinental railway
seventy years ago, that inaugurated the many other "firsts" in world transportation
for which the Canadian Pacific is notable, scores another "first" in Canada with the adoption of Scenic Domes
for coach, tourist car and standard sleeping car passengers — another step in Canadian Pacific's
comprehensive modernization programme, in line with Canada's rapid growth.
After an extended investigation and study of the most modern types of passenger
equipment in service elsewhere on the continent, in June 1953 the Canadian Pacific ordered
173 all-stainless-steel passenger cars of the most advanced designs — Scenic Dome Lounge Sleepers,
Scenic Dome Coffee Shop Coaches, Deluxe Coaches (featuring full-length leg-rests), "Manor" and
"Chateau" Sleeping Cars and Dining Room Cars — for service on the scenic and historical Canadian
Pacific transcontinental route between Montreal and Vancouver, and Toronto and Vancouver via
Banff and Lake Louise. Deliveries began in June, 1954, and the entire "fleet" will be
in service early in 1955. Light-weight and modern as tomorrow, these new cars typify the
modern thinking and forward look of the world's most complete travel system, tailored by nearly
three quarters of a century of transportation experience to the fastidious requirements
of the world's wisest travellers!
In addition to the world's longest Dome ride in the comfort of the latest word in
railway passenger equipment, Canadian Pacific invites you to enjoy the "economy of
luxury — the luxury of economy" the Empress way ... trans-Atlantic by Canadian Pacific Steamships ...
trans-Pacific by Canadian Pacific Airlines. Above Canada, Canadian Pacific Airlines fly
10,000 route miles daily. In Canada, 17 Canadian Pacific hotels and resorts from sea to sea
make business travel a pleasure, make pleasure travel their business.
Uanadian Pacific — the world's most complete travel system — has two new trans-Atlantic
liners abuilding. These new 22,500-ton streamlined "Empresses" which incorporate the newest
tested improvements research can offer will enter trans-Atlantic service in the early spring of
1956 and 1957. In the air, the Canadian Pacific Airlines fleet flies world travellers in modern aircraft
best adapted to the varying services. Between Canada and the Orient; between Canada and Hawaii,
Fiji, New Zealand and Australia; between Canada, Mexico and Peru Super DC-6B's
offer speed and comfort above the weather: other specialized aircraft are operated
in the Canadian services.
tvery Canadian Pacific office in Canada, United States, United Kingdom, Europe, Australia,
New Zealand, Hong Kong, Japan, plus agencies everywhere — offers you Canadian Pacific's
complete travel service — all your travel wants in one package! Of course, every Canadian Pacific
office co-operates fully with your own travel agent. You can relax before you start when you
travel the Canadian Pacific way with every detail planned for you — rail, hotel, steamship,
and airline reservations. Go Canadian Pacific "travel relaxed — arrive refreshed."
Tke Scenic Do Me Rovre


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