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Across Canada : Western Lines, west bound Canadian Pacific Railway Company 1923

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 m
ANNOTATED
GUIDE via
DIAN PACIFIC
•DS GREATEST
TRANSPORTATION
YSTEM   ©
ffl
Western*
Cmes
West Bound mm
mmmm.
i
Save the Forests!
Canada's timber reserves are national assets of
incalculable value. To neglect to take ordinary
precautions which ensure them against destruction
from forest fires is to rob civilization. Quite apart
from the danger to the lives, homes and property
of settlers, every acre of forest burned means labor
turned away, reduced markets for manufactured
^products, heavier taxation on other property, a,nd
higher lumber prices. Passengers on trains should
not throw lighted cigar or cigarette ends from car
windows. Those who go into the woods—hunters,
fishermen, campers and canoeists—should consider
it their duty to exercise every care to prevent
loss from fire. W. I
E<z?
YE
7Y</     E7^-
ACROSS CANADA
EJt   AW
Urui
An Annotated Guide to
the Country Served by the
Canadian Pacific Railway
and its Allied Interests.
WESTBO UND
Part 2.
West of Winnipeg
West of Chicago
Canadian l:Pacific     Railway
MONTREAL.
1923
^
PRINTED   IN   CANADA ACROSS  CANADA   BY
CANADIAN   PACIFIC
THE Canadian  Pacific  Railway  is  the  world's  greatest
transportation system.
With a total length, including lines owned and controlled,
of over 19,900 miles, it serves all the important industrial,
commercial and agricultural sections of Canada, as well as
many parts of the United States. Practically every large
city of Canada is on its system. It reaches famous historic
spots, wonderful holiday-making and sporting resorts, and
some of the most magnificent scenery in the world.
Its steamship services reach out across the Atlantic to
Europe, and across the Pacific to the Orient. Its telegraph
system extends along the entire length of trie railway and
reaches as well every point of importance in Canada away
from it. Its thirteen fine hotels set the standard for hotel
accommodation m Canada. Its express system (the Dominion Express Company) has a world-wide service. Its
land-s*ettlement policy, coupled with the large areas of
fertile agricultural land that it still has for sale in the west,
is helping to accomplish the development of a richer and
bigger Canada.
This Annotated Guide is a description of the Canadian
Pacific system and of those systems allied or associated
with it. While principally dealing with tne various cities
and resorts from the viewpoint of tne pleasure-traveller,
it also pays some attention to the industrial activities and
natural resources of Canada; and while the latter information is not — because of tne nature of this publication —
of an exhaustive character, yet it is hoped that it will be
stimulating as indicative of the potentialities of this great
Dominion.
Across Canada by Canadian Pacific, from Victoria to
Halifax, is a journey of over 3,600 miles; other lines amount
to over sixteen thousand more. With suck a vast territory
to be covered, and with such a multiplicity of interest to be
described, it is inevitable that a certain abridgment must
be made. Other publications issued by this company enter
into fuller detail concerning various parts of the Canadian
Pacific system.
This Annotated Guide is issued in two £arts, West of
Winnipeg and East of Winnipeg. Copies of Part I, and
also of the Westbound Editions, can be obtained from
porters on transcontinental trains, Canadian Pacific passenger agents, or from the General Publicity Department,
Canadian Pacific Railway, Montreal. TABLE  OF   CONTENTS
PART   IL—WEST   OF   WINNIPEG   AND   CHICAGO
MAIN   TRANSCONTINENTAL    LINE
Winnipeg to Calgary     ...
Winnipeg to Calgary via Edmonton
Calgary to Field     -        -        -        -
Field to Revelstoke - •  -
Revelstoke to Vancouver -       -       -
Southern British Columbia Route -
MANITOBA
Winnipeg to Emerson,   Riverton,   etc.    -
Winnipeg to   Regina,  via Arcola  -
Winnipeg to   Napinka   -        -        -        -
Brandon  to  Esteven       -
Brandon to Saskatoon    -        -        -        -
SASKATCHEWAN
Regina to Saskatoon      -
Moose Jaw to Govenlock, Macklin, etc. -
Swift Current to Empress and Bassano -
ALBERTA
Calgary to Edmonton      -
Calgary to Lethbridge and Macleod
Branches from Lethbridge
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Lake  Windermere  Branch       - - -
Kootenay and Slocan Lakes Steamer Services -
Arrow Lakes   Steamer   Service       -
Okanagan Lake Steamer Service      -        -        -        -        -
Vancouver to Victoria, Seattle, and other steamer routes
Vancouver to Alaska      -------
Victoria to Courtenay and Alberni (E. & N.)
UNITED STATES
Chicago to St. Paul and Minneapolis     -       -       -
St. Paul and Minneapolis to Winnipeg     ...
St. Paul  and  Minneapolis  to Vancouver
Lethbridge to Spokane -       -       -       -    -   -
Index to Principal Stations will be found on page 143.
For description of lines East of Winnipeg and East of Chicago,
see Part. I.
Pages
76
83-
-86
91-
-100
101-
-110
111-
-119
120-
-131
64
87-
—88
88
66
68
70
71
72
89
90
122
104-
-105
126
110
112
132-
-135
136-
-139
139-
-142
77
78
78—
•82
122—
125 f
TABLE OF  MILEAGES
(By  Direct  Route  unless  otherwise  stated)
Montreal    Toronto    Winnipeg    Chicago Vancouvei
Banff, Alta  2326 2147 914 1694 560
Belleville^ Ont  221 119 1352 632 2826
Boston,   Wss  340 598 1752(a) 3226(a)
Brandon,    Man  1545 1365 133 1341
Brantford,   Ont.   (b) . . 405 65 1297 2771
Broadview,   Sask  1676 1496 264 1210
Brockville, Ont  156 239 1472 751 2947
Buffalo,   N.Y.    (e)  441 101 1333 613 2807
Oalgary,   Alta  2244 2065 832 1612 642
Chalk River, Ont  242 1169 2644
Chatham,   Ont  519 179 333
Chicago,  111  853 512 913 2254
Detroit,   Mich  569 229 1197 283 2671
Duluth,   Minn  1038(d) 859(d) 404 1878(e)
Edmonton. Alta.  (f)   . . 2438 2259 1026 1806 836
Edmonton,  Alta.   (g) . . 2260 2081 S48 2117
Field,   B.   0  2380 2201 969 1749 505
Port  William,   Ont.   . . 992 813 (h) 419 1893
Fredericton,   N.   B.    . . 459 798 1871 1312 3345
Galt, .Ont  398 57 1290 455 2764
Glacier, B.C  2466 2286 1054 1834 420
Guelph,  Ont  395 54 1287 488 2761
Halifax, N.S.   (i)     677 1018 2089 1530 3563
Hamilton,  Ont.   (c)    . . 380 40 1272 491 2746
Ignace,  Ont  1140 960 272 1746
Kamloops, B.C  2635 2456 1224 2004 250
Kenora, Ont  1286 1106 126 1600
Kingston,   Ont  208 209 1442 721 2916
bake   Louise,   Alta.    . . 2361 2181 949 1729 525
Lethbridge,    Alta.    (f) 2370 2191 959 1739 - 768
Lethbridge,    Alta.    (j) 2183 2004 772 1544 863
Lindsay,   Ont  294 67 1196 581 2670
London.   Ont  455 115 1311(k) 398 2785(k)
Medicine Hat, Alta.   . . 2068 1888 656 1436 818
Minneapolis,   Minn.   .. 1119(d) 939(d) 453 460 1794
Minneapolis,   Minn.   .. 1313(k) 972(k)
Montreal,  Que  340(1) 1412 853 2886
Moose   Jaw,    Sask.    . . 1810 1631 398 1178 1076
Nanaimo,    B.O.    (m) . . 2927 2748 1515 2295 41
Nelson,  B.C.   (n)      2690 2511 1278 2058 563
Nelson,   B.C.   (j)      2537 2354 1122 1894 518
New Westminster, B.C. 2877 2698 1466 2246 25
New York,  N.Y  384 539(c) 1796(a) 3270(a)
North Bay, Ont  360 1053 2526
Oshawa, Ont  303 87 1271 550 2744
Ottawa, Ont  Ill 265(1) 1300 777 2775
Owen Sound, Ont  461 121 1358 633 2827
Pembroke, Ont  220 1191 2665
Penticton, B.O. (o) . . 2706 2527 1294 2074 489
Penticton, B.C. (j) .. 2795 2616 1388 2156 251
Peterboro, Ont  262 78 1311 591 2785
Portage la Prairie, Man. 1467 1288 56 1418
Port Arthur, Ont  988 809 424 1898
Quebec, Que  172 513 1584 1025 3058
Regina, Sask  1768 1589 357 1220 1117
Revelstoke, B.C  2506 2327 1095 1875 379
St. John, N.B  482 822 1893 1334 8367
St. Paul, Minn  1109(d)   929(d) 464 449 1805
St.   Paul,   Minn  1302*(k)       961 (k)
St. Thomas, Ont  462 121
Saskatoon, Sask.  (q) . . 1940 1761 529 1749 1204(r)
Saskatoon,  Sask.   (s) . . 1892 1713 480
Sanlt  Ste.  Marie,  Ont. 618 439
Seattle,   Wash  3050 •  2870 1638 2418 164
Sherbrooke.   Que  106 447 1518 959 2992
Sicamous,  B.C  2551 2372 1139 19M 335
Skagway,  Alaska     8874 3695 2462 3242 988
Smith's   Falls,   Ont.    . 129 212 1444 724 2918
Spokane, Wash,  (J)   . . 2576 2396 1164 778
Sudbury, Ont  439 260 973 772 2447
Swift Current,  Sask... 1921 1741 509 1289 965
Toronto,    Ont  340(1) 1232 512 2706
Trenton,    Ont  231 109 1341 621 2816
Trois  Rivieres,   Que... 95 436 1507 948 2981
Truro,  N.S  696 1036 2107 1548 3581
Vancouver,  B.C.   (f) . . 2886 2706 1474 2254
Vancouver, B.C.  (j)   . . 3046 2867 1634 2407
Victoria,   B.C  2969 2789 1557 2337 83
Windsor,   Ont  567 226 1199(k)       286 2673(k)
Winnipeg,   Man  1412 1232 913 1474
Woodstock. Ont  428 88 424
(a)   via  Montreal,   (b) via Hamilton,   (c) via  Toronto,   (d) via   Sudbury,
(e)  via Winnipeg,   (f) via Calgary,   (g)     via Saskatoon,   (h) 655 miles via
Port McNicoll and steamship,   (i)  via Digby.  83 miles further via Moncton
(j)  via southern route, (k)  via Chicago,   (1)  via Lake  Shore;  2 miles less
via Peterboro,  (m) via direct steamer,  (n) via Revelstoke,  (o) via Sicamous
(q)   via Regina,   (r)   via  Edmonton,   (s)   via  Wynyard. W inn i peg 63
Portage Avenue, Winnipeg
Winnipeg Alt. 772—The population of Greater Winnipeg is estimated at 271,958, the city itself having
about 195,000. La Verendrye was the first white man to set
foot in Winnipeg, arriving in 1738, when he built a fort known
as Fort Rouge, which is now part of the city. Two years later
he built Fort Maurepas on Lake Winnipeg, as a point more suitable for trading with the Indians. In 1806 Fort Gibraltar was
built by the North-Western Trading Company, but ten years
later was destroyed. In 1822 a second Fort Gibraltar was built
and renamed Fort Garry when the North-Western Company
amalgamated with the Hudson's Bay Company. In 1835 Fort
Garry was rebuilt by Governor Christie with stone, the walls
running 280 feet east and west and 244 feet north and south.
This was an important trading centre for the Western plains,
but as late as 1871 the population of Fort Garry was only 215
souls. To-day Winnipeg is Canada's third largest city. Situated as it is, at the junction of the Red and Assiniboine Rivers,
a city of beautiful boulevards and parks, many golf links, and
summer and winter sports of all kinds, it is the home of a contented people.    It is the capital of the Province of Manitoba.
Winnipeg is the greatest grain market and grain inspection
point in the British Empire. It is the railway centre of the
West, and commands the trade of the vast region to the north,
east and west. Branch lines radiate in every direction. The city
is handsomely built, amongst the notable buildings being the
Provincial Parliament House.
The Royal Alexandra, owned and operated by the Canadian
Pacific Railway, ranks amongst the finest hotels in the world.
It was erected at a cost of $1,250,000, has been extended to twice
its original size, and is most handsomely decorated and furnished.
The hotel is adjacent to the railway station, a magnificent building which is the headquarters of the Company's western system.
Immense workshops of the Canadian Pacific Railway are here,
and the railway has also in this city the two largest train
yards in the world. One yard, which has been completed for
several years, has 110 miles of track. The second is even larger,
as it includes seventy tracks of a total mileage of 183 miles.
In connection with this yard development the Canadian Pacific
has a transfer elevator of a million bushels capacity. A land
office of the railway is located in the city, and here also are
the chief Western immigration offices of the Government, and
the immigration sheds. The C.P.R. owns large areas of good
agricultural land, and has a comprehensive colonization policy
for facilitating the settlement of practical farmers.
Since the advent of cheap hydro-electric power in 1911,
Winnipeg has made remarkable strides as an industrial centre.
It now supplies manufacturers with what is claimed to be the
cheapest power in America. During the war period the city
constructed a $16,000,000  aqueduct carrying pure, soft water if
64
Across   Canada
from Indian Bay, a portion of Lake of the Woods which juts
across the Ontario boundary into Manitoba, with a capacity of
100,000,000 gallons daily. In Winnipeg and St. Boniface are the
largest western stock yards and packing houses, with enormous
flour mills, mills for other cereal products, rolling mills, iron
and steel works, and automobile assembling plants.
WINNIPEG  TO  RIVERTON:   84  miles
Winnipeg A branch line runs north from Winnipeg to Winni-
Port   Garry peg Beach and Riverton.  Skirting the banks of the
Selkirk Red River, we traverse first a well-settled suburban
Matlock district,   and then  a truck-gardening  area,  reaching
Whytewold Lower   Fort   Garry,    built   by   the   Hudson's   Bay
Ponemah Company    as    a    trading    post    in    1831.     Selkirk
Winnipeg Beach    is    the     shipping    point    for    the    steamers    that
Gimli travel   across   Lake   Winnipeg   to   Warren's   Land-
Riverton ing,   at  the north  end  of  the  lake.     At  this  point
are successful fisheries, lumber business, and several factories. Matlock, Whytewold, and Ponemah
are summer cottage points. Winnipeg Beach is perhaps the most
popular summer resort for Winnipeggers. It stands on the shore of
Lake Winnipeg, and has a beautiful beach, dancing pavilion, hotels,
yacht club, hundreds of summer cottages, and all the other appurtenances of a successful resort. Gimli and Riverton are very-
progressive Icelandic settlements whose principal industries are fishing and lumbering.    The region is also a large pulp-wood producing
one.
WINNIPEG TO ARBORG: 76 miles
Winnipeg A branch north from Winnipeg runs throngh a sue-
Stony Mountain cessful market garden area and a fine mixed farm-
Stonewall ing district to the commercial centre of Stonewall.
Teulon At Teulon, 19 miles further, flax is being grown
Komarno in a commercial way for its fibre, so far with-
Arborg great success. As we travel north the wooded
country is reached and lumber becomes one of the
principal industries of this territory. Arborg, the terminus of this
line,  serves'a flourishing  country to  the  north  and west.
WINNIPEG TO EMERSON:  65 miles
Winnipeg
St. Boniface
Niverville
Otterburne
Arnaud
Dominion City
Emerson
Minneapolis
St. Paul
From Winnipeg a branch runs due south to the
international boundary, where connection is made
with the Soo Line. The route is through the fertile
valley of the Red River; and it is interesting to remember that Fort Garry (as Winnipeg was then called) was reached by this route before the building
of the Canadian Pacific Railway, except that the
river was used—first small boats that drifted with
the current, and then shallow steamers. St. Boniface is an independent city facing Winnipeg across
Of its 13,000 population, a considerable proportion
is French-Canadian. It has a fine cathedral, college buildings and
many manufactures, as well as the Union Stock Yards where
thousands of head of stock are handled and trans-shipped east and
south every year. The country down to the border was amongst the
earliest taken up in Western Canada, and some of the farms in this
neighborhood have been under cultivation for several generations.
Round Dominion City are large gypsum deposits which have been
investigated and found .highly suitable for development. Emerson
(population 1,300)  has grown rapidly during the past few years
the Red River.
Canadian Pacific Railway Station and Royal Alexandra Hotel. Winnipeg ...t-Jiiy " ■
Winnipeg Beach
WINNIPEG TO CALGARY: 832 miles
(For Map, see page 67)
Winnipeg
Rosser
Marquette
Reaburn
Poplar Point
High Bluff
Portage la Prairie
Between Winnipeg and Portage la Prairie
we traverse the Portage Plains, as level
for the most part as a billiard table.
We cross the Assiniboine River, the
course of which is marked by the line of
trees to be seen along its route. This
country is a great hay one, but also has
considerable grain growing and dairying.
Marquette is the home of the Indian tribe of 'hat name. At
Reaburn we are at the half-way point between Montreal and
Vancouver; not far away is Long Lake, a favorite resort for
sportsmen.
Portage la Prairie (population 7000, altitude 858) is the
centre of a large and very fertile agricultural district, and an
important railway point served by many branch lines. It is
situated a mile from the Assiniboine River, 56 miles west of
Winnipeg. It has large flour mills, brickyards, and other industries, and in addition to its present water supply the power
lines of the Manitoba Power Commission have now been strung
into the city from the Winnipeg River, 125 miles distant. North
of the city is Lake Manitoba, an excellent summer resort, with
boating, fishing, and summer cottages.
At Portage the Winnipeg-Edmonton service leaves the main line
(see page  83).
Bagot The country from Portage la Prairie to Brandon
MacGregor is for the most part a fertile and well-settled area,
with comfortable farm homes and large barn
buildings. It is a first-class grain and stock country, renowned
for the prize cattle which it raises," for this is the home of
several world-championship herds.
From MacGregor a branch runs in a westerly direction to Varcoe
and thence south to Brandon. North of Varcoe another branch
runs to Minnedosa, on the Winnipeg-Edmonton line (see page-83),
and from Forrest, between Varcoe and Brandon, there is yet another
running westerly to Miniota. These lines enter the heart of a magni-
fient and fairly old settled district, with many prosperous communities, such as Rapid City, Oak River, Hamiota, Crandall, etc.
Sidney
Carberry
Camp  Hughes
Chater
We are now well into the prairies, and from
here to Calgary will travel across them continuously. This vast region forms a mammoth agricultural area of almost limitless
possibilities. The three prairie provinces of
Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta contain a land area of 466,- 66
Across   Canada
000,000 acres. Of this amount, the conservative estimate has
been made that at least 200,000,000 acres are first-class agricultural land that will raise the finest of crops. At the present
time, scarcely more than 35,000,000 acres are actually under
cultivation, and the population of this vast area is only a little
over two millions. Of the remaining 165,000,000 odd acres of
available good farming land, considerably over 30,000,000 acres
are within a radius of fifteen miles of existing railroads. It
will be seen, therefore, how far the absorption power of Western Canada for population is from being exhausted.
Practically all the way west of here too, our train
is climbing up the long ascent to the Rockies; between Winnipeg and Calgary it climbs over 2600 feet. Carberry is a
prosperous town of 1000 inhabitants, with a surrounding country
reminiscent of the Portage Plains. Camp Hughes was, during the
period of the war, the training ground of thousands op western
soldiers. Running down the hill from Chater we cross the beautiful Assiniboine river again, and enter Brandon.
Brandon—(Pop. 18,000, altitude 1204 feet). Situated in the
centre of one of the richest agricultural and live
stock territories of Manitoba. Brandon is a railway divisional
point and an important commercial centre acting as a feeder to
nearly three hundred small towns, villages and hamlets. It has
flour mills, factories, distributing houses covering all lines of
farm machinery, and the largest seed warehouse in the West. It
is a modern city with complete educational facilities, churches
of all denominations, an Indian training school, and a Dominion
Government Experimental Farm. Beautifully situated overlooking the Assiniboine River, it is a home-like city with many
charming streets. It has a unique central heating system for
business premises.
From   Brandon   a   branch   line   runs   north   to   Minnedosa,   on   the
Winnipeg-Edmonton line   (see page 83).
BRANDON TO ESTEVAN:   164 miles
Brandon       From Brandon an important branch line runs in a south-
Souris westerly   direction   towards   the   international   boundary,
Hartney       which it then parallels for a considerable distance. ; This
Lauder line is  the medium for intercommunication between the
network of branches that laces the southern regions of
Manitoba and Saskatchewan. At Souris it crosses the Winnipeg-Regina
loop line (see page 87). Hartney is adjacent to large but as yet undeveloped electric power in the Souris River. At Lauder branches run
west to  Alida  and east  to Boissevain.- 3S  Indicates Double Track
WINNIPEG   TO   CALGARY 68
Across   Canada
Napinka At Napinka we join the Southern Manitoba branch from
Melita Winnipeg  via  La  Riviere   (see  page   88).    Continuing :
Pierson through an excellent farming region, we reach at Bien-
Gainsboro fait the centre of the Souris coal fields, where the Do-
Oxbow minion Government, in conjunction with the two provin-
Alameda cial governments concerned, are erecting a briquetting
Bienfait plant at a cost of some $600,000 to utilize and improve
Estevan the grade of coal for domestic consumption. The Souris
field is a somewhat low-grade lignite coal finding its
principal market in Manitoba. .At Estevan we reach the junction with
the Soo Line from St. Paul and Minneapolis to Moose Jaw (see page
81). A branch continues westerly to Neptune, through a ranching
and farming country with good clays and salt lakes awaiting development.
Kemnay
Alexander
Griswold
Oak  Lake
Routledge
Virden
Eikhorn
Kirkella
shooting in
population
Westward from Brandon we climb by a gradual
rise to the top of the Assiniboine Valley, and
travel through a prosperous fanning community wherein are situated many towns and villages definitely associated with the agricultural
products which are brought to their grain elevators and stock yards. It is a very attractive
country, too, with many beautiful spots such as
Oak Lake, which has fine duck and prairie chicken
its vicinity. Virden is a flourishing town with a
of 1600.
BRANDON TO SASKATOON:  397 miles
Brandon A. service runs north-west from Brandon to Saskatoon,
Virden on  the Winnipeg-Saskatoon line.    Following  the main
Kirkella line   to   Virden,   the   train   here   takes   the   branch   to
McAuley McAuley, where it connects with another short branch
Rocanville from Kirkella; also on the main line. The country
Esterhazy through which, we are passing is admirably suited to
Neudorf grain  and  mixed  farming,   and,   after the  province   of
Saskatchewan is entered at Welwyn, we are into the
Qu' Appelle Valley territory—a prosperous dairying country shipping
large quantities of cream, butter and live stock, and also a country
of beautiful scenery. The various towns are well built up and doing
a large local business, drawing from a tributary country well settled
with enterprising farmers.
Lemberg After passing Neudorf we run through a grain farming
Baicarres country of considerable importance, in part well treed.
Lipton and supplied with good water,  and then on to prairie
Southey lands that have always been productive of large crops. It
Bulyea is a territory of large farms, good buildings, and well-
Strasbourg      to-do farmers who have built up the country to a fine
Govan state  of   cultivation.    The  towns   are   all   active   com-
Nokomis mercial centres doing a large and varied business.    In
Lanigan tributary territory are lakes and local summer resorts,
Saskatoon good   shooting,   and   plenty   of   sports.    At   Bulyea   a
branch   line   runs   south-west   connecting  with   Regina
(see page 70) and at Lanigan the traveller goes either west to
Saskatoon or east to Winnipeg (see page 84).
Fleming Eikhorn has an Indian Industrial  School.   At
Moosomin Fleming the Manitoba boundary is passed, and
Wapella we enter the greatest wheat-growing province of
Whitewood      Canada, Saskatchewan, which produces over 60
Percival per cent, of the total wheat crop of the Do-
Broad view minion. Moosomin (population 1500) is a large
progressive town in a fine dairying country. To
the south is the Moose Mountain country. The numerous lakes
and woods which we pass make an attractive setting to a very
productive area. Broadview is the end of the Manitoba operating
%$m
Threshing in Manitoba Saskatchewan 69
district of the railway and the beginning of the Saskatchewan
District. Near the town is Lake Escape, with good fishing and
boating.
Oakshela Still climbing the grade, we run through one of the
Grenfell most picturesque districts of Eastern Saskatche-
Wolseley wan. Grenfell was amongst the earliest established towns of this part of the province. At Wolseley (population 1200) the Canadian Pacific has a nursery covering some 115 acres where trees are grown for the planting of
prairie farms and flowers and vegetables for the company's
hotels and dining-cars. Wolseley is also the headquarters of the
company's horticultural branch, which supervises the beautifying
of the stations on its entire system.
From Wolseley a branch runs through a prosperous grain and stock
country, well settled and with good business towns dotted through
an area that produces huge quantities of grain and other products
yearly. It has several lakes and summer resorts, and good shooting,
and is well served by good roads, rural telephone service, and excellent school facilities. At Reston this branch joins the line from Winnipeg to Regina, Weyburn and Assiniboia (see pages 71 and 87).
Indian Head Indian Head (population 1600), an old-establish-
Qu' Appelle ed and prosperous town, has an experimental
Balgonie farm and a forestry farm.      A long pull up
brings us to the pretty town of Qu'Appelle,
twenty miles north of which are the Qu'Appelle Lakes and
the fort bearing that name—an old Hudson's Bay post. Along
the valley the river and numerous lakes afford excellent fishing and duck shooting. Qu'Appelle is well-known for its beautiful trees. Leaving the town, we gradually draw away
from the wooded district on to the Regina plains, a splendid
stretch of grain growing country extending well to the north
and nearly down to the international boundary. From here
can be seen the dark blue line of the Dirt Hills south of
Moose Jaw, the western boundary of the plains. This is a very
productive region growing immense crops of grain each year.
Regina—(Population 45,000, altitude 1896 feet). Regina is the
capital and largest city of the Province of Saskatchewan, one of the most important distribution points west of Winnipeg for farming machinery and farm implements, and the
home of some large mail order houses. A huge oil refinery has
been built at a cost of two million dollars, the oil being brought
from Wyoming. Regina has a very handsome Parliament building, facing the placid Wascana Lake, and fine exhibition buildings. It is a modern city with well-paved streets, parks, large
educational institutions, splendid buildings, and numerous wholesale distributing houses and factories. It was for over forty
years the headquarters of the Royal North-West Mounted PoMi|j
one of the most famous bodies of constabulary in the world,
whose    exploits    have    been    so    often .   .,
chronicled,  both  in  fact  and   in  fiction,    in W. Vc
as to have become almost historic. This 7^ -» ^
force is  now known as  the  Royal  Can- ,
adian Mounted Police.
Provincial Parliament Buildings, Regina 70
Across   Canada
REGINA TO SASKATOON:  172 miles
Regina Covering a portion of the  great summer pleasure
Euston grounds of the people of Southern  Saskatchewan,
Lumsden Beach        a branch line runs north-west to Saskatoon, on the
Regina Beach secondary main from Winnipeg to Edmonton  (see
Holdfast page  84).    Regina  Beach,  on  Long  Lake,  within
Imperial easy reach of the city of Regina, affords good fish-
Simpson ing and shooting. The lake is a magnificent body
Amazon of watlr where  sailing,   boating,   and  all  aquatic
Young sports  can be indulged in to the heart's  content.
Colonsay Along  its  beaches  and  up  t11-   sides  of  its   treed
Saskatoon banks   are  scattered  hundreds   of  summer  homes.
North of the lake open prairie land succeeds, well
cultivated and well settled, with numerous prosperous towns. At
Colonsay the -traveller joins  the  Saskatoon line.
Euston Another route to Saskatoon is by a branch from Euston,
Bulyea connecting with  the Brandon-Saskatoon line   (see page
Lanigan 68)  at Bulyea.    This branch passes through a very at-
Saskatoon tractive farming territory. The cuttings through all
this lake territory show very fine clay deposits, which
have been investigated and are due for development. The train service
between Regina, Moose Jaw and Saskatoon is a good one for the business man, with an overnight daily service via Colonsay and a morning
service   (daily except Sunday)  via Bulyea.
At Regina the important Winnipeg-Regina loop line via Arcola joins
the main line   (see page  87).
Grand Coulee
Pense
Pasqua
territory
are seen.
Leaving Regina behind, we cross the Regina
plains, the extreme fertility of which will be
evident when one notices the large farms and
splendid farm buildings on either side. This
is a very thriving one, and herds of sheep and cattle
At Pasqua the  Soo Line from St. Paul and Minneapolis joins the
taain line  (see page 82).
Moose Jaw— (Population 25,000, altitude 1779 feet). Moose Jaw
is the centre of a rich wheat-growing district, and
an important divisional point. Its unusual name is a contraction
of an Indian word meaning "The-creek-where-the-white-man-
mended-the-cart-with-a-moose-jaw-bone"—an illuminating sidelight on an episode of pioneering days. The city is situated in
a fine agricultural country extending from the elbow of the Saskatchewan on the north to the Dirt Hills on the south. The finest
stockyards on the line between Winnipeg and the coast are
located here. Mills and elevators indicate the district's wheat-
producing qualities, Moose Jaw being one of the largest milling
points in Saskatchewan. A Dominion government interior terminal elevator, with a capacity of 3,500,000
bushels, lies just west of the city. The city is an
important wholesale centre, and has cheap electric
power. A new station is under construction to
RL      handle the increasing business at this point.
Moose  Jaw
_**■ The    Prairies
71
MOOSE  JAW   TO   GOVENLOCK:   263   miles
Moose Jaw      From Moose Jaw a branch runs south-westerly towards
Crestwynd       the international boundary to Assiniboia, and then turns
Expanse abruptly to the west..The region through which we pass
Assiniboia is settling up fast, and is- already a heavy-producing
one. Near Expanse is Lake Johnson, home of thousands
of wild duck and the Mecca of the sportsman every fall. Assiniboia
(population 1400) is a divisional point with large elevator capacity,
abundant lignite coal within seven miles, clay deposits, sand and
gravel in the immediate vicinity, and the centre of a rich grain-
growing  district.
From Assiniboia a branch runs east to Weyburn, on the Soo Lino
(see page 82) and continues to Stoughton, on the Winnipeg—Regina
branch (see page 88). This line passes through a ranching country,
only partially settled so far, but destined for great development.
Limerick The  country west of Assiniboia is good rolling prairie
Meyronne        with   many   large   sheets   of  water.        At   one   time   a
Kincaid considerable portion of this area was devoted to ranch-
Ponteix ing,   but   the  process   of  the   dissolution   of   these   big
Gouverneur     ranches into small farms, familiar .in many other parts
Cadillac of the west, has  taken place here also.     Clay deposits
Shaunavon      are plentiful  and also  small  coal areas.  Near Gouver-
Eastend neur  is   a  large   deposit   of flint  pebbles.    Shaunavon
Govenlock (population 1500) is the principal town of this territory.
Before the construction of the railway, the only means
of access to this district was by
Gull Lake and Maple Creek. We
are now approaching the Cypress
Hills, which lie to the north and
continue westerly towards the
south of Medicine Hat. At
Eastend we cross the Frenchman
river, near which are large
clay and sand deposits, with
big possibilities for the development of the china and pottery
industry.
The line has now been extended
from Govenlock to Manyberries, to
meet the line coming from
Lethbridge, (see page 122).
Through trains are now run between Winnipeg and Lethbridge
via the Arcola line, Stoughton,
Weyburn  and Assiniboia.
Royal   Canadian   Mounted
Policeman
• MOOSE JAW TO MACKLIN:   268 miles
Moose Jaw      An   important   branch   line   runs   north-westerly   from
Tuxford Moose Jaw to Macklin, on the Winnipeg-Edmonton line
Eyebrow (see page 85).    This line passes through the rich agri-
Tugaske cultural regions of Western Saskatchewan. After climb-
Elbow ing up a grade to a plateau, it enters a long stretch of
Outlook fertile prairie country extending to the Alberta boundary
and watered by the South Saskatchewan river. This
river is crossed at Outlook by a fine steel bridge, the third longest on
the Canadian Pacific System—3004 feet in length, 140 feet above
water level, and with eight truss spans supported by concrete piers.
Sovereign Crossing.the river, we continue through a fertile grain
Rosetown and   mixed   farming   country,   with   many   prosperous
Plenty towns.    Rosetown   is   a   convenient   point   for  the  rich
Kerrobert        area   known   as   the   Goose   Lake   country.   Kerrobert
Luseland (population   1200),   is   an   important   town  with   some
Macklin district  government  offices.    It  is  a  railway  divisional
point, branches running north-easterly to Wilkie and
westerly to Lacombe, on the Calgary-Edmonton line (see page 89).
Leaving Kerrobert we continue through the same kind of country to
Macklin, whence train can be taken either west to Edmonton or east
to Saskatoon and Winnipeg. This branch affords a direct route from
St. Paul to Edmonton.
Caron Leaving Moose Jaw on the westward journey, and
Parkbeg still climbing, we pass through-a somewhat varied
Chaplin country where settlement has not yet spread itself
Morse over all the available lands. Old buffalo trails can
Herbert be plainly seen, scarred and pitted on the prairie
Rush Lake by their "wallows". In the late eighties and early
nineties great piles of buffalo bones were stacked
up, adjacent to the railway, for transportation to the towns to
be made into fertilizer. Practically the only remainder of the
huge herds of buffalo that roamed the prairies fifty years ago
are at Banff and Wainwright, in government enclosures. Caron f
72
Across   Canada
V
1
V
Reaping
supplies Moose Jaw with part of its water supply. Morse and
Herbert are growing towns with large tributary agricultural
districts to serve. Rush Lake is a hunter's paradise; there are
literally millions of ducks in its great lake and marshes during
the breeding and shooting seasons. The prairie is rolling, and
at times a magnificent vista of level plain opens to the eye, with
thousands of acres of good arable land, both cultivated and uncultivated. Presently we wind around an unusually large roll in
the. prairie formation, and reach Swift Current.
Swift Current—(Population 4500, altitude 2432 feet) is situated on a pretty stream, which, although in
summer somewhat shallow, is a very turbid body of water when
the spring freshets are coming down. This is the end of the
Saskatchewan District of the railway, and the beginning of the
Alberta District. The city is an important one, with a large
distributing area for merchandise, reaching practically to the international boundary. Around it is a rich farming territory. A
government meteorological station is located here.
From Swift Current a short branch runs south and east, reaching
Blumenhoff, Neville and Vanguard. A new branch line is under
construction easterly from Wymark. Originally a ranching territory,
this area is now becoming settled, with grain farms and large
herds  of dairy  and beef  stock.
SWIFT CURRENT TO EMPRESS AND BASSANO:   236 miles
From Swift Current a branch runs north and then
west as a cut-off between this point and Bassano,
on the main line (see page 741. This branch
crosses the South Saskatchewan River at Empress,
east of which the river is joined by the Red Deer
River, running north-west and acting during T>«rt of
its course as the northern boundary of the Canadian
Pacific Irrigation Blick. The country through which
we pass is a typical prairie one of good promise
and excellent settlfm"T>t. with many growiner towis.
A new branch is under construction from near Prelate in a south-westerly direction towards Medicine
a divisional point that with the building up of the
itory will become an important commercial centre.
4T
Swift Current
Java
Success
Pennant
Cabri
Abbey
Sceptre
Prelate
Leader
Estuary
Empress
Hat. Empress is
surrounding ten-
Jenner Leaving   Empress,   we  run  through   a  sparsely  settled
Denhart country until we strike the Irrigation Block near Den-
Patricia hart. A scheme is now under consideration to use the
Millicent waters of the Red Deer River to irrigate all the country
Rosemary        round Jenner.    Entering the Irrigation Block we come
Bassano j within  sight  of many well-cultivated,  irrigated  farms,
which have transformed the dry prairie into a prosperous and highly-producing region. With the advent of a large num-
berof experienced irrigation farmers, this district is rapidly growing
in importance.
Seward
Gull Lake
Tompkins
Crane Lake
Piapot
Cross
Maple Creek
Kincorth
Walsh
Dunmore
reached.      Gull
Westward we travel through what was at one
time a purely ranching country but which
is to-day rapidly settling with first-class
farmers. Many of the small towns have
sprung into active existence within the last
few years. South are the Cypress Hills, a
country valuable because of the commercial
timber and extensive clay deposits which it
contains. It is still a great cattle country.
The hills increase in height as the range travels westward, until an elevation of 4790 feet is
Lake    was    at    one    time    the    jumping-off Alberta
73
place for this south country, but this traffic is now
handled by the branch from Moose Jaw to Govenlock. Crane
Lake is devoted principally to stock-raising. Piapot commemorates the name of an Indian chief who defied the North-West
Mounted Police to move him from his reservation. His tribe
numbered several hundreds. Two policemen were sent—and
suffice it to say that the Indians moved as per schedule! Maple
Creek is a prosperous and well-built town of some 2000 inhabitants in a good mixed-farming district. North of it is a fine
grain country, very well settled, and south, towards the Cypress
Hills, are some interesting small irrigation projects. Walsh is
the first town we pass in Alberta.
From Dunmore the important branch to Lethbridge, the Crow's
Nest Pass, Nelson, and Vancouver leaves the main line.   (See page 120).
Running down the hill to Medicine Hat, we notice the huge
clay banks that are being developed, first-class bricks being the
product. After crossing the Ross and Seven Persons Creeks we
reach Medicine Hat.
Medicijne Hat—(Population 12,000, altitude 2181 feet), is the
L-^' city  that  Rudyard  Kipling  once  called   "the
.town that was born lucky, with all hell for its basement". His
allusion was to the famous natural gas wells. The first well
was drilled in 1903; since that date 22 wells have been put
down, to a depth averaging from 1000 to 1200 feet, and each
producing from two to three million cubic feet of gas per dav.
The rock pressure is about 480 lbs. The area of the gas field,
so far as at present defined is 108 square miles. The gas is
used by the many factories of Medicine Hat for power and by
the inhabitants for lighting, heating, and producing electric
light, its cost being 5 cents per thousand cubic feet for manufacturing purposes and 20 cents per thousand feet for domestic
purposes. One of the largest clay products plants in the west
is situated at Medicine Hat, which is also a large flour milling
centre, its three mills having a capacity of 4700 barrels per
day.
Redcliff Crossing the South Saskatchewan River, and
Bowell climbing up the slope to Redcliffe we can obtain a
Suffield very fine backward view of the river and the city.
Natural gas plays a very important part in the
industrial life of Redcliff also, glass, steel and other manufactures being established here.
Leaving the main line at Suffield, a branch turns west to Lomond,
skirting in part the Bow River and running through a territory of
which a large part is being put under irrigation. The many towns are
growing rapidly as settlement comes in to take up the vacant lands.
Alderson The railway crosses a fine stock raising country,
Kininvie where some of the largest herds of Galloway cattle
Tilley in Canada are to be seen.    There is a strong up-
Bantry        . grade  to  Bowell, then  a  rapid  descent to  Suffield, followed by a steady rise.    The Bow River
occasionally appears to the south. The prairie is here seen to
Medicine   Hat 74
Across   Canad
^K^:cr/
or
;^js| pv
Brooks   Aqueduct
advantage, and before August it is a billowy ocean of grass.
Cattle ranches are spread over it, and farms appear at intervals.
The entire country is underlaid with two or more beds of good
coal and natural gas is frequently found in boring deep wells,
From Tilley on a very clear day the higher peaks of the Rocky
Mountains, nearly two hundred miles distant, can be seen.
Just west of Alderson the line enters the three-million acre
Irrigation Block of the Canadian Pacific, extending from this
point to within a few miles of Calgary, a distance of over 140
miles. This is the largest individual irrigation project on the
continent, and is divided into three sections. Work was completed about thirteen years ago on the western section, and the
greater part of the land in that area has been settled. The
eastern section, extending from Alderson to Bassano, is almost
entirely completed, and is now being settled.
Brooks—The source of supply for the water used for irrigation
.in the Eastern Section is the Bassano Dam, but before
we reach Bassano we pass a very important structure in the
Brooks Aqueduct. Here it is necessary to carry water from the
reservoir, Lake Newell, across a long flat valley. This is accomplished by a reinforced concrete flume two miles in length
and in places over 50 feet high. Its construction marked an
interesting departure in the matter of water transportation; it
is the first aqueduct in which the hydrostatic catenary, or elastic
curve, has been adopted for the shape of the water section.
There being insufficient clearance for the flume to cross the
railway overhead, the water is carried underneath the track by
means of an inverted siphon.
Cassils Thirty miles west of Brooks is Bassano, three miles
Bassano from which the great Horseslroe Bend Dam is situ-
Lathom ated in the Bow River. By means of the dam, the
ordinary water level at the site is raised 45 feet, so
that the waters flowing from the far distant eastern slope of the
Rocky Mountains are diverted through a total length of 2,500
miles of canals and distributing ditches, over about 1,800 square
miles of fertile prairie country, irrigating approximately one-
Bassano Dam The
Irrigation
Block
75
third of the amount. Altogether the structure has a total
length of nearly 7000 feet, being made up of two main parts—
a reinforced concrete spillway, 720 feet in length, with 24 electrically-operated gates, which permit of the free passage of the
river at highest floods, and a concrete-faced earthen portion of a
maximum height and width of 45 and 350 feet respectively.
Leading from one end of the spillway is the main canal, 90 feet
wide, capable of discharging 3800 cubic feet of water per second
at a depth of eleven feet, through headgates which form an
integral part of the main structure.
From Bassano a branch runs west and north through the western
section of the Irrigation Block, joining at Irricana a branch running
north from Langdon, on the main line, to Beiseker and Acme (see
below).
Crowfoot At Crowfoot the Rocky Mountains are again seen.
Cluny Near this point, south of the railway, is a large
Gleichen      reservation occupied by the Blackfoot Indians, some
of whom  are  frequently  seen  about  the station.
Cluny has a large nursery for supplying trees to prairie farmers.
At Gleichen again are many Indians, with an Indian hospital and
Canadian Pacific Supply Farm,  Strathmore
school. The Dominion Government is spending large sums of
money to see that its red wards are well cared for, and is assisting them to enter agriculture and other peaceable pursuits.
From Gleichen to Shepard there are two lines, one running to the
south and touching the well-developed farming points of Strangmuir,
Carseland and Dalemead, the other, the old main line through Namaka
and  Strathmore.
Namaka Beyond Gleichen the Rockies come into full view
Strathmore —a magnificent line of snowy peaks extending far
Langdon along the southern and western horizon.     From
Gleichen for several miles westward the line traverses the Western Section of the Canadian Pacific Irrigation
project, and the canals and ditches are crossed at several points.
Irrigated farms are seen on each side of the track. There is not
the same necessity for irrigation in this region as there is5in:
most "dry" regions of the United States, but the advantage of
irrigation to Southern Alberta is that it increases the crop yield
and ensures a crop every year. The growing of many profitable
crops not ordinarily raised in this region, such as that very paying fodder crop alfalfa, is also made possible by the use of irrigation. Strathmore is the headquarters of the western section
of the Irrigation Block. It has a large Canadian Pacific Supply
Farm which supplies, from its own production and by purchase
from surrounding farmers, the western dining car system and
hotels of the company with cream, butter, eggs, poultry, vegetables and other commodities.
From Langdon a branch line runs north through the Irrigation
Block to Acme, whence it is* being constructed into the Drumheller
coal fields. From Irricana, about 25 miles up this line, a branch runs
south-easterly  to  Bassano   (see  above). 76
Across   Canada
ft
Shepard     As we approach Calgary, we see on the north side of
Ogden the track the large construction and repair shops of
the Canadian Pacific, the Ogden Shops Crossing
first the Bow River and then its tributary, and passing a huge
flour mill under construction, a cement plant, a huge packing
house, stock-yards, and other industries, we reach Calgary.
Calgary—(Population 72,000, altitude 3439). At Calgary we
reach the end of the prairies proper and are on the
edge of the foothills, which climb up gradually to the Rockies.
Calgary is the largest city in the Province of Alberta and also
between Winnipeg and Vancouver. Founded less than forty
years ago, it is now a flourishing industrial and agricultural
centre, with many manufacturing industries, and is well supplied
with clay and building stone deposits and is close to immense
developed coal areas and large developed water-powers.
At the west end of the station block is the imposing Canadian
Pacific Hotel, the Palliser. This handsome structure, completed
in 1914, comprises ten floors in an "E" shape, which makes
every room an outside room. From the roof garden one can
obtain a beautiful view of the Rockies. At the east end of the
platform is the building of the Natural Resources Department of
the C.P.R., administering all the company's land, mineral and
timber interests in the West. The Canadian Pacific has a very
simple but excellent method of settling experienced irrigation
farmers on the land, giving twenty years for payment of the cost
of the land after a first payment of ten per cent, has been made,
and then for a period of three years collecting only the 6 per
cent, interest, thus enabling the farmer to get firmly established
on his land and his farm in full operation. This method has been
the means of creating many fine homes and contented settlers.
Calgary has modern facilities, electric power, street cars, and
natural gas, which is piped from Bow Island at very cheap prices
for both manufacturing and domestic purposes. The city has
some beautiful parks and many golf courses, including a municipal course.
Transcontinental Journey Continued on page 91.
Palliser Hotel, Calgary Connections    from   Chicago    77
W^^B
Michigan Boulevard, Chicago
SOO LINE
Chicago to St. Paul and Minneapolis: 460 miles
Chicago
Silver Lake -
Burlington
Mukwonago
Waukesha
Milwaukee
Fond du Lac
Oshkosh
Neenah
Waupaca
Chicago, the second city in size and importance
in the United States, is left in the evening, for
a fast, comfortable, enjoyable run on a perfect
train. The line to Milwaukee branches off
from the main line at Rugby Junction, but
through sleepers are operated daily between
Milwaukee and the Twin Cities.
Waukesha, Wis., is famous for its wonderful
water, which is shipped all over the country.
It is a city of beautiful drives and handsome
residences, with several lakes nearby, while the
Fox river flows near the city. Waupaca, Wis., is one of the
most noted of the vacation spots within easy reach of either
Chicago, Milwaukee, or the Twin Cities. The lakes at Waupaca are over twenty in number and form a chain several
miles in length. The irregular shores, with their hard, sandy
beaches, tempt the lover of bathing, while the launch or canoe
owner finds the place ideal for cruising. There are many
other beauty spots, including Stevens Point,-
Fremont, Fond du Lac, Oshkosh, Cedar Lake,
etc. There are thousands of beautiful lakes
along the right-of-way through the entire
state, and many are well known as ideal
summering places because of the fine summer homes and the well-appointed summer
hotels which are built along these shores.
The clear crystal waters of these lakes are well stocked with
game fish of all descriptions, the large and small mouthed
black bass being the most popular with the average sportsman, although the mighty '"lunge", which often grows to a
weight of over forty pounds, is also a prime favorite.
Passing through the beautiful Minnesota country to the
Wisconsin state line, the St. Croix river is spanned by a
mighty bridge. Through Wisconsin the line - runs through an
agricultural territory that is fast becoming known as part
of the best farming land in the entire western country.
Minneapolis and St. Paul are reached the fol-
St. Paul lowing morning,  after having enjoyed  a  trip
Minneapolis    over one of America's finest railroads.
Stevens Point
Marshfield
Abbotsford
Eau Claire
Chippewa Falls
New Richmond 78
Across   Canada
&ti_x*s_ȣz
St.  Paul
Soo Line: St, Paul to Winnipeg: 464 miles
St. Paul
Minneapolis
Brooten
Glenwood
Alexandria
Parker's Prairie
Henning
Detroit
Ogema
Mahnomen
Thief River Falls
Emerson
Winnipeg
From St. Paul and Minneapolis the Soo
Line runs direct to Winnipeg via Emerson. The route is through the lakey way
of the Minnesota lakes, much resembling
in outline a gigantic fish-hook, with the
eye at the Twin Cities, the shaft running north-west as though in ages past
some titanic bass had struggled with it.
This belt is not comparatively wide
through the first hundred miles of its
length out from the Twin Cities, but
broadens as it turns northward through
a territory which is at once a beauty
spot and a great black bass preserve.
West of this region the country smoothes down and sobers off
into the famous prairies of the Red River Valley, every foot of
which is capable of furnishing its quota of wheat, corn and
other cultivated crops. Eastward, the land varies from prairie,
to pinery, but the park region itself is a territory with slightly
rolling surface, where wood-rimmed lakes are divided by wooded
prairies and where prosperous farming has not harmed but
heightened the charm of the scenery.
At Glenwood we leave the St. Paul-Moose Jaw line, and turn
north towards the Canadian boundary through Alexandria.
From Alexandria northward to the White Earth Reservation
the scenery in its nature" varies little, being a succession of
well-tilled farms, of beautiful groves of magnificent timber, and
of picturesque sheets of sparkling spring water. The country
supports many business centres. Richville and Dent are located '
advantageously in splendid farming territory and are towns of
great promise. Detroit is an old established town, finely located
in the midst of numerous lakes and having within a small
radius a great number of summer hotels. Northward from
Detroit until the Canadian boundary is reached, the country,
although farmed to some extent, is as yet almost virgin territory-
For fishing and hunting it is almost without a peer. At Emerson we cross the border into Canada, and thence travel to
Winnipeg over Canadian Pacific metals. {For description of this
route and the Westbound Transcontinental Journey beyond, see
page 64).
SOO LINE
St.  Paul-Minneapolis to  North  Portal:  562  miles
St. Paul St. Paul and Minneapolis, the Twin  Cities  of
Minneapolis the Northwest, form the most important financial and manufacturing centre between Chicago
and Milwaukee, on the east, and the Pacific Coast on the west.
Politically two municipal corporations, they are in substance
one large community of over 600,000 population. St. Paul is
the  capital  of the  State  of Minnesota  and the  older  of  the Indicates Double Track .
ST. PAUL-MINNEAPOLIS to WINNIPEG and MOOSE JAW 80
Across   Canada
Milling District, Minneapolis
Twins". It is the terminus of nearly all the railway lines
in the Northwest and an important jobbing centre. Minneapolis
is younger, larger and more advantageously situated than St.
Paul. The principal advantage was primarily the immense
water power developed by the falls of St. Anthony, aggregating
40,000 utilized horse power, employed almost wholly in the
manufacture of flour. Minneapolis, due to the presence of these
mills, is the largest primary wheat market in the world. During recent years it has also become the leading flax seed market,
as the largest flax production in the world from the new lands
of North Dakota, which are tributary, forms the basis of the
immense linseed oil production of the Twin Cities. Minneapolis
is the site of the University of Minnesota.
Buffalo
Maple Lake
Annandale
South Haven
Kimball Prairie
Paynesville
Brooten
Glenwood
The country along the Soo-Pacific Line running west from Minneapolis to the International Boundary Line between North Dakota and Canada may for convenience be
split into three divisions. The first, running
slightly northwest to Elbow Lake (172
miles), passes through the lake country.
Here the settlement is comparatively old,
and the people are prosperous. They have
passed through the early period in farming when the farmer
depends upon a single crop, and have learned the practical importance of diversification; and not only wheat, oats, barley, but
corn and other crops receive their share of attention. This is
one of the rich dairy sections of the state. Every little community has its creamery, or milk station, and the people are correspondingly prosperous and progressive.
Almost every station on the Soo-Pacific Line running west from
Minneapolis has its lake resorts. Often there are a number of
lakes of considerable area within a radius of five miles from the
town. Some of the finest lake cottages in the Northwest are on
this line. Buffalo, Maple Creek, Annandale and Glenwood are particularly famous, Glenwood being the location of the new second
state fish hatchery, although South Haven, Kimball Prairie,
Paynesville and other towns are having increased attention and a
corresponding appreciation from summer visitors. At all of these
lake resorts ttie fishing is excellent. Disciples of Walton come
from as far as Chicago and St. Louis for the fun of catching the
superb black bass for which Minnesota lakes are famous.
Elbow Lake The second division into which the country
Fairmount along the Soo-Pacific Line naturally divides
Hankinson itself may be called the great wheat belt of
Enderlin the Northwest, running from Elbow Lake in
Valley City Western MinnesotaNiQ Harvey, in the north
Carrington central   part   of   North   Dakota,   passing
Fessenden through the Big Bend country of Richland
county, through Hankinson, Enderlin, Valley   City,   Carrington   and   Fessenden   en    route.    The   great Southern   Saskatchewan
81
■£&£&»
wheat belt of Minnesota and the
Dakotas is fast learning the lesson which has been taught old
communities; that is, that a single
crop will never make a country
prosperous, no matter how profitable it may be at the beginning.
The time will come when the land
will cry out for a change and diminished crops must result. Fortunately the development of mixed
farming has already begun. At
Hankinson fruit raising experiments have resulted in establishing
a fine apple orchard, which is the
basis of considerable fruit-growing
through North Dakota. But for
many years the Dakotas and Minnesota will continue the bread basket of the continent. Here the
bonanza farms first surprised the
agricultural world and the growing
of grain assumed its wholesale
proportions and characters.
Harvey The third natural di-
Minot vision of the country
Kenmare      along the Soo-Pacific
Flaxton        Line from Minneapolis west is that newly opened
Portal land area which is now aptly called "Flaxland".
During the past few years the production of flax
has increased prodigiously. It is the crop particularly adapted to
the newly broken soil of the Dakota prairie. Frequently the production runs as high as 20 bushels to the acre. From Flaxton a
line has been built westward into Montana through a splendid
wheat country. The present terminus of the branch is White-
tail, Mont. But even here the lesson of diversified farming is
being applied. Considerable attention is paid to stock and sheep
raising,  and  wheat  produces  immense  crops.
CANADIAN PACIFIC RAILWAY
NORTH   PORTAL  TO  MOOSE  JAW:   167  miles
A   Western   Canadian
"Land   Girl"
North Portal
Estevan
Macoun
Midale
Halbrite
Ralph
Portal is on one side of tL? International boundary between the United States and Canada,
and North Portal is on the other. Here also
we leave the metals of the Soo Line and continue our journey on those of the Canadian
Pacific Railway, running in a north-westerly
direction  towards   the  main  transcontinental
line.    We enter an interesting territory of large coal deposits,
A Western  Canadian Farm Home 82
Across   Canada
Horse Ranching ■
with many operating mines and very extensive clay areas
supplying material to numerous brick nlants. The country
is somewhat rough, and is drained by the Souris river. Investigation has been carried on for some years with a view to im--
proving the value of the coal measures of this district, and a
briquetting plant is under construction to be followed by byproducts plants. This will enable a better class of domestic coal
to be sold. North of Estevan, a flourishing centre with a population of some 2,500, we enter a very fertile area known as the
Soo Line country, flanked on the west bv the Dirt Hills and on
the east by a continuation of the Regina plains. It has always
been a good crop territory, settled many years ago with farmers
mostly from the United States, who have prospered and built
fine homes and have well laid-out and cultivated farms.
At Estevan connection can be made for Napinka with a
through service to Brandon (see page 68) i r a connection to
Winnipeg via Deloraine (see page 88). From the same point a
branch runs west to Neptune   (54 miles).
Weyburn Weyburn,  centre  of a very prosperous corn-
Yellow Grass    munity and with a population of about 3,200,
Lang is  the next large point of importance.  Con
nections are made at Weyburn east to Stoughton, Souris, Brandon and Winnipeg, (see page 87) and also
westward to Assiniboia, on the Moose Jaw-Govenlock line (see
page 71).
Milestone At Ralph work was carried on during the war
Wilcox to test the value of large potash deposits lying
Rouleau beneath the  surface,  and at Yellow  Grass  an
Drinkwater      extensive  scheme for the reclamation  of the
Pasqua marsh in that district is under way. At Pasqua
Moose Jaw       this line joins the main line, and seven miles
further on reaches Moose Jaw, whence it continues to Vancouver (see page 70).
Cattle Ranching in Saskatchewan Manitoba
83
Canadian  Pacific  Railway  Yards,  Winnipeg
WINNIPEG TO EDMONTON: 848 miles
(For Map, see page 67)
Generally speaking, the main line of the Canadian Pacific
Railway means the transcontinental line between Montreal and
Vancouver. But there is really another main line, which is that
portion of the system over which the through trains between
Winnipeg and Edmonton are operated. It is an interesting
trip through a* well-wooded country, the magnificent scenery of
the Qu'Appelle Valley, the grain plains of Saskatchewan, and
the parklands of Central Alberta.
Winnipeg All trains on this line start from Winnipeg and
Portage follow  the   transcontinental  line  to  Portage  la
Gladstone Prairie (see page 65). From Portage la Prairie
Neepawa the line branches in a north-westerly direction.
Minnedosa As we progress north from the Portage plains,
the country becomes rolling and well-treed. It
is an old and well-settled district, with many important business centres, such as Gladstone, Neepawa and others.
From Minnedosa, a divisional point on the Little Saskatchewan
River, a branch line runs south and west to Varcoe, Miniota and
Brandon.     (See page 65).
Basswood Minnedosa (pop, 1600) is an important farming
Strathclair centre in a flourishing territory, and quite a
Shoal Lake beauty spot. En route to Birtle we get a good
Kelloe view of the valley, and at Birtle, the centre of a
Birtle large mixed farming area, is the home of Sam
Binscarth      Larcombe, an expert in the growing of vegetables
and   grain,   and  the  winner  of many prizes  at
agricultural  exhibitions.
At Binscarth a line runs northeast to Russell and an extension
farther north in the direction of the Riding Mountains is now under
construction. The Riding Mountains are a great field for the sportsman.
We pass
along
through a
t h r i v -
ing country
until Bredenbury, the
end of the
M anitob a
District of
the railway,
is   reached.
Portage la Prairie 84
Across   Canada
Churchbridge
Bredenbury
Saltcoats
Yorkton
Foam  Lake
Leslie
Wynyard
Lanigan
Saltcoats derived its name from a large lake,
and is a well-developed town. Yorkton (population 5200) is one of the most important towns
in this territory, surrounded by an immense
farming and well settled area of grain growing and dairy country. It has a large wholesale business. Westward we pass through a
mixed farming territory, comparatively newly
settled, wtih much bush and plenty of
ponds and sloughs, which make it the paradise both of the
ducks and the hunter. South of Wynyard will be seen the
Big Quill Lake, on the shores of which a summer resort has
been established. Wild geese, turkey, ducks and chicken provide good sport.
At Lanigan branches run south' to Brandon (see page 63) and Moose
Jaw (see page 70). There is under construction in a northeasterly
direction a new line to tap the more northern parts of the province.
Plunkett      Most of the territory through which we are now
Colonsay     passing has been settled d- ring the past twenty
years. It is a good territory, producing large crops
and peopled with first-class farmers.
From Colonsay a branch runs south to Regina and Moose Jaw (see
page   70).
El stow Passing along to Sutherland, which is a divisional
Sutherland    point, we come to the University of Saskatoon,
the home of higher education in the province for
both Arts and Agriculture, and, crossing the North Saskatchewan river by a very fine steel bridge, enter the city of Saskatoon.
Saskatoon—Alt. 1596 (Population 26,000), is a city of rapid
growth modern in every particular, with fine business blocks, public buildings, paved streets, a beautiful river
boulevard, electric light and power, street railway and manj
river bridges. It is a city of optimism and the centre of a large
territory for wholesale trade. There are many factories, including the large Quaker Oats Company mill turning out a thousand
barrels each day. The Dominion Government has here an
interior terminal elevator with a capacity of 3,500,000 bushels
that takes care of storage of grain and relieves the pressure
during the grain shipping season. There are large parks and
a fine baseball ground. Saskatoon is a city destined to build to
large dimensions. Its territory is fruitful and well settled and
its products mixed and numerous.
Asquith Passing along to Asquith we can look back and get
Perdue a fine view of Saskatoon, the river and its buildings.
Biggar Asquith is a mixed farming district, and between it
Oban and Wilkie the territory is settling up and is very
Trayner productive. There are many lakes lying back from
Wolfe the line which are popular local summer resorts.
Wilkie Near Oban there are a series of salt lakes (sodium
sulphate), such as the White Shore Lake, which will
be developed in course of time. At Trayner we run into one of
the Canadian Pacific Railway
"Ready Made Farm" districts
which have been so successfully   created
in
many parts of
the Western
Prairies. Wilkie
is a divisional
point, a town of
commercial importance to the
district, and from
it   radiate   three
lis
:. J5^3feSfc>teA4£i2i
£**   51
WW-
'litiiip
Saskatoon University Central    Alberta
85
Reaping by Tractor Power
lines north and south serving a well developed and productive
country.
One branch connects with Kerrobert on the Moose Jaw-Macklin line.
Important points on these branches are to the south, Leipzig, Handel,
Kelfield, Broadacres, Tramping Lake, Revenue and Reford, while
to the north is Thackeray,  Cloan, Rockhaven and Cutknife.
Phippen
Adanac
Unity
Rutland
Evesham
Macklin
Hayter
Provost
Cadogan
Metiskow
Czar
Hughenden
Amisk
Hardisty
Lougheed
Sedgewick
Killam
Strome
Daysland
Bawlf
Ohaton
Camrose
Bittern Lake
Gwynne
Leaving Wilkie we continue On the journey
through an attractive wheat growing country
and note that between Senlac and Evesham
there is a salt lake in course of development
which produces, after drying, a very fine salt
suitable for table and other uses. Macklin is
the junction point for the line running south
and east to Moose Jaw (see page 71). Near
Hayter we enter the Province of Alberta.
Provost is half the distance between Saskatoon
and Edmonton. We are now passing through
a good stock country, with good feed and
water. South of Czar the Imperial Oil Company are drilling and testing for oil in the
Teat Hills. The next point of interest is
Hardisty, beginning of the Alberta District of
the railway, and surrounded with good lands
and coal and clay deposits. Lougheed is
named after Senator Sir James Lougheed.
The district around the next few points
is a fine wheat growing and mixed farming
area, where one of the first Canadian Pacific
Railway ready made farm colonies, numbering 120 units, was established. Coal abounds
in this territory and mines are in operation at Bawlf and Rosenroll. The larger part of the Province of Alberta appears to be underlaid with coal deposits.
Camrose (pop. 2500) is a well situated town doing a large business and from which many lines of railway radiate. It is the
centre of a good coal area, with operating mines and a big
dairying and mixed farming district. It is the home of
the Alberta Scandinavian College as well as high and normal
schools. There are good lakes and good shooting. Bittern
Lake, just beyond it, is a beautiful spot. It is a large stock
centre. At Gwynne we run into some very fine clays that can
be utilized for brick-making.
Wetaskiwin     At Wetaskiwin  (from the Indian name "Hills
Millet of Peace")  we join the through line running
Leduc from Calgary tojpdmpnton  (see page 90).   It
Strathcona       is a city of some 1,500 inhabitants, backed by a
good country and a developed lumber industry to
the west nearer the mountains.  , Coal, marl and clay are in the 86
Across   Canada
Cowboys
vicinity. Running north we
pass through a
park - like country well settled
and productive of
good crops and
stock, fo Strathcona, which is
now part of the
city of Edmonton. It is connected with Edmonton by a
good street car
service.
Edmonton—Alt. 2183. Population 66,00". capital of the Province of Alberta, is situated on both sides of the
North Saskatchewan River. The portion on the south bank was
originally known as Strathcona, the two cities being amalgamated in 1912. The C.P.R. enters Edmonton by means of a
magnificent steel high-level bridge, 2,250 feet long, 152 feet
above water level, which carries also street car tracks and traffic
roads. This bridge was opened in 1913. Edmonton was established as a trading post of the Hudson's Bay Company in
1795; the magnificent buildings of the Province of Alberta now
being located on the site made historic by the original trading
post of Fort Edmonton. The old Fort was dismantled only a
few years ago. The University of Alberta, the Robertson
Presbyterian College, Alberta Methodist College, and many
other educational institutions are situated here. The city is
run on very progressive municipal lines, and owns and operates
all its own public utilities. It is the distributing centre for the
vast Peace River country to the north and northwest, and is also
the centre of an important and rapidly developing coal industry,
the production of the mines in and around Edmonton being over
4,500 tons per day.
There are many points for summer vacation within easy reach,
including the very fine Lake Wabamun, which is well patronized
during the summer months. Sixty miles west of the City
at Rocky Rapids there is large water power available for
development. It will be noted with some interest that Edmonton is approximately the centre of the Province of Alberta
from North to South, and that there is yet a vast territory
to be developed.
EDMONTON,
DUNVEGAN  &  BRITISH  COLUMBIA
RAILWAY
The Edmonton, Dunvegan & British Columbia Railway,
extending northwestward from Edmonton to Grande Prairie
(4 16 miles),
with a branch
from McLennan
to Peace River
(50 miles), is
now being operated by the
Canadian Pacific Railway.
Some oi the
most fertile
sections of
the great
Peace River
district are thus
rendered accessible. Parliament Buildings, Edmonton Southern   Manitoba
87
"Countess of Dufferin"   (C.P.R. Locomotive No.  1)   in front of Winnipeg
Station
WINNIPEG TO REGINA, via ARCOLA: 366 miles
(For Map, see page 67)
Winnipeg Of the many branches that radiate from Winni-
Headingley peg, one of the most important is that which
Starbuck makes a long loop south of the main line between
Elm Creek Winnipeg and Regina. This passes through a
splendidly fertile country, well settled with prosperous farmers who mostly came in during the pioneer days of
Manitoba and are now reaping the enjoyment of their leisure.
At Headingly, ..Winnipeg practically ceases, as evidenced by the
street-car line, and after crossing the Assiniboine River we
reach Elm Creek.
Prom Elm Creek a branch runs south 12 miles to Carman, a town
of  1200 population and great• prosperity.
Treherne Continuing   our   journey   westward,   we   run
Holland through  a pleasing country of large  farms,
Cypress River   well  treed,  with  many  lakes  and  a  succes-
Glenboro sion  of  line  towns  and  villages  in  a pros-
Souris perous condition. This region produces large
crops, and on every side big herds of cattle and
dairy stock are to be seen. Souris (population 1800) is beautifully situated on a small river, and carries on a large business.
At   Souris   is   the   junction   point   with' the   Brandon-Estevan   line
(see  page  66).
Schwitzer    Continuing  westward,  we  pass   through  a   well-
Deleau settled prairie country that shows  good crop re-
Pipestone    turns and has ]  any important towns. The Arcola
Reston country  ht-s   always  been  noted  as   a  first-class
farming area, which conditio-  W testified to by the
fine farm buildings we  see on either hand.
At   Reston   a  branch   runs   in   a  north-westerly  direction,   joining
the main transcontinental line at Wolseley   (see page  69).
* A^Et'A .   v 7 ufag     7-: -    .;.-:•.;•: 2EyY^
EtSlgSi
Dairy Cattle 88
Across   Canada
Manor Shortly afterwards we enter the province of Sas-
Carlyle katchewan, and speed on through a good wheat-
Arcola growing district until we reach Arcola  (popula-
Kisbey tion  1000),  a  progressive  town  with  a  pretty
Stoughton      summer resort named Fish Lake.  Stoughton is
Fillmore the point from which a branch line runs to Wey-
Francis burn, on the line from St Paul and Minneapolis to
Regina Moose Jaw (see page 82). Then we turn north
westward, and in about three hours reach Regina,
on the main line   (see page  69).
WINNIPEG TO NAPINKA: 221 miles
(For Map, see page 67)
Winnipeg Another very important branch line from Win-
Morris nipeg is that which runs due south and then .west,
Rosenfeld paralleling the international boundary at a not
very great distance. This region, probably one
of the earliest settled
of the west,
is one of
close popula-
ti on and
large production, the Red
River Valley
being noted
for its fertile
soil. The
country is
well-treed,
and pleasing
to the eye, supports large herds of fine dairy stock, and is a
fruit-growing district of some note.
Prom Rosenfield a short branch runs south to Altona and Gretna,
connecting at the border with the Great Northern Railway.
Sheep Farming on the Prairies
-Plum Coulee
Winkler
Morden
Manitou
La Riviere
Wood Bay
The towns through which we are passing are
all fairly large, and have a big trade. Morden (population 1500) is a flourishing centre,
with a Dominion Government Experimental
Farm nearby and cement deposits fourteen
miles distant. At La Riviere, a divisional
point, there are found some very good red
shales which produce a high-class brick.
Prom Wood Bay a short branch runs south to the international
boundary, reaching a well-populated country with such important
towns as Snowflake, Mowbray and Windygates.
Pilot Mound The country which we traverse is not only an
Crystal City exceedingly prosperous one; it is also a beauti-
Cartwright ful one, and such points as Crystal City and
Killarney Killarney have become popular summer resorts.
Boissevain Killarney has a particularly lovely lake, with
Deloraine good  fishing  and  boating.   The  town has  a
population of some 1200, and an experimental
fruit farm. Boissevain (population 1000) is another summer
resort, situated in the heart of a fine wheat-growing district.
Deloraine is another highly prosperous town.
Prom Rosenfeld a short branch runs south to Altona and Gretna,
line (see page 66) and from Deloraine another runs south-westerly
to Lyleton.
Medora      The country is a table-land one, producing fine crops
Napinka    of wheat and other grains.    Napinka is the junction point  of this  line  with  the  Brandon-Estevan
line   (see  page   68). r~
Branches   from   Calgary
89
Calgary
CALGARY TO EDMONTON: 194 miles
(For Map, see page 67)
Calgary
Airdrie
Crossfield
Carstairs
Didsbury
Olds
Innisfail
Red Deer
From Calgary a very important branch line
runs north to Edmonton,' passing through
and serving an exceptionally rich region well
suited for mixed farming and especially for dairying. This district, as a matter of fact, is one
of the most successful dairying, areas of Alberta,
which fact is testified by the large number of
creameries situated along the line. For about
thirty miles after leaving Calgary the.line skirts
the extreme western boundary of the Canadian Pacific Irrigation
Block. As far as Crossfield the character of the country has
been very similar to that seen along the main transcontinental
line—undulating prairie with very little timber; but from this
point north, generally called "Central Alberta", the keynote
changes. The country is more wooded, bush will be seen everywhere, gradually increasing size the farther north we go,
until at Edmonton the trees are almost continuous. At Olds
is one of the Agricultural Schools established by the Province
of Alberta, where practical courses in agriculture, animal husbandry and domestic science are available for farmers' sons
and daughters. Red Deer (population 3000), is the commercial
centre of this mixed farming and dairying district. Situated on
the Red Deer River about midway between Calgary and Edmonton, it is a well-established city with many factories and
distributing houses. In the neighborhood are found coal, clay,
gravel and sand deposits.
From Red Deer a branch line runs west to Lochearn (62 miles)
passing through a very beautiful mixed farming country with large hay
areas. Sylvan Lake, on this line, is a very popular resort for Calgary
and Edmonton people. At Lochearn we cross the North Saskatchewan
River, and westward a road lies to the Brazeau coal fields in the foothills of the Rockies.
Blaekfalds     Leaving Red Deer we cross the Red Deer River
Lacombe and run through some very picturesque country,
well adapted to mixed farming and stock raising;
as a matter of fact, all the territory from Calgary north has
seen a large number of prize cattle raised. Lacombe (population 1800) is another important centre, and is the site of. a Dominion Government Experimental Farm. About eie-ht miles west
is another highly ponular summer resort, Gull Lake.
Prom Lacombe a branch runs in an easterly direction through Central Alberta and Saskatchewan, to Kerrobert (223 miles), where it
joins the line running north-westerly from Moose Jaw to Macklin
(see page 71). The region through which this line passes is a prosperous mixed farming one, with an important dairying industry.
Sodium   sulphate   deposits   are   found   near   Fusilier,   coal   mines   at 90
Across   Canada
Nevis, and some fine clay deposits at Alix. Along the line are some
flourishing towns, such as Clive, Alix, Erskine, Stettler, Gadsby,
Castor, Coronation, Consort, Monitor, Compeer, etc. From Coronation, an important centre and divisional point (population 1,200), another branch  runs  north  25  miles  to  Lorraine.
Ponoka Resuming our journey towards Edmonton, we
Wetaskiwin continue through the same prosperous dairy-
Edmonton ing and mixed farming country. Ponoka is the
site of the provincial asylum for the insane. At
Wetaskiwin we meet the Winnipeg to Edmonton line (see page
85) and travel along it for over forty miles until we reach the
capital city.
CALGARY TO LETHBRIDGE: 126 miles; and MACLEOD
108 miles ijcr
(For Map, see page 67)
Calgary
Midnapore
Okotoks
Aldersyde
Blackie
Kirkcaldy
Carmangay
Nobleford
Kipp
Lethbridge
From Calgary an important branch line runs
south to Lethbridge through a very prosperous
agricultural country. Midnapore is the site of a
well-known orphanage founded b^r Father Lacombe, one of the most famous pioneers of the
West. West of Okotoks, in the Turner Vallev,
is the Dingman oil-field, which has been producing a high grade gasoline since 1916 and
where large natural gas deposits abound. The
towns in this region are well-developed and flourishing. East of Kirkcaldy and Blackie there is
some particularly good country. Nobleford is the home of one
of the largest individual farming organizations in Canada, owning and operating upward of 30,000 acres of land. It was on
this farm that a measured tract of land of one thousand acres
produced in 1916 an average of 54% bushels of Marquis wheat
to the acre, and on a tract of 1075 acres in 1915 produced an average of 126 bushels cf Banner oats to the acre. At Kipp we
meet the Crow's Nest Pass line (see page 122) and in a few
minutes are in Lethbridge.
Aldersyde From Aldersyde a branch runs direct to Macleod,
High River      through an old  settled country running right
Nanton back to the foothills of the Rocky Mountains,
Stavely which, for a considerable part of the journey,
Claresholm      are plainly visible on the western horizon. This
Macleod region is a great grain and stock country, fam
ous for many years back as the location of some
celebrated ranches, of which the "Bar U", near High River, is
probably the largest. H.R.H. the Prince of Wales owns a
ranch near the Bar U. The country is a beautiful one, and in
the Highwood River district particularly affords good fishing
and shooting. In the foothills are large coal measures and indications of iron ore deposits. Many very valuable clay deposits are found, and also a first class building stone. At
Macleod we join  the  Crow's  Nest Pass  line   (see page 122).
The  T. S. Ranch House, near High River JS^sssSr&w^*3
Indian Teepee
Approaching   the   Rockies      91
CALGARY TO FIELD: 135 miles
(For Map, see page 93).
(The figures after the names of stations denote
altitudes, in feet)
Westward from Calgary we enter the most wonderful region of
Canada—the Canadian Pacific Rockies, which interpose their
giant bulk between the provinces of Alberta and British Columbia. Nature has thrown up this system on so vast a scale
that their greatness cannot ' be
grasped except by
some comparison.
The transcontinental trains
take twenty-four
hours to pass
from Cochrane, at
the entrance to
the Rockies to
Mission, where
one finally leaves
them. The simplest parallel is
that of the Swiss
Alps. To traverse
these by train takes only five hours. When, therefore, the late
Edward Whymper, one of the most famous mountaineers that
ever lived, described the Canadian Pacific Rockies as fifty Swit-
zerlands thrown into one, this certainly was no exaggeration.
The Rockies were first seen several miles east
of Calgary, but the finest distant view was
that obtained from the roof garden of
the Palliser Hotel. Now we leave the city
and the hotel behind. Between Winnipeg
and Calgary the line has already climbed
over 2600 feet; from Calgary to Banff
it must climb another 1100 feet in eighty
miles. Following the course of the Bow River, the great
stretches of level prairie cease, and the rolling grassy
foothills .succeed, rising tier upon tier to the base of the
great ranges to which they are the outposts. At Cochrane
we are well within the foothill country. In the lower valleys
can be seen huge ranches, for this is a great stock-raising
country, and on the higher terraces can be se&n great herds
of cattle and sheep. These transverse valleys are the grooved
courses of ancient glaciers. As we leave the town and ascend
the river, from the top of the first terrace we can get a full view
of the Rockies at last. Morley is the modern home of the
Stoney Indians, once a very warlike race but now the most
industrious of red men.
Seebe is the site of the two hydro-electric power plants that
supply Calgary with the bulk of its electrical power. The
first plant was completed in 1311, the second in 1915, at a
total cost approximating three million dollars. Generators with
a total capacity of 29,500 horse-power are installed in the power
houses, and the voltage is "stepoed up" very considerably and
transmitted over high tension lines. The dam, consisting of a
solid concrete structure 600 feet in length and capable of discharging over 40,000 feet of water a second, can be clearly seen
on the right from the train. The same company have also
built a dam across the Devil's Canyon at Lake Minnewanka for
etorage nurnoses, for use in winter.
Calgary
3439
Brickburn
3485
Glenbow
3688
Cochrane
3750
Radnor
3896
Morley
4078
Seebe
4182 92
Across   Canada
Kananaskis
Exshaw
Gap
4180
4261
4248
The mountains stand up before us, an
impenetrable wall; to cross them
seems almost impossible, but over the
Kananaskis river, a little above its
an iron bridge. Crossing this, we hear
Cfiti
The Three Sisters, Canmore
junction with the Bow, is
che roar of the Bow's
mishty cataract called Kananaskis Falls,
named after a mythical Cree chief and
meaning "a tall,
straight pine with
branches near the
top." The country
in this region is full
of Indian lore. The
Indians conceived
the whole country as
a great giant, hence there are the Knee Hills, the Hand Hills,
Ghost Hills, and many such.
At Exshaw is located a large Portland cement mill, which has
an average output of 4,000 barrels a day. It draws its supplies
of limestone and shale from the excellent deposits close to the
mill. From here onward we first notice how an ordinary upland
stream differs from a glacier-fed river. The former, as it tumbles
from great heights, may be foamy and tumultuous, but the latter
is always milk-green with a sediment of glacial silt. This silt is
composed of infinitesimally fine particles ground from the rocks
by the ice scraping over them. A bend in the road brings us
between two almost vertical walls of dizzy height, streaked and
capped with snow and ice, and we enter the mountains by means
of this Gap. On our right is the Fairholme Range, opposite
it is the Goat Range. The prominent peak is Grotto Mountain
(8870 feet), and those on our left are Pigeon Mountain, iWind
Mountain, and the Three Sisters. Contrast the ranges ahead.
Those on the right are fantastically broken and castellated;
the ones opposite are massive snow-laden promontories,
rising thousands of feet. They are penetrated by enormous alcoves imprisoning all the gorgeous hues of the prism.
The reason why the profiles looked so jagged from the plains is
now apparent. These
mountains were lifted
up in some huge upheaval, say geologists,
'way back in the Devonian and Carboniferous
ages. The rock is all
stratified, and some sections rose up while
others remained almost
as level as before,
others tilted more or
less towards the east
and still others bent
and crumbled under the
tremendous pressure
from the sides. Today nothing but colossal fragments of the original remain, and
it is these we see from the observation car.
The Gap
Canmore 4295     Canmore,   a   coal   mining   town,   is
Bankhead 4581     passed in a few minutes.  Here on the
left is obtained a striking profile of
the "Three Sisters", companion peaks that form one of the first
notable sights of the journey.   The highest peak is 9734 feet in  94
Across   Canada
1
I
height. The curious groups of pillars on the right, some of
them ten times as tall as a man, are made of hard enough
material to withstand the weatherings that have played havoc
with the surrounding bank. They are called "hoodoos". Ahead the
great bulk of Cascade Mountain blocks the view. The pass
narrows suddenly. On the left,' the sharp peak is Rundle, so
called in honor of an early missionary to the Indians. Here we
leave the Bow for a time and strike up the valley of the Cascade
River directly in the face of Cascade Mountain, which apparently is but a stone's throw away. Really it is miles distant, but
we cannot quite free ourselves of the illusion that it rises and
advances to meet us.
Near Bankhead is located the Bankhead Mine, one of the very
few anthracite mines in Canada, but not at the present time in
operation.
Banff   4534   Canada has a magnificent svstem of twelve National Parks, of which nine are in Western Canada. Of the latter, six of the most important are traversed by,
or lie adjacent to, the Canadian Pacific Railway.
Banff is the administrative headquarters of Rocky Mountains
Park, the easternmost and largest of these six. The park has
an area of 2751 square miles, its greatest length being about
100 miles. No part of the Rockies exhibits a greater variety
of sublime and romantic scenery, and nowhere are good points
of view and features of special interest so accessible, where
there are so many good roads and bridle paths.
Its principal mountain ranges are the Vermilion, Kananaskis,
Bourgeau, Bow, and Sawback ranges; its principal river is the
Bow, which has for chief tributaries the Kananaskis, Spray,
Cascade and Pipestone rivers. The Panther and Red Deer
rivers flow through the northeastern portion of the Park, which
includes part of the Bow River Forest Reserves. Of the many
beautiful lakes within the Park, the principal are Louise, Minnewanka, Hector, Spray, Kananaskis and Bow Lakes. Banff and
Lake Louise are the chief centres.
Within easy walking distance of the village is Sulphur Mountain, a long wooded ridge rising to an elevation of 8030 feet,
which has an observatory on its summit and the Canadian Alpine
Club's permanent club-house on the slopes. The club has a membership of about 500, and holds a camp every year somewhere in
the Canadian Pacific Rockies. In the various mountain ranges-
that make up the Canadian Pacific Rockies—the Rockies proper,
the Selkirks, and the Gold, Coast, Cascade, and Purcell Ranges—
there are, according to government measurements, no less than
672 mountain peaks above 6,000 feet in height above sea level.
Banff Springs Hotel Banff
95
This list includes
only those peaks
which bear names
and does not profess to exhaust
the innumerable
mountains that
have not yet been
named or measured. Of those
actually listed,
there are 146 over
10,000 feet.
Cascade Mountain (9826 feet),
faces the village
like a glowering
giant. The sharp
pointed edge of
Mount Rundle
(9665 feet) makes
a most striking
feature. Mount
Edith (8370 feet)
and Stony Squaw
(6160 feet) are
close at hand.
Crossing the Bow
River bridge from the village, we follow a road to where the Banff
Springs Hotel stands on a height between the foaming falls of
the Bow and the mouth of the rapid Spray river. This hotel,
operated by the Canadian Pacific Railway, has been constructed
on a magnificent scale. From its verandah beautiful panoramas
are to be viewed. Just below the terrace is one of Banff's three
distinctive sulphur swimming pools, supplied with sulphur water
piped from Sulphur Mountain and averaging 90 degrees Fahrenheit and possessing great curative value. The pool is a beautiful one, affording excellent swimming; and a semicircular cold
water pool adjoins it on the crest of the hill. The other two
pools are at the Upper Hot Springs, on the wooded slopes of
Sulphur Mountain and reached by carriage or on foot; and at
the Cave and Basin, about a mile west of the bridge, where the
government has erected a handsome $150,000 swimming bath.
Mount Assiniboine
Swimming Pool, Banff Springs Hotel
Jj 96
Across   Canada
Buffalo  at  Banff
In an enclosed park about
1% miles to
the other side
of the village
are a number
of specimens
of native animals, such as
buffalo, elk,
moose, mountain sheep and
mountain goat.
The   buffalo
herd, with a somewhat larger one in another park to the
north, comprise the sole remains of the million buffalo which
roamed the prairie fifty years ago. Long launch trips up the
river, tennis, driving, motoring, swimming, horseback riding,
fishing, beautiful walks, and mountain climbing are some of the
diversions open to visitors. A nine-hole golf course, now being enlarged to eighteen holes, is situated on the banks of the
Bow River at the base of Mount Rundle. These links occupy the
site of the headquarters of the Snaring Indians, so called on account of their hunting methods. The tribe is now extinct, but opposite the club house are pits which they used as winter quarters, and where many flint spears and arrowheads have been
found. There are wonderful fossil beds on the south and east sides
of Lake Minnewanka, from which many very fine specimens have
been collected. An annual Indian "Pow-wow" of sports, races,
etc., is held during the month of July.
Of great interest to automobile enthusiasts is the new automobile road that has been constructed by the Dominion Government,
the British Columbia Government, and the Canadian Pacific
Railway from Banff to the
Columbia Valley (see page
105). Its course is southeast
from Castle Mountain,' which
we shall shortly pass, through
Vermilion Pass, over tie
Rockies and then through
some subsidiary ranges until
it reaches beautiful Lake
Windermere. Twenty miles
south of Banff in another direction is Mount Assiniboine
(11,860 feet), the "Matter-
horn of the New World", the
first ascent of which was made
after many unsuccessful attempts, in 1901. The way thither leads through beautiful valleys shaded with transparent
blue lakes and park-like prairie openings, and the journey is a
particularly fine pony and camping trip.
Castle Mountain Alt. 4638 Leaving Banff, the railway rejoins
Eldon "   4822 the Bow and follows it up through a
forested valley. Look backward an i
see if the memory of that view will ever leave you! We skirt
the Vermilion Lakes and obtain an excellent view of Mount
Bourgeau on the left. Far to the south these snow^peaks enclose
Simpson's Pass. A sharp turn, and also on the left we see
Pilot Mountain, a landmark of mountain trappers visible from
either end of the Bow, Hole-in-the-Wall Mountain (9184 feet),
on the right, has an interesting cavern running into the moun-
Castle Mountain Through   the
Rockies
97
Mountain Sheep
tain for 160 feet
which has been used
as a ineeting place
by the Masonic
Lodge   of   Banff.
Castle Mountain, a
sheer precipice 9030
feet in height that
towers almost 500C
feet above the railway, is so named because no imagination whatever is required to see in it the outlines of the towers
and battlements of some ancient fortress. This mountain overlooks the railway for almost eight miles. After passing Castle
Mountain, we see to the right the bare, rugged and sharply
serrated Sawback sub-range, with a spur, called the Slate Mountains, in the foreground at Lake Louise. Looking ahead we
catch many enchanting glimpses until, at Eldon, the whole array
is in full view. Turning to the left, and looking backward we
see Pilot Mountain, Copper Mountain, Mount Brett and Vermilion Pass, where the continental watershed sends the Vermilion River westward into the Kootenay. On the south is Storm
Mountain (10,309 feet) and the snowy dome of Mount Ball (10,825
feet). Loftiest and grandest of all towers Temple Mountain
(11,626 feet). This great snow-bound mountain, whose crest
exhibits precipitous walls of ice flashing blue in the sunlight, is
the most conspicuous and admirable feature of the wonderful
valley.
Lake Louise Alt. 5044—Thirty-five miles from Banff we reach
Lake Louise. To reach the lake we
must ascend another 620 feet, which we do by means of a light
gasoline railway. Turning a shoulder of the mountain, we come
suddenly into full view of Lake Louise, named after Princess
Louise, wife of the Marquis of Lome, one-time Governor-General
of Canada. This is one of the most perfect gems of scenery
in the world—"a lake of the deepest and most exquisite coloring,
ever changing, defying analysis, mirroring in its wonderful
depths the sombre forests and cliffs that rise from its shores
on either side, the gleaming white glacier and tremendous
snow-crowned peaks that fill the background of the picture, and
the blue sky and fleecy clouds overhead". On.the shores of this
beautiful lake the Canadian Pacific Railway operates one of its
Chateau lake Louise 98
Across   Canada
Lakes in the Clouds
splendid hotels, the Chateau Lake Louise. No more beautiful
spot and no more comfortable hotel could be chosen by Anyone
wishing to make either a short stay or a long one in the Canadian
Pacific Rockies. Many there are who are entirely satisfied to
sit on the verandah
watching the marvellous kaleidoscope of
color that flits across
the surface of the
lake.
The principal mountains surrounding
Lake Louise are
(from left to right as
you stand on the hotel
verandah) Saddleback
(7783 feet), Fairview
(9001 feet), Lefroy
(11,220 feet), Victoria
(11,855 feet), Whyte,
(9776 feet), Devil's
Thumb    (8066   feet),
Big Beehive (7440 feet), Niblock (9754 feet), St. Piran (8681
feet), and Little Beehive (7110 feet). Victoria Glacier, which
shuts off the southern end of the lake, in an awe-inspiring spectacle. Along the westerly shores of the lake is a delightful
mile-and-a-half walk affording splendid views of these gigantic
peaks.
Amongst the numerous delightful excursions from Lake Louise
is that to Lakes in the Clouds, two gems that nestle high up on
the mountain side. The trail leaves the west end of the Chateau
and rises gradually to Mirror Lake (altitude 6650 feet), and
thence to Lake Agnes (6875 feet). There are beautiful views
on the way up, and the trail is excellent. A charming tea house
has recently been established on the shore of Lake Agnes. The
trail continues around Lake Agnes and up a zigzag path to the
Observation House on the Big Beehive. The trip can be made
either by sure-footed mountain pony or on foot, and the round
trip distance is about five miles. Return can be made if desired
via the Little Beehive and Mt. St. Piran, or via the lower glacier
trail.
Another charming trip is that to Moraine Lake, a lovely mountain lake lying in the "Valley of the Ten Peaks". These ten
peaks, all of which are over
10,000 feet high, and the
highest of which, Mount
Deltaform, is 11,225 feet,
encircle the eastern and
southern sides of the lake,
and present a serrated profile that affords a most
majestic view. Lake Moraine affords good trout-
fishing, and during the
summer months a small rest-
house and camp is maintained on the shore of the
latter. On the eastern shore
of the lake is the Tower of
Babel (7580 feet), a
mountain of somewhat •
curious shape, on the
other side of which is Consolation Lake.
Yet another fine pony trip
to Paradise Valley. Ponies ■[.,Kl.   ,,m,s; Lake   Louise
99
may be taken up Paradise Valley, via either the Saddleback and
Sheol Valley, or via the low trail. The journey is continued up the
valley to a short branch trail leading to the Giant's Steps, a
step-like   rock   formation   over   which
the water glides in
silver
sheet 5.
The journey   mav
then     be
continued
across the
vallev   to
Lake   Annette
(altitude   6500
feet),   a   tiny
emerald   she ;t
of   water    on
the    side    of
Mount Temple,
and   thence   back
miles.
In a southwesterly direction from Lake Louise is Lake
O'Hara, presenting in its surroundings features of wild Alpine
grandeur that cannot be surpassed. There is an excellent trail
from Hector, a1 few miles west of Lake Louise station, and the
trip affords an extremely delightful two days' camp. Further
pony and camping trips of one or more days' duration can be
made in several directions, such as along the Pipestone River.
This trip leads north from Lake Louise to an alpine lake high
up on a mountain meadow amid high glacial surroundings of
spectacular grandeur and beauty. The lake is full of trout. The
camping ground is nineteen miles from Lake Louise station.
Consolation Lake, which is about three miles from Moraine
Lake, is also a very profitable place to fish for cut-throat
trout.
For those who wish to visit the glaciers, climb mountains, or
make some of the more strenuous trips through the passes,
Swiss guides, whose services can be obtained by visitors, are attached to the Chateau Lake Louise. There is good trout-fishing
at several points near Lake Louise.
On tho  Trail
to   Lake   Louise,   a   distance   of   thirteen
Moraine Lake and Valley of the Ten Peaks 100
Across   Canada
eaaags;
•»■■
The Great Divide
The Great Divide Alt. 5298—Six miles west of Lake Louise is
the "Great Divide", which is at
once the highest elevation of the Canadian Pacific Railway, the
boundary between Alberta and British Columbia, and the very
backbone of the continent. It is marked by a rustic arch spanning a stream under
which the water divides. The waters that
flow to the east eventually reach Hudson
Bay and the Atlantic
Ocean; the rivulet
that runs to the west
adds its mite to the
volume of the Pacific.
On the left is the
granite shaft erected
to the memory of Sir
James Hector, the
discoverer of the
Kicking Horse Pass,
which permits the Canadian Pacific Railway to cross the Rockies.
Hector     From the Great Divide the railway begins to descend.
Wapta Camp, on Wapta Lake (Hector Station) is an
attractive summer resort for tourists, consisting of rustic bungalows with a central community house.
Between here and Field, a distance of fourteen miles, it
descends, in fact, nearly a quarter of a mile through the
Kicking Horse Pass. Formerly this was a difficult track, the
gradient being 4.5 per cent.; but by two wonderful tunnels
—forming one of the most notable engineering feats in existence—this dfficulty has now been eliminated, and the grade
reduced to 2.2 per cent. These tunnels are the famous "Spiral
Tunnels". From the east the track enters the first tunnel under
Cathedral Mountain 3255 feet in length, and after turning a complete circle and passing under itself emerges into daylight 54 feet
lower. (Mount Cathedral 10,454 feet). »The track then turns
easterly, and crossing the river enters the second tunnel, 2922
feet long,
under Mount
Ogden (8795
feet). Again
turning a com-
plete circle
and passing
under itself, it
comes out 50
feet lower and
continues
westward to
Field. The
whole thing is
a perfect
maze, the railway doubling
back upon itself twice and
form ing a
rough     figure
"8" in shape. If the train is run in two sections, passengers
are able to see the other section at a higher or lower level
(according to which one they are in) making its way down the
big grade. Kicking Horse Pass owes its name to an incident
of early pioneerng days in which a "kicking horse" figured
literally.
Spiral  Tunnels, Field The   Yoho   Valley
101
FIELD TO REVELSTOKE: 126 miles
Field Alt. 4072—Field is the divisional point between the Alberta
and British Columbia districts of the railway.
Towering 6,000 feet higher than the little town is seen Mount
Stephen (10,485 feet) and in front of it roars Kicking Horse River,
which the railway will now follow for a considerable distance.
Field is the gateway to a wonderful mountain, resort,   the   far-famed   Yoho   Valley,
which stretches away to the north between
great glacier-bound peaks. The Yoho Park,
another national park, has an area
of 476 square miles.    Among its
attractions   are   Takakkaw   Falls,
the   Twin   Falls,
the Yoho Glacier,     fe
etc.    The Takakkaw    Falls,    the
return    trip     to
which     can     be
made in a day by
either   motor   or
pony     along     a
good    trail,    are
among  the  most
wonderful in the
world. An immense volume of seething,. boiling water rushes
over the precipice on the far side of a narrow gorge, and descends
the rock sides in clouds of foam, a drop of 1,200 feet.   Farther
up the Yoho Valley, following the Yoho River, is a rather more
rugged country, affording a longer trip. Twin Falls, divided by a
high rock on the edge of the precipice, are of even greater interest than the Takakkaw Falls, owing to the vast columns of steamlike spray caused by the concussion of their two columns of water
with the rock floor nearily 700 feet beneath. From here one can
penetrate still farther into the ranges and reach Yoho Glacier.
The trip from Field to Emerald Lake is a delightful one. An
excellent carriage road crosses the Kicking Horse River at
Field to the base of Mount Burgess, and leads through a forest
of balsam and spruce to Emerald Lake, sjgfen miles distant.
This beautiful lake, of most exquisite coloring and sublimity of
surroundings, lies placid under the protection of Mount Wapta,
Mount Burgess and Mount President. It is well stocked with
fish, and its vicinity affords many charming excursions on foot.
A picturesque two-story log chalet has been erected on the shore
of the lake, and is operated by the Canadan Pacific. Here the
tourist may break his journey en route to the Yoho Valley.
Mount  Stephen and Field
Emerald Lake 102
Across   Canada
Takakkaw Falls. Toho VaUey
It is also possible to reach the Yoho Valley from Emerald
Lake. From Emerald Lake an excellent trail leads around the
lake to the Yoho Pass (altitude 6,020 feet), where it is joined
by the trail from Field over Mount Burgess. Reaching the
summit by pony, a wonderful view is obtained. Summit Lake, a
small but beautifully colored lake, is passed, and thence descent
is made into the Yoho Valley. Yet another route to the Yoho
Valley is over the Burgess Pass. The pony trail from Field rises
up the wooded slopes of Mount Burgess to the pass (altitude
7,150 feet), from which a magnificent panoramic view of the surrounding mountain ranges may be obtained. Mount Burgess, a
sharp-topped mountain, 8,463 feet, is in the centre, with the
Kicking Horse River on the left and the road to Yoho Pass on
the right. Continuing '
along the slopes of
Mount Wapta the trail
is almost level until
the Yoho Pass is reached, whence descent is
made to either Takakkaw Falls or to Emerald Lake.
At Wapta Lake, Lake
O'Hara and Takakkaw
Falls are picturesque
bungalow camps for the
accommodation of visitors. Mention must also"'
be made of the famous
Mt. Stephen fossil beds,
reached from Field by a
pony trail which rises
to an elevation of 6,000
feet above the sea level.
The fossil beds . are
over 2,000 feet in thick-
nesS. Open  Top  Ohservation  Car
Resuming our journey westward from
Field, we find "open-top observation
cars" provided for travellers, which
afford the utmost opportunities for
viewing the magnificent scenery. The locomotives on this section are oil-burning, which means an absence of smoke and dust.
Emerald
Alt. 3895
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POOLE   BROS. CHICAGO.       \a      10-1J20
"   ii  .EST   Indicates Double Track
FIELD TO REVELSTOKE
y 104
Across   Canada
The railway begins to descend steadily. The narrow valley of
the Kicking Horse divides the Ottertail Range on the left from
the Van Home Range on the right. A vivid contrast in mountain
formation can be made between the two ranges. One mile west
of Emerald we can see Mount Goodsir (11,676 feet) on the left,
the highest of the Ottertail group. At Leanchoil we leave the
Yoho Park.
On the left, Mts. Vaux and Chancellor are seen, the glacier on
the former plainly visible. Mount Chancellor (10,781 feet) is one
of the giant peaks of the Ottertail range. Between the two
mountains is what is probably the best knOwn group of "hoodoos", but they cannot unfortunately be seen from the train,
although two miles west of Leanchoil, on the left side, is a rocky
bluff where "hoodoos" in the process of formation through the
action of the elements can be plainly viewed. At the base of
Mount Hunter the river turns abruptly and plunges into the
lower Kicking Horse Canyon.
Palliser Alt. 8288 The canyon rapidly deepens until, beyond
Glenogle " 8008 Palliser, the mountain sides become vert-
Golden "     2583    ical.    The roar of the river as it rushes
from side to side of the narrow gorge,
the thunder of the train as it follows the river—pandemonium
increased a thousandfold by the reverberations of the canyon
walls—gives an indescribable sensation until at Golden we suddenly
reach daylight again and the
noisy, turbulent Kicking Horse is
received into the calm bosom of
the mighty Columbia. The railway, as has been said, has been
descending, although just here it
has risen a little again, and at
Golden it has descended 1,500 feet
from Field, and has left behind it
the Rocky Mountain Range.
Golden, an interesting town
with large lumbering and mining
interests, commands the trade of
the fertile Windermere Valley to
the south. The Columbia river,
the most important waterway
flowing into the north Pacific
Ocean on the western side, rises in
the north end of Lake Windermere, and flows north in a famous
"Big Bend", paralleling the railway for several miles until it
leaves it at the lower slopes of the Selkirks to re-appear at
Revelstoke on its way south to the United States. To the right
of the track, shortly after leaving Golden station, can be seen
the model Swiss village of "Edelweiss", erected by the Canadian
Pacific for the Swiss guides whom it employs for the benefit of
mountain climbers. Previous to the erection of this village,
which lies on the slopes of a hill and reproduces with remarkable
verisimilitude the characteristic architecture of the Swiss chalet,
the guides had always returned to Switzerland at the end of
each season, but now they live in Canada the entire year.
Continued on page 105.
GOLDEN TO CRANBROOK: 166 miles
Swiss Guide's Chalet, near Golden
Golden
Spillimacheen
Edgewater
Lake Windermere
Goldie Creek
From Golden a branch line runs south
through the fertile Columbia Valley,
touching for a considerable part of the
journey the beautiful Lake Windermere,
and joining the Crow's Nest line at Col-
M The   Selkirk  Ran ge
Canal Flat valli. From Golden we travel past many
Wasa new settlements, from the clearings of
Fort Steele which smoke is  sometimes  still rising..
Bull  River until we reach Spillimacheen, where there
Colvalli is   a   wonderful   view   of   the   Selkirk
Cranbrook Mountains.    The  new  motor road  just
built through the Vermilion Pass from
Banff (see page 96) joins the government road at Sinclair,
sixty miles from Golden. Both at Sinclair and at Fairmount,
near Lake Windermere, there are interesting hot springs. The
scenery of this valley is splendid, and the canyons and creeks
on either side furnish excellent sport. On the left is the
slope of the Rockies—on the right, the panorama of the Selkirks.
At Lake Windermere station, the local train puts up for
the night, continuing southward in the morning. Lake Windermere is the station for four neighboring villages: Athalmer,
Wilmer, Windermere and Invermere, while on the shores of
the lake, about a mile from the station, a bungalow summer
camp has been located, making an admirable centre for excursions into the beautiful country surrounding. After Lake Windermere, the next important stopping point is Fort Steele, in a
ranching and fruit-growing district. Lead, copper, silver, gold
and iron are found. There are quantities of lumber available,
with important sawmills at Bull River. Good fishing and hunting can be obtained.
FIELD TO REVELSTOKE  (Continued)
Moberly tAU. 2553
Forde "    2563
Donald "     2579
Beavermouth "     2483
From Golden we follow the Purcell
Mountains, part of the Selkirk Range,
on the left as far as Bear Creek.
Mount Moberly, on the right at Moberly Station, is the most prominent
peak for several miles (7721 feet). About two miles west of
Moberly, on the left just before crossing Blaeberry River, is the
site of the oldest cabin in the mountains—the cabin where
a government survey party under Walter Moberley, C. E., engaged in preliminary surveying for the railway, passed the
winter of 1871-2. They wintered their stock on the shore of
what is now Lake Windermere. One mile west after leaving
Donald, we cross the Columbia River and shortly reach the
upper Canyon of the Columbia, where the mountain ranges,
crowding together, force the river through a narrow gorge io
the high slopes above which the railway clings. Before entering this canyon, the Blue Water river joins the Columbia
from the' north. At Beavermouth, the farthest north station
of the transcontinental route, making a sharp turn to the
left we enter the Selkirks, the second of the two principal
ranges which compose the Canadian Pacfiic Rockies.
Lake Windermere Camp 106
Across   Canada
Mountain Climbing, near Glacier
V
Rogers Alt. 2555—Now, the railway begins to ascend again.
We follow the Beaver River from Beavermouth to Connaught, crossing the river about two miles west of
Beavermouth, then cross six streams flowing from the north.
One sees ahead up the Beaver Valley a long line of the higher
peaks of the Selkirks, in echelon, culminating in an exceedingly
lofty pinnacle named Sir Donald, seen to better advantage at
Glacier House. A few miles beyond, where a powerful torrent
comes down from high mountains northward, the same view is
obtained, nearer and larger, and eight peaks can be counted in
a grand array, the last of which is Sir Donald leading the line.
A little farther on, Cedar Creek is crossed and not far west of it
is a very high bridge, spanning a foaming cascade, whence one
of the most beautiful prospects of the whole journey is to be
had. So impressed were the builders with the charm of this
magnificent picture of mountains that they named the spot The
Surprise. The principal difficulty in construction on this part
of the line was occasioned by the torrents, many of them in
splendid cascades, which come down through narrow gorges cut
deeply into the steep slopes along which the railwaw-creeps. The
greatest of all these bridges crosses Stony Creew^a noisy rill,
flowing in the bottom of a narrow, V-shaped channel 2% feet
below the rails—the highest bridge on the Canadian Pacific"
main line.
Stony     Creek —
, Shortly after a
brief but precious
glimpse is caught
of Mount Tupper,
through a gap in.
the cliff on the
right. We are almost 1000 feet
above the Beaver,
whose upper valley can be seen
penetrating the
mountains southward for a long
distance. Until the
end of 1916, the
railway crossed the
Selkirks through
Rogers Pass, following Bear Creek
and then bending
round to Glacier
and back again to
the lllecillewaet
River in a series of
sharp loops.     This Glacier
107
was a most spectacular route, affording some magnificent views
of Mount Macdonald, Mount Tupper, and other giant peaks; but
it had many disadvantages, amongst which were the enormous
track curvature and the necessity of maintaining long stretches
of snowsheds. These difficulties were finally overcome by the
construction of the Connaught Tunnel, under Mount Macdonald,
named in honor of H.R.H. the Duke of Connaught, then Governor-General of Canada. This tunnel is the longest tunnel in
America, measuring exacty five miles from portal to portal, and
it not only eliminated track curvature to an amount corresponding to seven complete circles, but also lowered the summit attained by the railway by 552 feet, reduced the length of the
line by 4% miles and dispensed with four miles of snow-sheds.
The tunnel is double tracked, and measures 29 feet from side to
side and 24 feet in height. The method by which it was
pierced involved the tunnelling of a pioneer bore paralleling the
centre line of the main tunnel—a feature that was new and
aroused the interest of tunnel engineers the world over. Rogers
Pass was named for Major A. B. Rogers, by whose adventurous
energy it was discovered in 1881; and it forms now one of the
beautiful excursions from Glacier House. Mount Macdonald
(9482 feet) towers almost a mile above,the railway in almost
vertical height. This is the climax of mountain scenery. The
railway emerges from the tunnel at Glacier Station, 1% miles
from the site of the previous station of the same name. I
Glacier Alt. 3J778—Glacier Hotel, however, has not been moved
from its old site, and is thus 1% miles from
the present station, whence it is reached by a good automobile
road. The panorama from Glacier House is magnificent. To
the right of the hotel, facing the lawns, is the gleaming white
lllecillewaet Glacier. On the left of the glacier rises Mount Sir
Donald (10,808 feet)—a stately monolith named after the late
Lord Strathcona (Sir Donald Smith), one of the principal promoters of the Canadian Pacific Railway. Farther are the sharp
peaks of Uto (9610 feet), Eagle (9353 feet), Avalanche Crest
(9887 feet), and Macdonald, second only to Sir Donald. Still
circling around, one sees Rogers Pass and the snowy Hermit
Range, the most prominent peaks of which are the Swiss Peak
(10,515 feet), and Mount Grizzly (9061 feet). Again on the left,
at the west end of Hermit Range, on the south side of the
Bear Creek, comes Cheops  (8506 feet), named after the great
Glacier  House
J 108
A
cross
ana
d
Egyptian pyramid-builder of the fourth century, B.C.; and in
the foreground, and far down pmong the trees, the lllecillewaet
River glistens across the valley. Circling again back towards
the hotel, the shoulders of Ross Peak (7718 feet), are visible
over the wooded slope of Mount Abbctt (8081 feet). Behind Ross
Peak and Abbott is an enormous wall of snow, the Mount
Bonney Glacier.
To the right of Rcss, between Cougar and Cheops, a glimpse is
caught of the Cougar Valley, where are the wonderful caves of
Nakimu. Turning again to face the great lllecillewaet Glacier a
V-shaped valley is seen on the right. This is the valley of the
Asulkan brook, a gem of mountain beauty, where a series of
white cascades foam through vistas of dark spruce and fir where
falls leap from ledges above in clouds of flying ppray, and shining open meadows lead the traveller to listen for the tinkle of
the Alpine herd. The peaks going from right to left are: Afton,
the sharp apex; the Rampart, an oblong wall; the Dome, a
rounded rock; Castor and Pollux, two sharp spires farthest
south. To the left of the Asulkan Glacier comes a forested
dome, Glacier Crest, the western boundary of the great lllecillewaet Glacier, which is banked on the other side by the lower
slopes of Sir Donald, from whose summit an immense number of
glaciers can be seen. Glacier House, which is another Canadian
Pacific Hotel, affords a most delightful stopping place for tourists who explore the surrounding mountains or glaciers. Here
in the heart of the Selkirks every comfort and luxury are found,
and here many gather annually to spend the summer amidst the
wonders of nature. The lllecillewaet Glacier is exactly two
miles away, and its slowly receding forefoot, with immense crevices of abysmal depth cutting across the crystal surface, is only
a few hundred feet above the level of Glacier House. To the left
of the Glacier, and 3,000 feet above the hotel, another view
is from the trail at the foot of Sir Donald. An easy trail also
leads to Marion Lake, where it divides, one going to Observation Point, affording a splendid panorama o£ Rogers Pass, the
other to the Abbott Alp, a beauiful grassy upland.
On Avalanche Crest is Cascade summer house, directly above
the mountain torrent seen tumbling down its green shoulder to the head of the Asulkan Valley, where the ice
flow of two main branches of the glacier meet. Good routes have been also
mapped by the guides up
Eagle     and     Sir    Donald,
Mount  Sir Donald 1
Leavin g
the former being an easy
climb. This peak is so
named from a large rock
figure exactly resembling
an eagle which is perched
upon the knife-sharp edge
of the mountain. It is seen
to best advantage from
the trail leading to Mount
Avalanche.
the   Selkirks
109
lllecillewaet Valley
The Asulkan Valley trail
branches off from the main
glacier trail about a quarter of a mile from the
hotel, and crossing the
Asulkan brook climbs up
the east side of the valley
to the forefoot of the Asulkan glacier, distant four
miles from the hotel. The
summit of the Selkirk
Range, as formerly crossed by the railway, is reached from Glacier by another fine pony
trip,and from here the trail to Rogers Amphitheatre may be taken,
where is located a hut that may be used as a base for exploring
and climbing the neighboring peaks and glaciers. From Rogers
Pass there is another trail that follows along Bear Creek to
Baloo Pass. From here is reached the famous Nakimu Caves
(Nakimu being Indian
for "grumbling caves"),
a series of natural
caverns, with beautiful interior marble markings, situated on the lower slopes
of Mount Cheops, in the
Cougar Valley. The returi
jonrnev from the Caves to
the hotel may be made via
a trail and carriage drive
that follows the lllecillewaet River. Game is very
abundant^ throughout these
lofty .ranges, whose summits are the home of the
mountain goat.
Continuing the descent
from Glacier, and following
around the mountain-side,
the line touches for a moment on the base of Ross
Peak, then confronts Mount
Cheops,  on  the  other side
of the lllecillewaet as it crosses to the left and shoots down the
valley parallel with its former course.
Albert Canyon
Flat Creek    Alt. 3052
We are now descending the western
slopes of the Selkirk Range, and
henceforth our course, witl. the exception of one or two minor ranges to
climb, is uniformly downwards towards the Pacific. The scenery still
continues magnificently impressive.
The water of the lllecillewaet River, which we follow _ from
Glacier to Revelstoke, is at first pea-green, but that is owing to
glacial mud, and it is not long before it clarifies.   Eleven miles
lllecillewaet   I
Albert Canyon'
Twin Butte     '
Greely
Revelstoke       '
2711
2224
1877
1667
1494 J<"
110
Across   Canada
west of Glacier is the Lanark silver mine, on the right. The
mill adjoins the track, and the cable on which the ore is conveyed
can be seen running up from the hill to the opposite slope where
the mine is operated.
Albert Canyon is a deep fissure in the solid rock, its walls
rising straight up on both sides to wooded crags. The railway
runs along the very edge of this gorge. We see the river nearly
150 feet below, boiling angrily in a narrow twenty-foot flume.
Twin Butte takes its name from the double summit nearby to the
left, now known as Mounts Mackenzie ..and Tilley. In this district is the home of the woodland or black-faced caribou, the
mountain goat, and the grizzly, cinnamon and black bear.
Continued, on page 111
REVELSTOKE TO NELSON: 184 miles
(Rail and Steamer  Line)
(For Map, see page 121).
Revelstoke
Arrowhead
Halcyon
Nakusp
Burton
Needles
Nelson
West Robson
From Revelstoke a branch runs south to Arrowhead, whence a very delightful trip is made
down the Arrow Lakes to West Robson, at
which point the rail line from Nelson to Midway is joined. (See page 127), The service
down this lake is provided by the excellent
and comfortable steamer service of the Canadian Pacific. The Arrow Lakes, lying
in a long, deep valley between the eastern slope of the Selkirks and the Gold Range, are formed
by the Columbia Valley's broadening out on its way south.
The lakes are very beautiful. Although virtually one, they
are classified as two, Upper and Lower, very much the same
size and connected by a wide but circuitous channel. The surrounding country has supplied lumber from the forests that
clothe its slopes to many a sawmill, while of recent years
settlers have come in and made clearings for orchards. The
population, however, is still comparatively sparse.
The steamer touches at a number of points en route.Halcyon
Hot Springs are well and favorably known owing to the curative
properties of the waters, which contain a high percentage of
lithium. There is a comfortable Sanatorium hotel here. Nakusp
is the distributing centre of the upper lake, which is here about
three miles wide. Prettily situated overlooking a crescent-like
bay, it offers good bathing, boating and very fair fishing.
From Nakusp a branch line runs to  Sandon and Kaslo   (see page
126).
Nakusp   is   the   headquar
Arrow Lake lumber indust
ping point for vast c
ber, poles, fence post
ber products. Along th
has   been  some
development   in
f x u li t - growing,
very  fine   cherries, apples and
melons   being
produced.
The    steamer
stops    at,
amongst    other
points,      Edge-
wood,      Renata
and Deer Park. Down the Arro-w Lakes icamous
111
Hotel Sicamous
REVELSTOKE TO VANCOUVER: 379 miles
(For Map, see page 113)
Altitudes shown in feet
Revelstoke Alt. 1494—Revelstoke, a flourishing city with a population of 4,000, lies in the beautiful Columbia River Valley, surrounded by lofty and picturesque mountains, some clothed with trees and verdure to their very peaks,
others crowned with rugged and rocky spires or glistening glaciers. It is the gateway to the Kootenay and Arrow Lake districts, famous as fruit-growing centres, and is surrounded by
vast areas of timber. With the completion of the auto scenic
road to the top of Mount Revelstoke, added to the beautiful
Columbia River driveway extending twenty miles north, and
other roads to Arrowhead and the Okanagan Valley, the lover of
nature can enjoy the magnificent scenery from a car. Mount
Revelstoke is now a National Park. Revelstoke is in the
heart of very fine hunting grounds, and the Alpine climber will
find whole worlds to conquer. In winter, Revelstoke is the centre of a large winter-sport carnival.
Leaving Revelstoke, we enter the Gold
or Columbia Range. The most conspicuous peak is Mount Begbie, and
just across the Columbia we enter the
range. Eagle Pass, by which we enter,
seems to have been cut purposely for
the railway, so deep cut and direct is it. Four lakes, Summit,
Victor, Three Valley and Griffin, occur at short intervals, and in
turn force the railway into the mountain sides. At Craigellachie
an obelisk alongside the track commemorates the completion of
the Canadian Pacific Railway. It was here, on November 7th,
1885, that the rails from the east met the rails from the west,
and the long-cherished vision of a Canadian transcontinental railway became a reality. From Craigellachie, in an hour we reach
Sicamous, on Shuswap Lake. Sicamous is not only the junction
of the main line with the Okanagan Valley branch; it is also a
favorite stop-over point for travellers who, having traversed the
mountains, wish also to see by daylight the wonderful canyon
scenery that lies between here and Vancouver. To accommodate
this traffic, the Canadian Pacific has erected a comfortable hotel
on the shore of the lake. Continued on page 114.
Clanwilliam   Alt.
1820
Three Valley   "
1636
Craigellachie
1225
Malakwa
1215
Sicamous          "
1153 112
Across   Canada
SICAMOUS TO  PENTICTON:   155 miles
(Rail  and Steamer Line)
(For Map, see page 121).
Sicamous
Enderby
Armstrong
Vernon
Okanagan Landing
From Sicamous a branch runs south to
the Okanagan Lake, connecting with a
Canadian Pacific steamer service to Penticton.    Enderby is a progressive town
in   a   fertile   fruit-growing   and   mixed
farming     country,     with     considerable
dairying and also an enormous lumber output. Fishing is good
and the big game
plentiful.      Armstrong (population
1700)    is    another
flourishing   town
with    several    industries     and     a
prosperous    tributary     agricultural
country.      Armstrong  is   particularly noted for the
production  of  celery. Vernon (population 3700) is the
largest   town,  the
judicial centre, and
the   central  distributing point of the
northern      Okanagan Valley.   It is the location for the central co-operative fruit-
selling agency for the entire Valley.    Near here is the famous
Coldstream Ranch, with about 13,000 acres of fruit lands under
irrigation.    At Okanagan we board a splendid steamer for the
rest of the trip.
Okanagan Lake
Killiney
Fintry
Okanagan Centre
Kelowna
Peachland
Summerland
Penticton
The steamer makes a number of calls down
the lake at the various landings. The
journey takes about six hours. This is
one of the most famous fruit-growing
regions of Canada. Journeying down the
lake, one sees striking examples of
"bench land" formation—orchards rising
tier by tier in what look like gigantic
steps. On these bench-lands, on the occasional bottom lands,
and even on the hilly slopes that descend into the water, grow
all kinds of sub-tropical fruit, peaches, apricots, cherries, apples,
plums, walnuts, almonds and grapes of superfine quality. Irrigation is practised, the wooden flume that carries the life-giving
water being a conspicuous object of the orchard country. The
Okanagan Valley is one of the best known fruit regions of
Canada, and fruit from this district has on several occasions taken championship prizes at international shows. From*
here is shipped a great part of the fruit consumed on the
prairies.
Kelowna is an important city with a population of over
3500. Tributary to it are some fifty thousand acres of first-
class fruit lands, much of which is under cultivation. The
city has several fruit and vegetable packing plants. It is a
pretty point, with a park with a mile lake frontage. Peachland, Summerland and Naramata are fertile fruit-raising districts, with a certain amount of cattle-raising a few miles back.
At the southern end of the lake is Penticton, where we join the
Kettle Valley Railway  (see page 129). 3    ii   ii.   Indicates Double Track
REVELSTOKE TO KAMLOOPS 114
Across   Canada
Kamloops
Notch  Hi
II
"    1691
Squilax
"    1288
Chase
"    1183
Shuswap
"   1153
Ducks
"   1154
REVELSTOKE TO VANCOUVER (Continued)
Salmon Arm Alt. 1157   Lakfe<Shuswap is a large body of ir-
regt^aMghape which affords wonderful
trou%fishing. With its bordering
slopes it reminds the traveller
strongly of Scottish scenery. To avoid*
the circuitous course around the lake,
the railway strikes through the forest
I over the top of Notch Hill. Chase is the gateway to an extensive
territory for big game hunting, bird-shooting, and fishing. The
various waters in the vicinity are plentifully stocked with trout.
Salmon Arm (population 2800) is a very prosperous fruit farming community.
v Kamloops Alt. 1159—Pop. 5500, the chief town of the interior
country of British Columbia, is over a
hundred years old, having originally been a Hudson Bay post.
Situated at the confluence of the North and South Thompson
Rivers, both draining fertile
valleys, it is a beautiful city,
with a climate that makes it
a most desirable resort.
Trout fishing and game add
to its charm for the tourist
and sportsman. The chief
industries of the Kamloops
district are ranching, mixed
farming, gardening, fruits
growing, mining and lumbering. Much of the valley land
is cultivated under irrigation,
and produces large crops.
The mining industry is de-">
veloping rapidly, the principal minerals being gold, copper and iron. There is
also extensive operation in
the lumbering industry. The
city has a hydro-electric
power plant at Barriere,
forty miles up the North Thompson Valley, and operates its own
electric light and water plants, which also furnish power for
irrigation.
Thompson  Canyon
Tranquille
Cherry Creek
Savona
Just below Kamloops, the Thompson widens
out into Kamloops Lake, a beautiful sheet
of water.   The railway runs along its south
IL Thompson   Canyon
115
Hell's Gate, Fraser Kiver
Walhachin shore for twenty miles, and, because of the
Ashcroft series of mountain spurs projecting into the
Spatsum lake,  a number of tunnels punctuate this
Spence's Bridge twenty miles. At Savona the lake ends,
and we enter the series of Thompson River
canyons which leads us through marvellous scenery westward to
the Fraser. Valuable quicksilver mines are operated in this region. Ashcroft is
the outfitting point
for the. Highland
Valley' and the j
gateway to the
Cariboo country
and the immense
fruit areas of the
Thompson Valley.
It is, incidentally,
famous for its potatoes. In addition
to fruit-raising, the
country around
is especially suitable for extensive
cattle-raising. Opposite Spence's
Bridge we see a
track leading up
country    and    are
much interested to learn that this is none other than the old
wagon road to the famous Cariboo gold country. Here we cross
the mouth of the Nicola River, whose valley to the south is an
important  grazing, ranching,  lumbering  and  mining  country.
From   Spence's   Bridge   a   branch   of   the   Kettle   ValJey   Railway
runs south to Brookmere (see page 131).
Drynoch From this point on we notice various peculiarities
Thompson of the scenery and soon we find ourselves run-
Gladwin ning upon a ledge cut out of the bare hills on
Lytton the   irregular   south side   of   the   river.       The
Keefers mountains   draw   together  and   we  wind   along
their face  and, gaze  upon the  boiling  flood  of
Thompson Canyon hundreds of feet below.
At -the little trading town of Lytton the canyon widens to
admit the Fraser, the chief river of British Columbia, which
comes' down from the north between two great lines of mountain peaks, and whose turbid flood soon absorbs the bright
green waters of the Thompson. The scenery grows wilder
than ever. The great river is forced between vertical
walls of
black rock,
where, re-
p ea te dly
thrown
back upon
itself by op-
posing
cliffs, it
madly
foams and
roars. Six
miles below
Lytton we
cross the
Fraser by
a fine
bridge, Yale
I 116
Across   Canada
plunge into a tunnel and emerge at Kanaka. Along the way
we can see the old Government Road, abandoned now, and often
Indians spearing salmon or scooping them out with dip-nets.
North Bend North Bend is a desirable stopping place for
Spuzzum those who wish to see more of the Fraser Can-
: Yale yon than is possible from the train. From Bos-
Haig ton Bar, a few miles below, where the principal
Hope canyon   of   the   Fraser   begins,   to   Yal°.   the
scenery is startling. Ten miles below*"North
Bend two jutting promontories suddenly compress the river and
force it to escape in a roaring cataract through a bottle-
necked outlet. This is the famous "Hell's Gate". This section of the railway commands the admiration of all passengers
for the way it has overcome apparently insuperable difficulties. The railway follows the canyon, at often a considerable height above the river bank; the track, hewn from the
solid rock, also tunnels through great rock spurs. Ten miles
below Spuzzum there is an interesting engineering feat, the
four tunnels of the Fraser Canyon, located in rapid succession.
Across the rive? from Hai^  is  the village  of Hope,   the junction
of the Kettle Valley Railway.   (See page  131).
Ruby Creek
Agassiz
Harrison Mills
Nicoamen
Mission
Soon the canyon widens out and broad level
fields displace the rude Indian farms. Ruby
Creek obtains its name from the garnets
found in the neighborhood. Agassiz has a
Government Experimental Farm and is also
the station for Harrison Hot Springs. There
are hot sulphur springs on Harrison Lake, highly regarded for
their curative properties. Here we cross the Harrison River just
above its confluence with the Fraser. Steamers bound for the
Chilliwack district leave this point. This is a trip well worth
taking, as
the Chilliwack Val-
ley comprises over
55,000 acres
of rich ag-
ricultural
land and is
well known
for its
dairying.
The largest
fruit canning company in
British Columbia is at
Chilliwack;
so are the
two finest
equipped
creameries.
A few miles beyond Nicoamen, that isolated cone we see is the
gigantic Mount Baker, in the State of Washington.
From Mission  a subdivision runs  to  Huntingdon,  on  the  International boundary.
White's   Creek   Bridge,   near   Spuzzum
The country through which we are now
passing—practically on sea-level—has a
rapidly expanding small fruit industry.
The fields, in growing season, present to
the traveller a very attractive picture.
When we come to the crossing of the Stave River we should look
Whonnock
Haney
Hammond
Westminster Jct. '_'    ' ' J Ifi   Indicates Double Track
KAMLOOPS TO VANCOUVER 118
Across   Canada
back up the Fraser. This is the best way to get a .good view
of Mount Baker. We traverse Pitt Meadows, cross Pitt River,
and reach Westminster Junction, where we leave the Fraser
River.
From Westminster Junction, a branch runs to New Westminster,
8 miles away. This city, with a population of 17,000, is an important
one, the headquarters for the salmon-canning industry as well as the
site of several large sawmills. Steamers ply regularly between here
and  Victoria.
Port Moody
Barnett
Hastings
ings, formerly
Vancouver.
Port Moody, at the head of Burrard Inlet, was
once the terminus of the Canadian Pacific Railway. We follow the south shore of the Inlet,
enjoying its picturesque features, pass Hast-
a watering place, and at last find ourselves in
Vanoouver Vancouver (papulation 175,000), the terminal of
the Canadian Pacific transcontinental rail lines
and its trans-Pacific steamship routes, is the largest commercial
centre in British Columbia. It has an excellent harbor nearly
land-locked and fully sheltered, facing a beautiful range of mountains that are tipped with snow the year around. Two peaks,
silhouetted against the sky, and remarkably resembling two cou-
chant lions, are visible from almost any point in the city and harbor, which has been appropriately called "The Lion's Gate".
In and around Vancouver are immense lumber and shingle
mills. Mining, lumbering, farming, shipbuilding and shipping,
with a vast Oriental business, form the reason of the city's
phenomenal growth and prosperity. From a forest clearing
thirty-seven years ago it has become one of the principal cities
and most important seaports of the North Pacific Coast.
The magnificent Hotel Vancouver, operat>d by the Canadian
Pacific Railway, is the finest hotel of the North Pacific, with 490
guests' bedrooms. Wonderful views of the Strait of Georgia can
be obtained from the roof garden of this hotel.
Vancouver is most picturesquely situated on Burrard Inlet.
Surrounding it are beautiful environs "of varied character. All
kinds of water sports are available, and are encouraged through
a mild climate and extensive bodies of water. There are many
bathing beaches, parks, boulevards, automobile roads and paved
streets. The roads around the city are famous for their excellence, and there are many fine
drives, varying from an hour to a
day in time. Amongst them may be
mentioned Stanley Park—one of the
largest natural parks in the world, a
primeval forest right within the city
limits and containing thousands of
Douglas firs and giant cedars of a
most amazing size and age. The park
is encircled by a perfect road. The
"Marine Drive" takes the visitor.
through the best residential parts of
the city, including Shaughnessy
Heights and Point Grey, thence to
the mouth of the Fraser River, with
its fleets of salmon trawlers, and
back along the coast. Capilano Canyon, a gorge of great natural beauty,
in North Vancouver, is reached by a
recently completed road. The Pacific
Highway, including Kingsway, runs
through Vancouver, connecting up
with the main American roads of the
Northwest. Tlie Empress ^ Canada Vancouver
119
h
Vancouver has four good golf courses. Guests of the Hotel
Vancouver have special privileges at the Shaughnessy Heights
Golf Club.
There are numerous fine bathing beaches around Vancouver,
the most easily reached of which are English Bay and Kit-
silano—both on street-car line. The scene at English Bay,
which lies at one entrance to Stanley Park, on a sunnv afternoon,
is one of great animation. Burrard Inlet, English Bay and the
North Arm are excellent places also for boating. Vancouver
boasts of one of the finest yacht clubs on the Pacific Coast, which
extends a hearty welcome to members of recognized yacht clubs.
The North Arm is an ideal place for picnics and moonlight
excursions.
Within easy reach of Vancouver there is wonderful shooting
to be had. Grouse, duck, teal, mallard, snipe, pheasants, and
partridges are plentiful in season. Lulu Island, Sea Island, the
North Shore and Seymour Flats are all /within an hour of the
hotel. It is extremely doubtful whether there is another city on
the Pacific Coast where such a variety of fishing can be obtained. In season, salmon, spring, cohoe, and tyee, steelheads,
Dolly Varden, rainbow, cut-throat and sea trout are plentiful.
Arrangements have been made by the Hotel Vancouver with the
Vancouver Fishing Association to obtain daily reports as to the
runs, and the services of an experienced fisherman can be obtained by guests of the hotel to conduct them to the various
fishing centres. Fishing tackle, bait and flies are easily obtainable in the city. ! . |
Vancouver is the port of the trans-Pacific services of the Canadian Pacific Steamships, which maintain regular services to
•Japan and China. This well-known fleet consists of four
magnificent passenger ships, of which the "Empress of
Canada (21,500 tons), and the "Empress of Australia" (21,850
tons) are the largest. A large proportion of the silk trade of the
Orient passes through Vancouver, £nd the Canadian Pacific "Silk
Train" is perhaps the most famous freight train in the world.
From Vancouver the steamers of the Canadian-Australasian Line
ply to Honolulu, Fiji, New
Zealand and Australia. Various Canadian Pacific
steamer services
along the British
Columbia coast run
from -Vancouver,
For journey
. to Victoria,
A I a s k a,
Seattle,
etc., see
page 132.
Wm
Hotel Vancouver 120
Across   Canada
Lethbridge
CROW'S NEST PASS ROUTE
Medicine Hat to Nelson: 466 miles
Altitudes shown in feet
Medicine Hat Alt. 2181    From Medicine Hat, the Crow's Nest
Dunmore "   2899    Pass branch runs south of the main
Bow Island       "   2612    line to the rich farming districts of
Southern Alberta, the coal mining regions of the Crow's Nest Pass, and the gold,, copper and silver
lead mines of Southern British Columbia. The completion of
this road was notable from an engineering standpoint for the
celerity of construction and the skill shown in overcoming numerous serious obstacles. Leaving the main line at Dunmore, the
route is almost due west. North of Bow Island is a great
natural "as'area, from which the city of Calgary and other communities en route are supplied with gas through a pipe line
some 170 males in length. In this field there are wells producing from one and a quarter million to twenty-nine million cubic
feet of gas per day. Gas has also been found and is being drilled
for at Barnwell, 35 miles farther on, and at Monarch, beyond
Lethbridge.
Burdett Alt.
Qrassy Lake   <L
Taber
Coaldale
£568
£644
£663
2821
ous  agricultural
The Canadian Pacific Railway owns an
irrigation block of some 120,000 acres
in the Lethbridge territory, settled
largely with American farmers, who
have made it one of the most prosper-
communities of Western Canada. Improved
farms in this locality have changed hands at $150.00 and upwards per acre. It is a great alfalfa growing district, and the
beautiful table-land area around Coaldale will be especially
noticed. Farmers living outside the irrigation area are bringing
about an extension of the canals to cover many thousands more
acres, and the time is not far distant when all this south
country that is capable of irrigation will be served by the ditch.
Lethbridge Alt. 2976—(Population   14,500),   is   an   important
commercial city with five parks (one of
which faces the station), electric light and power, and splendid
buildings. Situated on the Old Man River, it is a C.P.R. divisional and junction point. It is a prosperous wholesale as well
as an agricultural centre. The city has seven coal mines within
five miles, producing a high grade lignite coal that has a
market extending as far east as Winnipeg. Two of these, the
Galt Mines, operated by the Canadian Pacific, are right at the
city limits. The industries of Lethbridge include flour milling
and the manufacture of macaroni, while the wool shipments
are larger than those of any other point in Canada. A Dominion
Experimental Farm is located here for dry and irrigated farming experiments.
West of Lethbridge there has been completed by the Canadian Pacific Railway one of the most gigantic engineering
works in Canada. This is the bridging of the Lethbridge and
Old Man Rivers by two immense steel viaducts, one 5325 feet Indicates Double Track
MEDICINE HAT TO VANCOUVER
Via Crow's Nest Pass and Kettle Valley Railway 122
Across   Canada
in length with a maximum height above the river of 314 feet,
and the other 1900 feet in length, with a height above the river
of 146 feet. The cost of these works exceeded two million dollars.
Nearly 650 cars were required to transport the steel used in the
construction of these viaducts.
LETHBRIDGE  TO  COUTTS AND MANYBERRIES:   104 miles
(For Map, see page 121)
Lethbridge      From Lethbridge a branch runs south to the Interna-
Stirling tional Boundary to  Coutts,  through  the irrigated area
Warner and  a  fine  ranching  and   stock   country.    At   Stirling
Coutts a   branch   runs   from   Lethbridge    (65   miles),   passing
Raymond through   a   very   fully   developed   agricultural   country
Magrath which was at one time a large producer of sugar beets.
Cardston. This territory is settled to some extent by the Mormons,
who have very large agricultural interests and carry on
an extensive cattle raising business.
Stirling From Stirling we turn east along the line that now
Foremost forms a through route from Lethbridge to Weyburn
Nemiscam and tho Southern Saskatchewan lino (see page 82).
Pakowki South of Foremost a very heavy producing gas well
Manyberries was brought in some years ago, and is now capped
awaiting development. There are several large lakes
in this territory, the biggest being Pakowki Lake. It is a somewhat-
irregular country with large "coulees", such as Etzikom Coulee.
This country is still in process of settlement, but the towns are
building up as business develops.
Kipp Alt. 8053—Kipp, at the confluence of the Lethbridge and
St. Mary's River, is an old trading point that
was the scene of many a conflict between the Indians and the
early white traders.
From Kipp  a  line  runs  north  to  Calgary,  via Carmangay.     (See
page  90).
Monarch Alt. 8097 Monarch, another old trading post, affords
Macleod " 8109 on a clear day a view of the Rockies, the
square-topped giant to the left, almost
fifty miles away, being the "Chief", which lies partly in Canada
and partly in the United States. Macleod (population 2000),
was one of the pioneer settlements of the south and the headquarters for this territory of the famous Royal Northwest
Mounted Police (now merged with the Royal Canadian Mounted
Police). It is a prosperous town in a big wheat growing territory, and is a coal and lumber distribution point. Irrigation
projects are contemplated in the district south of it.
From  Macleod   a  branch  runs  north  to   Calgary  via  High  River
(see page 90).
Pincher Alt. 3764 Following up the Old Man River, the rail-
Cowley "   3834   way passes to the south of the Porcupine
Hillcrest       "   4114   Hills, between which and the Livingstone
range of the Rockies there is an ideal
farming country. The Rockies are almost continuously in view,
Lethbridge Viaduct C r o w's    Nest  Pas
123
of the western
a panorama  of
full of trout,
horizon, while in
undulating  plain,
while farther on in
Mining, Crow's Nest Pass
Frank
Alt.
4205
Blairmore
ft
4228
Coleman
tt
4805
Crow's Nest
tt
4444
rising sharp and clear out
the intervening country is
The numerous streams are
the mountains
the more venturesome sportsman
can gratify his
ambition amongst
the grizzly and
black bear, elk,
mountain sheep
and mountain
goat. Four miles
east of Pincher,
Pincher Creek is
crossed by a long
bridge; in a valley to the right is
an Indian Industrial School. Near Cowley is Massacre Butte,
commemorating a tragic episode of the pioneering days when
the settler's life was harassed by hostile Indians. From here
to Crow's Nest Lake the railway follows the valley of the
Middle Fork, which narrows into deep canyons and again
broadens.
Coal underlies a large portion of this
-egion, and is seen outcropping in
many places. Mines are in operation
at several points, the Crow's Nest pass
district being a very large producing
one. The mountains rise in great masses on either side, entrance
being gained by a narrow defile beside Turtle Mountain. Frank
is a coal mining town that was the scene in 1903 of a terrible
catastrophe that is still well-remembered—the "Frank Slide",
when part of the mountain slid down and wiped out the town.
Some of the debris can still be seen. The present town is situated some distance from the old one. Blairmore also is a prosperous  mining  community   (pop.  1800).
Lookijig to the north-west, the first view of Crow's Nest Mountain (9138 feet) is obtained. This circular monolith, its base
deeply tinted in purple and green, its crown capped in a dazzling
mass of snow and ice, dominates the entire region. Various
reasons have been advanced for the origin of the name "Crow's
Nest", but the soundest is apparently that it commemorates a
massacre of the Crow Indians by the Blackfeet Indians in
the latter-part of last century, on the spot now covered by the
Frank Slide.
T e n m i 1 e s
westward is
Crowsnest Lake
(altitude 4890
feet), a beautiful sheet of
water often called the birthplace of the
prairie winds,
although the
frequent calmness of the lake
rather belies
that description.
Leaving this
lake, the line
follows    the Crow's Nest Mountain 124
Across   Canad
shore of another, Island Lake (altitude 4409 feet), of remarkable
clearness. Immediately to the west is the summit of the Rockies
and the boundary between Alberta and British Columbia. Crow's
Nest Station is the end of the Alberta District of the railway
and the beginning of the British Columbia District.
Michel    Alt. 8861
Wata! •"•  3775
Fernie       "   3806
After passing Summit Lake the railway
descends the valley of Michel Creek, and
threads its way along the steep side of the
mountain. Then comes the "Loop", where
the line makes some amazing turns and twists, doubling back to
within a stone's throw of itself at a lower level. Three miles
are covered to make this distance of less than 200 feet. As the
train swings off to the west again, huge rugged mountains
appear on either side, and coal outcroppings, also. Michel is the
junction of Michel Creek with the Elk River, which we follow to
Fernie.
Fernie (population 4500) is a thriving mining town with
an output of about a million tons per annumn. It has some
seven hundred coke ovens in operation. The town is the wholesale distributing and outfitting centre for a large district and
one of the more important points on the splendid government
highway from Alberta to the international boundary.
The line passes through thickly timbered woods, fir, tamarac, and cedar
growing in large quantities. After
passing Morrisey Creek, we cross the
Elk River on its way to join the Kootenay River. The Elk
River Canyon, extending several miles and witnessing a 600 foot
water drop, is wild and beautiful. Tobacco Plains, to the south,
is a fertile country which is attracting settlement.
From Caithness a short branch extends to Waldo (10 miles),
Colvalli is the junction point for the Lake Windermere branch
to Golden, on the main line  (see page 104).
Elko
Alt.   3082
Caithness
"    2847
Colvalli
"   2652
Wardner
Cranbrook
the passage
river, which
Alt.
■2484
3013
At Wardner the line crosses the Kootenay River by a magnificent truss
bridge with a swing span to allow of
of river steamers plying on the Kootenay. The
is here nearly 800 feet wide, flows south into
Idaho, but returns to pour its flood into Kootenay Lake. For a
while we follow its west bank, past Sand Creek Range, the
Steeples, Mount Fisher and  Saunders Peak.
Cranbrook (population 4000) is charmingly situated in a
hill-girt valley, surrounded by a dense forest growth, and overlooked by the
white tipped
peak of Baker.
It is the centre
of trade for
the mining interests of the
locality as
well as for the
rapidly growing ranching
industry. In
the late r-a 1
valleys are
fine agricultural     lands
that are rapidly attracting settlers.    Cranbrook is the principal
lumber' manufacturing point of East Kootenay.
From Cranbrook a. branch runs to Marysville and Kimberley (19
miles). At Kimberley is the Sullivan Mine, said to be the greatest
known deposit of silver-lead-zinc in the world, with $350 000 000
worth of ore blocked out. At Wycliffe is one of the largest lumbering  enterpises  in  interior  British  Columbia.
An Architectural Bridge, Spokane Kootenay   Lake
125
Moyie Alt. 8045 Leaving Cranbrook, we take a winding
Yahk " 2817 course along Moyie Lake, a beautiful sheet
of water ten miles long. The town is situated at the southern end, near which are the St. Eugene group
of mines. Extensive deposits of galena, silver and lead ore are
located here. Next the railway penetrates a thickly wooded,
heavily timbered country.
From Yahk a short branch runs south to Kingsgate, on the international boundary between British Columbia and the State of Idaho.
From the latter point the system of the Spokane International Railway
runs to Spokane, a distance of 151 miles. The route is along the picturesque Moyie River, the Kootenay River, and the Pend Oreille River,
through the beautifully located towns of Bonner's Ferry and Sand
Point. This is an important lumbering, mining, dairying, and fruitgrowing district. Spokane (population 125,000) is the metropolis of
the eastern part of the State of Washington, and affords access to
points in the United States in all directions. A through service is
maintained between  Spokane and  Calgary.
Erickson Alt.
Creston
Sirdar
Kootenay Landing
2106 Now the downward course to-
1983 wards Kootenay Lake is com-
1802 menced, the railway following
1768 Kid Creek. Near here are great
iron deposits and large tracts of
timber. After crossing the gorge of the Goat River Canyon,
through which the river flows in a raging torrent 165 feet below
the railway bridge, the fruit district of the Creston Valley is
entered. This is a famous strawberry and apple-producing
region, orchards having already been planted capable of producing 500 cars annually. An important undertaking at Creston
is the Kootenay Flats reclamation project, which involves the
reclaiming of some 77,000 acres of rich delta land in British
Columbia and* Idaho from the flood waters of the Kootenay
River. Plans for the carrying out of the scheme are mow engaging the attention of the governments concerned. A few miles
further is Kootenay Landing, where we take a comfortable Canadian Pacific steamer for Nelson.
Kootenay Lake is a beautiful lake between two separate ranges
of the Selkirks, and runs about seventy miles almost due north
and south. On either side the mountains, dipping sometimes
steeply into the water, at other times affording shelter to little
ledges of fertile land, afford most magnificent scenery. The
steamer trip occupies about four hours, with calls at a number
of small settlements en route. About one-third way up the
steamer turns round into the West Arm, a narrow sheet of water
running in a south-westerly direction, passes Procter, a popular
summer resort, also connected with Nelson by rail, and soon
after reaches Nelson.
Nelson Alt. 1781-
ence overlooking the
West Arm,
is the commercial centre of the
K ootena y
district and
practically
of the entire
Sou thern
British Columbia region. At the
convergence
of lake and
rail systems, it is
an    attrac-
-Nelson,   with   a   population   of   8000,   and
charmingly situated on a commanding emin-
Nelson 0*
126
Across   Canada
tive city in which life passes very pleasantly. The people of
Nelson say, in fact, that God practised first on Switzerland before
making British Columbia, and compare the location of their city
tgLLucerne. Nelson is the centre of the "Boundary" mining
dwJrict; immediately behind it is a wonderful mountain in which
is located the famous "Silver King" mine from which over ten
million dollars of treasure have been taken. Nelson has several
sawmills that supply the prairies, and is the market place for
a very large fruit region. In the neighborhood are hot springs,
glaciers, great cataracts, and fishing lodges; within easy reach
is excellent trout-fishing.
Through Journey to Vancouver continued on page 127.
NELSON  TO  KASLO:  54 miles
Nelson From Nelson a Canadian Pacific steamer service
Procter runs daily  (except Sunday)  up Kootenay Lake
Ainsworth to the prosperous mining and fruit-farming dis-
Kaslo trict of Kaslo. Leaving Nelson in the afternoon
the route is back along the West Arm of the Lake
to Procter, and then north. The lake affords magnificent scenery
— on one
hand soft
nd rounded
landscapes,
on the other
deep canyons, snowcapped and
timber-
covered
mountains,
and glaciers. On the
west side of
the lake are
the Selkirks, the
highest
peak   of Kaslo
which,
Mount Loki, is near Kaslo, and on the east side is the Purcell
Range.
Ainsworth is a mining camp, the oldest in West Kootenay.
Across the lake lies the famous Blue Bell mine. It is an interesting sight to see the crushed ore being floated down the lake to
the smelter, most of it in this district being sent to Trail. Kaslo,
at the central point of the north end of the lake, is the chief
distributing point and'residential centre for the surrounding mining districts. It is a charming spot that is rapidly coming to the
front as a holiday resort for prairie people. Good boating,
swimming and fishing are to be obtained. A fairly large amount
of fruit is raised around Kaslo, the Kaslo cherries being celebrated.
KASLO TO NAKUSP: 66 miles
Kaslo
Sandon
Rosebery
Nakusp
From Kaslo a branch line runs to Nakusp, on Arrow
Lake (see page 110). Striking through the deeply-
eroded gorge of the Kaslo River, the line brings the
traveller to Sandon, on a spur line from Parapet. Sandon
is one of the most celebrated mining camps in British
Columbia, as well as one of the steepest. All this country is a great
silver-lead territory. From Sandon the railway runs to Rosebery, on
the northern shore of Slocan Lake (see page 127), and thence over a
fairly considerable grade to Nakusp.
Kaslo From Kaslo an extension of the steamer service runs up
Lardeau        the Lake to Lardeau,   (19 miles), near the northern end
Gerrard        on a weekly service.  From Lardeau there is  a rail service (33 miles) to Gerrard, at the south end of Trout Lake
^3bsJ Westward  from   Nelson
127
Nelson
Bonnington
South Slocan
Brilliant
Castlegar
NELSON  TO   ROSEBERY:   65  mUes
Nelson From South Slocan a branch runs up to Slocan City,
South Slocan at the lower end of beautiful Slocan Lake, a smaller
Slocan City brother of Kootenay Lake. From here a Canadian
Silverton Pacific steamer can be taken up the lake to Rosebery.
New Denver Silverton is a mining camp with a large silver-lead
Rosebery output.  New  Denver is  more of  a  residential  town,
facing a glacier of considerable size and with charming orchard flowers and gardens. At Rosebery the railway line from
Kaslo  to  Nakusp  is joined   (see page  126).
NELSON TO MIDWAY:  126 miles
(For Map, see page 121)
Altitudes in Italics
Alt. 1769 The southern transcontinental route
" 1658 continues westward from Nelson, the
" 1637 recently completed Kettle Valley
1478 Railway being the last link, so that
" 1418 a through service is now operated
between Nelson and Vancouver over
the C.P.R. lines as far as Midway and thence by the K.V.R.
This route is a very picturesque one through the Boundary
and Okanagan districts, amongst the richest and most magnificent of British Columbia.
Leaving Nelson, the railway, for about 26 miles, parallels the
Kootenay River. Some four miles along, the river is crossed,
and at Upper Bonnington and Bonnington there is a splendid
view of these awe-inspiring waterfalls. At South Slocan is
situated "The Pool", one of the most celebrated fishing-
grounds in Canada, and the home of a particularly sporting
variety of rainbow trout. From South Slocan a branch runs
up to Slocan Lake (see above). From here on the orchard
country is passed, in full view from the train. At Brilliant
is a very interesting settlement of Doukhobors, an intensely
religious Russian sect who live strictly on communistic lines.
The settlement numbers about five thousand, and the excellent
physical condition of their lands show them to be an intelligent
agricultural people. The picturesque dress of the women working in the fields always attracts attention. At Castlegar the
Columbia River is passed by a steel bridge.
From Castlegar a branch leads south to Trail (20 miles) and
Rossland (32 miles). These points are located in the heart of
the copper-gold belt of
British Columbia. At
Trail are the great
smelting and refining
works of the Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company, which is
the largest in Canada.
This smelter treats gold,
silver, lead, zinc and
copper ores, and turns
out these metals in a
refined state ready for
the market. At Rossland the mines have
reached a high state of
development, workings
being down 3000 feet, and one company has 25 miles of underground electric railway.
Trail Smelter
West Robson
Tunnel
Farron
Cascade
Grand  Forks
per cent, grade,
Alt. 1414 From Castlegar the line follows the
" 8240 Columbia River, and at West Robson
" 8985 connection is made with the Arrow
I 1587 Lake steamers to Arrowhead and
" 1764 Revelstoke (see page 110). From
West Robson the line climbs at 2.2
in full view of the Columbia River for 23 miles. 128
Across   C
ana
d a
to Bull Dog Tunnel. There is scarcely any more beautiful
fifty miles of lake scenery in North America than this section
through which we are passing. Through Bull Dog Tunnel
the line passes
under the summit west of Columbia River,
but when we
emerge . at the
west portal the
character of the
landscape is entirely changed,
the line following a narrow
gorge with towering mountains
on each side.
West of the
summit west of
of  undergrowth
Arrow Lakes Steamer
Columbia River there is a complete absence
and bushes, and many beautiful specimens
of mountain wild flowers will be seen. The summit of this
range is at Farron. Approaching Cascade the line runs in
sight of Christina Lake, a beautiful and placid expanse of
water that affords excellent bass fishing and is the site of
many summer homes. At Cascade we are so close to the
United States boundary that it is actually within sight. The
falls of the Kettle River, just west of the station, are the
source of much electric power development. At Gilpin the
orchard district of the Kettle Valley, which extends some
■distance beyond Grand Forks, is entered. Grand Forks
(population 2000) is the business centre of the region; it is
a well-built and modern town on the bank of the Kettle River,
with large copper smelting, lumbering and fruit-growing
interests.
Eholt Alt. 3096     West of Grand Forks the line follows
Greenwood    "   2464     the   north  fork   of  the   Kettle   River.
Midway "   1914     steadily ascending to Eholt.    The sur
rounding scenery is magnificent; towering mountains alternate with charming vistas of small lakes,
ranches, and the river. Far below the north fork branch of the
Kettle Valley Railway follows, the river windings to the timber and • mining' districts at Lynch Creek. From Eholt a
branch extends to the various mines at Phoenix and its vicinity, pro-
p e r t i e s,
which,
though not
working at
present, have
in the past
yielded enormous profits.
West of
Eholt the
line passes
Greenwood,
another prosperous min-
ing   town.
The entire district is highly mineralized with gold, silver and
copper, many different mines and aerial tramways being in
view. From Greenwood Boundary Creek is followed to Midway,
which is the connecting point with the Kettle Valley Railway
system.
Through the Boundary Country
<4i Kettle   Valley   Route
129
THE KETTLE VALLEY RAILWAY
MIDWAY TO HOPE: 296 miles
(For Map, see page 121)
Altitudes shown in feet
The Kettle Valley Railway is the connecting link in the
southern route between the prairies and the Pacific Coast. The
interesting and varied characteristics and resources of the
country traversed claim the attention of the traveller, whether
sportsman in search of hunting grounds, fisherman longing for
the haunts of the speckled trout, sturdy miner, weary business
man, hardy woodsman, fruit grower, or artistic temperament
who delights in the marvellous scenic attractions of the Kettle
Valley line. The "Coast Kootenay Limited" operates as a
through train from Nelson to Vancouver.
Midway
Rock Creek
Westbridge
Carmi
McCulloch
Chute Lake
Alt.
1914
1994
2070
2192
4144
$911
Leaving Midway, the valley of the
Kettle River is followed to its source,
passing through ricli agricultural districts where fruit and grain is extensively grown. At Carmi is considerable development in gold and silver mining. From here is a gradual
ascent to the summit at McCulloch station. Within a mile and
a half of this point are seven lakes, all of them abounding with
trout. Bear hunting is good in this vicinity, also deer hunting in season. Descending the west slope of the mountains,
the Kelowna Valley is soon seen in the distance, a panorama
.beautiful beyond comparison, the orchard tracts reaching from
the shores of the Okanagan Lake to the foothills of the mountains, the blossoms of fruit trees mingling with the verdant
green of the mountain side.
A very interesting section of this part of the line is the Canyon
Creek Loops, which present some novel engineering feats and
some magnificent scenery.    Through the rugged rock walls at
the entrance to the canyon
is  seen a glimpse of the
fertile valley below. Passing on along the shores of
Chute
Lake, and
down   the
mountain
side,     a
view    of
the Okanagan Valley,   "The
California
of   Canada", sud-
d e n 1 y
bursts into
sight, the placid Okanagan Lake with Lake Skaha to the south,
and between them 'Penticton. Bordering the lake beautiful
homes surrounded by orchards reach to the mountain background.
Incola Hotel, Penticton
Adra
Glen  Fir
Penticton
Alt.
3208 Penticton (population 4000), with its
2592 mild even climate, never excessively
1132 hot or cold, beckons one to forget care
and become a child again among its
fruits and flowers. Just across the street from the station is
the Incola Hotel, operated by the Okanagan Hotel Company, a
finely  appointed hostelry.      The  dining  room  has in store  a 130
Across   Canada
In the Okanagan Valley
pleasant surprise—eggs, butter, cream, vegetables and fruit
fresh daily from the railway's experimental farm. Facing the
hotel and just across the Lake Shore Drive is the bathing
beach, a most delightful fresh water beach, where bathing may
be enjoyed from early spring until late autumn. The beach of
pure sand slopes gradually out for several hundred feet. The
Aquatic Club building is adjacent, and its privileges are available to visitors. Excellent motor roads radiate in all directions,
and drives may be taken along the Lake Shore Drive to Summer-
land and Peachland, among the orchards, where in proper
season luscious peaches, pears, apricots, apples and grapes
may be gathered. To the south, around Lake Skaha, a magnificent view of the surrounding country is obtained, on to the
international boundary, or tp the westward over a mountain
pass to the Similkameen Valley, the roads over the mountains
being almost the equal of a city boulevard. Near at hand
from the Incola Hotel is a nine-hole golf course. Fishing for
silverside trout is good in both the Okanagan and Skaha Lakes
nearly all the year around, and mountain trout are found in
abundance in any of the numerous streams flowing into the
lake. In a two hours' journey by train up the east side of the
lake, those who are fond of deer hunting will find splendid
sport in proper season.
Penticton is the southern terminus of the Canadian Pacific Railway
steamers on Okanagan Lake. (See page 112). A delightful trip up
the lake and return the same day may be. taken on the palatial
steamers    "Okanagan"    or    ''Sicamous".
Kirton
"    2999
Osprey Lake
"    3606
Jura
"    3065
Princeton
"    2111
West Summerland Alt. 1729     Leaving   Penticton,   some   ten
miles westward we suddenly
skirt the edge of the West Summerland valley, one of the most
prolific fruit districts of Canada.
The entrance to this valley is
seemingly guarded by "The Giant's Head", a rock projection of
gigantic proportions. We follow up Trout Creek through a
picturesque canyon, the summit.being reached at Osprey Lake,
where the fisherman will find his pursuit well repaid. Following along a timbered belt for some fifteen miles and past a
fertile agricultural district near Jura, the descent is made to Kettle   Valley   Route
131
Coalmont
Alt. 2574
Tulameen
"    2911
Brookmere
"    3220
Brodie
"    3022
Princeton, a thriving little city at the junction of the Tulameen
and Similkameen Valleys. Extensive coal fields are operated
here.
Fourteen miles to the south is the famous Copper-Mountain mining
district,   to  which  a  branch line runs  from  Princeton.
Passing on along the Tulameen River
we reach Coalmont, at the junction of
Granite Creek, which was the scene of
much activity in placer mining in the
earlier days. In this locality are deposits in more or less degree of almost every known mineral.
After leaving Tulameen the train swings around Otter Lake,
one of the most beautiful of British Columbia's many inland
bodies of water. This lake also abounds with fish. From here
we pass on through the Otter Valley, a rich. agricultural district where meadows and fields form a pleasant contrast to the
mountain background. Passing another summit at Brookmere,
we descend to the Coldwater River at Brodie.
Prom Brodie a branch line of the Kettle Valley Railway, 65 miles
in length, runs to Spence's Bridge, on the main line of the Canadian
Pacific Railway. (See page 115). The route is through a prosperous
agricultural and mining district. Prom this branch another, 7 miles
long,   runs  from  Merritt   to   Nicola.
Coquihalla Alt. 3652
Portia "   1917
Jessica "   1307
Hope "     150
Vancouver
Leaving Brodie the ascent is made
gradually to the Coquihalla Pass
through the Cascade Mountains. Here
is located Coquihalla Lake, another
gem of the mountains, its water teeming with trout. The trail here begins a
more abrupt *descent. Following the Coquihalla River down the
west slope of the Cascades, the scene changes to one of rugged
grandeur; vegetation disappears, and the solid rock crags and
peaks stand out in prominence as if defying the hand of man.
But, typifying the supremacy of technical skill, the roadbed, as it
follows down the gorge, is hewn out of solid rock. Here on a shelf
on the mountain side, or there piercing a jutting promontory with
a tunnel, it pursues its onward way. As we near Portia station,
the chai'cter of the country again changes, the
mountain peaks are higher, the tops tipped with
snow and the sides covered with forests. Coming on
down to Othello station,
we reach the crowning
achievement of scenic attraction. Just beyond this
station are located five
tunnels in such perfect
alignment that a view is
obtained directly through
all five of them at once.
At the portal of each tunnel the walls rise sheer for
hundreds of feet, while the
gap to the next tunnel is
bridged by a steel span.
Underneath, the Coquihalla River, now a raging
^torrent zigzags its way
between each of the
tunnels.  .
Hope, the western terminus of the Kettle Valley Railway, is
reached in four miles. The train crosses the Fraser River on a
half million dollar steel bridge and joins the Canadian FaciUc
Railway, on which it travels to Vancouver. See page 116.
Quintette Tunnels, Coquihalla Canyon 132
Across   Canada
BRITISH COLUMBIA COAST SERVICES
In connection with its rail service, the Canadian Pacific operates an extensive steamship service on the Pacific Coast. The
vessels engaged are nearlv all "Princess" boats, of beautiful
appearance  and handsomely  equipped.    The  routes  comprise:
A double daily service between Vancouver, Victoria and Seattle,
a beautiful trip across the Strait of Georgia and down Puget
Sound. Both dav and night steamers are operated, some of which
proceed direct from Vancouver to either Victoria or Seattle, and
some making the triangular voyage between the three cities.
A day steamer between Vancouver and Nanaimo, on Vancouver
Island (see page 140), making two round trips daily during the
summer months and one round trip daily (except Sunday) during the remainder of the year.
The Gulf Islands route. On certain days of the week (see
current time table), a steamer leaves Victoria in the morning
and makes a circuit of the islands in the Gulf of Georgia,
returning the same evening. On other days of the week services
run from Vancouver and Nanaimo.
Vancouver to Powell River, Union Bay and Comox, twice
weekly. Victoria, to Vancouver, Nanaimo, Union Bay and
Comox,   weekly.
Vancouver to Prince Rupert, via Powell River, Campbell River,
Alert Bay and Ocean Falls, weekly.
Victoria and the West Coast of Vancouver Island. The steamer sails three times a month for Quatsino and Port Alice, at the
extreme northern end of Vancouver Island, making numerous
calls. The West Coast is deeply indented by inlets, with mountainous and heavily wooded scenery, and glimpses of logging
camps, canneries, whales, and sea-lions.
Vancouver to Alaska  (see page 136).
VANCOUVER TO VICTORIA: 83 miles
and SEATTLE: 164 miles
Victoria—From Vancouver to Victoria is a peasant sail of
about four hours across the Strait of Juan do Fuca.
There is a double daily service on this
trip, one by day that makes the triangular route to Seattle, the other by
night that goes
direct.
Victoria (population 60,000),
charmingly situated at the southern end of Vancouver Island,
overlooking the
Straits of Juan
de Fuca across
the blue waters to
the snow-capped
Olympic Mountains on the
mainland, is the
Garden City of
Canada. Its delightfully mild
climate makes it
a favorite resort
for both summer
and winter. It is
the provincial
capital of British
Columbia     ana Vancouver ^MWi*^     5770
Indicates Double Track
BRITISH COLUMBIA COAST SERVICE 134
Across   Canada
owing to the characteristic beauty of its residential district
has often been called "A bit of England on the shores of the
Pacific". It is distinctly a home city, with fine roads and
beautiful gardens, although its enterprising _ business district,
composed of imposing stores and tall office buildings, speak of a
rich commerce drawn from the fishing, lumber and agricultural
industries of Vancouver Island. Victoria's beauty lies in its residential districts, its boulevards, parks, public buldings, numerous bathing beaches, and semi-tropical foliage. The famous
strawberry growing districts of Gordon Head and Keatings are
close to Victoria.
The Empress Hotel, last in the chain of Canadian Pacific
hotels, overlooks the inner harbor within a stone's throw of the
Parliament Buildings.
Beacon Hill Park, one of the city's public parks, containing 300
acres laid out as recreation grounds and pleasure gardens, is fifteen minutes' walk from hotel and included in all sight-seeing trips in the city. Magnificent views can be obtained from
Beacon Hill across the Straits and of Olympic Mountains.
Victoria is the seat of the British Columbia Provincial Government. The Parliament Building is a handsome structure, overlooking the inner harbor. Adjoining it is the Provincial Museum, very complete and interesting, and containing a large assortment of specimens of natural history, native woods, Indian
curios and prehistoric instruments. The Provincial Library, in
'Princess Charlotte"
the Provincial Buildings, is one of the finest in existence. Its
historical prints, documents, and other works are of great value
and interest.
Golf can be enjoyed every day of the year at Victoria. Three
18-hole courses and one 9-hole course, which are very convenient,
are open to visitors.
Saanich Mountain Observatory, reached by splendid auto road
or interurban car, was selected as an observatory site, owing to
Vancouver Island's equable climate. The new telescope, which
has a 72^inch reflector, has just been installed and is the largest
in the world. The observatory, in addition to being of interest
' itgelf, commands from its site one of the finest views on the
Pacific  Coast.
The fishing and shooting in the vicinity of Victoria'are of the
best—trout, salmon, pheasant, grouse, cougar, bear, deer and
moose being the prizes of the sportsman. Trout are to be had
at many places, and salmon fly-fishing, also, as well as salmon
trolling. There is excellent bird shooting and big game hunting
on the Island.
Considering the size of Vancouver Island, there are possibly
more good motor trips radiating from Victoria than any other
place in America. The motor roads are excellent, the drives
North to Campbell River, Port Alberni, Sproat and Great Central Lakes being among the most spectacular in the world.
Among the most popular trips are: Victoria, Marine Drive and
Mount Douglas Park, 25 miles; Little Saanich Mountain Observatory and Brentwood, 33 miles; tour of Saanich Peninsula, 45 B. C.   Co ast   Steamshi p s       135
Victoria—Empress  Hotel  on  left.  Parliament  Buildings  in   centre
miles; the famous Malahat Drive to Shawnigan and Duncan,
Island Highway, 41 miles; Nanaimo, via Parksville to Cameron
Lake, 40 miles, over Alberni Summit, 57 miles; the Grand
Island Highway Tour—Victoria, Duncan, Nanaimo, Cameron
Lake, Port Alberni, Qualicum and Campbell River, and the entire
Georgian Circuit International Tour, the greatest and most complete scenic tour on the Continent.
Seattle—Seattle, largest city in the State of Washington, and
one of the most important on the Pacific Coast, is
reached by Canadian Pacific steamer from both Vancouver and
Victoria, with a direct night service from the former and a day
service (the completion of the triangular route already mentioned) from the latter. Seattle is a beautiful and progressive
city, with a rapidly increasing population. Situated on the east
side of Puget Sound, up the slopes of the hills that front the
latter, it has a fine harbor accessible to the largest vessels afloat.
Lake Washington, a body of fresh water about twenty miles long
and three miles wide, bounds the city on the east, and is now
connected with the Sound by the Lake Washington Canal, a
very notable feat of engineering that has a great and important
bearing upon Seattle's future. The down-town business section
of Seattle has many large buildings, including the L. C. Smith
Building, the highest in America outside of the Woolworth
Building in New York. Seattle has a very pleasing residential
section, especially in the vicinity of the University of Washington, and many beautiful parks and summer resorts. A large
number of enjoyable trips can be made from
Seattle, by train, steamer, and motor, such as to
Bellingham, Everett, Tacoma, and Mount Rainier.
Lake Washington Boulevard. Seattle, with Mount Ranier in distance. 136
Across   Canada
Vancouver Station and Harbor
TO ALASKA
(For map, see page 138).
From Victoria and Vancouver a regular Canadian Pacific
steamship service is maintained to Alaska by the two splendid
steamers, the "Princess Alice" and the "Princess Louise". This
thousand-mile, four-day trip on salt water is an entertaining one
that introduces the traveller to rugged, fiord-like scenery of a
type unknown elsewhere in North America. The passage is a
sheltered one between the mainland and the long fringe of islands that lie off the British Columbia and Alaska Coasts.
Victoria Leaving Victoria at night and Vancouver the fol-
Vancouver lowing night, the traveller has a very delightful
Aiert Bay sail out of Burrard Inlet through the First Narrows and across English Bay. Should the time of
year be—as it ought, to be enjoyed to the utmost—the summer,
this beginning of the trip to the Land of the Midnight Sun is
most enjoyable, for in July and August it is light until nearly
ten o'clock. Along about breakfast time the steamer enters the
famous Seymour Narrows, one of the swiftest passageways on
this coast. About noon Alert Bay is reached. This quaint
Indian village is full of interest to the tourist, and the steamer
stops long enough to allow passengers to see the sights. It has
a mission settlement, a good hospital, and a cannery. Every
house has its totem pole, some of which rise to a height of
fifty feet. Here, in fact,
may be seen the most complete collection of totem
poles to be found anywhere on the whole Pacific Coast.
Queen Charlotte Sound
is reached at early evening, and if the heavens
are clear, a sunset of rare
beauty will be viewed.
This three-hour ride
aeross the Sound is all
ihe open water that is
experienced upon the
entire trip. Whales and
porpoises    are   frequently
seen.    To the northwest the dim outlines of the  Queen Charlotte Islands may be seen.
Totem Poles, Alert Bay
Queen Charlotte Sound
Milbank Sound
Swanson Bay
Skeena River
Soon Rivers Inlet is passed, with its
many canneries and fleets of fishing-
boats. Farther on are Namu, with
more canneries, and Bella Bella, on
Campbell Island, where an Inlian
village and an interesting mission are situated. Through Lama
Passage the vessel finds its way out into Milbank Sound, where To   A 1 a s k
137
the channel is very wide, and the islands quite distant. During
the night the ship passes through Finlayson Channel and early
next morning a stop is made at Swanson Bay, a tree-bound place,
in the heart of which is situated an immense mill for the
manufacture of lumber and sulphite pulp.
Out into the channel the "Princess" steamer again finds its
way, and for most of a day plows steadily northward without
stopping. Granville Channel, Douglas Channel and then Lowe
Inlet, with its settlement lying close to the foot of a mountain,
is reached. Late afternoon brings the vessel to the mouth of
the Skeena River, where a large fleet of salmon boats are
usually encountered. The Skeena is at present navigable for 180
miles, and powerfully built stern-wheel boats leave every few
days for the interior.
Prince Rupert Up the river about three miles is Port Essing-
Ketchikan ton.   It is not a very long run from Port Es-
sington to Prince Rupert, the terminus of the
Grand Trunk Pacific Railway. Port Simpson is passed soon
after leaving Prince Rupert. This town is historic in its interests, it being the first of the northern settlements established by the Hudson's Bay Company! The old post used by
the company is still there, though in active times it was enclosed in a stockade fortress with guns in the bastions.
After Port Simpson the liner passes Cape Fox just as it
emerges from Chatham Sound. This Gape is the extreme southeastern point of Alaska. Dixon Entrance is now passed and
again the islands stand at a distance. Soon the boat proceeds
up Revilla Gigedo Channel, and from there into the almost landlocked Tongas Narrows.
After that, Ketchikan, the port of entry, is soon reached and
the traveller *steps on to Alaskan territory for the first time.
This is a busy town, as it is the outlet for an extensive copper
mining district and has an assay office. The "Princess." liners
always stop here to allow the passengers to look over the town.
The Indian women, with their woven baskets, are among the
odd sights to be seen. Splendid specimens of basket weaving
may be obtained here. After leaving Ketchikan, the ship finds
its way into Clarence Strait passing en route Prince of Wales
Island on the left, and Etolin and Zarembo islands on the right.
Wrangel The steamer usually arrives at Wrangel Narrows
Taku Glacier in the evening, but owing to the twilights in
the summer months in these latitudes, daylight
is always at hand to show the way. The passage through
Wrangel Narrows is one of the most interesting of the entire
trip. The channel is tortuous and very narrow. Half-speed is
ordered and the vessel glides unharmed past jutting rocks which
lie close to the mirrored surface of the waters. Wonderful
shadows are on every side. At the very end of the Narrows, a
mammoth mountain confronts the ship. A sharp turn to the
right, and the ship slides into a wide channel called Frederick
Sound. Here one obtains the first glimpse of the glaciers. The
Baird and the
Patterson are the
two most important glaciers in
this district.
Stephen's Passage is now entered. The Sum-
dum glacier" can
be easily seen
while going
through this passage. At the head
of Stephen's Passage is Taku Bay,
Juneau J0E
138
Across   Canada
from which the
wonderful Foster glacier may
be seen. This
monster is over
one hundred
miles long and
extends over
that distance to
Atlin Lake in
the Yukon Territory. It is
nearly a mile
wide on Taku
Bay. To the
left of Foster
glacier lies
Windom glacier.
All    about   the
ship are ice floes and bergs of every description, from tiny
cakes to large icebergs whose colors are nothing short of wonderful. The steamship usually makes a call at Taku Harbor
to view the glacier, either on the north or southbound trip during the touring season.
Skagway
Juneau
Lynn Canal
Shortly after entering Gastineau Channel, a
sight of Treadwell, the famous gold mining
place, is obtained. Here are located the largest
quartz mills in the world, there being 900 stamps in operation
day and night. Near Treadwell is Douglas Island, the residential district for the mining town. Across the channel from
Douglas is Juneau, the capital of Alaska, which nestles importantly under the shelter of its mammoth mountain and takes life
easy. It is an up-to-date place, having the capitol buildings.
Ample time is given to inspect the town.
The ship's course rounds towards the narrow waters of the
Lynn Canal after leaving Juneau and an all-day journey in a
straight-away northern direction is taken. Famous glaciers
come into view from time to time, the most noted of which is
the Davidson, which in the last few years has become inactive.
Late afternoon brings the now deserted town of Dyea into
sight, and the only bend in the entire canal brings Skagway, the
head port of navigation, into view. The White Pass & Yukon
Railroad has its southern terminus at this point.
Skagway Skagway is surrounded by monstrous snow-capped
Dawson mountains which seem ready to drop over and cover
up the town. As a tourist resort it offers an endless program of attractions. Side trips in every direction are
possible, while fishing of all kinds, and glacier inspecting and
plenty of mountain
climbing, are special things in which
the tourist may indulge. The steamers remain long
enough at Skagway to allow passengers to' make
the round- trip to
the summit of the
White Pass by the
White Pass & Yukon Railroad. Over
this railway route
—a trip through
wonderful gorges
and       along       the Over the White Pass and Yukon Route
^ Vancouver   Island
139
The Midnight Sun, Yukon River
brink of deep
canyons, we
reach White
Horse, on the
Yukon River.
Here steamers
operated by
the same company carry the
traveller to
the famous
gold-mining
town of Dawson, in the
Yukon Terri-
t o r y. From
Dawson other
steamers descend the Yukon River, and the Arctic Circle can actually be crossed in the utmost comfort.* From Carcross, on
the way to White Horse, a steamer service takes one to the
enchanting Lake Atlin.
ESQUIMALT AND NANAIIVIO RAILWAY: 198 miles
The Esquimalt and Nanaimo Railway, a subsidiary company
of the Canadian Pacific, serves the rich agricultural, lumbering
and mining regions along the.east coast of Vancouver Island.
It runs north from Victoria to Courtenay, with branches to
Lake Cowichan and Port Alberni, and takes the traveller
through magnificent, rugged scenery. For the sportsman this
is a most attractive country, for it embraces within its territory
some famous salmon-fishing waters, such as Cowichan River and
Campbell River.
Victoria—Victoria will be found fully described on page 132.
Leaving the station here, w.e pass Esquimalt, well-
known for its dockyard.
Colwood—A  small  farming   subrub   of  Victoria,   comprising
Langford Plains, on which are located the famous
and picturesaue Colwood Golf Links.
Malahat—The line gradually rises from Langford Plains to
Malahat, which is the summit of the railway crossing the Malahat Range, and from which there is a prolonged
view of Todd Inlet and the Saanich Arm. The Malahat Drive
(in view, from the railway) crosses this mountain, and affords
a delightful
trip from Victoria, giving
one of the finest views in
British Columbia, that of
the Straits of
Juan de Fuca,
dotted with is-
lands, and
over the well
ultivated Saanich district,
with Mount
Baker rising
majestically-
some hundred
miles  east. Beacon Hill Park, Victoria d0r
140
Across   Canada
Shawnigan Lake—A beautiful sheet of fresh water, with excellent fishing. Strathcona Lodge, privately
operated, from which a splendid view of the Lake is obtained,
affords first class accommodation.
Cobble Hill—The  centre  of a  thriving  agricultural  district.
Duncan—Population 1500. This is the centre of a flourishing
agricultural and small farming district, largely populated by retired English people, with country homes, many of
the residents supplementing their income by small farming.
A branch of the railway to the famous Cowichan Lakes leaves
the main line one mile north of Duncan, on which line there
are several sawmills, with logging operations on the lake, thirty
to fifty car loads of logs per day being hauled to the East
Coast of the Island for manufacture" into lumber, etc.
Chemainus—One of the largest sawmills in British Columbia
operates at this point, the property of the Victoria Lumber and Manufacturing Company,  Limited, the  capacity of the mill being over 200,000 feet per day.
Ladysmith—Population 3800. Located on Oyster Bay.   Principally a mining town, and headquarters for the
Extension Mines, twelve miles distant, which are reached by
the Canadian Collieries' coal railway.
Cassidy—-Site of the Granby coal mine, property of the Granby
Consolidated  Mining,  Smelting  & Power  Co.,  Ltd.,
output from 600 to 1000 tons per day.
South Wellington—Location of the old South Wellington coal
mine, property of the Canadian Collieries
(Dunsmuir) Limited, with an output from 600 to 1000 tons per
diem.
Nanaimo—Population 12,000. Distant 41 miles by water from
Vancouver, B.C. A flourishing commercial and mining city, beautifully situated; headquarters of the Western Fuel
Company's extensive coal mines, and of agricultural and herring
fishing interests. The largest city on Vancouver Island outside
of Victoria.
. The line rises from here to Wellington a semi-terminal of
the railway, from which point the railway drops to Nanoose
Bay, where a beautiful view of the Gulf
of Georgia is obtained, and on which bay
several sawmills are
located.
Parksville Junction
i—The centre of a substantial agricultural.
district. The line to
Port Alberni and the
West Coast of Vancouver Island, forty
miles distant, deviates
from Parksville Junction.
Union Bay — Shipping port for the
Canadian Collieries
Comox mines, which
are located some 12
miles distant at Cumberland, and have
an output of from
2500    to    3500    tons
Malahat Drive, Vancouver Island ESQUIMALT & NANAIIVIO RAILWAY 142
Across   Canada
Loading Logs
of coal per day. Cumberland is a thriving town of some 1200
inhabitants. Junction with the Canadian Collieries' railway at
Royston, forming a means of transportation from Cumberland.
Courtenay—Population, 1000. The present northern terminus
of the railway, and the most northerly large town
on Vancouver Island, in which the agricultural business of the
famous Comox
Valley centres,
this valley being
the largest farming and most productive and promising on Vancouver Island. A
large Returned
Soldier Settlement has been
established at
Merville. There
are very extensive timber interests adjacent to
and through this
valley, making it
an attractive location for future settlers, as the timber is removed and land
cleared up for settlement.
Cameron Lake Chalet—Snugly  located  at  the  southern  end
of the Lake. Excellent fishing at the
proper season of the year, and a delightful resort for tourists
in limited numbers, Cameron Lake Chalet being owned by the
Company, and operated privately. A trail to the timber line
of Mount Arrowsmith makes a delightful day or two's outing
for mountain climbers. From Cameron Lake the line skirts
the foothills of Mount Arrowsmith (6000 feet high), of which
a magnificent view can be had as the train passes along the
high cliffs on Cameron Lake.
Arrowsmith—Elevation, 1277 feet. Summit of the Beaufort
Range. From Arrowsmith the line skirts the
west side of the Beaufort Range, from which many glimpses of
the Alberni Canal, Great Central Lake and Sproat Lake can be
had in the distance.
Port Alberni—Elevation, 17 feet. A thriving city, with a
great future as a lumber manufacturing, fishing
and shipping
port. One of
the largest
areas of standing timber on
Vancouver Island is tributary
to the Alberni
Canal. There
are several fish
packing industries located at
Port Alberni
and down the
Canal to the
outlet at Barclay Sound, and
the canal also
affords splendid
season.
Cariieron Lake Chalet
sport for both   salmon and "tyee"  fishing in Across  Canada
143
INDEX TO   PRINCIPAL STATIONS
WESTERN   CANADA
Agassiz, B.C.
Albert Canyon, B.C
Alderson, Alta....
Alert Bay, B.C.132,
Alexander, Man...
Alexandria,   Minn.
Arborg,    Man	
Arcola,    Sask	
Armstrong, B.C..
Arrowhead, B.C..
Arrowsmith,   B.C..
Ashcroft,     B.C	
Asouith,  Sask	
Assiniboia,    Sask..
116
.109
.73
136
.68
.78
..64
..88
.112
.110
,142
.115
..84
. .71
Baicarres, Sask... j
BalgOnie,  Saslc.   ...
Banff,   Alta	
Bankhead, Alta....
Bassano, Alta... 72
Beavermouth,   B.C..
Biggar, Sask	
Binscarth,   Man	
Birtle,    Man	
Blairmore, Alta...
Boissevain, Man...
Bow Island, Alta..
Brandon,   Man.
66, 68. 83,
Bredenbury, Sask..
Brlckburn,   Alta....
Brilliant,    B.C	
Broadview,    Sask...
Brodie,    B.C	
Brookmere,  B.C....
Brooks,  Alta	
Brooten, Minn...78,
Bull Biver. B.C...
Bulyea, Sask...68,
Burlington,    Wis..
Eikhorn,   Man	
Elko,  B.C	
Elm Creek, Man...
Emerald.   B.C	
Emerson,   Man..64,
Etnpress,   Alta	
Enderly, B.C	
Erskine,   Alta	
Esterhazy,    Sask...
Estevan,  Sask...68,
Euston,    Sask	
Exshaw,   Alta	
Calgary,   Alta..76,89.
90,  91
Cameron Lake,
B.    C 142
Campbell Biver,B.C13
Camp Hughes, Man. 65
Camrose, Alta 85
Canmore,   Alta 92
Carberry,   Man 65
Cardston,   Alta 122
Carlyle,   Sask 88
Carman,    Man 87
Carmangay, Alta.90,122
Cartwright,  Man 88
Castlegar,   B.C 127
Castle Mountain,
Alta 96
Castor, Alta 90
Chase,   B.C 114
Chemainus,    B.C. ..140
Chicago,   HI 77
Chippewa   Falls,Wis. 77
Claresholm,   Alta 90
Coaldale,  Alta 120
Cochrane, Alta 91
Coleman,- Alta 123
Colonsay,  Sask..70,  84
Colvalli,   B.C..105,   124
Comox,    B.C 132
Coauihalla,    B.C.131
Coronation,   Alta 90
Courtenay,   B.C 142
Cowley.    Alta 122
Craigellachie,   B.C..111
Cranbrook,B.C105, 124
Creston,  B.C 125
Crowfoot,   Alta 75
Crow's Nest, B.C... 123
Crystal   City,   Man..88
Daysland,   Alta. 85
Dawson,  Yukon 138
Deloraine,  Man 88
Didsbury,  Alta 89
Dominion City, Man. 64
Drlnkwater,    Sask... 82
Duncan, B.C 140
Dunmore,  Alta..72,120
Eau   Claire,  Wis 77
Edmonton, Alta..86, 90
Fairmont,  N.D 80
Fernie,   B.C i24
Fessenden,   N.D..... 80
Field,   B.C 101
Fillmore,    Sask 88
Fond du Lac,  Wis.. 77
Francis, Sask 88
Frank,    Alta 123
Gerrard. B.C 126
Gimli:,   Man 64
Glacier,    B.C 107
Gladstone,    Man....83
Gleichen,   Alta 75
Glenboro,    Man 87
Glenwood, Mhin 78, 80
Golden,   B.C 104
Govan,   Sask 68
Govenlock, Sask.... 71
Grand Forks, B.C..127
Grand Prairie, Alta. 86
Great Divide, B.C.100
Greenwood,    B.C... 128
Grenfell,    Sask 69
Gretna.    Man ...88
Griswold, Man   68
Gull Lake,  Sask 72
Haig,   B.C 116
Hamiota,  Man.   ....65
Haney,   B.C 116
Hardisty,   Alta 85
Hartney,    Man 66
Herbert,     Sask 71
High Elver, Alta 90,122
Holdfast,    Sask 70
Hope, B.C 116, 131
Huntingdon, B.C... 116
lllecillewaet, B.C... 109
Imperial,   Sask    70
Indian Head, Sask..
Innisfall,   Alta 89
Irricana,   Alta 75
Juneau,  Alaska   ...138
Kamloops, B. C 114
Kananaskis. Alta... 92
Kaslo.   B.C...110.   126
Kelowna,    B.C 112
Kenmare,   N.D 81
Kerrobert, Sask..71, 89
Ketchikan,   Alaska.137
Killarney,   Man .88
Kipp, Alta 90,   122
Kirkella,   Man 68
Kisbey,   Sask 88
Kootenay Ldg., B.C.125
Lacombe,  Alta 89
Ladysmith, B.C... 140
Lake Louise, Alta...98
Lake Windermere,
B.C 104
Langdon, Alta. ... 7
Lanigan,   Sask.68,70,84
Lardeau,    B.C 126
La Riviere,    Man.... 88
Leader,    Sask 7
Leanchoil.  B.C 102
Leduc,    Alta	
Lemberg,     Sask 68
Lethbridge,- Alta.
 90,   120,  122
Lochearn, . Alta 89
Lorraine,   Alta 90
Lumsden B'ch, Sask. 70
Lyleton,    Man 88
Lytton,    B.C 115
MacGregor, ' Man... 65
Macklin, Sask..71, 85
Macleod,  Alta..90,  122
Magrath,    Alta	
Manltou,   Man	
Manor,   Sask   	
Maple  Creek,   Sask
Marshfleld,   Wis	
Marysville,   B.C	
McAuley,   Man	
McLennan,   Alta...
Medicine Hat,  Alt
 73,
Melita,   Man	
Merritt,   B.C	
Meyronne,   Sask....
Michel,    B.C	
Midway,   B.C.128,
Milestone,   Sask....
Milwaukee,  Wis....
Miniota,  Man... 66,
Minneapolis,  Minn.
 64,- 77,
Minnedosa,    Man..
 65, • 66,
Minot,   N.D	
Mission,  B.C	
Moose   Jaw, '-Sask..
 70,   71,   82,
Moosomin,   Sask...
Morden,    Man	
Morris,    Man	
Morse, Sask	
Mowbray,    Man....
El
120
.68
131
.71
124
129
.82
..77
83
NTakusp, B.C.. 110, 126
Nanaimo, B.C. 132, 140
Nanton,   Alta 90
Napinka,  Man..68,   88
Neenah,   Wis 77
Neepawa,   Man 83
r-elson,   B.C	
..110,  125,  126,  127
Neudorf    .Sask 68
New Denver, B.C. .127
New  Westminster,
B.C 118
Nokomis,  Sask 68
North Bend, B.C.. 116
Forth Portal.  Sask..81
Oak   Lake,   Man 68
Ocean Falls, B.C... 132
Ogden,   Alta 76
Okanagan Ldg.,B.C.ll
Okotoks,    Alta 90
Olds,   Alta 89
Oshkosh,   Wis 77
Otterburne,   Man.... 64
Outlook,    Sask 71
Oxbow,    Sask 68
Palliser,    B.C 104
Parksville Jc, B.C..140
Pasoua, Sask. .70, 82
Peace Biver, Alta..86
Peachland,    B.C...112
Penticton,    B.C	
 112,   129
Perdue,    Sask 84
Plerson,   Man 68
Pilot Mound, Man..88
Plum  Coulee,  Man..88
Ponoka,   Alta 90
Portage   la   Prairie;
Man 65
.Portal,    N.D 81
Port Alice, B.C...132
Port Alberni, B.C.. 142
Port Moody, B.C..118
Powell Biver, B.C.132
Prince Bupert,B.C13'
Provost,   Alta 85
Qu'Appelle,    Sask... 69
Rapid   City,   Man...65
Raymond,    Alta 122
Redcliff,   Alta 73
Red   Deer,   Alta 89
Regina,    Sask. 69,84,88
Reston, Man 69, 87
Revelstoke,   B.C	
 109, 110.   Ill
Riverton,   Man 64
Rockhaven,    Sask... S5
Rosebery, B.C.126, 127
Rosetown,    Sask 71
Rossland, B.C 127
Rouleau,    Sask 82
Russell,   Man 83
St. Boniface, Man.
St.   Paul,   Minn...
 64,   77, -
Salmon Arm. B.C..
Saltcoats,    Sask....
Sandon,  B.C..110,
Saskatoon,   Sask.
 68,   70,
Seattle, .Wash	
Sedgewick,    Alta...
Selkirk.    Man	
Shaunavon, Sask...
Shawnigan, B.C...
Shoal Lake, Man.
Sicamous,    B.C....
 Ill,   112,
Skagway,    Alaska..
Slocan City. B.C...
Souris,   Man... 66,
Spence's Bridge,
B.C 115,
Spillimacheen,  B.C.
Spokane,   Wash	
Spuzzum,   B.C	
Starbuck,   Man	
Stavely,  'Alta	
Stettler,    Alta.......
Steven's Point, Wis
Stirling,   Alta	
Stonewall, Man....
Stoughton, Sask..71,
Strasbourg, Sask..
Strathcona, Alta...
Strathmore, Alta..
Summerland, B.C.
Sutherland, Sask..
Swift Current, Sasl
Sylvan   Lake,   .Alta
64
78
114
.84
126
84
135
.64
.71
140
.83
130
138
127
87
131
104
125
116
.87
.90
.90
. 77
122
.64
88
.68
.85
.75
112
.84
c.72
..89
Taber,    Alta 120
Thief    Biver    Falls,
Minn 73
Trail,    B.C 127
Treherne,   Man 87
Union Bay, B.C.... 132
Unity,  Sask. 85
Valley City, N.D....80
Vancouver,   B.   C...
 118, 131, 136
Varcoe,    Man.. 65,    83
Vernon,    B.C 112
Victoria,   B5C.......
 132,   136,   139
Virden,   Man 68
Waldo,    B.C 124
Wapella,    Sask 68
Warner,    Alta 122
Waukesha,   Wis 77
Westminster,   Jct,
B.C 116
West   Robson,    B.C.
 110,    127
Wetaskiwin, Alta.85, 90
Weyburn,   Sask..71,   82
Whytewold,   Man 64
Wilcox,    Sask 82
Wilkie,    Sask 84
Windygates,   Man... 88
Winkler,    Man 88
Winnipeg, Man. 63, 64
65,   78,   83/  87,   88
Winnipeg   Beach,
Man 64
Wolfe,    Sask S4
Wolseley,   Sask..69,  87
Wynyard.    Sask 84
Tale,    B.C 116
Yellow Grass, Sask..82
Yorkton,   Sask 84
Young,   Sask 70 CAIAIIANWlPACIFIC
STEAMSHIP \
LINES
EMPRESS   EXPRESS    SERVICE
Quebec  to
Cherbourg, Southampton, and   Hamburg.
Via   the  sheltered   St.   Lawrence   route
By the magnificent steamships :
Empress  of  Scotland,   (25,000 tons)
(Largest liner in Canadian Service,)
Empress of  France  (18,500 tons)
Empress of Britain (15,850 tons)
(gross registered tons In each case)
London and Paris in a week;    Berlin in nine days.
MONO-CLASS    CABIN   SERVICE
Montreal  and Quebec  to
Liverpool, Glasgow, Southampton,
Belfast, Cherbourg and Antwerp
(Steamships sail from St.  John, N. B.  in winter.)
Additional  Freight Services to London and Bristol.
CANADIAN   PACIFIC   RAILWAY
TRAFFIC  AGENTS CANADIA|WpEIFIC
STEAMSHIP ^
LINES
TRANS-PACIFIC
Vancouver via Victoria to
Japan and China
by   the   four   magnificent   liners:
Empress of Canada - - 22,000 tons
Empress of Australia - 22,000 tons
Empress of Russia - - - 16,850 tons
Empress of Asia ... 16,850 tons
(gross registered tons in each case)
Largest, newest, finest and fastest on the Pacific Ocean.
Fortnightly  sailings  to
Yokohama, Kobe, k      Nagasaki,
Shanghai,   and
Hong    Kong.
CANADIAN   PACIFIC   RAILWAY
TRAFFIC AGENTS BUREAU OF CANADIAN INFORMATION
The Canadian Pacific Railway has established a Bureau of Canadian information as a branch
of its Department of Colonization and Development, with the object of disseminating reliable
and up-to-date information as to agricultural and industrial openings in all parts of Canada.
WESTERN CANADA FARM LANDS
The Company has yet for sale several million acres of choice farm lands in Western Canada, at
low prices and on long terms of payment. In certain districts lands will be sold without settlement restrictions, but the Company is prepared to grant special concessions to those who will
settle upon and develop their farms.
IRRIGATED FARM LANDS
In its irrigation districts in Alberta, the Company has irrigated lands for sale at reasonable
prices and on terms extending over twenty years. Under certain conditions loans for improvements will be granted purchasers of irrigated lands in amounts up to two thousand dollars, to
be repaid with land instalments.
EASTERN CANADA FARM LANDS
Lists of selected Improved farms, available for settlement in Ontario, Quebec and the Maritime
Provinces, with the names and addresses of their owners, may be obtained on application at
any office of the Department.
INDUSTRIAL INVESTIGATION AND RESEARCH
Investigations, looking to the utilization of undeveloped natural resources and
waste products and new industrial processes, are being carried on by the Research
Section of the Department. Inquiries as to promising fields for investigation in
this connection are invited.
INDUSTRIAL OPENINGS
Reliable information as to sites for new industries in all parts of Canada, and of
special business openings in the growing towns and cities along the lines of the
Canadian Pacific Railway in both Eastern and Western Canada, will be gladly
furnished on request.
CANADIAN INTELLIGENCE SERVICE
Well equipped Canadian reference libraries have been established by the Department at Montreal, New York, Chicago, and London, England. These libraries
contain the fullest information on all matters relating to Canada and her undeveloped resources, and are kept supplied with the latest information pertaining to new
developments through the medium of a news service organized through the cooperation of the other departments of the Company's service. The information on
hand in these libraries is available without charge to those interested, and inquiries
addressed to any office of the Department will receive prompt attention.
DEPARTMENT OF COLONIZATION AND
DEVELOPMENT, CANADIAN PACIFIC RAILWAY
WINNIPEG:—J.  F.   Sweeting, Industrial
Agent, C.P R Depot.
NEW YORK:—C.P.R. Bureau of Canadian
Information,Madison Avenue and 44th St.
LONDON:—A. E. Moore, Manager, 62-65
Charing Cross.
J. S. DENNIS, Chief Commissioner,
MONTREAL, Que.
MONTREAL:—C.P.R. Bureau of Canadian
Information; 347 Windsor Station
CALGARY:—M. E. Thornton, Supt. of Colonization, Dept. of Natural Resources Bldg.
CHICAGO:—C.P.R. Bureau of Canadian Information, 165 East Ontajjjs Street.
E. G. WHITE. Asst. Commissioner
MONTREAL, Que. CANADIAN PACIFIC
1           HOTELS
Name    of     Hotel,     Plan,
Alti
|
m
.E
l
Distance    from    Station
tude
Season
2 o
Recreations
and      Transfer      Charge.
K
St. Andrews, N.B.
The-Algonquin—                    A
150
June 20-
219
Golf, Bathing, Boating, Yacht -
1 mile—60 cents.
Sept. 30
ing. (Passamaquoddy Bay, St.
Croix River).
MoAdam,     N.B.
McAdam Hotel—                  A
At Stftttoii.-.
Quebec, Que.
Chateau Frontenac               E
445
All year
15
Hunting in Season.
300
All year
324
Scenic and Historical interest,
1 mile—60 cents.
Goif,   Motoring   (Plains   on
(now being enlarged to twice
Abraham, St. Anne de Beaupre).
this capacity).
IVlontreal,     Que.
Place viger- Hotel—              E
57
Allyear:
114
Historical    Monuments    and
At Plaoe Viger Station.
buildings. Mount Royal, St.
IH miles   from   Wlfidsor
Lawrence    River,    Golfing,
Station—76 cents.
Boating, Yaohttng, Motoring!
City founded by Malsonneuve,
1642.
Winnipeg, Man.
1
The Royal Alexandra—        E
760
All year
389
Golf,   Motor'ng,    centre    ofl
At Station.
I
Canadian West   (Site of oldl
Port Garry).
Calgary, Alta.
Hotel Pallteer—                     E
3425
All year
298
Golf,       Motoring.      Pishing j
At Station.
(Trout).                                    j
Banff, Alta.
Mountain drives and climbs. 1
Banff Springs Hotel—           E
4625
May 16-
280
Golf. Bathing, Fishing (Trout )l
1 ii miles—50 cents.
:   Sept. 30
Boating,      Riding    (Rocky
Mountains Park).
Lake Louise, Alta.
Chateau Lake Louise—     ,   E
5670
June 1-
265
Boating,   Mountain    climbs.
Zii miles—50 cents
Sept. 30
Pony trails, Fishing (Trout),
Narrow Gauge Railway.
Lakes in the Clouds, Moraine
Emerald   Lake (near Field),
B.C.
Emerald Lake Chalet—         A
Lake, Glaciers
4262
June 15-
60
Boating, Pishing (Trout), Pony
7 mlles—$1.00
Sept. 15
trails to Yoho Valley, Takakkaw Falls, Riding.
Glacier, B.C.
Glacier House—                    A
4086
June 15-
86
Pony trails, Climbs. Exploring.
IH miles—50 cents
Sept. 15
Glaciers, Great Nakimu Caves' I
Sicamous, B.C.
111
Hotel Sicamous—                A
1146
Ailyear
61
Rowing,     Canoeing,     Motor; 1
At Station.
boats,        Trout        Fisning 9
(Sicamous Lake).
1
Vancouver, B.C.   j
1
Hotel Vancouver—                E
100
All year
488
Golf,      Motoring,      Fishing,
a
ii mile—25 cents.
Steamboat excursions.
I
Victoria, B.C.
1
Empress Hotel—                   E
Sea
Ailyear
278
Golf, Motoring, Yachting, Sea
200 yards—25 cents
Level
and stream fishing.
ANDREW AL
LERTON, Ge
neral
Su peri ntondent,
Canadiar
> Paci
Fie Hotels,  Montreal.
CAMPS
AND H
OTI
ILS
REACHED BY
j CANAD3
AN
PACIFIC
Digby, N.S.
The Pines.                              E
June 20-
Sept. 10
50
Golf,     Tennis,      Sea-flshing,
Excursions Into the land of
Evangeline.
Kentville, N.S.   .
Cornwallis Inn.                      E
—
All year
100
In the heart of the Land of
Evangeline.
Lake Louise, Alta.
Moraine Lake Camp—         A
June 15-
Sept. 15
Head of Valley of Ten Peaks.
Consolation Lake.        Trout
fishing, pony trails, climbs,
etc.
Hector, B.C.
Lake O'Hara Camp—          A
6664
June 15-
Sept. 15
Centre      for        exploration.
Excursions to Lake O'Hara,
Yoho Valley, etc.
Hector, B.C.
Lake Wapta Camp—             A
5190
June 15-
Sept. 15
Centre      for       explorations?
Excursions to Lake O'Hara,
Yoho Valley, etc.
Field, B.C.
Yoho Camp—                        A
5000
June 15-
Sept. 15
Half-way house between Lake
Wapta Camp and Emerald
Lake Chalet. Takakkaw Falls,
Laughing Falls, Twin Falls,
Yoho Glacier, etc.
Lake Windermere, B.C.
Lake Windermere Camp—   A
2700
June 15-
Centre for Riding, Camping,
1 mile.
(Operated by Invermere Hotel
Co.)
Penticton, B.C.
Sept. 15
Motoring, Bathing. Boating,
Fishing,   Excursions   to  the
Glaciers of the Selkirks.
Hotel Incola—                       A
1132
All year
62
Boating and Fishing, Okana
Near Steamer Wharf
gan Lake.   Splendid Motor
(Owned  and  operated  by  the
Roads.
okanagan Hotel Company.)
Cameron Lake, B.C.
Cameron Lake Chalet.          A
604
May 1-
■Fishing     (Trout),     Boating.
Vancouver Island.
Sept. 20
Splendid  forests.      (Salmon
fishing adjacent.)
Strathcona Lodge Stn., B.C.
Strathcona Lodge,
600
April 15-
50
Fishing   (Trout),   Swimming,
Vancouver Island.
Sept. 15
Tennis, Mountain Climbing,
Motoring.
A—American Plan.              E—Et
ropean Plan. TRANSCANADA
TRANSPACIFIC
jgKssSS

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