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Across Canada : west bound Canadian Pacific Railway Company 1915

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 Annotated Guide via
Canadian !Pacific~fhe
Greatest Jranfporfation
"Syffem in fke ch/orld"4 wm
Name of Hotel, Plan, Distance from Station and
Transfer Charge
o .
Per Day
St. Andrews, N.B.
The Algonquin.: A
1 mile—25 cents
150  '
June 20-
Sept. 30
$5.00 up
fB. $1.00
{ L.    1.25
{B.   1.50
McAdam, N;B.
McAdam Station Hotel A
S^5'At Station
3.00 up
f B.     .50             f>
{ L.     .75
\D.    .75
Quebec, Que.
Chateau Frontenac. A
1 mile—50 cents
"300 -
j 375
5.00 up
fB.   1.00.
{ L.    1.00
\JD.   1.50   ■
Montreal, Que.
Place Viger Hotel           A
Va»v>- At Place Viger Station.
15<8 miles from Windsor
Station—50 cents.... E
All Year
3.50 up
1.50 up
fB.     .75
\ L.     .75
^D.   1.00
\a la carte
Winnipeg, Man.
The Royal Alexandra.. E
At Station
Calgary, Alta.
All Year
All Year
May 15-
Oct. 15
2.00 up
4.00 up
2.00 up
4.00 up
a la carte
fB.   1.00
L.    1.00
1 D.   1.25
la la carte
IB.   1.00
{ L.    1.00
\.D.  1.50
At Station E
Banff, Alta.
Banff Springs Hotel... A
1% miles—25 cents
Lake Louise, Alta.
Chateau Lake Louise. .A
2% miles 50 cents
Narrow Gauge Railway
June 1-
Oct. 15
5.00 up
fB.   1.00
\ L.   1.00
Id.  1.50
Field, B.C.
Mt. Stephen House.... A
At Station
Yoho Valley Camp
Emerald Lake  (near
Field, B.C.)
Emerald Lake Chalet... A
7 miles—$1.00
A 1 Year
July 1-
Sept. 15
June 15-
Sept. 30
4.00 up
4.00 up
4.00 up
Glacier, B.C.
At Station
May 15-
Oct. 15
4.00 up
Balfour, B.C.
Kootenay Lake Hotel. .A
% mile
June 15-
Sept. 15
3.50 up
fB.    .75
{ L.     .75
V.D.   1.00
Sicamous, B.C.
At Station
All year
3.50 up
fB.    .75
{L.     .75
\D.   1.00
Penticton, B.C.
Near Steamer Wharf
All year
3.00 up
.75 .
Cameron Lake, B.C.
Cameron Lake Chalet.. A
Vancouver Island
May 1-
Sept. 30
Vancouver, B.C.
% mile—25 cents
AU year
2.00 up
a la carte
Victoria, B.C.
100 yards—25 cents
All year
a la carte
A—American.    E—European.    Rates si
ibject to alteration. im
Annotated Guide
via Canadian Pacific
Railway—t he greatest
transportation System
in  the   world.le^    J>  nnotated   Guide
IwmmIHM"■»■■■»!■■!      Mm- Mil     ml HMi|i — ■■■■!■.>^c-^><iM.MWii^|r>wiMiJW.«^^ti™<»lll»«W'08"»'it an«-^agj,u.ii«1Nwp»><j
• '*»    ■■■mw  n     ■■     m     in    mi ■&iiniin-~— i nil'."Bl'i  iw    mi     m <".... '■*—>—m" ■■■   i w  i ■■■    i<itt
The Dominion of Canada   II-V
Quebec to Montreal        4-7
Halifax to St. John-, N.B     8-11
The Land of Evangeline    9
St. John to Montreal   12-15
New York, Boston, Portland and Montreal   16-17
Montreal to Vancouver   18-87
Chalk River to Port Arthur  22—26
Port Arthur to Broadview      34^41
Winnipeg           38
Broadview to Swift Current  42-43
Swift Current to Calgart  44-48
Calgary to Field  50-62
Field to Vancouvek, Victoria and Seattle 62-65 & 67-89
Great Lakes Route
Montreal to Toronto  27-28
Toronto to Port McNicoll  29-80
Port McNicoll to Fort William  31
Toronto and Winnipeg
Via Georgian Bay and Muskoka Route   82-33
Winnipeg to Edmonton  39-40
Calgary to Edmonton ,         49
Calgary to Lethbridge         49
Kootenay Central Branch          66
British Columbia Coast Service         90
Vancouver to Alaska   90-93
Crow's Nest Pass and The Kootenay  94-102
St. Paul, Minneapolis and Winnipeg 103-104
Kettle Valley Railway         106 11
Across   Canada
■»M.h—iM■""■»»«—yMi ■'■ W^iU»w»MiTl.m« i ^   W H ■  hMp^B«iii||»iii||
-—HS^—Sfc  0
«tn nfVim ■n—nm—jm—Mj^n
j ANADA comprises the northern half of North America.
Its southern boundary is the United States, on the east is
the Atlantic, on the west the Pacific, and on the north the
Arctic Ocean. Its area is 3,729,665 square miles, larger
than that of the United States, and nearly equal to that
of Europe. The population was, according to the census
of 1911, 7,206,643, or nearly a fourth less than that of Belgium.
(Estimated population for 1914, 8,075,000.) The census also showed
that of the population 3,896,985 were British by race or origin,
2,054,890 were of French descent, 393,320 Germans, 105,492 Indians
and half-breeds, 36,795 Chinese and Japanese, while almost every
European race was represented in the remainder. During recent
years a large number of farmers from the United States have settled
in the Western Prairie provinces. Population to square mile, Canada, 1.93; Great Britain, 471; U. S. A., 25.
From Halifax on the Atlantic to Vancouver on the Pacific is 3,740
miles by rail. From Victoria on the Pacific to Dawson on the Yukon
River is 1,550 miles by ocean and river steamer and rail. Its most
southerly portion is in the latitude of Northern Spain and Italy, and
the most northerly portion of the mainland is in the latitude of
Northern Norway.
The following table gives the area and population of the various
Nova Scotia	
New Brunswick	
Prince Edward Island
British Columbia
Northwest Territories
Yukon, &c	
Area in
Square Miles
In a country of such a vast extent, a wide variety of climate is
naturally to be found. Except on and near the ocean coast, the general characteristic of the climate of Canada comprises a warm dry
summer and a dry cold* winter. It is bracing and healthful, and in
all respects is a white man's country.
On the Pacific coast, owing to the Japanese current, the climate is
identical in temperature with that of the British Isles, which lie in
the same latitude.
The Dominnion is governed, under a Governor-General appointed
by the British Crown, by a Legislature or Parliament, which makes
the laws. Parliament is composed of two Houses, the Commons, elected by the people, and the Senate, appointed by the Government.
The Cabinet or Government, which administers the laws passed by
Parliament, is composed of members of Parliament, who must have
the support of a majority of the Commons or elective branch in
order to hold power.
■H Annotated   Guide
A change of policy, by reason of a change of Government, may
occur at any time, and an election to decide as to the views of the
people on the change may be held at any time
The Dominion Parliament controls the criminal law, the militia, the
post office, railways, indirect taxation by the tariff and excise, trade
relations with other countries, and, speaking generally, all matters of
national concern.
The Dominion owns and controls the administration of the public
lands in the three Central Provinces and throughout Northern Canada. These provinces contain many millions of acres of unoccupied
agricultural government land, and the responsibility for their development rests upon the Dominion Government.
The provinces are governed by legislatures elected by the people,
and have responsible government on the same principles as the Dominion. They are charged with providing the civil law and administering both civil and criminal laws.
They provide for education and for municipal government, and for
direct taxation in their support, and generally all matters of a purely
provincial or local nature.
Primary education in Canada is amply provided for in all the provinces, and in nearly all it is free. The figures for 1913 show that
there were then 24,871 public schools, with 36,019 teachers and 1,218,-
308 pupils. Canada spent on education in 1913 $49,246,370. Of the
population of five years and over in 1911, 88.98 per cent, can read and
write, 0.52 per cent, able to read only, and 10.50 per cent, cannot read
nor write. The system of education is mainly compulsory (except in
Manitoba)  and unsectarian.
There is no State Church in Canada, but there are numerous places
of worship belonging to the different denominations. According to
the census returns of 1911 the adherents of the principal religious
bodies were as follows:
Roman Catholics.
Presbyterians ...
Congregrationalists .
Salvation  Army
Respect for law and maintenance of order are very prominent features of life in Canada, as distinguished from most other new countries. The criminal statistics show a slight increase, but there is very
little serious crime in Canada. In 1914 there were 21,438 convictions in
all for indictable offences, of which 18,315 were first convictions. Only
241 of these offences called for sentences of five years and over, and
only in 27 instances was sentences of death passed. In 5,518 cases the
offender was allowed the option of a fine.
Each province supports its own police force, with the exceptions of
Saskatchewan and Alberta, which, with the Yukon Territory, are
policed by that fine body of men, the Royal North-West Mounted
Police. The force, which numbers about 929 officers and men, was
organized in 1873. The Canadian Pacific Railway has its own police
The Canadian Pacific Railway has been well called one of the wonders of the world, and it the longest continuous track railway under
one management in the world. It was constructed from coast to
coast in five years instead of ten as per contract, and its total mileage is over 18,000, including leased lines, sidings, etc. It owns and
controls 76 steamships, 2,255 locomotives, 2,781 passenger service, and
95,395 freight cars. During the year ending June 30, 1915, it carried
12,202,603 passengers and 21,490,596 tons of freight. IV
Across   Canada
Canada has 1,284 Post Offices and Government Savings Banks.
There are 22 chartered banks in the Dominion with branches all over
'the country.   In the last ten years their assets have almost doubled,
their capital has increased 25 per cent., and their note circulation has
increased almost 48 per cent.   In 1915 the public deposits in Canada
amounted to $1,098,103,494.
The total savings of the people amount to about $150 per head—
the highest record of any country in the world.
Total                            Total
Imports                         Trade
Canada buys nearly $100 per annum per head of the population.
The census of the manufactures of Canada taken in 1911 for the
calendar year 1910 gives the following comparative statistics, compared with those of the census of 1901 for the calendar year 1900,
Employees  ....
Salaries, Wages
The capital employed in manufactures increased during the decade
by 179.15 per cent., and the value of products by 142.38 per cent.
The number of establishments employing five hands and over last
year was 19,218, being an increase of 4,568 in the decade.
The progress of Canada as an agricultural country may be seen in
the following figures for the crops for the years 1900, 1910, and 1915
Wheat   ...
Barley   . ..
Potatoes ..
55,572,000 bush.
132,078,000 bush.
376,304,000 bush.
37,063,455 acres were under cultivation in 1915, value of products
being $797,669,000. Exports of animal agricultural produce in 1915
totalled $209,136,793.
Canada has also a large and increasing fruit production, consisting
principally of apples, but including also peaches, plums, grapes, and
small fruits.
The figures of the live stock for the same period are as follows:—
Live Stock
Milch Cows.
Other Cattle
J. D. McGregor, of Brandon, Manitoba, won the prize for the best
animals out of 10,000 shown at the International Live Stock Exhibition, Chicago, December, 1913.
* According to census of 1901 and 1911. "\
Annotated   Guide v
Canada has the most extensive fisheries in the world, including
12,780 miles of sea coast and innumerable lakes and streams amounting to 220,000 square miles of fresh water. The number of vessels 1
and boats engaged in the industry is 41,036, and the number of fishermen 94,513. The principal fish caught are salmon, lobsters, cod,
herring, mackerel, trout, halibut, and haddock. The value of the fish
-caught in 1914-15 was $31,264,631. Exports of fish in 1915 totalled
There are 64 fish-breeding hatcheries, and over 1,643,725,000 fry are
annually distributed. Canada's lobster plant is valued at $2,180,317,
with nearly 696 lobster canneries, the output of which in 1915 was
86,824 cwt. live lobsters and 160,903 cases preserved lobsters.
Canada is rich in minerals, particularly in metals, and has the largest nickel, corundum and asbestos deposits in the world. Mineral production, 1915, $138,513,750. The Yukon goldfleld is 125,000 square
miles in area. Canada has 1,234,269,310,000 metric tons of coal in coal
areas estimated at 109,168 square miles. The famous Cobalt mines
yielded in 1915 23,568,147 ounces of silver. Ontario has now become
the largest gold-producing province in Canada, the production in 1915
from fifteen properties being reported as $8,386,956, or 44 per cent,
of the total production of Canada.
Canada's forest resources are almost illimitable. According to official estimates, there are 1,248,798 square miles of forest area in Canada. Such estimates do not include the great northern belt of forest,
as to which all is more or less conjecture.
Ontario contains the largest area of forest lands, estimated at 102,-
000 square miles. North of the Canadian Pacific Railway are about
60,000,000 acres covered by spruce, jackpine, and poplar. Red and
white pine are found in large quantities in many parts of the province.
Within the Provinces of the Dominion of Canada, and excluding the
Northwest Territories, practically all of the Yukon, and the northern
and eastern portion of Quebec, it is estimated that 17,764,000 horsepower is available, this amount being inclusive, in the case of Niagara
Falls, Fort Francis, and the St. Mary's River at Sault Ste. Marie, of
only the development permitted by international treaties, and further,
does not contemplate the full possibilities of storage for the improvement of capacities. The developed powers which are inclusive of all
water-powers, whether for electrical production, pulp grinders, for
milling or for the great many other uses, aggregate 1,712,193 horsepower, as developed by turbines, and this amount is distributed over
the Provinces as shown in the following table:
Province                      Horse-power developed Province'                       Horse-power developed
Nova Scotia       21,412 Manitoba       56,730
New Brunswick        13,390 Saskatchewan   45
Prince Edward Island 500 Alberta        33,305
Quebec    520,000 British Columbia    265,345
Ontario       789,466 Yukon          12,000
Total    1,712,193
There are 1,452,360 miles of telephone wire in Canada at the end
of 1915 and 533,090 telephones in use. There is one telephone for
every fifteen of the population.
There are 195,000 miles of telegraph wire, of which 105,780 miles
are owned and operated by the Canadian Pacific Railway.
There are 59 wireless telegraph stations.
Canada has six great National Parks in the Rocky Mountains:
(1) Rocky Mountain Park, with an area of 1,800 square miles; (2)
Yoho Park, area 560 square miles; (3) Glacier Park, area 468 square
miles; (4) Jasper Park, 4,400 square miles; (5) Waterloo Lakes Park,
423 square miles, and (6) Revelstoke Park, 95 square miles. Both the
Canadian Government and the Canadian Pacific Railway are spending large sums in developing these parks and making them accessible
to tourists, so that they are rapidly becoming the Playgrounds of
North America. L
Chateau Frontenac, Quebec.
■>i—.»i—m«MI| #$»
Annotated  Guide
via the Canadian Pacific Railway
JJt fff»««™«1M
Description of the
173 miles
Quebec—Alt. 19 ft. Population 87,000. This historic city occupies
the base and summit of a lofty crag projecting into the St.
Lawrence. Jacques Cartier, the first European who sailed into the
river, spent the winter of 1535 at the base of the cliffs and French fur
companies soon after established a headquarters for trading. As the
settlement grew, and the fortifications were enlarged, Quebec became
the stronghold of Canada, remaining so until captured by the British
under Wolfe, in 1759. No other city in America is so grandly situated
or offers views from its higher points so diversified ar.d lovely. In
Upper Town, on the highlands, are the public buildings, churches, convents, schools, business blocks and hotels, chief among which is the
Chateau Frontenac, on Dufferin Terrace. Lower Town is the commercial quarter and abounds in irregular narrow streets and quaint old
houses. Enormous transactions in lumber go on here annually. The
surrounding country is remarkably interesting in scenery, history, and
opportunities for sport, and the city is a delightful resort both in the
summer and winter' months. The railways reaching the city are the
Canadian Pacific and Quebec & Lake St. John, the latter extending to
Lake St. John, Chicoutimi, and the head waters of the Saguenay. An
electric railway extends to Montmorency where may be seen the
famous falls and the shrine of Ste. Anne de Beaupre. To Levis, on
the opposite bank of the St. Lawrence, come the Grand Trunk, the
Canadian Government Railways and the Quebec Central. Transatlantic steamers of the Canadian Pacific Ocean Services, Donaldson,
White Star, Dominion, Cunard and other lines call here in Summer
and Autumn, and local steamers depart for the lower St. Lawrence
and the Saguenay rivers.
NOTE.—Owing to Canada's rapid development, population figures
grow rapidly out of date. Those shown are based on the latest reports from agents of the Canadian Pacific Railway.
mmmm "1
Annotated   Guide
Pont Rouge
St. Basile
La Perade
Red Mill
Piles June.
In Old Quebec
Are ancient settlements, originally
seigniories, fronting upon the St.
Lawrence. Turbulent rivers come
down from the hills
at frequent intervals, giving water-
power to almost
every village. The
fishing is excellent
in all of these
streams and one of
them (the Jacques Cartier) is a noted salmon
river. All the villages are quaint and picturesque in the highest degree, and French is almost universally spoken. Lorette is mainly a
settlement of Christianized Huron Indians,
founded 250 years ago. Portneuf is a thriving
factory town, devoted principally to shoemak-
ing and wood-pulp. From Piles Junction a
branch line extends to the farming district of
Grandes Piles, 27 miles northward, near the
Shawinigan Falls, in the St. Maurice, a stream affording fine fishing.
The great water-power here is utilized by enterprising companies.
Trois Rivieres—Population 19,000. At the mouth of the St. Maurice,
and at the head of the tide-water in the St. Lawrence. It was founded in 1634, and played an important part in the
early history of Canada. It is eminent for its Roman Catholic institutions, and is one of the prettiest towns in the province. The chief industry is the shipment of lumber, and over $1,000,000 has been invested in mills and booms above the city where logs are prepared for the
domestic and foreign trade. There are large iron works and machine
shops here, where iron pipes, stoves and car wheels are manufactured
in great numbers from the bog-iron ore for which the vicinity is famous.   Steamships ply daily to adjacent river villages.  A branch line
from Shawinigan Falls and Grand Mere,
both   thriving   industrial   towns,    runs
through a French farming district and
joins the main line at Three Rivers. The
route to Montreal lies  across the lowlands stretching between   the   northern
bank of the St. Lawrence and the hills
which lie at a constantly increasing distance from the river.    This is  for the
most part a perfectly level and cultivated plain, cut up into narrow
fields    that    characterize    French
farming   districts   throughout   the
older parts of Quebec, and result
from the continual subdivision of
bequeathed estates.   The compact
villages are very prosperous and
much resorted to in summer by city
people.    In each one the churches
and educational or charitable institutions of the Roman Catholic
faith   are   the   most   conspicuous
buildings.    Near Louiseville (pop.
2,000),  where  Lake  St.   Peter  is
seen,   are  the   St.   Leon   (saline)
Springs.   Berthier Junction is the
station for a populous river-landing of the same name, reached by
a short branch line.
Pointe du Lac    Alt
Yamachiche         "
Maskinonge         "
St. Barthelemy   "
St. Cuthbert
Berthier Junc.    "
Lanoraie              "
.$&■ j
t &, wmmmmm
Across   Canada
L.umber Camp la Quebec
Lavaltrie                Alt
Vauctuse                   "
L'Epiphanie              "
Mascouche                "
Terrebonne              "
St. Vincent de Paul   "
St. Martin Junc.       "
Bordeaux                  "
Mile End                     "
From Lanoraie diverges a branch
line northward to Joliette (pop.
8,200), St. Felix and St. Gabriel de
Brandon (pop. 8,300). At Terrebonne the north branch of the Ottawa River is crossed. Here are the
limestone quarries which furnish
most of the stone used in the neighboring cities, and in railway bridge-
building, and other heavy masonry.
The large building passed at St.
Vincent de Paul is the provincial penitentiary. At St. Martin Junction the Ottawa Subdivision is joined and followed around the base
of Mount Royal into Montreal. Near Bordeaux a new and imposing
building seen from the train is the Montreal jail.
Montreal—Alt. 59. Place Viger Station and Hotel, a handsome
structure erected and operated by the Canadian Pacific.
A large extension has recently been made to the Place Viger Hotel
which is now one of the most attractive and up-to-date hotels in
Canada, one of that chain which the Canadian Pacific operates from
Atlantic to Pacific.
For description of Montreal-New York, Montreal-Boston, Montreal-
Portland services see pages 16 and 17.
Placo View Hotel, Montreal Indicates Double Traok
Across   Canada
jiii|ii|siutt^ -
v i
^    iS
itll       w
-Mw-Hi     ! — ■■■'»
Description of the
276 miles
■BBiiiiMWliimMl i"inlH ■<«■
1|i[■■^■niwMli ii.niK—
■i im||in>MiiiiiBNi
Halifax—Alt. 57. Population 55,000. The capital of Nova Scotia,
and from its long association with the army and navy of
the Mother Country the most thoroughly English city on the continent. Its magnificent harbor is acknowledged to be one of the finest in
the world. Halifax is the present winter port for the British mail
steamships, and is a military and naval station. It is a strongly fortified city, chief of the fortifications being the Citadel, elevated 256 feet
above sea-level, and commanding the city and harbor; McNab's and
George's Islands in the harbor are also strongly fortified, the former
being said to be impregnable. The fortifications, the Arm, Bedford
Basin, the Dockyard; the Dry Dock, largest-on this Continent; Point
Pleasant Park, a public resort owned by the
Imperial authorities, and leased to the City of
Halifax; Dalhousie University, Pine Hill Theological College, the New Naval College and the
many public buildings, the public gardens, etc.,
etc., are all well worth a visit. Halifax enjoys
a very important trade with Europe, the United
States, the West Indies, etc., etc.
Bedford Alt.  44
Windsor Junc. " 129
Shubenacadie " 66
Stewiacke "    86
The Dominion Atlantic
Rgjlway,    whose    trains
jTJk      t from Hali
fax branch
Nova Scotia Farm Scene Annotated   Guide
off at Windsor Junction to the west and south to Yarmouth, traversing the romantic Annapolis Valley, scene of many a stirring incident
in olden days, and famed the world over as the home of Longfellow's
Evangeline. There is also a branch of the Dominion Atlantic connecting Windsor and Truro.
At St. John, N.B., the Canadian Pacific operates a luxurious steamship, the "Empress," on its Bay of Funday service between St. John,
N.B., and Digby, N.S., providing speedy and comfortable service
between these points.
wBilw'Mt—— J»"—■ MB-
The pretty college-town of Wolfville, embowered in orchards, and
reached after a seventy-mile rail journey through that wonderful
"Apple Empire" of Canada, the Annapolis Valley, is the headquarters
of visitors to the Land of Evangeline. It occupies the western slope
of the fertile ridge dividing the valley of the Gaspereau from the valley
of the Cornwallis. As Charles G. D. Roberts graphically pictures
it:—"Before the windows of Wolfville unrolls a superb view—marshes
of pale green, reclaimed from the sea by the spades of old-time Acadian
farmers; sharp strips of red or orange-tawny flats, where the retreating
tide has left the beach uncovered; to the left front a well-grouped
cluster of white cottages, spires and masts about a bridge-—the shipping village of Port Williams; the lang, low lines of green upland outstretching from either side to almost the centre of the picture—the
Annapolis Royal
delicious summer retreats of Starr's Point and Long Island; between
them and beyond, away to the far blue barrier of the Parrsboro shore,
the restless waters of Minas Basin, yellow in the foreground, but in
the distance purple, sapphire, green, or silver, as changing hour and
changing sky may decree; and in the middle distance, dominating all
the scene with its mass of sombre indigo, the majestic bastion of
Blomidon out-thrust against the tides. These are effects of full daylight; but by the aerial magic of sunrise (too seldom seen!) and the
voluptuous sorcery of sunset such transformations are wrought as
make the scene an ever-changing realm of faery."
Three miles distant, to the east, is Grand Pr6 itself, now a rich but
scattered farming settlement. It is on the line of the Dominion Atlantic, and travellers who are passing through obtain from the car
windows a good view of the scene of the Great Banishment. There
are the storied meadows, and there, close to the station, are willows
planted by Acadian hands. On the slope behind the station are
gnarled French apple trees and stiff French poplars, and a short way
further on is the Gaspereau mouth, where the exiles embarked.
The ancient Acadian village which Colonel Winslow and his New
Englanders depopulated so effectually in that eventful autumn of 1755
is supposed to have extended in a long, thin line from about where Across   Canada
the Grand Pre station
of the Dominion Atlantic  now  stands  to
somewhere   near   the
next station of Horton
Landing.   Then,
as   now,   the
Acadians   trailed their villages
along   a. single
street.   Close to
the station is a
row of gnarled
willows,   whose
branches   perchance tell over
to    the    young
Acadian Simplicity
leaves of each recurring spring what they saw of Evangeline and her
sorrow. Here, suitably enclosed, is "Evangeline's Well," and near it
were unearthed some blacksmith's tools, sufficient to justify the pleasant tradition that this was the very site of the village smith. In the
immediate neighborhood were discovered foundations of a largish
building, which may have been the chapel in which the Acadians were
imprisoned before they were sent on board the ships.
Truro—Alt. 60. Population 6,107. A pretty, thriving town in the
midst of most picturesque scenery possessing one of the finest
natural parks in North America, within one half mile of the Railway
Station. Good trout fishing is to be found in the neighborhood. In
the Stewiacke Mountains there are moose. In the spring and fall
grouse are plentiful, and geese, brant, duck, curlew and snipe are
common. From Truro a branch line runs to Pictou, from whence
steamers depart to Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island. A second
branch runs to New Glasgow and Mulgrave, on the Straits of Canso,
where connection is made with steamers for Cape Breton Island.
The railway is extended through the island to the Sydneys, which
have become great industrial centres. From them historic Louisburg
is easily reached by rail. A capital service has been inaugurated between North Sydney and Port aux Basques, Newfoundland—the sea
voyage only occupying six hours—there connecting with the Reid-
Newfoundland Co. Railway, which traverses the centre of the island
to St. John's on the eastern coast, and connects with the fine steamship service to the different bays of
Newfoundland and to the Labrador
Nova Seotia Apple Harvest
Bi Annotated   Guide
©xford Junc.
Spring Hill Junc.
Painsec Junc.
The Acadian Iron Works are three
A It. 384 miles from Londonderry, with which
" 94 they are linked by a branch line.
" 199 Oxford has extensive factories, a
" 68 profitable industry being the manu-
"    26        facture   of   the   celebrated   Oxford
"     cloths,     From   Oxford   Junction   a
branch runs to Pugwash and to
Pictou. Near Spring Hill are important coal mines—and from here a
branch line extends to the watering place of Parrsboro on the Minas
Basin. Amherst (pop. 9,500) is a manufacturing town with several
good hotels. The game comprises moose, geese, and duck; and salmon
trout are plentiful in the lakes. A few miles from Amherst are the
remains of Fort Cumberland, of historic interest as the scene of hard-
fought battles between the British and French in the early days.
Sackville has a fine college and Methodist academies, and is situated
in a choice grazing country. Railway connection is made from Cape
Tormentine, from which Prince Edward Island is reached. From
Painsec Junction a branch line extends to Point du Chene, connecting
with steamers for Summerside, Prince Edward Island.
The Haunts of the Moose
Moncton—Alt. 50. Population 11,500, is situated on a bend of the
Petitcodiac River and is the centre of the Intercolonial
Railway system, the head offices and workships of which are located
here. It has many important industries, prominent among which is
a cotton factory. Within eight miles of the city natural gas has been
discovered and in the same territory oil in paying quantities has also
been found. An interesting feature of the river is the "Bore" of the
incoming tide, when the water rushes in with great force in a huge
wave, often seven feet high. Hunters for Northern New Brunswick
usually outfit and start from here.
Between Petitcodiac and Sussex on the line
from Moncton to St. John is a fine farming
country, and many pretty views are obtained from the train. In the beautiful Kennebecasis Valley are some of the finest New
Brunswick farms. A great many small lakes
lie to the east and south, where large trout are abundant.
27 12
Across   Canada
'b i
Reversible Falls, St. John, N.B.
-MimiiW»  i   Ml.
MONTREAL, QUE., 483 miles
<■     ill Kli i mil ii
ll--—•■ B -i-H—>nj|
St. John, N.B.—Alt. 15. Population 60,000, founded by United Empire Loyalists. This is the wonderful "new city"
that rose from the ashes of the terrible conflagration which destroyed
old St. John in June, 1877, devastating nine miles of streets and causing a loss of between twenty and thirty millions of dollars. The citizens were resolute and enterprising, and stately buildings soon filled
the great gap left by the flames, and there is nothing now left to
indicate the awful calamity. Old St. John, with all her romantic history is lost, but new St. John fills her place admirably, and is now a
busy modern centre. St. John is a maritime city—the winter port for
many Atlantic steamships—and an inspection of its fine docks and
harbor is always interesting. At present the Dominion Government is
making large extensions to the harbor, there being under construction
new deep water docks which will provide berths for twenty-four ocean
liners of the largest type. An immense new dry-dock, which will be
the largest in the world, is also being built, and altogether the outlay
will amount to about $25,000,000. In the new harbor twenty-three
wharves are to be built, from 900 feet in length upwards. The Canadian Pacific has just completed a million-dollar grain elevator, and
many important manufacturers have recently established large plants
and warehouses in this progressive city. The St. John River, "the
Rhine of America," with its wonderful "reversible cataract," should be
seen by every visitor; also the fine traffic bridge and railway cantilever bridge near the falls. Steamers ply between St. John and Digby,
N.S., making connection with the Dominion Atlantic Railway at Digby
for Halifax and Yarmouth, this being a favorite route between the chief
cities of the two provinces. The Eastern Steamship Co.'s Line gives
connection with Eastport, Me., Portland and Boston.    At Fredericton
Junction connections are made for
the city of Fredericton, one of the
most picturesque in Canada. Population 8,000. It is the capital of
New Brunswick and is well worth
a visit. Here are located the
Parliament buildings of the Province and a Dominion Experimental
farm. The city is rapidly gaining prominence as an industrial centre.
Westfield Beach
I 1
Annotated   Guide
Lambert Lake Alt. 411
Alt. 491 At McAdam connections are made
" 891 for Woodstock, N.B., Houlton, Me.,
" 44^ and Presque Isle, Me., Plaster Rock,
N.B., and Edmundston, N.B., to
the north, St. Stephen, N.B., and the beautiful watering place, St.
Andrews, N.B., to the south. St. Andrews is situated on Passama-
quoddy Bay, and as a summer resort is not surpassed by any point
on the Atlantic coast. Here the visitor finds agreeable boating and
bathing facilities, numerous tennis courts and croquet lawns, an
electric-lighted bowling green, a splendid golf course, charming drives,
enjoyable social pleasures and a salubrious climate. The Algonquin,
the first of the great chain of hotels operated by the Canadian
Pacific Railway across the continent, is the centre of the social fife
of the resort.
Vanceboro—Alt. 387. This is the first station after crossing the
boundary between New Brunswick and the State of
Maine. It lies close to the beautiful St. Croix river, the outlet of
the boundary chain of lakes, and is an excellent point for the sportsman.    The country about these  stations is  wild and rugged,  and
intersected by streams and lakes—a good
territoroy for the sportsman. The villages are all progressive.
At Mattawamkeag the Penobscot
river is crossed, and many canoeists
make this station their obective point,
descending the river from Moosehead
Lake, a trip that offers great inducements in the way of fishing and attractive scenery. At Brownville Junction the line of the Katahdin Iron
Works Railway is crossed. The scenery along this section of the line is considered to rank among the finest
in Maine, Lake Onawa being, perhaps, as pretty as any of the numerous waters. At Wilson Stream the road runs close to the base of
Boarstone Mountain. Two stately iron bridges will be noticed before
Greenville Junction (population 1,700), a busy little town on the shore
of Moosehead Lake, the grandest of all the countless waters of Maine,
_ ...    . A1.  1r.Kn        is reached.  The fishing; and shooting
Greenville Junc. Alt. 1059      .   ...       ..     . °..     „ ?
■■" " -' ~ui>c, in ^g sect10n 1S exceptionally good.
This is a very popular point with
those who love the rod and rifle, as
within easy reach are any number of
trout waters and rare good shooting
grounds, moose, caribou, deer, bear,
grouse, etc., being found within a
short distance. There are several
hotels that offer excellent accommodation. Guides, canoes, etc., can be obtained on the spot. Moosehead
Lake is about forty miles long by from one to fifteen wide, and its
scenery is unsurpassed.  From Greenville Junction steamers run to all
Lake View
Brownville Junc.
Somerset Junc.
Long Pond
Algonquin Hotel, St. Andrews, N.B. 14
Across   Canada
Spring Hill
Birchton      Alt
Bulwer            "
Johnville        "
Lennoxville   "
Sherbrooke    "
the points of interest, including Mount Kineo and the popular hotel
at its base, the Kineo House. Moosehead is a small station, on the
lake shore. Near here the Kenebec river leaves Moosehead Lake.
Trout Brook is, as its name indicates, close to good fishing water.
From Jackman the Moose river and its chain of lakes, where game
and fish are abundant, are easily reached. Long Lake is a link of
this chain. Holeb and Lowelltown are small stations near the boun-.
dary between Maine and Quebec.
We now reach the Boundary mountains which
divide the State of Maine from the Province
of Quebec, and the remainder of the journey
is through Canadian territory. Lake Megantic is twelve miles long by from one to four
wide, and, like Moosehead, it is a favorite
spot with sportsmen. Near Lake Megantic is
Spider Lake, the "Geneva of Canada," where
the Club House of the Megantic Fish and Game Club is located. At
Megantic Station sportsmen can find fairly good accommodation, and
secure guides for a shooting or fishing trip. From here, Levis
(opposite Quebec) is reached by the Quebec Central Railway. At
Lennoxville,  distant three miles  from  Sherbrooke,  connections  are
made with the Boston & Maine Railway running south to the summer resort of Newport,
Vt., situated at the southern end of Lake
Memphremagog, where it connects with the
Montreal & Boston Air Line of the Canadian
Pacific Railway. Sherbrooke, the metropolis
of the English-speaking district of. the Eastern Townships, is a picturesque and attractive city, with a population of 19,243, and possessing many busy factories. Here connection
is again made with the Quebec Central to Levis, opposite Quebec.
The rapid Magog and St. Francis rivers unite their currents here, and
the falls of the Magog are well worth seeing. They provide a valuable water power which is used for electrical development.
Magog is  situated   upon   the
shore   of   Lake
—a magnificent
sheet  of  water
dotted    with
many   islands
surrounded by rugged, heavily'wooded
hills.    This lake is a justly popular
resort for summer tourists.    Its two
famous mountains—Orford and Owl's
Head, are the most imposing of the
neighboring   heights.    From
Magog  a  steamer makes   a
circuit   of   the   lake   daily,
during the summer season,
touching   at   all important
oints, including the fashionable  resort of   Newport,     Vt.,     at     the
southern      extremity.
.This cruise by steamer
forms   a   delightful
side-trip.  At Eastray
the Orford subdivision
'ip^ef the Canadian Pacific is crossed and at
Foster   the Drummondville   subdivision is crossed.
Market and Church at Frederioton, N.B.
Rock Forest
South Stukely
58S Annotated   Guide
At Brookport the Montreal and Boston
Air   Line   from   the   White   Mountains,
Boston and Portland, converge with the
St.   John-Montreal
line; and at Farnham    the     Stan-
bridge   and   St.
Guillaume sudbivi-
sion     of      the
Canadian     Pacific
^Railwayis crossed.
At Iberville Junction a railway runs
to   St.   Hyacinthe
and Sorel, and the
Rutland    Railway
connects from New
York,  Troy,   Bur-'
lington,   etc.      St.
Alt. 430     Johns   (pop. 8,000)   is a busy   and
"  269     prettily situated town on the Riche-
"   192     lieu  River.    Crossing the  broad  St.
"  165     Lawrence by a wonderful steel bridge
"  115     a fine view is obtained up  and down
"  111     the river.  Just below are the famous
"  116     Lachine Rapids.  This bridge, which is
|   131     one of the  largest in America,  was
"  117     considered at the time of building to
"     94     be of sufficient size and strength to
,  "    98     carry the Company's traffic for some
"  117     years to come.   Recently, however, so
"  155     rapidly has the traffic over this part
"  152     of the line increased that the Canadian  Pacific has  fpund it  necessary
to double-track the structure.    These
Station and Hotel, MoAdani, N,B
West Shefford
Ste. Brigide
Iberville Junc.
St. Johns
St. Philippe
St. Constant
Adirondack Junc
Montreal West
If ontreal (Windsor St.)
operations, costing over
two million dollars, • were
carried on without interfering in the slightest degree with the passing of
trains. The old structure
has been removed and replaced with one twice as
wide and over four times
as heavy. On- the north
shore of the St. Lawrence
we reach the pretty little
village of Highlands—
thence on to Montreal
West, whence the several lines of the Canadian Pacific Railway extend to Toronto, Hamilton, Niagara Falls, Buffalo, London, Detroit,
Chicago, Quebec, Ottawa,
Winnipeg, Vancouver and
Pacific Coast, Sault Ste.
Marie, St. Paul, New
York and Boston. From
here we enter the City of
Montreal and run along
elevated tracks, until the
train stops under a new
and modern train shed
and we have arrived at
the stately Windsor St.
Station of the Canadian
Pacific Railway.
J ^11
Across   Canada
Goncouree,   "Windsor  Street  Station,   M'onta«al
mWt mm*        Mt i       fM— »■—■ W"   '■<■
■W   i      HU »«—■■>■■
i Ww»1»H'ii|lw  M ■»'■■■!
■Ml Mm   ■■■ W ■■■■■»
Montreal is but a day's or a night's ride from the principal cities of
the United States on the North Atlantic seaboard—New
York, Boston and Portland, Me.—and there is a choice of several
routes from the first-named place.
Adirondack Route, via AL Y. Central.
Route I—Is by the New York Central up the east shore of the
picturesque Hudson River to Albany, N.Y.; thence via Utiea and the
attractive summer resorts of the Adirondack Mountains (Saranac
Lake, Paul Smith's, Loon Lake, etc.), crossing the St. Lawrence River
on the Canadian Pacific Bridge above the Lachine Rapids, and into
the Windsor Street Station at Montreal. This trip may be pleasantly
varied in summer by taking the steamer in the morning from New
York up the Hudson to Albany, and thence by rail as above.
Rutland Route, via Troy and Rutland
Route II—Is by the New York Central to Troy, B. & M. Troy to
White Creek, and thence Rutland Railroad by way of the east shore
and islands of Lake Champlain to Iberville Junction, from which
point the trains utilize the lines of the Canadian Pacific Railway,
landing passengers in the Windsor Street Station, Montreal.
D. & H. Route, via Troy and Saratoga
Route III—Is also by the new York Central to Troy, thence
Delaware & Hudson Rd. via the west shore of Lake Champlain. This
route can be varied in summer via steamer through Lakes George
and Champlain at an expenditure of about 12 hours' time and slight
additional cost in price of ticket.
L Annotated   Guide
Boston and Montreal: 341 miles
Via Montreal & Boston Air Line
Montreal      From Boston there is a through service by Canadian
Newport       Pacific trains.   The route traverses the most interesting
{Boston parts of New England, skirts the White Mountains of
New Hampshire, and runs through the rich valleys of
Northern Vermont, with the Green Mountains in view, and along
Lake Memphremagog, and through the English settled portions of
Southern Quebec to Montreal, crossing the St. Lawrence by the
Canadian Pacific bridge, just above the city, and stopping at the
Windsor Street Station, from' which transcontinental trains depart.
Portland, Me., and Montreal: 268 miles
Via the White Mountains
Portland—From Portland, the route lies through Southern Maine
and Central New Hampshire, entering the famed White
Mountains at North Conway, and crossing the startling Crawford
Notch to Fabyans and Lunenburg, and thence to
St. Johnsbury, Vt., from which the same route as
from Boston is followed to Montreal. Maine Central trains run from Portland to St. Johnsbury,
where connection is made with Boston & Maine
and Canadian Pacific trains.
St. Johnsbury
Montreal—During the summer months through sleeping and parlor
cars   are   run  between   Kennebunkport,   Old   Orchard,
Portland and Montreal.
C. P. B.   Headquarters, Windsor Street Station, Meatreai 18
Across   Canada
sfrt, B.C., 2895 miles
I w»**«***«ii    ^lin iiMiii    U      ill       ■■ i     ■.     iw      im     HI ".HI  ■ i ■■  mi ■■   i   mimmhi   l|
Montreal—(Windsor Street Station). Alt. 109 ft. Population (with
suburbs), 562,301. The chief city and commercial capital
of Canada is situated on an island formed by the St. Lawrence and
Ottawa Rivers, and on the site of the ancient Indian village of Hoche-
laga, visited by Jacques Cartier in 1535. A trading-post was established here by the French 250 years ago; and this was the last place
yielded by the French to the British in 1760. For many years it was
the chief centre of the fur trade. Atlantic steamships of the Canadian
Pacific, Allan, Donaldson, Canadian Northern, White-Star-Dominion,
and other well-known lines run here. The St. Lawrence river and canals
bring this way much of the trade of the Great Lakes. Recently the city
has gained prominence by being the location of the largest floating dry
dock in the world. Numerous railway lines, mostly controlled by the
Canadian Pacific and Grand Trunk Companies, radiate from here in
all directions. Both these companies have their principal offices and
workshops here, and both have great bridges over the St. Lawrence
River. The city has a far-reaching trade, and great manufacturing
establishments; has seven miles of fine wharves of masonry, vast warehouses and grain elevators; imposing public buildings, handsome residences and superior hotels, one of the best of which is the Place Viger
Hotel, which is connected with the C. P. R.'s new Place Viger Station,
and is operated by the Company. The Canadian Pacific's other station
the Windsor, is the largest building of its kind in Canada. It is a
huge grey stone structure, built on the most modern lines and equipped with every facility for the operation of the railway and the comfort of the public. Here are located the head offices of the company.
From the Windsor Street Station trains leave for Toronto, Detroit,
Chicago, St. John, N.B., Halifax, New York, Boston, Portland, Sault
Ste. Marie, Duluth, St. Paul, Minneapolis, Winnipeg and Vancouver;
and for Ottawa by the Short Line. From the Place Viger Station
trains run to Ottawa by the North Shore Line, to Quebec, Mont-
Laurier in the Laurentian Mountains, and local points. In Montreal
are the Angus Shops of the Canadian Pacific, where the Company
builds and maintains a great proportion of its rolling stock. These
shops cover an area of 200 acres and are claimed to be the largest and
most modernly equipped shops on the continent. Connected with them
are a free school for apprentices, a library, a fire brigade, police force,
ambulance corps, an athletic association and many other features of a
similar nature, all fostered by the Railway for the purpose of furthering the welfare of its employees. These shops employ over six
thousand men and turn out a complete new train every working day.
Westmount is a beautiful residential suburb in the slopes of Mount
Royal. All transcontinental trains de-
Westmount Alt. 152    part from the Windsor St. Station, and
Montreal We3t " 155 run through to the Pacific Coast without change. The railway lines through
the city are on a high stone viaduct, and thence on the brow of an embankment until Montreal West is reached, where the lines to New
York, Boston and New England points, and the Maritime Provinces,
via the St. Lawrence bridge, diverge, and then strike west through a
beautiful and highly cultivated district sloping down on the St. Lawrence River, along the bank of which an almost continuous village extends from Western Junction to Ste. Anne's. Thousands of Montreal
people live here in summer. A little beyond Montreal West the old
village of Lachine on Lake St. Louis, an expansion of the River St.
Lawrence, is seen at the left; and above the
Pacific Railway Company across that noble
the great steel bridge built by the Canadian
trees, further to the left, a view is had of
stream (see page 15). Lachine was for a
long time the point of departure of the early trading military expedi-
Across   Canada
tions; and it was from here that Duquesne set out in 1754 to seize the
Ohio Valley—an expedition that culminated in the defeat of Brad-
dock. Just beyond Montreal West is Sortin, where the Canadian
Pacific has built immense new railway yards.
One of the five mouths of the Ottawa River
Ste. Anne's Alt. 116 is crossed by a fine steel bridge at St. Anne's,
Vaudreuil        "    85     at the  head  of  the   Island   of   Montreal.
Directly under the bridge are the locks by
means of which steamboats going up the Ottawa are lifted over the
rapids. Ste. Anne's was once the home of the poet Moore, and is the
scene of his well-known Canadian Boat-Song. Here are the splendid
buildings of the Macdonald Agricultural College. At Vaudreuil, the
transcontinental road for over ten miles skirts the south side of the
pretty Lake of Two Mountains, on whose shores are the fashionable
resorts of Como, Hudson and Hudson Heights. On
the opposite shore of the lake is established the
famous Trappist Monastery whose silent inmates
are largely engaged in agriculture and dairying.
At Rigaud, on the left, is seen Rigaud Mountain,
near whose summit is a curious deposit of stones—a bare, desolate,
isolated spot around which vegetation is luxuriant. There is the usual
legend of its being the Devil's Playground. From here a branch line
extends seven miles northward to Point Fortune, summer resort on
the shores of the Ottawa River. Five and a half miles beyond Rigaud
the Province of Ontario is entered. St. Eugene, a very flourishing
French-Canadian town, is the first station passed in Ontario, and eleven
miles beyond is Vankleek, a thriving English-Canadian town. Caledonia
Springs is a favorite health resort on
account of the medicinal properties of
its waters, some of which is bottled
by the Caledonia Springs Co., and is
in the centre of a very fine farming
district. Beyond it are several villages of recent birth which were
brought into existence by the construction of this section of the C.P.R.
Before reaching Ottawa, the Rideau
River, which connects Lake Ontario at Kingston with the political
capital, is crossed, and the banks of the Rideau canal are followed
to the Sparks Street Station in the heart of the city.
Ottawa—A It. 214 ft. Pop. 100,000. The Federal Capital of the j
Dominion of Canada is picturesquely situated at the junction of the Rideau River with the Ottawa. The Chaudiere Falls, which
here interrupt the navigation of the Ottawa River, afford water-power
for a host of sawmills and other manufactories. Vast quantities of
lumber are made here from logs floated down from the Ottawa River
and its tributaries. The city stands on high ground and contains many
fine residences, the Royal Mint Victoria Museum, large hotels, etc.
The stately Government buildings, however, overshadow all. Rideau
Hall, the residence of the Governor-General, is in the city limits. Many
improvements have
been made in Ottawa during the
last few years, now
the most picturesque capital in the
world. The Driveways in and about
the city are unexcelled. Ottawa possesses charms of
situation and surroundings of which
every Canadian
may well be proud.
From here the
War Canoe Itac«, St. Johns, Que. Maniwaki Subdivi-
St. Eugene           |
at. 181
"  272
Caledonia Springs
"  168
"  178
1  171
"  232
"  272
"  289 Annotated   Guide
sions runs north to the town of Maniwaki, and opens up the sporting
possibilities pf the Gatineau and its tributary streams and lakes. The
Waltham subdivision, along which the sportsman may find the best of
fishing and abundance of game, also runs from this point. A subdivision of the Canadian Pacific Railway extends southward to Prescott, on the St. Lawrence, where ferry connection is made with
Ogdensburg, N.Y., and rail lines to New York.
Parliament Building*, Ottawa
Alt. 181
Leaving Ottawa (Sparks St. Station) the
398 railway crosses the Ottawa River on the
448 Royal Alexandra Bridge and skirts the
city of Hull (population 20,500), and
again crossing the Ottawa a couple of miles up stream returns to the
city and enters the Broad St. Station. In the passage over the two
bridges good views are obtained of the city and of the Ottawa River.
The railway follows the south bank of the Ottawa River for a distance, and on its wide stretches may be seen enormous quantities of
saw-logs held in "booms" for the use of the mills below.
Carleton Place (Junction)—Alt. 448 ft. Population 3,900. Junction of a subdivision running south
to Brockville on the St. Lawrence River, crossing the Montreal and
Toronto line at Smith's Falls. At Carleton Place are large \yoollen
factories, stove foundry and railway and other workshops.
Proceeding from Carleton Place, the line
takes a north-westerly course, still following
the beautiful Ottawa Valley, which, to
Pembroke and beyond, is well cultivated by
English, Scotch and German farmers. Large,
clear streams come rushing down to the
Ottawa from the hills at the west, and these,
and the Ottawa as well, afford fine fishing—
maskinonge, trout and bass being common.
There are frequent bright and busy manufacturing towns, and sawmills occur at
favorable places all along the river. At
417 Almonte (pop. 2,500) are large woollen
mills and other manufactories.    Pakenham
Sand Point
Cast! ef ord
Renfrew •
Snake River " 4U
Meath 22
Across   Canada
and Arnprior (pop. 4,700) are also important
manufacturing points, the latter municipality having large sawmills employing over 800 men and
manufacturing 60,000,000 board measure of pine
lumber per annum. From Renfrew (pop. 4,$48) a
subdivision runs to Eganville, and it is also the
junction of the Kingston subdivision of the Canadian Pacific, extending southward through a district abounding in iron, to Kingston (at the head of
the St. Lawrence). Pembroke (pop, 6,624), is one
of the most important
towns in the Ottawa Valley.
It is a lumbering and industrial centre, and is surrounded by choice farming
country. Situated on Allumette Lake, an expanse of
the Ottawa River, Pembroke is an attractive residential town. A good boat service on the Ottawa
River, which is navigable for 50 miles west, affords
access to the many summer resorts in this section.
From Pembroke to Mattawa the railway continues
along the west bank of the Ottawa. Little towns are growing up
around the sawmills, which occur wherever water-power is to be had.
As the wilder country is approached, opportunities for sport with
gun and rod increase.
Pembroke Alt.ssi
Stafford " 474
Petewawa " 465
Thistle " 508
(Lake Superior Division)
746 miles
AU. 528
"   665
"   481
"  476
"   556
Deux Rivieres
"  518
"  580
j., .......„——.— M .. .. ,      ... .1 .. I. - I. I. ■■ -fl
Chalk River—Alt. 623 ft.—is the western terminus of the Eastern
Division and eastern terminus of the Lake Superior
Division, with an engine-house and the usual railway buildings and
Mattawa (pop. 1,678) is an old fur-trading post of the Hudson's Bay Company,
but at present of most importance as a
distributing point for the lumbering districts and agricultural country about Lake
Timiskaming and Kipawa. A subdivision
runs to Timiskaming and Kipawa, and
from each station famous fishing and
hunting grounds may easily be reached.
At Timiskaming there is steamer connection with Haiieybury, from
which place canoes and guides can be procured and an endless series of
trips, unsurpassed anywhere, can be made, including those to the peerless Timagami district. From Kipawa Junction there is a short line to
Kipawa, whose beautiful lake is an ideal camping ground. Game and
fish are in plenty. This is a favorite centre
for moose hunters, and guides and supplies
for shooting expeditions may always be obtained here. An attractive point for tourists
is Lake Timiskaming, and no more enjoyable
canoeing can be imagined than in the exploration of these waters which abound in
fish.   To the south of the railway is Algonquin Park, established by the Ontario Go-
ernment as a forest
and  game preserve.
At Mattawa the line
leaves    the    Ottawa
and strikes across toward Lake Nipissing
through a somewhat
wild   and  broken
country,    with    fre-
q u e n t    lakes    and
3Bs*arn fr«nt ttee Mooso Hunt
Eau Claire
699 Annotated   Guide
rapid streams. Fishing and shooting are excellent. Little villages surrounding sawmills continue to occur and newly-made farms are not
infrequent. There is plenty of good land near by, but the railway here,
as in many other places, follows the streams and the "breaks" in the
country, and the best is not seen from the car windows. Bonfield was
originally intended as the eastern terminus of the Canadian Pacific
Railway to which connecting roads would run, but when the control
of the railway passed from the Canadian Government to the present
Company the transcontinental line was extended to Montreal.
North Bay—Alt. 660 ft. Pop. 7,715. The capital town of Nipissing
District, situated on Lake Nipissing, an extensive and
beautiful sheet of water, 90 miles long and 80 wide. Steamers ply on
the lake, and the district is much frequented by sportsmen. North Bay
is a railway divisional point, with repair shops, etc. The Ontario
Government Railway, knowns as the Timiskaming & Northern Ontario
Lumbering cms. tke Ottawa River
Railway, runs from here to Cobalt, Cochrane, etc., in the Timiskaming country.
This railway has been materially assisted
in its traffic by mineral discoveries made
along the line of route, the chief being
the silver mines at Cobalt. From North
Bay to Heron Bay, on Lake Superior, the
line traverses a comparatively wild region, where forests, meadows, lakes and
rocky ridges alternate. The scenery is
striking and in places extremely interesting. There are wide intervals of good
agricultural land, and the settlements already extend for 100 miles
beyond Lake Nipissing; but timber cutting is as yet the principal industry. The lands belong to the Province of Ontario, and are open to
settlers. The large, clear, rockbound lakes are in places so numerous
that, with their connecting arms they form a labyrinth of waters covering great areas and offering matchless opportunities to sportsmen
and canoeists. Bear, moose and deer abound throughout this region,
and the fishing in the many lakes and rivers is capital. Sturgeon
Falls (pop. 2,000) is a thriving town. Leaving the station, the railway crosses directly over the falls of the Sturgeon River.
Sturgeon Falls  "
Cache Bay
841 24
Across   Canada
For descripi
1    ee
Woman River "
Sudbury—Alt. 855 ft. Sudbury is the junction point where the
main line from Toronto converges with the main line
from Montreal.
ve notes see pages 32 and 33.
frum Sudbury (pop. 7,061) the important
"Soo" Subdivision leads off to Lake Huron,
and thence along its shore and the Ste.
Marie River to Sault Ste. Marie, 179 miles,
at the outlet of Lake Superior, where an
immense iron bridge, which opens like a
jack-knife, and is the only double-leaf bascule bridge in America, affords connection
with two American railway lines, one extending to Duluth, the other to St. Paul
and Minneapolis, and thence on through
Minnesota and North Dakota to Moose
Jaw, on the Main Line of the Canadian Pacific Railway. Passengers can, in summer,
by taking the "Soo" train from Montreal,
travel to Sault Ste. Marie by this line and
thence take steamship to Fort William. Within a few miles of Sudbury, and reached by two short lines of railway, are the most extensive copper and nickel deposits known in the world, and the vicinity
has, in the Moose Mountain Range, the largest iron range in Canada.
Large quantities of the ores have been shipped from the mines, and a
number of smelting furnaces are in operation near Sudbury reducing
the ores on the spot. Game is abundant in the neighborhood. Approaching Phelan a good view of the high falls of the Vermilion River
is to be had for a moment; and from here to
Bisco the scenery is particularly fine. Car-
tier is a subdivisional point, with the usual
collection of sidings and railway structures.
Bisco is situated on an extensive and irregular lake called Biscotasing, and has a considerable trade in furs and lumber. Chapleau (pop. 2^00) is another subdivisional
point, with railway workshops, and is a
bright railway town. Farming operations on
a small scale are carried on here. The town
is charmingly situated on Lake Kabequashes-
ing, the waters of which flow into James
Bay. Near Missanabie, where Dog Lake is
crossed, a short portage connects the waters
flowing southward into Lake Superior, with
those flowing
northward into
Hudson Bay.
Furs are brought
here from the
far north for
shipment. Twelve
miles south of
Missanabie is excellent trout fish- •
ing Several
mines are operated near Michipicoten on Lake
Superior Beyond Missanabie
for sixty miles
are many very
heavy rock cuttings. White
River, in addition to buildings
White River
On ts*e Sbosre* trt L.a8y Kvelyn XMa* Indicates Double Track
Across   Canada
Heron Bay Alt. 714
common to all subdivisional stations, has yards for resting cattle en
route from the Northwest to the eastern market.   From White River
Station the railway follows the river of the
same name to Round Lake, and then crosses
a level tract with occasional rocky uplifts to
the Pic River, which is crossed by a high iron
bridge, and a mile beyond is Heron Bay from
which for sixty miles the line is carried
through and around the bold and harsh
promontories of the north shore of Lake Superior, with deep rock cuttings, viaducts and
tunnels constantly occurring, and at frequent
intervals, where the railway is cut out of the face of the cliffs, the lake
comes into full view. No part of this wonderful scenery should be
missed by the traveller who should be on the lookout before reaching
Heron Bay. The great sweep around Jackfish Bay is particularly fine.
Jackfish is the great coaling station for the railway on the northeast
angle of Lake Superior, and near it gold and zinc mines are being profitably operated. Beyond Schreiber (a subdivisional point and refreshment station) a chain of islands separates Nipigon Bay from Lake
Superior, and the shore of the bay is followed to and beyond Nipigon
(pop. 300). From this point trips can be made to Nipigon Lake, the
trout fishing on which and the tributary streams has been declared to
be the finest in the world. The Ontario Government has recently, by
Order-in-Council, set aside Lake Nipigon and the land for twenty miles
around it is a Forest Reserve, thus retaining the sporting advantages
of this wonderful region for the public for all
time. Between Rossport and Gravel some of the
heaviest work on the entire line of railway
occurs. The constantly changing views on Nipi-
gon Bay are_ charming! AU of the streams
emptying Tnto Lake Superior contain speckled
trout in plenty, and in some of the streams, the
Nipigon River especially, they are noted for their
large size—six-pounders being not uncommon.
Nipigon River, which is
crossed by a fine iron bridge
a little before reaching the
station, is a beautiful stream,
well known to sportsmen.
Everywhere on Lake Superior, whitefish and the large
lake trout are common.
Three miles beyond Nipigo^i
Hie railway turns arouncfthe
base of Red Rock, a high
bright-red cliff, and avoiding
the heads of Black Bay
and Thunder Bay, takes a
straight course for Port
Arthur^and from the higher
elevations delightful views of
Thunder Bay are to be had.
Alt. 681
"   672
"   609
"   682
"  748
"  847
" 1048
e"  918
Port Arthur—Alt. 613 ft.
Pop. 15,000.
At the head of Lake Superior. Owns its own electric
railway, light, power, telephone and waterworks. Has
lumber mills, blast furnaces,
large grain elevators and
docks. It has substantial buildings and hotels, wholesale houses, extensive school system, two magnificent hospitals, the judicial centre
for district of Thunder Bay, and is the western terminus of the Lake
Superior Division of the Canadian Pacific Railway and a port of call
of its Great Lake Steamers. An electric railway connects Port
Arthur with Fort William.
AOn the North Shore^of Annotated   Guide
(Summer Months Only)
FJlontrea! to Toronto, 33S miles
Toronto to Port S^cNlc©!!,
tool I to Fort Wililarr
109 miles
5 550 miles
From the Windsor Street Station the run to Ste. Anne de Bellevue and Vaudreuil is that described on the transcontinental
trip.   At Vaudreuil the Montreal & Ottawa Short Line branches
off along the Ontario bank of
the Ottawa River to the Dominion Capital.  The St. Lawrence
curves away towards the south,
while the  railway keeps   on  a
_ direct course towards Toronto,
pass ing
through a
far ming
c o untry,
with  many
One tff a Tbotu&ad Waterways and   with
tracts of the
original forest here and there. At
St. Polycarpe Junction the Grand
Trunk Railway is crossed, and at
Soulanges a branch leads off to
Cornwall, on the St. Lawrence. At
Kempton the Prescott subdivision
of the Canadian Pacific Railway,
extending northward to Ottawa
and southward to Prescott, where
connection is made during summer
months with the River St. Lawrence steamers, and during summer and winter by ferry with the
New York Central & Hudson River
Railroad for all important points
in New York State. At Merrick-
S52     ville, a considerable manufacturing
St. Clet
St. Polycarpe Junc
St. Telesphore
Dalhousie Mills
Glen Norman
Glen Valley
Apple Hill
" 191
" 225
" 225
" 251
" 279
" 267
" 298
town, a fine iron bridge carries the line over the Rideau River.
Smith's Falls—Alt. 428 ft. Pop. 6,361
Junction with Ottawa
and Brockville subdivision of t^Cana_
dian Pacific Ry
and at Carleton Place, 13
miles northward
with the transcontinental line
of the Canadian
Pacific Railway.
The town has a
number of important manufactories, for
which   falls   in
the Rideau River afford ample water-power. Superior bricks are
made here and good building-stone abounds. There are excellent
refreshment rooms at the station.
SSJitcausiiAM ©tfHsssge, Bte. JUmss *• SeUamM
J 28
Across   Canada
d&*y5   £_5$v  '»/-i..;h5s->   *
Elmsley—u4Jt. ^5g.
Perth—Alt. 483. Pop. 4,600. A prosperous town with a number of
mills. Quarries of fine building stone
and deposits of mineral phosphates are
worked in the vicinity. The town is modern and has modern lighting and water
I$lt       w
At Glen Tay the New Lake Ontario
Shore Line strikes  south towards Lake
Glen Tay Alt. 223     Crow Lake
Elliott "...      and Christie
Christie Lake " 810 Lake, as the
Bolingbrooke " 358 names would
Crow Lake "   857     indicate, are
Tichborne "  400     stations   for
Par ham "   ...     pretty  sum-
Echo Lake "   • • •      mer  resorts.
Wilkinson "  801     AU the way
to Tichborne many prosperous farms are passed. At Tichborne the
Canadian Pacific subdivision leading to Kingston, on the St. Lawrence, is crossed. Belleville (pop. 11,000) is a busy manufacturing
town on the Bay of Quinte, famous for its black bass and maskinonge.
A succession of prosperous manufacturing towns alternated with pretty summer.
resorts continues. The most important
are Trenton (pop. 4,764), seat of an extensive lumber and milling industry.
Cobourg (pop. 5,000), a popular summer
resort, also a busy grain exporting town.
Port Hope (pop. 5,000), prettily situated
possessing one of the best harbours on
the lake. Bowmanville (pop. 5,000), the
centre of a rich farming country, also a
rubber manufacturing town, and Oshawa
(pop. 9,000). At Agincourt the Peterboro line is rejoined and the journey continued on to Toronto.
For   100 miles beyond the  country is  more  or less broken by
rocky  uplifts  and largely  covered with timber.   Iron,  phosphate,
asbestos and other valuable minerals
abound. The Kingston subdivision of
the Canadian Pacific, from Kingston
on the St. Lawrence to Renfrew on
the main line of the Canadian Pacific
Railway, is crossed at Sharbot Lake, a
favorite resort of sportsmen, and
especially noted for the good fishing
it affords. Close connections are made '
here by Canadian Pacific Railway day
trains from east and west for Kingston, via that branch, on the line of
which are many picturesque spots. Tweed, on the Moira River, a logging stream, is a busy town in the centre of a rich farming and diary-
ing district. Havelock is a railway subdivi-
Havelock Alt. 700 sional point, with the usual buildings. At
Norwood "   671     Norwood a fine farming country is reached,
Indian River  "  709     for which this is the market town.
Alt. 210
Port Hope
Alt. 479
"  576
Sharbot Lake
"  646
Mountain Grove
"  681
•'   617
"  702
"   554
"  476
"   608
Central Ont. Junc
. "  598
"   643 Annotated   Guide
Locku at Peterboro
Peterboro—Alt. 633. Pop. 20,653.
On the Otonabee River,
' which here falls 150 feet within a
- few  miles,  affording  an  immense
water power, which is utilized
by many large mills and manufactories.  The city is well biult
and   has   a   large   trade.
The surrounding country
has extraordinary attractions  for sportsmen and
pleasure seekers.  Beautiful lakes, rivers and waterfalls occur in all directions, and the fishing
is good.    The Peterboro or Rice Lake canoe,
directions.   At Bethany Junction,
Cavan                           Alt.
Manvers                           "
Pontypooi                       "
Burketon Junc.             "
Glen Major
Claremont                       "
Locust Hill    ,
Agincourt                        "
Leaside Junc.                 "
Toronto                           "
•  •  >
Toronto (Union Stn.) "
1 so well known to all sportsmen, is made here,
and with one of them a great extent of territory may be reached from
this point.    Steamship and railway lines radiate from here in all
ear Peterboro, a branch line of
the railway from Port McNicoll
on Georgian Bay, connects with
the main line. The stations following are centres for a fine
agricultural country. Wheat,
rye, oats, barley, butter, cheese
and fruit are largely produced,
and much attention is given to
cattle raising. From Burketon
Junction a subdivision of the
Canadian Pacific Railway runs
to Lindsay and Bobcaygeon
and the Kawartha Lakes District. Toronto (pop. 4702144),
the capital and chief town of
Ontario, and the next city to Montreal in the Dominion, is situated on
Lake Ontario, and has a most complete railway
system, reaching out to every important place and
district in the province. It has immense manufacturing establishments, and some of the largest commercial houses in the country. Its educational
institutions are widely known. Its
people are nearly all of English or
Scotch extraction, and while the
city has strongly marked English
characteristics, it is distinct! v<
western in rthe intensity of its
activity and energy. The Canndi
Pacific, Grand Trunk and Canadian Northern Railways radiate
from here in all directions, and on
Lake Ontario many fine trips can
he made by steamer, including a
visit to Niagara Falls, via Queens-
ton nr Lewiston, and trolley
car. Cannrlinn Pacific trains run
via Hamilton and Welland to
Niagara Falls anrl Buffalo,
making close connection for
Rochester, Syracuse, Troy, Albany and New York. At West
Toronto to London, Owen
Sound and Muskoka subdivisions of the Canadian
Pacific Railway diverge, the
former extending to London
and Detroit, connecting at
the   latter   point   with   the
C.P.R. Office Building, Toronto - fr
Across   Canada
T^' Ni ^>>S ^ M&   v r)
Weston        -4K
Emery            "
Woodbridge  "
Kieinburg      "
Bolton            "
Michigan Central for Chicago and
other  United States points.    The
Niagara $ lV^i\\\\\\V'       Muskoka   line   runs   through  the
Falls lovely  Muskoka  lakes   and   Geor
gian Bay districts to summer resorts such as Point au Baril, with
its two thousand islands, and to
the famous fishing grounds of
French and Pickerel Biver, connecting with the Montreal-Vancouver
transcontinental route at Sudbury, and the other during the summer
connecting at Owen Sound with one of the Canadian Pacific Great
Lakes Steamships for Sault Ste. Marie, Port Arthur and Fort William.
Parkdale—Alt. 805 ft.   The train to connect with the Great Lakes
Steamships leaves the Union Station, Toronto, and passes
through Parkdale, one of Toronto's fine residential suburbs, and West
Toronto, a busy manufacturing city, now really part of the city.
Some of the finest farm lands of Ontario
are passed and many fine orchards are seen
from the train.   At Bolton the Owen Sound
and Muskoka lines divide—the former running through an old settled and prosperous
farming country to the port of Owen Sound,
while  the  latter  takes   a  more  northward
route, passing through the prosperous villages  of Tottenham,  Alliston, Beeton, Utopia, Craighurst, etc., to
Coldwater Junction, where the transcontinental line is left and the
journey continued over the new branch line to Port McNicoll on the
shores of the famous Georgian Bay,
with its thirty thousand islands. Port
McNicoll is a natural port and lately
adopted as the Eastern terminus of
the Canadian Pacific Railway Company's Great Lakes fleet. Large grain
elevators, a huge movable crane and
all the latest facilities go to make this
new port one of the finest on the
Great Lakes. Fishing and shooting in
the vicinity are good, and the boating
among the islands, cannot be. surpassed.
The steamships 01 the Canadian Pacific Railway Company, with their
spacious decks, airy cabins, daintily
furnished ladies' rooms, splendid
smoking rooms, and commodious dining rooms start from here on the
westward trip, sailing through the
Georgian Bay archipelago to the open
waters of Lake Huron.
Cedar Mills
Coldwater Junc.
Port McNicoll
580 Annotated   Guide
Sault Ste. Marie, Ont.--.4te. 682 ft. Pop. 15,000.  Passengers may
usually go ashore here here for a short
time. Situated on the banks of the beautiful and romantic St.
Mary's River, at a point where the flow from Lake Superior to
Lake Huron is obstructed by tossing and tumbling ra|luls, is
located the.industrial city of Sault Ste. Marie. It has, wSi the
last ten years, sprung from what lacked little of being a wilderness
to its present size and importance on the industrial and commercial
map. The city is surrounded with a halo of interest from the early
times of the Hudson's Bay Company to the present, when the
material results of the greatest feats of engineering to be seen on the
Continent attract the eyes of the thousands of visitors who come
annually in search of recreation and health. Hour after hour it is
possible for one to see the great passenger and freight boats pass
through the locks.
The Canadian Government lock is nine hundred feet long and sixty
feet wide. It was built in 1888-1895 at a cost of about $4,000,000.
Of equal interest to both citizens and visitors are the great industries
of the Lake Superior Corporation. Connection is here made with the
Soo-Pacific Line, which leaves the Canadian Pacific Transcontinental
route at Sudbury, crosses the Rapids of St. Mary's on a magnificent
iron bridge, and runs westward to Gladstone, St. Paul and Minneapolis, and after traversing the States of Michigan, Wisconsin,
Minnesota and North Dakota, rejoins the Transcontinental route
near Moose Jaw, in Wuptern Canada. Connection is also made with
the Duluth, South Shore'& Atlantic Railway for Duluth and points
on the South Shore of Lake Superior, and steamers for Lake Superior
(South Shore), Michigan, Huron and Erie. From the "Soo," enjoyable side trips may be made to the Desbarats Islands, on the north
shore of Lake Huron, Mackinac, etc., etc., and the Michipicoten gold
fields on Lake Suj^rior.
Port Arthur—See page 26.
For Route west of Fort William see Transcontinental Rail Route,
page 34.    It is at Fort William that the Lake and Rail route unite.
Steamship route is during season of navigation only, from about
the middle of April to the end of November, weather and water permitting.    Sailings are subject to change without notice.
While water is low on Lake Superior, steamers may omit Port
Arthur, calling only at Fort William. In such cases ticket holders
to Port Arthur or beyond will be supplied, if they so desire, with rail
transportation between Fort William and Port Arthur.
Elevator* and Harbor, Port McNicoll i
Across   Canada
.w.n—wm >■—■■■-■ iiimiiwiimiIi—w—■ w—
J 1237 miles
(Via the Georgian Bay & Muskoka Route)
Toronto Alt. 254     The Georgian Bay and Muskoka route
Parkdale "   805     via C.  P. short line to Winnipeg from
West Toronto    "  394     Toronto not only brings these two cities
within 38 hours of each other, but opens
up a virgin tourist region which possesses innumerable attractions to
the sportsman, and which will soon be the summer home of thousands.
The line runs through portions of the old settled agricultural districts of the counties of York and Peel and
the full length of the historic county of Simcoe.
Bolton—Alt. 848 ft. Passing through North Parkdale
and West Toronto, which are growing in importance as manufacturing centres, and several other
pleasantly located towns, the Une diverges at Bolton from
the Owen Sound line, and at Coldwater Junction crosses
the road just lately built
Alliston Alt.727     by the Canadian Pacific,
Coldwater June.     "  632     from   Port   McNicoll  to
Severn  Falls "  688     Bethany Junction on the
Toronto-Montreal Main
Line, which is a great grain route from the West. Crossing the Severn River the wilds of Muskoka are entered,
and for miles the forests and lakes and rocks of this
picturesque region furnish pretty views. There are falls
on the Severn River, and at Bala, on the Muskosh River,
both cataracts of no ordinanry beauty.
Bala Falls—Alt. 765.  Pop. 800.
Muskoka Lakes—Bala is the gateway to the great clustering
Muskoka Lakes, through which thousands
of tourists enter the "Killarney of America" every summer.
The island dotted Bala Bay is a magnificent
_}A\ sheet of water, and in it and the surrounding
waters is excellent fishing.   Through the many
i lakes communication is established during the
Wit*   season of navigation by the splendidly equipped steamers of the Muskoka Lakes
Navigation & Hotel Company.
uskoka—Alt. 790 ft.   A subdivisional point, is the station
for all points on Lake Joseph, one of
the  largest   of  the   Muskoka  Lakes,
which can
also be reached from Gordon Bay, another delightful summering place.
On Lake Muskoka
 w Annotated   Guide
Parry Sound—Alt. 686. Pop. 4,000. The road at Parry Sound
skirts the shores of Georgian Bay, giving admirable views of that great inland water, which has 80,000 islands among
its other attractions. The town is reached by a steel viaduct, 1,700
feet long and 120 feet above the
valley of the Seguin River,
which furnishes power to a
municipal plant which supplies
light and power at extremely
cheap rates. Parry Sound is a
growing town, and the advent
of the C. P. Ry. has greatly
increased its prosperity.
Point au Baril—Alt. 642. One
of the beauty
spots of the region is Point au Baril,
a very attractive vacation resort with
excellent hotels, from which splendid
views of the Georgian Bay archipelago are also obtained. The vicinity
offers first-rate fishing, black bass,
picke||p, pike, maskinonge abound in
these waters and trolling for salmon
trout up to thirty-pounders in the
month of October is a most exciting
Bying Inlet—Alt. 628 ft. Pop..
1,700. Is located ^
in an arm of Georgian Bay, and
has a splendid harbor with
water deep enough to float the
largest ships. Lumbering operations are here, as elsewhere along the line, extensively carried on.
Pickerel Alt. 624
French      " 629
Return from the Hunt
The French, River, which, with the Pickerel
River, gives the outflow of Lake Nipissing into
Georgian Bay, is crossed on a splendid structure with a span of 415 feet. Both these rivers are plentifully stocked
with bass, pickerel and maskinonge, and the district also abounds in
big game. Rocks of the glacial period
Romford June. Alt. 843 are prevalent from here north. At Rom-
Sudbury "  855     ford the main transcontinental line of
the C. P. Ry. is reached, and its tracks
are followed on the way west to Sudbury and around the north shore
of Lake Superior to Winnipeg and Vancouver.
For description of the route between Sudbury and
Pacific Coast see pages 24 and 25.
Around Jack Fish Bay,
North Shore of Lake
Superior 34
Across   Canada
Fort William Alt. 607
Westfort " 626
C. P. R. Station at Port Arthur
688 miles (Manitoba Division)
Population 28,771. At the mouth of the
Kaministikwia River, a broad, deep stream
with firm banks, affording extraordinary
advantages for lake traffic. The fine steel
lake steamships of the Canadian Pacific Line ply between here and
Port McNicoll and Owen Sound (see pages 30 and 31).
At Fort William westbound passengers should set their watches
back one hour, in conformity with "Central" standard time.
From the beauty of situation, accessibility and the opportunities for
sport in the neighborhood, Fort William and Port Arthur have become favorite resorts for tourists. A long promontory of basaltic rock
on the opposite side of the bay, called the "Sleeping Giant," whose
Indian legend lakes one back to aboriginal days, terminate in Thunder
Cape, behind which lies the abandoned Silver Islet mine, which yielded
almost fabulous wealth before it was flooded. Pie Island, another
mountain of columnar basalt, divides the entrance to the bay, which is
flanked on the west by Mount Mackay, overlooking Fort William.
Looking west, between Pie Island and Thunder Cape, Isle Royale, a
popular summer resort, may be seen in the distance. Fort William was
formerly a very important Hudson's Bay Company's post, and was the
great rendezvous of the hunters, voyageurs and chief factors of the
Company. The fur house of the old fort is now used as an engine
house. The harbor is noted for its great coal docks and large grain
elevators. These elevators have a combined capacity of nearly 30,000,-
000 bushels of grain. The new million dollar coal dock of the Canadian Pacific on the McKellar River at this point is one of the best
equipped structures of its kind on the continent. The river has been
dredged out so that the largest freighters plying the Great Lakes can
have easy access to the dock, which has a storage capacity of over two
million tons of coal. The machinery operated by electricity is capable
of unloading a ten thousand ton freight steamer in ten hours, and the
coal can be, transferred to cars for shipment by rail in equally fast
Grain Elevator at Fort William Annotated   Guid
AU.  939
f   1007
"  1171
"  1465
"  1578
"  1497
"  1581
|  1526
"  1507
time. There are railway workshops and
the usual buildings and sidings incident
to a divisional point.   From Fort William to Winnipeg the railwa    traverses
a wild broken region, with   apid rivers
and many lakes, but containing valuable
forests and mineral deposits. Murillo is
the  railway  station   for   the   Rabbit
Mountain silver district, and four miles
from   the   station   are   the   Kakabeka
Falls, where the Kaministikwia leaps from a height rivalling
that of Niagara. The falls can be reached from For William by
automobile. The railway follows up this river to Kaministikwia,
and then ascends the Mattawan and
Wabigoon rivers. There is excellent trout
fishing near all the stations as far as
Finmark. At Eagle two beautiful falls
are seen, one above and the other below
the railway.' The scenery is of the wildest
description and deep rockbound lakes are
always in sight. The Sawbill mining country is reached from Bonheur station by
Government wagon road. Wabigoon
(pop. 150) is the point of departure for
the Manitou mining region, and the Lower
Seine and Rainy Lake country can be
reached by this route. Steamers operate
on these waters during navigation, and
in winter there is a good sleigh road. At
Dryden (pop. 840) the Ontario Government has established an experimental
farm, there being large areas of good
land especially suited for mixed farming
and dairying. Settlement is progressing
rapidly, the chief alvantages of the district, besides the facility with which the
land is cleared, being the proximity of good markets, the illimitable
supply of timber and water, abundance of fish and game, winter employment for settlers in the lumber camps, and healthiness of the
climate. Kenora (pop. 6,159), at the principal outlet of the Lake of
the Woods. This district is one of the finest
summer resorts in America. The Tourist Hotel
is a first-class modern house. Kenora is an
important mining centre with several large
sawmills, the product of which is shipped
westward to the prairies. It is the key to the gold fields now being
developed in its immediate vicinity and in the Rainy Lake and Seine
River districts to the south, which are reached by steamer, the route
lying through one of the most picturesque regions on the continent.
The Lake of the Woods is the largest body of water touched by the
railway between Lake Superior and the Pacific. Its fisheries are very
valuable, the annual shipments being large. The lake is studded with
beautiful islands. Its waters break through a narrow rocky rim at
Kenora and Keewatin, and fall into the Winnipeg River. Near Keewatin
are the immense works of the Keewatin Power Co., creating one of the
Eagle River
Vermilion Bay "
Hawk Lake
Keewatin Alt. 1078
Busteed " 1170
Ingolf " 1182
W 36
Across   Canada
Alt. 1104
" 1050
" 964
greatest water-powers in the world, making of the Lake of the Woods a gigantic
mill-pond with an area of 3,000 square
miles, and affording most convenient sites
for pulpmills, sawmills, flouring mills and
other establishments for supplying the
needs of Western Canada and manufacturing its products on their way to eastern
markets. At Keewatin a mammoth flour
mill, built of granite quarried on the spot,
is owned and operated by the Lake of the
Woods Milling Co. Numerous pretty lakes
are passed, and Manitoba is entered just after leaving Ingolf. At
Whitemouth, where settlement is reaching large proportions, sawmills again occur, and beyond, to Red River, the country flattens out
and gradually assumes the characteristics of the prairie. From Molson, a subdivision runs to Lac du Bonnet. The main line runs via
Norquay and Hazeiridge, and at St. Boniface (pop. 9,000) the Red
River is crossed by a long iron bridge and Winnipeg is reached.
Sal do
Entrance to Rotunda, Royal Alexandra Hotel, Winnipeg WINNIPEG TO CALGARY Across   Canada
Ag —KfiwinW   ■■ HM—^»MB*—»«—M—llniii W—■*»—■"an—Mil—gB——11—By—«»—
■ !«■■—mi mm in-
Main  Street, Winnipeg
Alt. 761. Population265,000.
Capital of the Province of
Manitoba, formerly known
as Ft. Garry (pop. in 1871,
100). Situatt-1 at the confluence of the Red and Assiniboine rivers, both navigable by steamboats, it has
been, for many years, the
chief post of the Hudson's
Bay Company, which has
here very extensive establishments. Winnipeg commands
the trade of the vast region
to the north, east anc west.
The city is handsomely built,
superior brick and stone being available, and has sixty
miles of electric railway in
the city and forty-four miles
of suburban track, parks,
hospital, great flouring mills,
grain elevators, huge abattoirs, many notable public
buildings, including Provincial and Dominion offices, and is the greatest grain market in the
British Empire. The Royal Alexandra, owned and operated by the
Canadian Pacific Railway, ranks amongst the finest hotels in the
world. It was erected at a cost of $1,250,000, has been extended to
twice its original size, and is most handsomely decorated and furnished. The hotel is adjacent to the Company's Railway Station, which
is also a magnificent building. Immense workships of the Canadian
Pacific Railway are here, and the railway has also in this city the two
largest train yards in the world. One yard, which has been completed
for several years, has 110 miles of track. The second is even larger,
as it includes seventy tracks of a total mileage of 183 miles. In connection with this yard development the Canadian Pacific has a transfer elevator of a million bushels capacity. Land offices of the railway
are located in the city, and here also are the chief Western Immigration offices of the Government, and the immigration sheds. The C P.R.
owns large areas of good agricultural land, and has a comprehensive
colonization policy for facilitating the settlement of practical farmers.
A number of ready-made farms are prepared each year, and loans of
live stock are made to experienced farmers settling on C. P. R. lands
between Winnipeg and the Rocky Mountains. Sectional maps and
pamphlets giving valuable information as to the nature and character
of the lands traversed by the road are supplied to those who desire
them free of cost by the Land Branch of the Department of Natural
Resources. Agents at all points along the line can give full information and prices of the Company's lands in the vicinity of the respective stations. The Canadian Pacific Railway has two subdivisions
leading southward on either side of the Red River to Emersan and
Gretna, on the U. S. boundary, connecting at the former point with
the train service of the Soo Line for St. Paul and Minneapolis. Two
subdivision lines of the Canadian Pacific Railway go southwest, the Annotated   Guide
Bergen        Alt
. 781
Rosser           "
Meadows        "
Marquette      "
Reaburn        "
Poplar Point "
High Bluff    "
first to Arcola in Saskatchewan, thence to Regina through the Moose
Mountain country, a section now being rapidly settled, and the second
to Napinka in Southern Manitoba, connecting at Souris and Napinka
with the subdivision from
Brandon to
Estevan, the
junction with s
the new Soo-
Pacific line; and
two other subdivisions run
one  to   Selkirk,
north and north-west,
Winnipeg Beach, a summer resort 50
miles from Winnipeg and Gimli; and the
other to Stony Mountain, Stonewall and m^
Teulon, 40 miles north of the city. Though
the country here is apparently as level as
a billiard table, there is really an ascent
of 100 feet from Winnipeg to Portage la
There is a belt of fertile land west of Winnipeg, and from Rosser
as far as Poplar Point the scattered farms visible are chiefly devoted
to dairy products and cattle breeding. Beyond Poplar Point farms
appear almost continuously. The fine of trees not far away on the
south marks the course of the Assiniboine River, which the railway
follows for 130 miles. Reaburn is half way between Montreal and
Vancouver. Long Lake, a favorite resort for sportsmen, is passed
after leaving Reaburn.
Portage ia Prarie—Alt. 85 ft. Pop. 7,000. On the Assiniboine
River. The market town of a rich and populous district, and one of the principal grain markets in the province.
It has large flour mills and grain elevators, a brick plant, foundry,
machine shops, a biscuit factory and several other industries. The
northwest subdivision of the Canadian Pacific Railway branches off
from here, towards Saskatoon and Edmonton.
Via Portage la Prairie on the Great West Express    j
Generally speaking, the main line of the Canadian Pacific Railway
means the transcontinental line between Montreal and Vancouver.
But there is really another main line which is that portion of the
system over which the through trains between Winnipeg and Edmonton are operated.
All rains on this line start from Winnipeg and follow the transcontinental main line to Portage la Prairie, 56 miles west. From
Portage la Prairie the line branches in a northwesterly direction and
follows that general direction the complete distance to Wetaskiwin,
where it joins the Calgary-Edmonton line and goes directly north
into Edmonton.
This entire Winnipeg-Edmonton main line passes through some of
the most productive country in all the prairie provinces and has on
its line some of the most progressive towns and cities.  It is a gently 40
Across   Canada
rolling prairie most of the entire 849 miles. Yorkton is one city making substantial progress. At Saskatoon (pop. 20,000), the largest city
between Winnipeg and Edmonton, the line crosses the South Saskatchewan River, and at Edmonton it crosses the North Saskatchewan River on a high level bridge, recently completed as a cost of over
a million dollars and giving it an entrance into that city on Jasper
avenue almost in the centre of the city.
The company has also just completed a fine new office building in
Edmonton, where the ticket and telegraph offices are housed in a six-
storey structure, that is the pride of the people of the city. A new
office building has also just been completed in Saskatoon for the
better housing of the company's offices.
At Minnedosa the branch line from Brandon joins this line, and at
Lanigan, an important branch from Kirkella, on the transcontinental
line, joins the Winnipeg-Edmonton line. Further west, at Colonsay,
comes in the branch from Moose Jaw and Regina, and at Macklin
another line from Moose Jaw, known as the Outlook branch, makes a
direct connection. At Wilkie, also short branches running north, west
and south of a rich wheat country. By way of the Outlook branch
passengers can make close and direct connection between the twin
cities of St. Paul and Minneapolis and Edmonton, it being a continuation of the line running from North Portal to Moose Jaw. It
will thus be seen that the opening of the country between the two
main lines has all the time been the aim of the company.
For a line passing through a prairie country the Winnipeg-Edmonton
line has more of scenery than generally falls to a purely agricultural
country. At Wynyard there is a beautiful body of water, Quill Lake, 40
miles in length, the railway passing close to its shore for many miles, and
in the valley of the North Saskatchewan River there is an ever-pleasing
change to the rise and fall of the land on either side. Near Wolfe in
Saskatchewan and Sedgewick in Alberta are successful Ready Made
Farm Colonies established by the Canadian Pacific for British settlers.
Edmonton—Population 76£43, is the capital of the Province of
Alberta, and is situated on both banks of the North
Saskatchewan River. That part to the south was originally known as
the city of Strathcona, but was amalgamated with Edmonton two years
ago. The C. P. R. enters Edmonton now by means of a magnificent
steel high-level bridge, 2,550 feet long, 152 feet above water level,
which carries also street car tracks and traffic roads. This was opened
in the summer of 1913. Edmonton was established as a trading post
of the Hudson's Bay Company in 1795, and the remains
of the old fort are still standing on the same bluff overlooking the river as the splendid Parliament Buildings of
the Province of Alberta, opened last year. The University of Alberta, the Robertson Presbyterian College,
and many other educational institutions are situated
here. Two other great transportation systems operate in
Edmonton. The city is run on very progressive municipal
lines, and owns and operates all its own public utilities; and it was one of the pioneer
cities of Western Canada to bring into force
a single tax system of land assessment. It
g is the distributing centre for the vast Peace
'^gSlfH River   country   to
'SmB !  the    north    and
j£o$ Northwest,   and   is
•  also the centre  of
^1?   *■  YSW*%pW,'i  an  important  and
J rapidly developing
.   coal   industry,  the
1  production   of  the
mines    in     and
around   Edmonton
being   over   300
tons per day.
Saskatoon University Annotated   Guide
Resuming our description of the scenery traversed along the Main
Line of the Canadian Pacific Railway, between Portage la Prairie and
Brandon stations succeed one another at
intervals of five or eight miles, and many of
them are surrounded by bright and busy
towns; and at nearly all are tall and massive
elevators, with now and then a flour mill.
From MacGregor a subdivision extends 56
miles to Varcoe. After passing through a
bushy district, with frequent ponds and
small streams, containing many stock farms,
for which it is peculiarly adapted, the railway rises from Austin along a sandy slope
to a plateau, near the centre of which is
situated Carberry (pop. 1,200), an important grain market. From
Seweil it descends again to the valley of the Assiniboine. The Brandon Hills are seen towards the southwest. From Chater, the Miniota
subdivision of the Canadian Pacific Railway, running northwestward
towards the Saskatchewan country, is operated to Miniota, a distance
of 71 miles. Four'miles beyond Chater the Assiniboine is crossed by
an iron bridge and Brandon is soon reached.
Brandon—Alt. 1,199 ft. Pop. 18,000. A divisional point; one of th-
largest grain markets in Manitoba, and the distributing
market for an extensive and well settled country. It has grain elevators,
flouring mills, planing mills, ten banks, etc. The city is beautifully
situated on high ground, sloping up from the Assiniboine River. It
has a Central steam heating system which greatly reduces the cost of
heating business houses. The Dominion Experimental farm is within
the city limits. Subdivisions run north to Minnedosa, Yorkton, Lenore,
Miniota, etc.; south to Deloraine, Lyleton, etc., the Arcola Branch to
Regina, via Areola, through the. Moose Mountain country. At
Schwitzer it connects with the Souris subdivision which runs southwest to Estevan, on the Soo-Pacific line, connecting Western Canada
with the Middle and North-Western States of the Union. Beyond
Brandon the railway draws away from the Assiniboine River and
rises from its valley to a rolling or undulating prairie well occupied
by prosperous farmers, as the thriving villages at freouent intervals bear evidence.
Virden and Eikhorn are market towns of
attractive districts, and at the latter place is
an Indian Industrial School erected by the
Dominion Government. The Lanigan-Saska-
toon line branches off at Kirkella and runs
through a rich farming country studded with
thriving villages and towns to Lanigan and
Saskatoon. A mile east of Fleming, the Province of Saskatchewan is entered. Moosomin,
the first town reached in that Province, is the
station for Fort Ellice at the north and the
Moose Mountain district at the south. From
Whitewood the country northward is accessible by a bridge over the Qu'Appelle River.
Percival stands upon a ridge 100 feet higher
than the general level. All the way from
Brandon to Broadview the frequent ponds and copses afford excellent
opportunities for sport—water fowl being abundant.
Oak Lake
Red Jacket
2039 m
Across   Canada
■M Mi ■■ll"  ■'■■■
245 miles (Saskatchewan Division)
-It—»Hi—in«l iiiiiIM
II        »,■!■ Wi      Wi      Wl|l
Alt. 1952
Indian Head
Pilot Butte
Broadview—Alt. 1,961 ft.   Pop. 760.   A railway divisional point.,
prettily situated at the head of Lake Ecapo in an excellent mixed farming district. A reservation occupied by Cree Indians
is not far away. The standard time changes here to "Mountain"—one
hour slower. Westward the line follows a
gradually rising prairie. Grenfell, Woles-
ley, at which the Reston subdivision joins
the main line, and Sintaluta have already
become important local markets. A little,
beyond Sintaluta, Indian Head (pop.
1,651) is approached. A Government
farm is situated on the north side of the railway, and on the south is
the Government forest nursery. In this locality are numerous large
farms on which great yields of wheat are obtained. The town of
Indian Head is making rapid growth, consequent upon the successful
farming of the district around it.
Qu'Appelle—Alt. 2,123 ft. The supplying and shipping point for a
large section. A good road extends northward to Fort
Qu'Appelle, and beyond. Fort Qu'Appelle, 20 miles distant, is an old
post of the Hudson's Bay Company, beautifully situated on the Fishing Lakes in the deep valley of the Qu'Appelle River. There are
several Indian reservations in its vicinity, and an important Indian
mission and school.   For eight miles beyond Qu'Appelle station the
country is somewhat wooded.
Alt. 2279     At McLean (which stands 150 ft. higher
"   2185     than Qu'Appelle and 400 ft. higher than
"  2015     Regina) the great Regina plain is entered.
This plain extends westward as far as the
Dirt   Hills,   the   northward  extension of the
Missouri   Coteau,    and
these are soon seen rising on the southwestern
horizon a dark blue line.
The plain   is   a  broad-
treeless expanse of finest    agricultural    land,
with little change in the
soil to a depth of twenty
feet or more.   Balgonie
station is in the centre
of a large grain growing
area.      Passing     Pilot
Butte,   a   rounded   hill
lending its  name to a
Grain KievUtors by JNigiu station near by, Regina
is seen spread out on the plain ahead.
Regina—Alt. 1,884 ft- Pop. 47,000. The capital of the Province of
Saskatchewan and the distributing point for the country far
north and south. The Moose Mountain subdivision extends southward
from Regina to Areola, connecting there with the Arcola subdivision,
thus giving an alternative through route between Regina and Brandon,
while the lines via Colonsay and Bulyea, to the north, give a choice of
two routes to Saskatoon and Edmonton.    Beyond the station the
Exhibition buildings and Lieut.-Gover-
nor's residence may be seen on the right,
and a little further, on the same sidMf are
the Royal North-West Mounted Police
barracks. On the south bank of Wascana
Lake are located the new Provincial Government buildings for Saskatchewan, occupying .160 acres. These splendid buildings were erected at a cost of $1,500,000. Northward from Regina is reached Lost
Mountain Lake, Saskatchewan's famous summer resort where condi-
Grand Coulee Alt.
Pense "
Belle Plaine     "
Pasqua "
1869 Annotated   Guide
V' M
ditions are ideal for the enjoyment of outdoor life.
All along the line the work of double tracking the
transcontinental main line across the prairies may
be seen from the train. From
Pasqua a subdivision extends southeast through Estevan to the international boundary line at Portal,
where connection is made with the
"Soo" Line from St. Paul and
Minneapolis, and it is by this route
that passengers from the Middle
States travel to the Pacific Coast.
Trains run through between St.
Paul and Minneapolis and Moose
Jaw, where connection is made
with the Transcontinental express
Moose Jaw-
-Alt. 1,766 ft.   Pop.
25,000.    A  railway
divisional point.   The name is  an Boyal North West Mounted Policeman
abridgement of the  Indian name,
which, literally translated, is "The-creek-where the-white-man-mended-
the-cart-with-a-moose-jaw-bone." The city is situatel in a fine agricultural countrv, extending from the Elbow of the Saskatchewan on
the north to the Dirt Hills on the south. The finest stockyards on the
line between Winnipeg and the coast are located here. Mills and elevators indicate the district's wheat producing qualities, Moose Jaw
being one of the largest milling points in the Province of Saskatchewan. The city is also an important wholesale centre. The Outlook subdivision of the C. P. R. runs from Moose Jaw to Outlook, and thence
via Kerrobert to Macklin where it joints the
Winnipeg-Edmonton line  of the Canadian
Pacific.    At Outlook there is  one  of the
largest bridges in Canada.   It is 300 feet
long, has eight 240-feet truss spans, supported by concrete piers with approaches, consisting of three 80-feet, seven 60-feet, and
nine   45-feet  plate   girder   spans   on   steel
towers.   The height of the bridge from rail
level to water line is about 140 feet.   The
completion of this bridge has opened up a
sixth route between Winnipeg and Edmonton, and provides the most direct connection
between St. Paul, Minneapolis and Edmonton.   Another new line has been opened from Moose Jaw southwest-
iward to Expanse, a distance of 35 miles.  From Moose Jaw the line
. steadily rises on the eastern slope of the coteau and winds through an
^irregular depression to the .basin of the
Chaplin   Lakes — formerly   known /Bk
Rush  Lake
C. P. R. Station at Moose Jaw fgr
Across   Canada
»«x-.»s\mLj»_ „
as the Old Wives Lake—extensive bodies of water
having no outlet and consequently alkaline. The
northermost of these lakes is reached at Chaplin.
The country is treeless from the eastern border of
the Retina plain to the Cypress Hills, 200 miles,
but the soil is excellent nearly everywhere. The
prairies about and beyond Chaplin lakes are
marked in all directions by old buffalo trails and
scarred and pitted by their "wallows." Antelope
may now be sometimes seen, and coyotes and
prairie dogs. Near Morse is a salt lake, and not far beyond is Rush
Lake, a large area of fresh water and a favorite resort of waterfowl—
swans, geese, ducks and pelicans—which at times congregate here in
myriads. At Rush Lake there are some splendid farms, and on the
south side there is one of 700 acres under irrigation. There are a
number of these in various districts aggregating about 110,000 acres.
Swift Current—Alt. 2,420 ft. Terminus of the Saskatchewan
Division. (For description of service between
Minneapolis, St. Paul and Moose Jaw, see page 94.)
nH ■ M        W
(Alberta Division)
Swift Current—Alt. 2420 ft. Pop. 5,765. A railway divisional
point, on a pretty stream of the same name. Swift
Current is in the centre of a very large agricultural district, extending from the International boundary on the south to the Saskatchewan
River on the north. Branch railway lines radiate to the northwest to
Cabri and Empress and southeast, to Vanguard. The soil is particularly adapted for grain farming and the country is being rapidly
filled up with American and Canadian settlers. The Government has
erected a Meteorological Observing Station.
From Swift Current to Medicine Hat, on
Alt. 2468 the South Saskatchewan River, the line
" 247S skirts the northern base of the Cypress
" 2581 Hills, which gradually rise towards the west,
" 2558 until they reach an altitude of 4,790 ft.,
"  2560     and in  places   are   covered  with  valuable
Gull Lake
An Up-to-date Plough
■nun Annotated   Guide
i it'
Harvesting on the "Western Prairies
Crane Lake
Maple Creek
Alt. 2638
| 2628
" 2508
"   2515
AU. 2465
timber. Gull Lake is another growing
town surrounded by splendid farming land
and has two good hotels. At Crane Lake
there is another large sSk farm. This
farm, 1,200 acres of which are irrigated,
is entnirely devoted to stock raising, 7,000
cattle and 500 horses being usually on the
range. It is impossible to conceive of a
better stock country than that lying between the Cypress Hills and
the railway. Rich in the grasses that possess peculiar attractions for
horses and cattle, the valleys and groves of timber give ample shelter
all seasons of the year, and the numerous streams flowing out fo the
Cypress Hills afford an unfailing supply of water. The handsome
profits realized by the stockmen testify better than words to the value
of this district for cattle raising.  Lakes and ponds occur at intervals
to Maple Creek. At this station are extensive yards for the shipment of cattle.
The town is supported by trade with the
cattle ranches, and farming is successfully
carried on in the vicinity. From Forres
to Dunmore, rocks of the Cretaceous age
occur, in which the remains of gigantic
saurians and other extinct animals are
abundant. At Dunmore there is what may be taken as a typical mixed
farm, for not only are capital crops raised, but a number of valuable
horses and cattle are also bred and pastured here. From Dunmore
the Crow's Nest line leads off westerly through the Rocky Mountains,
to Kootenay Lake and to the mines of the Kootenay, in whose greater
developments it is proving a powerful factor by supplying cheap fuel
for its smelters from its coal-bearing areas. For descriptive notes of
Crow's Nest Pass Route, see pages 94 to 102.)
From Dunmore the main line drops
into the valley of the South Saskatchewan, which is crossed by a fine steel
bridge at Medicine Hat.
Medicine Hat—Alt. 2,168 ft. Population 12,000. On account
of the immense flow of natural gas and
other advantages Rudyard Kipling christened it "The town that was born lucky."
It is situated in the valley of the South
Saskatchewan and is the centre of a magnificent mixed farming district. Apples,
plums and small fruit are quite at home
here and a demonstration farm is operated by the Provincial Government. The
city is a divisional point, with large railway shops all operated by natural gas.
An important station of the Royal
North-West Mounted Police. There is an 46
Across   Canada
(For description of service Medioine Hat
to Bevelstoke via Kootenay and Arrow
Lakes see pages 94 to 102.)
C.P. It. Supply Farm, Strathmore
abundance of coal all through the district, but the fight, heat and power in
the city is derived entirely from natural gas, which is sold to manufacturers at 5 cents per thousand cubic
feet, and for domestic purposes at 13% cents. Medicine Hat is
growing rapidly and is becoming an industrial centre.
Beyond the river the railway rises to the high prairie-plateau which
extends, gradually rising, to the base of the
mountains. At Redcliff, which is, like Medicine Hat, becoming an important industrial
Alt. 2428
" 2579
" 2452
" 2492
" 24227
" 2445
" 249S
" 2476
" 2512
" 2498
" 2555
centre, the railway crosses a fine stock raising country, where some of the largest herds
of Galloway cattle in the world are to be
seen. There is a strong upgrade to Bowell,
then a rapid descent to Suffield, followed by
a steady rise. Bow River occasionally appears to the south. The prairie here is seen
to advantage, and before August it is a billowy ocean of grass. Cattle ranches are
spread over it, and farms appear at intervals. The entire country is underlaid with
two or more beds of good coal, and natural
gas is frequently found in boring deep wells.
This gas is utilized at Langevin in pumping
water for the supply of the railway, and
both there and at Tilley it can be seen burning brightly. From this station, on a very
clear day, the higher peaks of the Rocky
mountains may be seen, 120 miles away.
Just west of Alderson the line enters the
three million acre Irrigation Block of the
Canadian Pacific.   The Block extends from
this point to
within a few
miles of Calgary, a distance
of 145 miles.
This is the larg-
e s t irrigation
project on the
continent and is
divided into
three sections.
Work has been
completed on
the western sec-
part of the land marketed. The eastern section, extending
from Alderson to Bassano, is now also
ready for settlement. About three miles south of Bassano is located
the great Horse-Shoe Bend dam which has made the waters of the
Bow River available for irrigation on this eastern section.
By means of the dam the ordinary water level at the site is raised
45 feet, resulting in the waters flowing from the far distant eastern
slope of the Rocky Mountains being diverted through a total length of
C.P.R. Irrigation Dam, Bassano Annotated   Guide
2,500 miles of canals and distributing ditches over about 1,800 square
miles of fertile prairie country, irrigating approximately one-third of
that area. Altogether, the structure has a total length of nearly
8,000 feet, being made up of two main parts: a reinforced concrete
spillway, 720 feet in length, with 24 electrically-operated gates, which
permit of the free passage of the river at highest floods; and a concrete-faced earthen portion, 7,000 feet long, of a maximum height and
width of 45 and 350 feet respectively.
Leading from one end of the spillway is the main canal, 90 feet wide,
capable of discharging 3,800 cubic
feet of water per second at a depth
of eleven feet, through headgates
which form an integral part of the
main structure.
At Bassano a branch line runs
northwest to Standard, joining the
Acme subdivision at Irricana.
At Crowfoot the Rocky Mountains
may again be seen. Near Crowfoot,
and south of the railway, is a large
reservation occupied by the BlaGkfoot
Indians, and some of them are seen
about the stations. At Namaka are located some of the most productive farms in Western Canada and very rich harvests are reaped
annually. From Gleichen to Shepard the line traverses the Western
section of the Canadian Pacific Co.'s irrigation project and the canals
and ditches are crossed at several points. From Gleichen to Shepard
there is also a cut-off which traverses the irrigation belt. Irrigated
farms are seen on each side of the track, and at Gleichen and Strathmore are located the Irrigation Experimental Farms where the results
from the application of water in growing crops and trees may be
noted. Beyond Gleichen (alt. 2,900 ft., pop. 500) the Rockies come
into full view—a magnificent line of snowy peaks extending far along
the southern and western horizon. Near Strathmore are located a
great number of the Canadian Pacific's "Ready Made" farms. Under
this policy the Company improves farms in advance of their sale, so
that the arriving settler finds awaiting him a farm with a comfortable
house, fine barn, a drilled well and about fifty acres in crop. The
whole farm is fenced. The price of these improvements is added to
the price of the land, the whole sum being payable in a space of
A, Fairy of the Prairies
WMmf~dT^ o _fTfY^.
C. P. R. Hotel Palliser, at Calgary 48
Across   Canada
twenty years. This policy has been extended to three Prairie Provinces, and is also being adapted to smaller areas in the Columbia
Valley along the line of the Kootenay Central Branch north to Golden.
At Langdon the railway falls to the valley of the Bow River. From
Langdon, branch fines run northward to Acme. As one approaches
Calgary one sees the great Ogden shops, at which the equipment of
the railway on this section of the line is repaired and renovated.
Caigary—Alt. 8425 ft.   The largest city in Alberta, it has 81,161
population, with upwards of 425 retail stores, 150 wholesalers, 75 manufacturers, 25 banks.
General offices of the Canadian Pacific Railway are located here;
including the head offices of the Department of Natural Resources,
under whose jurisdiction comes the great Bassano Irrigation project.
The extensive Western car shops of the C. P. R. are near Calgary.
These shops will eventually employ about 3,500 men. The Canadian
Pacific Hotel Palliser ranks among the finest in North America.
The city owns, operates and controls its public utilities, including
municipal street railway, gravity waterworks system, light and power
plant and street paving plant. All these are profitable enterprises,
and yield a big revenue. Forty miles of street railway are in operation. The city is supplied with natural gas from Bow Island, which
is sold at low rates, both to manufacturers and for domestic use.
The most imposing building in Calgary is undoubtedly the Palliser,
the C. P. R. hotel. Externally the building is French Renaissance.
Buff pressed brick, Roman size, is used for the facing of the walls,
while Indiana limestone is used for trimmings. Its ground measurements are 227 feet by 145 feeL, and it rises to a height of 120 feet
above the sidewalk. From the roof a magnificent view of the snowcapped peaks of the Rockies is to be had.
It comprises ten floors—basement, ground, mezzanine and seven
service floors, with a roof garden and sun parlor on the roof. The
structure is built of steel and reinforced concrete throughout. In
shape it is rectangular as far as the first floor; above that it is "E"
shape, contained in one long wing of 46 ft. wide by 227 ft. long, on
the north side, with three projecting wings at right angles on the north
or street side—these wings being 99 ft. long, 46 ft. wide for the two
end ones, and 54 ft. wide for the centre one. The, advantage of this
design is, of course, that sufficient lighting for all rooms is secured.
There are no "inside rooms." The spaces between the wings also
afford provision for skylights for the lighting of the lower floor.
Entering from Ninth Avenue, one passes through the vestibule into
the entrance hall (46x32 feet), with the Palm Room (42x50 feet)
on the left and the Drawing Room on the right. Beyond is the Rotunda, 147 feet long by 40 feet wide. The floor of the Rotunda, vestibule, entrance hall and elevator hall is of grey Tennessee marble, and
the columns that support the roof are finished in Botticino marble,
with Sylvian marble for the bases. On the right of the Rotunda is the
main Dining Room, 38 feet wide and 142 feet long, running the whole
depth of the ground floor from north to south and finishing in a semicircular bay at the south end. On the left of the Rotunda are the
flower stand, bar, and cafe, the floors of which are large heather-
brown tiles. To the north of the Rotunda are the elevator hall and
the spacious kitchen.
The first floor contains a beautiful ball-room, 48 x 50 feet, situated
at the north end of the centre wing. At either side of the ball-room,
in courts, are pergolas, extending to the side wings. The remainder
of this floor, and the whole of the floors above, is occupied by bedrooms, with an average of about fifty per floor.
The bedrooms range in size from 12 x 15 feet to 20 x 14 feet, and are
usually in pairs, with connecting doors between, and bathrooms on
either side. Inside each wing is a broad corridor running down the
centre. Every bedroom is finished with mahogany doors, with a full
length heavy plate glass mirror on the bedroom side of the door. The
furniture of the bedroom is all fumed oak, with dull brass fittings.
There is hot and cold running water, ice water service, telephone, and
portable reading lamp in every bedroom. Annotated   Guide
C. P. R. Bridge over the Saskatchewan River at Edmonton
1 I
'l1" ■».""M"i'"llliiniHi  i iilm i      M-Mln^Mi ii iM       iM   i  mini    M«™*B^»»in i   n||  ■■i|n   i    tt—U—B.I..H    ™u^?
From Calgary an important branch fine connects with Edmonton,
the Capital of the Province of Alberta (see p. 40), and another south
to Lethbridge and Macleod.
The Canadian Pacific Calgary-to-Edmonton branch line passes
through and serves an exceptionally rich region, well suited for mixed
farming and especially for dairying, which is, indeed, the staple industry of the inhabitants. For a distance of thirty miles after leaving
Calgary the line skirts the extreme western boundary of the C. P. R.
Irrigation Block, as far as Crossfield. The undulating prairies continue all the way, but after leaving Crossfield the character of the
countryside gradually changes. Unlike Southern Alberta—i.e., the
lands along the main transcontinental line of the C. P. R.—Central
Alberta is wooded. Bush will be seen everywhere and clumps of trees,
until presently, when nearing Edmonton, the clumps are in some
parts continuuous.
Olds—(58 miles) where one of the three Agricultural Schools recently
established by the Alberta Provincial Government is located.
Red Deer—(95 miles), pop. 8,500, is an important town, and the centre of a splendid mixed farming and dairying district.
It is situated on the Red Deer River, and has in the neighborhood
valuable coal, clay, sand and gravel deposits. It will also be the sub-
divisional point for the new C. P. R. branch westward to Rocky Mountain House (between 50 and 60 miles).
Lacombe—(113 miles), population 1,800, is also in the heart of a
mixed farming district, and is the location of a Dominion
Government Experimental Farm. A branch Une runs from here eastward via Coronation to Monitor, and will eventually connect with the
C. P. R.'s Moose Jaw to Macklin branch at Kerrobert. Near Lacombe
is Gull Lake, a summer and bathing resort that is quickly becoming
popular amongst the people of Southern and Central Alberta.
Wetaskiwin—(152 miles), population 2,500, is the junction point
for the main line to Winnipeg.
Edmonton—(194 miles).   See page 40.
Calgary to Lethbridge
The line south from Calgary to Macleod and Lethbridge also passes
through a good farming country. Aldersyde (where a cut-off line
branches direct to Lethbridge), High River, Cayley, Nanton, Claresholm are some of the more important stations—all yielding substantial
grain and cattle traffic. Near High River is a ranch famed for its
breed of Percherons. At Lethbridge is the headquarters of an irrigation district now operated by the Natural Resources Department of
the Canadian Pacific Railway, formerly by the Alberta Railway and
Irrigation Company. Near here is Coaldale, a prosperous Ready Made
Farm Colony settled with Old Country farmers. I
Across   Canada
Calgary From Calgary along the main transcontinen-
Keith Alt. 3551     tal line the Bow is closely followed and by
Cochrane       "   8748     the time Cochrane is reached, the traveller is
Morley "  4066     well within the rounded grassy foot-hills and
river "benches," or terraces. Here the valleys are seen to cut the mountains transversely. Further on, in the
main ranges, as distinct from the foothills, the valleys will be found
running parallel with the mountains, north and south, and these valleys open into each other across the mountain ranges by the passes,
the lowest of which is 5,000 ft. above sea level, the highest 7,000 ft.
Geologically the transverse valleys by which entrance is made to the
mountains represent the grooved course of ancient glaciers, and many
of the rivers flowing in these beds can be followed directly up to the
demnants of these ancient glaciers. The remnant glacier of the Bow
River to-day occupies a field thirty miles long by six to ten broad.
Extensive ranches are passed in rapid succession—great herds of
horses in the lower valleys, thousands of cattle on the terraces, and
flocks of sheep on the hilltops may be seen at once, making a picture
most novel and interesting. Sawmills and coal-mines appear along the
valley. After leaving Cochrane, and crossing the Bow, the line
ascends to the top of the first terrace,, whence a magnificent outlook
is obtained towards the left, where the foothills rise in successive tiers
of sculptured heights to the snowy range behind them.
Morley is interesting to the tourist as the reservation of the Stoney
Indians, once the most warlike tribe of the native races of America,
but now one of the most industrious and peaceful.
Kananaskis—Alt. 4£18 ft. Approaching Kananaskis the mountains
suddenly appear close at hand and seemingly an
impenetrable barrier, their bases deeply tinted in purple, and their
sides flecked with white and gold, while high above, dimly outlined in
the mists, are distant snowy peaks. The Kananaskis River is crossed
by a high iron bridge, a little above where it joins the Bow, and the
road of the great falls of the Bow (called Kananaskis Falls) may be
heard from the railway.
Exshaw—Alt. 42247 ft. At Exshaw is one of the largest cement works
in Canada. Here the difference between the ordinary upland
stream and a glacier-fed river is first noticed. Tumbling from great
heights, the former may be foamy and tumultuous; but the latter is
always milky-green, with the sediment of glacial silt, infinitesimally
fine particles formed by the grinding of the ice over the rocks.
The Gap—Alt. 4^86 ft. The mountains now rise abruptly in great
masses, a bend in the line brings the train between two
almost vertical walls of dizzy height. This is the gap by which the
Rocky Mountains are entered. Through this gateway the Bow River
issues from the hills. Beyond it the track turns northward and
ascends the long valley between the Fairholme range on the right and
the Kananaskis range opposite. The prominent peak on the left is
Pigeon Mountain, and in approaching the station called The Gap, a
magnificent view is obtained of Wind Mountain and the Three Sisters .
also on the left. A remarkable contrast between the ranges ahead is
noticeable. On the right are fantastically broken and castellated
heights; on the left, massive snow-laden promontories, rising thousands of feet, penetrated by enormous alcoves in which haze and
shadow of gorgeous coloring lie engulfed. The jaggedness of profile
observed from the plains is now explained. These mountains are tremendous uplifts of stratified rocks of the Devonion and Carboniferous Indicates Double Track
Across   Canada
ages, which have been broken out of the crust of the earth and slowly
heaved aloft. Some sections, miles and miles in breadth and thousands of feet thick, have been pushed straight up, so that their strata
remain almost as level as before; others are tilted more or less on
edge (always on this slope towards the east) and lie in a steeply
slanting position; still other sections are bent and crumpled under
prodigious side-pressure, while all have been broken down and worn
away until now they are only colossal fragments of the original upheavals. This disturbed stratification is plainly marked upon the faces
of the cliffs by the ledges that hold the snow after it has disappeared
elsewhere, or by long lines of trees which there alone can maintain a
foothold, and this peculiarity is one of the most striking and admirable features of the scenery. Many ranges of prodigious mountains
like these must be traversed before the Pacific Coast is reached, and
grandeur and beauty will crowd upon the attention without ceasing
as the train speeds through gorge and over mountain, giving here a
vast outlook and there an interior glimpse, then exchanging it for a
new one with the suddenness of a kaleidoscope. Observation cars,
specially designed to permit of unobstructed views, are attached to
the through trains.
Canmore—Alt. 4,283ft. Near Canmore are large coal mines and
here is obtained a striking profile of the Three Sisters, the
third or farthest south rising to an altitude of 9,743 feet, with Wind and
Pigeon Mountains looming up beyond. On a hill behind the station,
and all along the embankment s of the valley traversed by the railway,
are group after group of isolated and curiously weathered conglomerate
monuments, called "hoodoos"—giant earthen pillars, ten times the
height of a man, some of them—composed of hard enough material to
withstand the erosions that have played havoc
with the surrounding bank. On either side of
the beautiful level valley the mountains rise in
solid masses westward, until the great bulk of
Cascade Mountain closes the view.
Bankhead—Alt. 4,596 ft.    The pass narrows
suddenly, and as the
mountains are penetrated the scenery becomes grander and more awe-
inspiring. The walled masonry, shooting up in Seven Peaks, on the left is
Rundle, called after an early missionary to the Indians.  Here the line for
Ttie Gap—Entrance to the Rockies from the Prairies Annotated   Guide
The Three Sisters
the Bow and
time leaves
strikes up the
valley of the
Cascade River,
directly toward
the face of
Cascade Mountain, which, though miles
away, is apparently but a stone's throw
distant, and which seems to rise in an
enormous mass and advance bodily to
meet us; this marvellous effect should
not be missed by the traveller.
Banff—Alt. 4,521 ft. Station for Canadian National Park and Hot
Springs. This park is a National Reservation of 5,732 square
miles, embracing parts of the valleys of the Bow, Spray and Cascade
rivers, Lake Minnewanka and several noble mountain ranges, and beyond the "Divide," the Yoho Valley and the country to the west and
south of it. The Park is the largest in the world, being nearly half as
large again as the famous Yellowstone Park in the States. No part
of the Rockies exhibits a greater variety of sublime and pleasing scenery, and nowhere are good points of view and features of special interest so accessible as in this district where so many good roads and
bridle paths have been constructed. The railway station at Banff is in
the midst of- impressive mountains. The huge mass northward is Cascade Mountain ^9,825 ft.) ; eastward is Mount Inglismaldie and the
heights of the Fairholme sub-rapge, behind which lies Lake Minnewanka. South-eastward from Inglismaldie, in the same range of the
Fairholmes, the sharp cone of Peechee -(called after an Indian chief)
closes the view in that direction; this is one of the highest mountains
visible. To the left of Cascade Mountain, and just north of the track,
rises the wooded ridge of Stoney Squaw Mountain, beneath which lie
the Vermilion lakes, seen just after leaving the station. Up the Bow,
westward, tower the distant, snowy, central heights of the Main range
about Simpson's Pass, most prominently the square, wall-like crest of
Mount Bourgeau. A little nearer, at the left, is seen the northern end
of the Bourgeau range, and still nearer, the razor-like back of Sulphur
Mountain, along the side of which are the Hot Springs, and on whose
summit, at 7,455 ft., an observatory has been established. The isolated
bluff southward is Tunnel Mountain, while just behind the station
Mount Rundle, 9,798 ft., rises sharply, so near at hand as to cut off
the entire view in that direction. Just before reaching the station, the
train passes along a large corral of 800 acres in which are about one
hundred buffolas, the last specimens of the monarchs of the plains.
In well-constructed cages are specimens of the various wild animals
found in the Rocky Mountains. The village of Banff is a short distance southwest of the station, on the hither side of the Bow, and the
Canadian Pacific Banff Springs Hotel about a mile further on. A steel
bridge takes the carriage-road across to the hotel located on an eminence between the foaming falls in the Bow and the mouth of the rapid 54
Across   Canada
Spray River. This hotel has just been reconstructed on a truly magnificent scale, and has a kitchen capable of supplying 600 dinners at one
time. It is most favorably placed for health, picturesque views, canoeing, driving, walking and mountain-climbing. In direct connection with
the hotel there has been opened what is probably the finest bathing
establishment on the continent.   It is built in the form of three terraces, the outer and lower one of which forms the great semi-circular
cold water swimming pool, which is 120 feet in diameter and varies
from three to seven feet in depth.  The second terrace contains the
sheltered warm sulphur-water pool which is supplied by piping the
water direct from the Hot Springs on Sulphur Mountain at the rate
of 1,165 gallons per hour. This pool measures 28 feet by 80 feet and
varies from four to seven feet in depth. The water in the pool is maintained at a temperature of 110 degrees Fahrenheit—about five degrees lower than at the source of supply—by the continuous flow of
water.  The bathing space is enclosed by a screen of plate glass between
concrete posts, to protect the bathers against the breezes.  Adjoining
the sulphur plunge there are ten shower baths, and complete Turkish
and Russian baths finished in marble and fitted with all the latest
plumbing devices.   One hundred dressing-rooms are provided at this
level, and on the third terrace there are the cooling rooms, private sulphur baths and rooms for the masseurs.   The roof of the third terrace
forms a wide promenade upon which chairs are placed to enable guests
to obtain both a view of the bathers below and of the whole magnificent panorama of the mountains.   The entire structure is of reinforced concrete and the pools are lined throughout with white glazed
tile, and lighted by electricity so that they may be used at night as
well as by day. Still another attraction at Banff is the new golf course.
Golf enthusiasts who have played the game on the ordinary country
golf links will find the sport at Banff even more fascinating. Here the
environments are such as no country club could hope to duplicate.
Nestling among the mountains, completely surrounded by gigantic
peaks, and with the glacier-fed Bow River flowing throughout its
length, the course is superbly located.   Nature making it not only one
of the highest courses on the American continent, but also one of surpassing beauty.  The links are reached from the Banff Springs hotel
by a foot-path which leads directly to the club-house.  The house is
nicely furnished and provided with all conveniences.  In Banff, itself,
there ai i a sanitarium and hospital, and a museum of more than local
interest has been established by the Government.   Nine miles from
Banff is Lake Minnewanka, on which a fine launch has been placed.
There is capital fishing, the trout being of extraordinary size.   Wild
sheep    (the   big-horn)    and   mountain
goats are occasionally to
be seen on the neighboring   heights.
Some extraord-
- inary fossil re-
Banff Hot Springs Hotel, Owned and Operated by the Canadian Pacific Rail nnotated   Guide
Swimming Pool, Banff Hot Springs Hotel
mains and markings of mammoth pre-historic creatures are found on
the mountain slopes surrounding this lake, as well as on Cascade
Mountain. At the upper end of the lake is the valley of Ghost River,
a strange region where the mountain rivulets gurgle off into subterranean reservoirs and the granite walls are pitted with caves. Between
Banff and the lake is Bankhead, where are located the anthracite
mines, operated by the Canadian Pacific Railway, whose output will
eventually provide the country as far east as Winnipeg with fuel. The
hot springs are at different elevations upon the eastern slope of Sulphur Mountain, the highest being 900 ft. above the Bow. All are
reached by fine roads, commanding glorious landscapes. The more important springs have been improved by the Government, which has
recently completed a very fine swimming pool. The geological history
of the springs is described in interesting and entertaining fashion by
the Scotch Guide at the cave adjoining the swimming pool. Since the
opening of the railway these springs have been largely visited, and
testimony to their wonderful curative properties is plentiful.. They are
reached by a delightful drive of about a mile along a winding, pine-bordered road up the Bow River valley to the base of Sulphur Mountain.
Among the other pretty drives radiating from Banff is "the Loop,"
a beautiful roadway around the Bow valley, in full view of the superb
Bow Falls, skirting the base of Mount Rundle, to the banks of the Bow
River; another interesting drive is that along the north side of the
1 Vermilion lakes to Edith Pass; another favorite outing is that to Tun-
i nel Mountain, by way of its spiral, tree-lined roadway.  Of the longer trails that have been opened probably the most important is that
! up Brewster Creek, at the head of which is a huge glacier. West from
Lake Minnewanka there is another trail through Aylmer Pass and down
i the Ghost River, returning to the lake by way of the Devil's Gap.
i There is  also  another magnificent trail  from the  Spray Lakes to
! Kananaskis Lake.   From one to two weeks can be profitably spent
i on these last two trips.
Of interest to motor-car enthusiasts is
i the new automobile road on which Banff
i will  be   an   important  stop-over   point.
: This road is now being built by the Dominion Government, the British Colum-
| bia Government and the Canadian Pa-
I cific Railway.   It starts at Calgary and
! runs through the Mountains to Banff. At
' Castle Mountain it branches off through
the beautiful Vermilion Pass to connect
\ with a road already in existence running
I from Golden to Cranbrook on the Crow's
Nest Pass line of the C. P. R.     From
Buffalo at Banff
;#»"■" 56
Across   Canada
Mount Assiniboine
here there is a road to Macleod and from that point there is connection with Calgary, making a five-hundred-mile automobile road, which
when completed will be the grandest highway in the world.
Twenty miles south of Banff is Mount Assiniboine, the Matterhorn
of the new world, the ascent of which, after several unsuccessful
attempts, was made in the autumn of 1901 by the Rev. James Outram and a party of Swiss guides. The way to it leads through beautiful valleys studded with transparent blue lakes and park-like prairie
Sawback—Alt. 4,537 ft. Upon leaving Banff the railway rejoins the
Bow and follows it up through a forested valley. The
view backward is very fine. The Vermillion lakes are skirted, and
ahead an excellent view is had to the right of Mount Bourgeau and
the snow-peaks far to the west, enclosing Simpson's Pass. Then a
sharp turn discloses straight ahead the great heap of snowy ledges
that form the eastern crest of Pilot Mountain, 9,680 ft., the landmark
of mountain trappers, for it is seen and easily recognizable from both
ends of the Bow Valley. Hole-in-the-wall Mountain is passed upon
the right, against whose side can be seen a cavernous opening to a
mountain grotto. This cave is 1,500 feet above the valley bed, 12 feet
from floor to roof, and runs back in the mountain for 160 ft., where a Annotated   Guide
Mount Castle Alt. 4657
Eldon | 4814
round chimney-like aperture gives glimpses of the open sky. A little
beyond the station Castle Mountain looms up ahead, on the right, a
sheer precipice of 5,000 ft.—a giant's keep, stretching for eight miles,
with turrets, bastions and battlements complete. A natural drawbridge,
portcullis and gateway can be plainly distinguished against this ochre
wall. The back of this mountain is a gralual slope, glacier-covered
and overlooking a wild region of canon, torrent and bridges of rock.
Mount Castle station is at the base of the
great peak whose name it takes. After
passing this point, the mountains on each
side become exceedingly grand and prominent. Those on the right (northeast) form the bare, rugged and
shapely serrated Sawback sub-range, with a spur, called the Slate
Mountains, in the foreground at Lake Louise. On the left, the lofty
Bow range fronts the valley in a series of magnificent snow-laden
promontories. At first, enchanting glimpses are caught only through
the trees, as you look ahead; but before Eldon is reached,
the whole long array is in plain view. Turning to the left,
and looking back, the central park of Pilot Mountain is
seen, like a leaning pyramid, high above the square-fronted
ledges visible before. Next to it is the less lofty, but almost
equally imposing, cone of Copper Mountain, squarely opposite
the sombre precipices of the Castle. Westward of Copper
Mountain, the top of Vermillion Pass opens through the range
permitting a view of many a lofty spire and icy crest along
the continental watershed, from whose glaciers and snowfields
the Vermillion River flows westward into the Kootenay.
Most prominent on the east side are the precipitous face of
Storm Mountain (10,309 ft.), and the snow dome of Mount
Ball (10,825 ft.) West of the entrance into Vermillion Pass,
towering up tier after tier, is a choatic sea of mountains; and
beyond, standing supreme over this part of the range is the
prodigious, isolated, helmet-shaped mountain named Temple
(11,626 ft.)—the loftiest and grandest in this whole
panorama. This great snow-bound mountain,
whose crest exhibits precipitous walls of ice flash- 58
Across   Canada
Chateau Lake Ix>ui
ing blue in the sunlight, becomes visible at Sawback station, and from
Eldon almost to the summit its white-crowned precipice is the most
conspicuous and admirable feature of the wonderful valley.
Lake Louise—Alt. 5,082 ft. Beyond Lake Louise the railway leaves
the Bow and ascends a tributary from the west,
which courses through a gap in the Bow range. Looking upward to
the right, northwest, towards Bow Lake and the huge rounded snowcapped peak of Mount Daly, a view is obtained of the glacier. It is a
broad crescent-shaped river of ice, the further end concealed behind
the lofty yellow cliffs that hem it in. It is 1,300 feet above you and a
dozen miles away. Further north are other glacial fields, one of which
is the source of thr'ee great continental rivers flowing to the three different oceans, the Athabasca or Mackenzie River flowing to the Arctic,
the Saskatchewan to the Atlantic, and the Columbia to the Pacific.
The glacier presents some exceptionally interesting features, among
others an enormous cavernous passageway, the size of a railway tunnel, cut out by subterranean rivers. This is also the region of Mounts
Columbia, Bryce, Athabasca and Forbes.
Lake Louise is the station for the Lakes in the Clouds. Lake Louise,
the first of the lakes encountered, is about three miles from the station
and is reached by a motor tram line over a 4 per cent, grade or by
carriage drive over a well-constructed road. The Lakes in the Clouds
are rare gems whose loveliness and charm surpass description. On the
margin of Lake Louise, alt. 5,670 ft., there is a Canadian Pacific hotel, Annotated   Guide
toadlan Pacific Hotel System
recently much enlarged, where excellent accommodation is provided.
A good trail entirely surrounds Lake Louise and there is a bridle-path to
Mirror Lake, 6,655 ft. up the mountain, and a still further ascent to
Lake Agnes, during which a magnificent view of the Bow Valley and
the surrounding mountains is obtained. Both lakes lie literally above
the clouds, nestling in the rocky cirques among the peaks of the Beehive,
St. Piran, Niblock and Whyte. Trails also lead across the stream
draining Lake Louise to Fairview Mountain on the left side and to
the Saddleback still farther eastward, from which one can look across
an abysmal gorge 2,000 ft. deep to the avalanches of Mount Temple,
the forested vale called Paradise Valley, the scarred battlements of
Mount Sheol and the pinnacled heights of Castle Crags behind
Fairview Mountain. Other trails lead round to the right of Lake
Louise directly on to the
Glacier   bed   of   Mount
Victoria, the great palis-       	
ade of snow, 11,355 feet
high, that shuts off all
view to the south.   This
2400 Spies  from   Montreal      230G
^Across   Canada
trail also connects with the route to Abbot Pass, a deep canyon between Victoria and Lefroy, 11,220 ft. A stiff climb over this pass and
down to the rear of Lefroy and Victoria leads by a chain of beautiful
mountain tarns to O'Hara Lake and Cataract Creek, which flows
directly down to Wapta Lake, on the main line, at Hector Station.
O'Hara Lake, recently opened to the public by a well-made pony trail
from Hector, is a worthy rival of Lake Louise and presents features
of wild Alpine grandeur in its surroundings that cannot be surpassed.
It may be reached also from Lake Louise and Field, and by a combination of the trail Lake McArthur may be visited. The roadway
eastward along the Bow River rounds to the rear of Mount Temple
and descends to a beautiful vale called the Valley of the Ten Peaks,
in the midst of which lies Moraine Lake, an emerald gem set in a
glacier crescent; for the Ten Peaks engirt one side of the lake like a
scimitar and between each pair of the peaks is fathomless snow, with
the ribboned green of a glacier hanging down to the valley bed. In
these waters the supply of trout is exhaustless. In the surrounding
valleys big game—goat, big-horn and bear—abounds. From Moraine
Lake trails lead to the summit of Wenkhemna Pass, and back to Lake
Louise by way of Sentinel Pass and Lake Annette, a small emerald
sheet of water on the side of Mount Temple. From this latter trail.
the Giant's Steps can be reached.
Northward from Lake Louise are the Slate and Waputik ranges, and
overtopping all, like the sky-line of a citadel, with white edging on
every rock, ledge and crest hidden in the clouds, is the great buttressed mass called Mount Hector, after Sir James Hector, of the
Palliser expedition in 1858, one of the first to explore the Rockies.
C.P.R. Spiral Tunnel The line fulls from HECTOR
Old line i —       distance 41 miles, grade  P3%>
New line:—- -      8 2     . 3>2%>
On.eld line 4 engines   could   haul 770 tons
On ,/ew line 2       •>        can -    980 ton$
Titer* are three new tunnels  '70 ft 2890ft & 3200ft long.
Me two longer being spiral, with a radius of 573 ft.
To enable visitors to climb and explore in safety, the Canadian Pacific Railway has brought from Switzerland a number of Alpine guides
of the highest class. One of these is always stationed at Lake Louise.
The others will be found at Field, Emerald Lake and Glacier. These
guides live with their families at the model Swiss village of "Edelweiss" established by the Canadian Pacific near Golden. The station
at the summit of the Rocky Mountains. Mt.
Stephen Alt. 5821 Stephen—one of the chief peaks of the Rockies
Hector "   5199 in this latitude—is named in honor of the first
President   of   the   Canadian Pacific Railway
Company. Here is the "Great Divide," and a sparkling stream separates into two the waters of one flowing to the Pacific and those of the
other to Hudson Bay.  At this point is seen the granite shaft erected
to the memory of Sir James Hector, discovered of the Kicking Horse
Pass, by which the Canadian Pacific Railway crosses the highest range
of the Rockies.   From here the line descends rapidly, passing the
beautiful Wapta Lake at Hector, and crossing the deep gorge of the
Kicking Horse River just beyond. The line clings to the mountain-side
at the left, and the valley on the right rapidly deepens until the river
is seen as a gleaming thread five or six hundred feet below.   Above is
a serrated sky-like whose craggy margin hides the glaciers and the
real summit of the range. Looking to the right, the Yoho, one of the
grandest mountain valleys in the world, stretches away to the
north, with great, white, glacier-bound peaks on either side.
Loooking forward to the right, the heights of Mount Field are
seen.  On the left the basilica-like spires of Cathedral Mountain loom against the sky, and just beyond is the duomolike
head of Mount Stephen.  On its shoulder is seen a vast, shining, green glacier, the forepart of this monster, which hangs
obliquely forward, measuring nearly a thousand feet in length
and its lower outer edge showing a vertical depth of almost a
Across   Canada
hundred feet. Here, too,
can be seen a silver-lead
mine on the mountain side,
2,500 feet above its base.
Coming from the east
the road first enters the
corkscrew tunnel of 3,200
feet, under Cathedral
Mountain. Emerging from
the tunnel twist the track
runs back east across the
Kicking Horse River, and
then enters the eastern
spiral tunnel of 2,910 feet
under Mount Ogden, and
after describing an elliptic
curve emerges to again
cross the Kicking Horse
westward. The whole
thing is a perfect maze,
the railway doubling back
upon itself twice, tunnelling under mountains and
crossing the river twice in
order to cut down the
Put in brief, the work
which has now been completed is as follows:—
Length of two tunnels,
1% miles; length of cutting outside of tunnels,
7 miles; increase in length of track, 4% miles; reduction in grade, from
4.5 to 2.2; approximate cost of work, $1,500,000; number of men employed, about 1,000, with complete outfit of steam equipment. Time
of work, twenty months, from October, 1907, to July, 1909; 75 carloads of dynamite were used, or upwards of 1,500,000 pounds of the
explosive.  The cost of explosives alone came to over $250,000.
This is not merely a great piece of tunnelling, but the first introduction of this spiral system of tunnels on this continent.
Field—Alt. 4,066 ft    Terminal Alberta Division. Trains leave Field
on Pacific time—one hour earlier than Mountain time.    (See
British Columbia Division.)
Emerald Lake Chalet
(British Columbia Division)
Field—Alt. 4,066 ft. At Field is fe charming hotel managed by the
railway company—the Mount Stephen Houses—not far from
the base of Mount Stephen and facing Mount Field. This is a favorite
stopping place for tourists, and the hotel has been recently enlarged
to meet the wants of increased travel. Field combines all possible
attractions for the mountain tourist. From here is reached that great
glacier field first seen northward from Lake Louise. There is excellent
fly-fishing for trout in the lakelets and streams near the village. Two
thousand five hundred feet up the right-hand slope of Mount Stephen,
along an easy bridle-path, is a wonlerful fossil bed, an area of 150
square yards, where the mountain-side has tumbled forward and disintegrated in a rockslide of shaly, shelving limestone slabs. These
slabs, which cover a large area beyond the chief patch, for the most
part consist of thin, laminated plates or layers. On a sharp knock the
layers separate, revealing countless fossil specimens, fern-like and :
perfectly marked, principally trilobites and agnostus. The summit is Annotated   Guide
only four or five thousand feet above the fossil beds, and offers a
splendid and exhilarating ascent to climbers with a steady head for
narrow ledges. Looking down the valley from the hotel, Mount Dennis
is seen on the left, and the Van Home Range on the right. The two
most prominent peaks of the latter are Mounts Deville and King, the
former on the right. Fossil beds are also found in the Van Home
Range. The Ottertail group with its sheer wall, snow caps and abrupt
declivities giving unexpected views at every turn, is particularly
attractive to the climber.
A road crossing the bridge of the Kicking Horse River, to the base
of Mount Burgess, leads through a forest of spruce and balsam to a
natural bridge of rock, under which the river pours in a cataract. Five
miles farther along the same trail is Emerald Lake, a lovely expanse
of green water nestling in the forest to the rear of Mount Burgess and
completely surrounded by lofty peaks, whose green ribboned glaciers
can be seen protruding from the rocky cirques of the upper slopes. A
chalet hotel offers excellent accommodation for tourists wishing to
spend some time at the lake, or to visit the great Yoho Valley which
lies beyond. An excellent trail has been cut round the end of the lake
and up the gravelly saddle of rock to the right, where one passes
through a forest into the very lap of the summits. A tarn lies in the
centre of this upland meadow, and the trail leads to its right-hand
margin into the gorge of the marvellous Takakkaw Falls. These wonderful falls are amongst the finest in the known world. An enormous
volume of seething, boiling water rushes over the precipice on the far
side of the narrow gorge and descends the rock side in clouds of foam,
a sheer drop of j?,200 feet. The Takakkaw Falls is one of the most
striking attractions in the mountains and oughtnotto be missed by any
tourist. Excellent camps are maintained here by the C.P.R. for the ac-
5commodation of tourists who wish to explore this wonderful region.
From the Yoho Pass there is a good trail to the Twin Falls past other
C. P. R. mountain camps.   These
Falls are of even greater interest
than the Takakkaw, owing to a
perpendicular drop of two vast
columns of water and the dense
clouds of stearclike spray caused
by their concussion with the rock
floor below.   This trail continues onto the Yoho Glacier,
and  a  further trail has been
constructed to the summit of
Yoho Peak.   The return
journey may be made via
the Takakkaw Falls and
the Yoho Valley,
the road swinging
around   shoulder
of Mount
Field and
Mount Stephen House, Canadian Pacific Hotel at Field Across   Canada
the Kicking Horse River to Field Village. An alternate route from
the Takakkaw Falls to Field is offered by the trail from Yoho Pass
through Burgess Pass. This is one of the prettiest trails in the vicinity
of Field, magnificent views of the President Range being obtained
from Mount Burgess. Another picturesque side trip from Field is that
along the old grade to the Ottertail Valley where a magnificent view
of the triple-headed Mount Goodsir may be had. The round trip dis-
trance by carriage over this road is 16 miles.
AU. 8967
1   8677
Two miles beyond Field,
very lofty, glacier bearing
heights are seen at the
north. The line follows
the Kicking Horse, whose
narrow valley divides the
Ottertail and Van Home
ranges. Mount Goodsir
(11,676 ft.), the highest of
the Ottertail group, is seen
from Ottertail Creek. The
Ottertail to the left
appears sheer and
pinnacled, with no amphitheatre among the
craggy heights, while the
Van Home to the right
are ochre colored in their
slopes and show an undulated succession of
trough and crest among
their summits. About a
mile away from the valley
bed of the Kicking Horse
River, at the base of the
Ottertails, is a strange field of rakish
looking "hoodoos," with pillars left
standing by the wash of mountain
torrent, with stones tilted at all sorts of tipsy
angles on their heads. The line, which has
gradually curved towards the south since crossing the summit at Stephen, runs due south from
here to Leanchoil, where the Beaverfoot River
comes in from the south and joins the Kicking-
Horse. At the left, the lofty peaks of the Ottertail Mountains, walled,
massive and castellated, rise abruptly to an immense height; and,
looking south, a magnificent range of peaks extend in orderly array
towards the southeast as far as the eye can reach. These are the
Beaverfoot Mountains, appearing to slope away from the railway. At
the right Mount Hunter, a long, gradual slope, pushes its huge mass
forward like a wedge between the Ottertail and Beaverfoot ranges.
The river turns abruptly- against its base and plunges into the lower
Kicking Horse canyon, down which it disputes the passage with the
railway. Near Palliser can be seen a group of hoodoos in process of
Palliser—Alt. 82288 ft.  The canyon rapidly deepens until, beyond
Palliser, the mountain sides become vertical, rising straight
up thousands of feet, in a bronze wall crested by a long line of unnamed
peaks, and within an easy stone's throw from wall to wall. Down this
vast chasm go the railway and the river together, the former crossing
from side to side to ledges cut out of the solid rock, and twisting and I
projecting angles of rock which seem to close the way.    With the j
towering cliffs almost shutting out the sunlight and the roar of the j
river and the train increased an hundredfold by the echoing walls,
turning in every direction, and every minute or two plunging through i
the passage of this terrible gorge will never be forgotten.
Twin Falls,
Yoho Valley .       £S25S£3£2   Indicates Double Track
Across   Canada
Glenogle  Alt. 8008     The train suddenly emerges into daylight as
Golden "   2578      Golden is reached.   The broad river ahead is
Moberly       "   2548     the     Columbia    moving     northward.       The
supremely beautiful mountains beyond to the
left and south are the Selkirks, rising from their forest clad bases and
lifting their ice-crowned heads far into the sky. They extend in an apparently unbroken Une from the southeast to
the northwest, gradually melting into the remote distance,
parallel with them and rising eastward, to the right and
the north from the Columbia, range upon range, are the
Rockies, only the loftiest peaks to be seen just now
over the massive benches upon which they rest.
Golden is a lumbering town upon the banks of the
Columbia, at the mouth of the Kicking Horse.
. Mountain
In order to facilitate the development of agriculture, fruit growing and mining in this valley, and
to encourage tourists to visit the beautiful district
round Lake Windermere, the Canadian Pacific has
recently completed the construction of the Kootenay
Central branch connecting Golden, on the main
line, with Fort Steele and Colvalli, on the Crow's
Nest Pass line, a distance of about 180 miles. The
automobile road which is being constructed by the
Canadian Pacific Railway in conjunction with the Federal and
Provincial Governments through the Vermillion Pass from Banff
will join the old Government road at Sinclair, over sixty miles up
the valley from Golden. With the slope of the Rockies on the left and
the wonderful panorama of the Selkirk Mountains on the right, this
newly opened valley offers to the tourist and the sportsman a virgin
route of marvellous beauty.   At various points irrigation companies
are supplying the water for apple-growing.   At Invermere, about a mile
from the station of Athalmer, there is a comfortable tourist hotel,
adjoining which there is a nine-hole golf course. Excellent sport may
be had in the canyons and creeks which run up on either side of the
valley—this being one of the most convenient ways of reaching the
great ice field which caps the Selkirks.   On Toby Creek, Earl Grey,
when Governor-General of Canada, erected a hunting lodge.
C.P Annotated   Guide
(Continued from Golden) !
From Golden to Donald the railway follows doWn the Columbia on the
|||ce of the lower bench of the Rocky Mountains, the Selkirks all the
way in full view opposite, the soft green streaks down their sides
indicating the paths of avalanctfgi. From the railway to the right of
the track, shortly after leaving Golden Station, can be seen the model
Swiss village of "Edelweiss," erected by the C. P. R. for its Swiss
guides. Heretofore the company's guides have always returned to
Switzerland at the end of each season, but now they remain in Canada
the whole year round. Moberly is the site of the oldest cabin in the
mountains, seen just to the left, where a Government engineering
party, under Mr. Walter Moberly, C.E., engaged in the preliminary
surveys of the railway
route, passed the winter of 1871-2.
Donald       Alt. 2574
Beavermouth  2430
Donald lies in the
shadow of the Selkirks.
Krom here the railway crosses the Columbia to the base
of the Selkirks, always wooded in
contrast to the
naked stone of the
Rockies. A little
further down, the
Rockies and Selkirks, crowded together, force the
river through a
deep, narrow gorge,
the railway clinging
to the slopes high
above it. Emerging from the gorge
at Beavermouth,
the most northerly
station of the transcontinental route, the line
soon turns abruptly to the
left and enters the Selkirks
through the Gate of the
Beaver River—a passage so
narrow that a felled tree
serves as a foot-bridge over
it—just where the river makes its final and mad plunge down to the
level of the Columbia. Here a natural bridge is seen across the boiling torrent.
A little, way up the Beaver the fine
crosses to the right bank, where, notched into the mountain side, it rises at the
rate of 116 feet to the mile, and the
river is soon left a hundred feet below,
appearing as a silver thread winding through the narrow and densely
forested valley. Opposite is a line of huge tree-clad hills, occasionally
showing snow-covered heads above the timber line. Nature has worked here on so gigantic a scale that many travellers fail to notice the
extraordinary height of the spruce, Douglas fir and cedar trees, which
seem to be engaged in a vain competition with the mountains themselves.  From Six Mile Creek one sees ahead up the Beaver valley, *
at Edelweiss,
Swiss Guides
Six Mile Creek Alt.
Cedar " 8170
Bear Creek        " .aSIIr
Across   Canada
long line of the higher peaks of the Selkirks, an echelon, culminating
in an exceedingly lofty pinnacle, named Sir Donald (10,808 ft.), which
is seen more closely at Glacier House. Again, from Mountain Creek
Bridge, a few miles beyond, where a powerful torrent comes down
from high mountains northward, the same view is obtained, nearer and
larger, and eight peaks can be counted in a grand array, the last of
which is Sir Donald leading the line. A little further on, Cedar Creek
is crossed and not far west of it is a very high bridge, spanning a
foaming cascade, whence one of the most beautiful prospects of the
whole journey is to be had. So impressed were the builders with the
charm of this magnificent picture of mountains that they named the
spot The Surprise. The principal difficulty in construction on this part
of the line was occasioned by the torrents, many of them in splendid
cascades, which come down through narrow gorges cut deeply into the
steep slopes along which the railway creeps. The greatest of all these
bridges crosses Stony Creek—a noisy rilL flowing in the bottom of a
narrow, V-shaped channel, 800 feet below the rails—one of the loftiest
railway bridges in the world. As Bear Creek station is approached, a
brief but precious glimpse is caught of Mount Tupper through a gap I
Rogers Pass
in the cliffs on the
right. This spot is
1,000 ft. above the
Beaver, whose upper valley can be seen penetrating   the   mountains southward for a long distance.
The line here leaves the
Beaver    and    turns    up
Bear   Creek   along   continuous grades  of 116 ft.
to the mile. Many of the difficulties of the railway from snow in the
winter occur between Bear Creek and the summit on the east and for a
similar distance on the-west slope of the Selkirks, and these have been
completely overcome by the construction, at vast expense, of sheds, or,
more properly, tunnels, of massive timber work.   These are built of
heavy squared cedar timber, dovetailed and bolted together, backed
with rock, and fitted into the mountain sides in such a manner as to
bid defiance to the most terrific avalanche. Beyond Stony Creek Bridge,,
the gorge of Bear Creek is compressed into a vast ravine between ML
Macdonald on the left and Mount Tupper on the right, forming a narrow portal to the amphitheatre of Rogers' Pass, at the summit.   The •
cowled figure of a man, with his dog, on the western edge of one of !
the crags, shapes itself out of the rocks, and gives the name of Hermit!
to the range. The way is between enormous precipices.  Mount Macdonald towers a mile above the railway in almost vertical height. Near
Glacier   the   Canadian   Pacific   Railway   has   constructed   a   double
track  tunnel  through  the   Selkirk  Range.   Out  of   compliment  to
H. R. H.  the  Duke of Connaught, five years Governor-General of
Canada, this has been named the Connaught Tunnel.    From portal
to  portal its centre line measures 26,400 feet, thereby exceeding by Annotated   Guide
Sir Donaid
three-fourths of a
mile the longest
existing tunnel in America.'
The method by which this
was pierced involved the
tunnelling of ,a pioneer bore
paralleling the centre line of
the main tunftel. The feature is new and the interest
of tunnel engineers has been
aroused the world over. The
large sum of money invested
is another indication of the
efforts being made by the
railway to eliminate grades
and snow troubles. The tunnel has reduced the maximum
length of the grade from
22.15 miles to 6.1 miles, the
maximum grade remaining
the same. It dispenses with four miles of snow sheds and reduces the
length of the line 4% miles. Its base is but a stone's throw distant, and
it is so sheer, so bare and stupendous, and yet so near, that one is
overawed by a sense of immensity and mighty grandeur. This is the
climax of mountain scenery. In passing before the face of this gigantic
precipice, the line clings to the base of Mount Tupper and as the station at Rogers' Pass is neared, its clustered spires, resembling in one
spot a line of heavily burdened camels, now known as "the Camels
Coming out of Egypt," appear, facing those of Mount Macdonald, and
nearly as high. Apparently these two matchless mountains were once
united, but ages ago some terrific convulsion of nature rent them asunder, leaving barely room for the railway.
Rogers' Pass—Alt. 4,802 ft. This pass was named after Major A. B.
Rogers, by whose adventurous energy it was discovered in 1881, previous to which no human foot had penetrated to the
summit of this great central range. The pass lies between two lines of
huge snow-clad peaks. That on the north forms a prodigious amphitheatre, under whose parapet, five or six thousand feet above the valley, half a do?en glaciers may be seen at once, and so near that their
shining green fissures are distinctly visible. -In this direction, at the
head of the largest glacier, may be seen a group of sharp serrated peaks,
clear cut against the sky. The tallest is Swiss Peak, so called in honor
of the members of the Swiss Alpine Club who first stood upon its highest pinnacle. The changing effects of light and shadow on this brotherhood of peaks, of which Tupper and Macdonald are among the,, chief,
can never be forgotten by the fortunate traveller who has seen the sunset or sunrise tinting their battlements, or has looked up from the green 70
Across   Canada
Present   line,   Beavermouth   to  Cambie,   and   new   line   made
by  the  tunnel.
valley at a snow-storm trailing its curtain along their crests with perchance a white peak or two standing serene above the harmless cloud.
On the south stretches the line of peaks connecting Macdonald with
Sir Donald, Uto, Eagle and Avalanche, from south to north—the
rear slopes of which were seen in ascending the Beaver. This pass
valley has been reserved by the Government as a national park.
Selkirk Summit—Alt. 4,351 ft. Summit of the pass. The mountains
to the right are: Tupper, the group of castellated
granite crags directly above the Pass; Hermit, a rounded height; the
Swiss Peaks, distinct from the peaks on each side by deeply notched
ravines; Rogers' Peak, sloping down a gradual sky-line to Sifton,
which is separated by a deep ravine from Grizzly, which in turn stands
opposite to the pyramidal heights of Cheops, a veritable Titan of this
group, with the profile of a hatted Napoleon plainly silhouetted against
that face of Cheops overlooking the vast glacial field of the whole
Hermit Range. On the crags of the Swiss Peaks a second cowled figure
with his inseparable dog can be seen as if a companion of his brother
on Mount Tupper; and looking out of the pass towards the west, and
over the deep valley of the lllecillewaet, is Ross Peak. Leaving the
summit, and curving to the left, the line follows the slope of the Axial
range, of which Sir Donald is the chief. At the right is the deep valley
of the lllecillewaet, which makes its way westward by a devious course
among numberless hoary-headed mountain monarchs, winding in leaps,
cascades, and falls betwixt forests of tropical luxuriance and clefts
worn through ancient morainal heaps. Directly ahead is the lllecillewaet Glacier of the Selkirks. Passing a long snowshed (not through it,
for an outer track is provided that the summer scenery may not be
lost) a sharp curve brings the train in front of the Illecillwaet Glacier,
which is now very near, at the left—a vast cascade of gleaming ice falling 4,500 ft. from the summit of the snow field
in which it has its source—one glacier of a group
of glaciers all together—the ice field, of which the
lllecillewaet is one of a number of outlets, <&&&
embracing an area of ten square miles. <^£*1|1|S
Glacier Hotel—Canadian  Pacific  Railway. Annotated   Guide
Glacier House—Alt. 4,086 ft. The station and hotel at Glacier are
within thirty minutes' walk of the lllecillewaet
Glacier, from which, at the left, Sir Donald (10,808 ft.) rises a naked
and abrupt pyramid, to a height of a mile and a uarter above the railway. This stately monduih was named after the late Sir Donald Smith
(Lord Strathcona), one of the promoters of the Canadian Pacific Railway. Farther to the left are sharp peaks—Uto, Eagle, Avalanche and
Macdonald—second only to Sir Donald. Rogers' Pass and the snowy
Hermit range, the most prominent peaks of which are called the Swiss
Peaks, are in full view. Again to the left, at the west end of the Hermit range, on the south side of Bear Creek, comes, Cheops, so named
after the Great Pyramid, the tomb of the.Pharoh Shufu (Cheops) who
lived about 3,700 B.C., and in the foreground, and far down among the
trees, the IUecillewaet glistens across the valley. Somewhat at the left
of Cheops the shoulders of Ross Peak are visible over the wooded slope
of the mauntain behind the hotel, which is called Abbott. Between Ross
and Abbott in the background is an enormous wall of snow. This is the
Mount Bonney Glacier. To the right of Ross, between Ross and Cheops,
a glimpse is caught of the Cougar Valley where are the wonderful
caves of Nakimu (Indian for Grumbling Caves). Turning again to face
the Great lllecillewaet Glacier a "V"-shaped valley is seen on the right
?lie Imperial
at Glacier
This is the valley of the Asulkan brook, a gem of mountain beauty,
where a series of white cascades foam through vistas of dark spruce
and fir, where falls leap from ledges above in clouds of flying spray,
and shining open meadows lead the traveller to listen for the tinkle of •
the Alpine herd. The peaks going from right to left are—Afton, the
sharp apex; the Rampart, an oblong wall; the Dome, a rounded rock;
Castor and Pollux, two sharp spires farthest south. To the left of the
Asulkan Glacier comes a forested dome, Glacier Crest, the western
boundary of the Great lllecillewaet Glacier, which is banked on the
other side by the lower slopes of Sir Donald, from whose summit an
immense number of glaciers can be seen. The hotel serves not only as a
dining station for passing trains, but affords a most delightful stopping place for tourists who wish to hunt, or explore the surrounding
mountains or glaciers. The Company has greatly enlarged the hotel to
accommodate the increasing number of tourists who are not satisfied
with the short stop made by train. Here in the heart of the Selkirks
every comfort and luxury are found, and here many gather annually to
spend the summer amidst the wonders of nature.   The lllecillewaet 72
Across   Canada
Glacier is exactly two miles away, and its slowly receding forefoot with
immense crevices of abysmal depth cutting across the crystal surface
is only a few hundred feet above the level of the C. P. R. hotel. To the
left of the Great Glacier and 3,000 feet above the hotel another view is
from the trail at the foot of Sir Donald. Easy trails also lead to Marion Lake. On Mount Abbott, 1,500 ft. above Glacier Hount, on Mount
Avalanche, is Cascade summer house, directly above the mountain torrent seen tumbling down the green shoulder from Avalanche Peak to
the head of the Asulkan Valley, where the ice flow of two main
branches of the glacier meet. Good routes have been also mapped by
the guides up Eagle and Sir Donald, the former being an easy climb.
This peak is so named from a large rock figure exactly resembling an
eagle which is perched upon the knife-sharp edge of the mountain. It
is seen to best advantage from the trail leading to Mount Avalanche.
The Asulkan Valley trail branches off from the main glacier trail about
a quarter of a mile from the hotel and crossing the Asulkan brook
climbs up the east side of the valley to the forefoot of the Asulkan
glacier, distant four miles from the hotel. The summit of the Selkirk
Range as crossed by the railway and the nearby village of Rogers Pass
(distance 4 miles), are reached from Glacier by another fine pony trail,
and from here the trail to Roger's Amphitheatre may be taken, where
is located a hut that may be used as a base for exploring and climbing
the neighboring peaks and glaciers. From Rogers Pass there is another
trail that follows along Bear Creek to Baloo Pass. From here is reached the famous Nakimu Caves, a series of natural caverns, with beautiful interior marble markings, situated on the lower slopes of Mount
Cheops, in the Cougar Valley. The return journey from the Caves to
the hotel may be made via a trail and carriage drive that follows the
lllecillewaet River. A glacial stream has been caught and furnishes
fountains about the hotel. Game is very abundant throughtout these
lofty ranges, whose summits are the home of the mountain goat.
Continuing the descent from the Glacier House, and following
around the mountain-side, the loop is soon reached, where the line
makes several startling turns and twists, first crossing a valley leading
down from the Mount Bonney glacier, touching for a moment on the
base of Ross Peak, then doubling back to the
right a mile or more upon Annotated   Guide
itself; then sweeping around
to the right, touching
Mount Cheops, on the other
side of the lllecillewaet,
crossing again to the left,
and at last shooting down
the Valley parallel with its
former course. Looking
back, the railway is seen
cutting two long gashes, one
above the other, on the
mountain slope, and further
to the left, and high above
the long snow-shed the
summit range, near Rogers'
Pass, is yet visible, with Sir
Donald overlooking all.
Ross Peak
AU. 8485
"   2707
The lllecillewaet River is
here of no great size, but,
of course, turbulent. Its
water is at first pea-green
with glacial mud, but
rapidly clarifies. About
Ross Peak station are many
silver mines penetrating the
crest of one of the lofty
hills north of th& railway,
and a series of interesting
caves have recently been
discovered about 2,000 feet
above the track.
These caves are
reached by an
excellent pony
trail and are exceedingly inter- ^
Albert Canyon—Alt. 2^21 ft. Just
east of the station
the train runs suddenly along the very
brink of several remarkably deep
fissures in the solid rock, whose walls
rise straight up, hundreds of feet on both sides, to wooded crags, above
which sharp, distant peaks cut the sky. The most striking of these
canyons is the Albert, where the river is seen nearly 150 ft. below the
railway, compressed into a boiling flume scarcely 20 ft. wide.
The lllecillewaet
Twin Butte—Alt. l£72ft. This station takes its name from the huge
double summit near by, now called Mounts Mackenzie
and Tilley. After passing the station, there looms up at the right the
conspicuous and beautiful range named Clachnacoodin. As the western
base of the Selkirks is approached, the narrow valley again becomes a
gorge, and the railway and river dispute the passage through a chasm
with vertical rocky walls, known as a box canyon, standing but ten
yards apart. The line suddenly emerges into a comparatively open,
level and forest-covered space, swings to the right and reaches Revelstoke, the northern gateway to the wonderful rich mining camps of
West Kootenay.
Revelstoke—A It. 1^92 ft. Population 8,600. On the Columbia
River—a railway divisional point and a gateway to the
great West Kootenay mining camps. The Hotel Revelstoke facing the
station has all modern conveniences. A fine tourist resort—fishing,
hunting, boating and mountain climbing can be enjoyed here.   On 74
Across   Canada
Mount Revelstoke, immediately north of the city, the Provincial and
Dominion Governments are now building a fine automobile road, 18
miles in length.   On the summit of this mountain is one of the most
beautiful Alpine parks to be found anywhere. A comfortable chalet has been
provided for the accommodation of tourists. The Columbia, which has made a
great detour around the northern extremity of the Selkirks, while the railway
has come directly across, is here much
larger than at Donald, from which it has
fallen 1,071 feet, and 28 miles below
Revelstoke expands into the Arrow lakes,
along which there is much beautiful country, and where the opportunities for sport
are unlimited. A steamer makes regular
trips of some forty miles up the river. It
is a most delightful trip by rail from
Revelstoke to Arrowhead and steamer
down the beautiful Arrow Lake to Nakusp
past the famous Halcyon Hot Springs, a
well-known resort, where there is an excellent hotel with villas. O p p o i t e
Halcyon is Halcyon Peak (10,400 ft.),
and there are pretty waterfalls near
the hotel. There are trails to different
points on the lake and to the mountain's crest. Game is plentiful, and
there is excellent boating and fishing.
Nakusp is near the foot of the upper
lake, on the moraine of an old glacier,
where rail communication is made
with Rosebery, on Slocan Lake (from
which the Canadian Pacific Railway
steamer Slocan runs to Slocan City at
the southern extremity of the lake, where there is rail connection with
the Lower Kootenay River) and with Sandon, in the very centre of the
rich Slocan silver mining regions. From West Robson, the Boundary
subdivision runs along the banks of the Lower Kootenay River, a
magnificent fishing water, to the picturesque city of Nelson, near where,
at Balfour, is located the Kootenay Lake Hotel of the Canadian Pacific
Railway. This hotel is situated in a district that offers many attractions
to the tourist. A motor launch licensed to carry sixty passengers will
run during the summer of 1916,inconnectionwith this hotel from Nelson.
The Balfour Hotel has
excellent tennis courts,
and   the    annual iP^vL'fc-^jjV-i^
tournament  there «-\s'-
attracts visitors from ^'#£Iz$?-
far and wide. A more ^<*i»
delightful place for a
brief or lengthy stay
will hardly be imagined.   The fishing in YM*Yf2iU0M
the vicinity is excellent,   big   game   is     Ms^s
plentiful,   and   the    S&pf
scenery   unexcelled.
There    is    another
Canadian Pacific    ."j'Ji
Railway Steamboat
service between Nelson (see page 102)
and   Kootenay   Landing,   making   connections with the   trains
of   the   Crow's   Nest
C.P.R. Steamer |_
on B.C. Lake Service KSHESESS   Indicates Double TYacic	
|L  ' mm
Across   Canada
Pass route at the latter place, and other steamers run regularly to the
numerous gold, silver and copper mines on the Kootenay Lake, affording opportunities for enjoying the magnificent lake and mountain
scenery of this picturesque locality. The Columbia River is bridged at
West Robson, and trains run through from Nelson to the great smelting centre of Trail, and to the town of Rossland, a mining camp of
phenomenal growth, the wealth of which has
been demonstrated by actual production.
Still another subdivision runs from West
Robson through the Boundary Country of
Midway (99 miles), and is opening up another very rich mineral region.
On the Columbia River, and the Arrow,
Slocan and Kootenay lakes is a steamship
service, operated by the Canadian Pacific
Railway Company, which is unsurpassed in
American waters. The steamers are speedy,
sumptuously appointed, and have all the advantages of modern construction.
Wapiti or Elk
Clanwilliam Alt. 1812
Three Valley " 1684
Craigellachie   " 1222
Resuming the journey on the main line, the two peaks southeast are
Mackenzie %nd Tilley. The mountains beyond are in the Gold or
Columbia range and the most prominent one of them in view, towards
the southwest, is Mount Begbie, imposing and glacier-studded.   The
Columbia is crossed, and the Gold range is
at once entered by Eagle Pass, which is
ao deep cut and direct that it seems to
have been purposely provided for the
railway, in compensation, perhaps, for
the enormous difficulties that had to be overcome in the Rockies and
Selkirks. Lofty mountains rise abruptly on each side throughout, and :
the pass is seldom more than a mile wide. The highest point reached
by the line in this pass is Summit Lake, 7 miles from, and only 400 ft.
above the Columbia. Four beautiful lakes—Summit, Victor, Three
Valley and Griffin—occur in close succession, each occupying the entire
width of the valley, and forcing the railway into the mountain sides.
The valley is filled throughout with a dense growth of immense trees—
spruce, Douglas fir, hemlock, cedar, balsam and many other varieties—
giants, all of them. Sawmills occur at intervals. At Craigellachie the
last spike was driven in the Canadian Pacific
Railway on Nov. 7, 1885—the rails from the east
and the west meeting here.  The Shuswap likes
Malakwa        Alt. 1210 th
Salmon Arm
centre of
one of
there is famous
sporting regions
on   the   line.
within    a    day
caribou    are
abundant ;|the
deer   shooting
south war d
within a reasonable distance is
very good,  and
on the lakes
sport in deep trolling for trout
during   the   proper   seasons.
The London Times has well
described   this   part   of   the
line:—"The Eagle River leads
'5us down to the Shuswap Lake,
"so  named  from  the   Indian
"tribe that lived on its banks
The Late Donald Smith (Lord Strathcd
driving the last splko at Craig-ellach
November 7, 1I»5 Annotated   Guide
"and who still have a 'reserve' there. This is a most remarkable body of
"water. It lies among the mountain ridges, and consequently extends its
"long narrow arms along,the intervening valleys like a huge octopus in
"half-a-dozen directions. These arms are many miles
"long, and vary from a few hundred yards to two or
"three miles in breadth, and their high, bold shores,
"fringed by the little narrow beach of sand and pebbles,
"with alternating bays and capes, give beautiful views.
"The railway crosses one of these arms by a drawbridge
"at Sicamous Narrows, and then goes for
"a long distance along the southern shores
"of the lake,  running  entirely around the
"end of the Salmon arm."   Sicamous is the
station for the mining and agricultural districts to the south, where there is a large
settlement.   An excellent  Canadian  Pacific
Ry. hotel here makes splendid headquarters
for those wishing to remain over to shoot,
fish  or make a daylight trip  through the
mountains.   There is excellent trout fishing
within a few minutes' paddle of the hotel,
between April 1st and July 1st, also Sep-
r. tember 15th and November 1st.  Small craft
fflJTare always obtainable.
A branch railway runs to Vernon and
Okanagan, at the head of Lake Okanagan, a
> magnificent sheet of water on which the Str.
Okanagan plies to Kelowna and to Penticton,
at the foot of the lake. Kelowna is a growing
3|\town of over 3y200 population. Tributary to
1 the town are some fifty thousand acres of
first-class fruit lands, much of which is under cultivation. Many thousand more acres
of land are being converted into fruit orchards in other Okanagan districts. As showing the adaptability of the soil it may be stated that a very good grade
of tobacco is grown commercially near Kelowna. At Penticton a
strong Land Company has purchased an extensive tract of land, which
it is rapidly irrigating and cultivating until to-day it has over 3,000
acres of the finest fruit lands in British Columbia producing_ rich returns each season. There is excellent hotel accommodation at Penticton
for travellers. The Hotel Incola is an ideal resort for any time of year
owing to the sunny, dry climate of the valley. Vernon is a charming
P.R. Hotel
B.C. mmm
Across   Canada
spot, and the whole country is a veritable earthly paradise. A short
distance east of Vernon is the Coldstream Estate", lately the property
of Lord Aberdeen, formerly Governor-General of Canada. It contains
some   13,000 acres of orchard land, a large part  of  which is in  a high
state of cultivation.
Further down the
lake are Peachland
and Summerland,
which are making
considerable progress as fruitgrowing centres.
Resumi ng the
t r a n s c ontinental
trip, a writer says:
"for 50 miles the
"line winds in and
"out the bending
"shores, while geese
"and ducks fly over
"the waters and
"light and shadow
"piay upon the
"opposite  banks.
Apple Blossom Time
"This lake with its bordering slopes gives a fine reminder of Scottish
"scenery. The railway in getting around it, leads at different and
"many times towards every one of the thirty-two points of the com-
"pass. Leaving the Salmon Arm of the Lake rather than go a cir-
"cuitous course around the mountains to reach the south-western arm
"the line strikes through the forest over the top of the intervening
"ridge (Notch Hill). We come out at some 550 feet elevation above
"this 'arm,' and get a magnificent view across the lake, its winding
"shores on both sides of the long and narrow sheet of water stretching\
"far on either hand, with high mountain
"ridges for the opoosite background. The
"line gradually runs down hill until it
"reaches the level of the water, but here it
"has passed the lake, which has narrowed
"into the south branch of the Thompson
"River. Then the valley broadens and the
"eye that has been so accustomed to rocks and roughness and the
"uninhabited desolation of the mountains is gladdened by the sight of
"grass, fenced fields, growing crops, haystacks, and good farm '
"houses on the level surface, while herds of cattle, sheep and horses
"roam over the valley and bordering hills in large numbers. This is
"a ranching country extending far into the mountain valleys west of
"the Gold Range on both sides of the railway, and is one of the
"garden spots of British Columbia. . . . The people are compara- '
"tively old settlers, having come in from the Pacific Coast, and it
"does one's heart good, after having passed the rude little cabins and
Notch Hill Alt. 1785
1146 Annotated   Guide
"huts of the plains and mountains, to see their neat and trim cot tages
"with the evidences of thrift that are all around."
Kamloops—Alt. Iyt51 feet. Pop. 5,500. Subdivisional point and
principal town in the Thompson River valley, begun
many years ago around a Hudson's Bay post. The north fork of the
Thompson comes down from the mountains 200 miles northward, and
here joins the main river. It is a beautiful spot, whose dry invigorating climate pre-eminently makes it a desirable resort for health and
pleasure and the abundance of whose furred, feathered, and finny
game adds to its charms for tourist and sportsman. The broad valleys intersect at right angles. There is a background of hills, and fine
groves line both banks of the streams. Steamboats are on the river,
and sawmills briskly at work give employment to a large number.
The triangular space between the rivers opposite Kamloops, is an
Indian reservation, overlooked by the stately Mount St. Paul. The
principal industries around Kamloops are cattle and horse raising
and fruit growing under irrigation. The latter industry is progressing very rapidly as this district is well adapted for all kinds of fruit
culture. This is the supply point for a large ranching and mineral
region southward, especially in the Nicola valleys and for the valley
of the North Thompson, a rapidly developing district rich in timber,
Hotel  Incola, Penticton,  Okanagan Valley
mineral and agricultural wealth. The mines being operated in the
immediate vicinity of the town are largely similar to those of Trail
Creek, principally gold and copper. The town operates its own
electric light and water plants and is at present developing hydroelectric power.
Tranquille—Alt. lis4.
Cherry Creek—Alt. U42. Just below Kamloops the Thompson
widens out into Kamloops Lake, a broad, beautiful
hill-girt sheet of water, along the south shore of which the railway runs
some twenty miles. Half-way a series of mountain spurs project into
the lake, and are pierced by numerous tunnels, one following the other
in close succession. At Savona the lake ends, the mountains draw near,
and the series of Thompson River canyons is entered, leading westward to the Fraser through marvellous scenery. Quick-silver mines of great value are
being operated in this locality. From here
to Port Moody, the nearest point on Pacific
tide, water, the railway was built by the
Government and transferred to the present
Company in 1886, At Walhachin there is the only commercial orchard
visible from the main line through which a mono rail system of some
ten mines is projected.   Ashcroft (pop. 600) has developed into a
Savona Alt. 1158
Walhachin " 1253
Ashcroft " 998
Spatsum       "    855 W$$t& .^>i%
Indicates Double Track
KAMLOOPS TO YALE Indicates Double Traok
Across   Canada
Spence's Bridge Alt. 768
Drynoch "  752
Thompson "  670
Gladwin "  745
busy town. There are extensive cattle ranches in the vicinity, and
considerable farming is done. Three miles beyond Ashcroft the hills
press close upon the Thompson River, which cuts it way through a
winding gorge of almost terrifying gloom and desolation, fitly named
the Black Canyon.
Opposite Spence's Bridge the old wagon
road up this valley to the Caribou gold
country may be seen; and the railway is here thrown over the mouth of
the Nicola River, whose valley to the
south is an important grazing and
ranching region into which the Kettle Valley Railway has been built to
Nicola, Merritt, Penticton, Midway, and so on to Nelson. See page 106.
ranching region into which the Kettle Valley Railway has been built
to Nicola, Merritt, Penticton, Midway, and so on to Nelson. See page—
Below this point the scenery becomes very striking and peculiar. The
train runs upon a sinuous ledge cut out of the bare hills on the irregular south side of the stream, where the headlands are penetrated by
tunnels, and the ravines spanned by lofty bridges, and the Thompson,
in the purity of a trout brook, whirls down its winding torrent path
as green as an emerald. Sometimes the banks are rounded cream-white
slopes; next, cliffs of richest yellow, streaked and dashed with maroon,
jut out; then masses of solid rust-red earth, suddenly followed by an
olive-green grass slope, or some white exposure. With this fantastic
coloration to which the brilliant emerald river opposes a striking contrast, and over which bends a sky of deepest violet, there is the additional interest of great height and breadth of prospect, and a constantly changing
grotesqueness of
form caused by the
wearing down of
rocks of unequal
hardness, by water,
and wind, into
towers, monuments
goblins and griffins.
The strange forms
and gaudy hues
of the rocks and
scantily herbaged
terraces impress
themselves mo s t
/Strongly on the
.memory. Five miles
heyond Drynoch,
-Nicomen, a little
mining town, is
seen, and on the
opposite bank of
the river gold was
first discovered in
British Columbia
in 1857. The moun-
' tains now draw toil gether again, and
the railway winds
along their face
^hundreds of feet
above the struggling river. This
is tne Thompson
...Canyon. The gorge
rapidly narrows
\and deepens, and
"the scenery becomes wild beyond
f yiyj&ifAyy *■'!■■
say Annotated   Guide
^s?||-§§ff?   ^J^~ description.   The
K^SMSSikE' frowning cliffs opposite
Iy^igp*p- are   mottled   and
g^ / streaked in many strik-
mm iQg colors, and now and
y then, through breaks in the high escarpment,
snowy peaks are seen
Lytton Alt. 687 glistening above the
Keefers " 555 clouds. At Lytton, a
small trading town, the
canyon suddenly widens to admit the Fraser, the chief river of the
pnnince, which comes down from the north between two great lines of
mountain peaks, and whose turbid flood soon absorbs the bright
green waters cf the Thompson. The railway now enters the canyon
of the united rivers, and the scene becomes even wilder than before.
Six miles Mow Lytton the train crosses the Fraser by a steel cantilever bridge, high abpve the water, plunges into a tunnel and shortly
emerges at Cisco. The line now follows the righ-hand side of the
canyon, with the river surging and swirling far below. The old Government road, built in the early '60's, and abandoned since the opening
of the railway, attracts attention all along the Fraser and Thompson
valleys. Usually twisting and turning about the cliffs, it sometimes
ventures down to the river's side, whence it is quickly driven by an
angry turn of the waters. Six miles below Kanaka, where it follows
the cliffs, opposite to the railway, it is forced to the height of a thousand feet above the river, and is pinned by seemingly slender sticks to
the face of a gigantic precipice. The canyon alternately widens and
narrows. Indians are at times seen on projecting rocks down at the
water's edge, spearing salmon or scooping them out with dip-nets,
and in sunny spots the salmon are drying on poles. Chinamen are
noticed on the occasional sand or gravel bars washing for gold; and
' irregular Indian farms or villages alternate with the groups of huts
i of the Chinese. 84
Across   Canada
North Bend
North Bend
Alt. 487   divisional
"   895    North Bend (a
point)   is  a
desirable  and  delightful
stopping-place for tourists
who wish to see more of
the Fraser Canyon than is
possible from the
trains.   At Boston   Bar, a few
miles      below,
where mining
operations   are
carried on, the
principal canyon
of    the    Fraser
commences, and
from here   to
Yale, 23 miles, the scenery is not only intensely interesting, but startling. It has been well described as "matchless." The great river is
forced between vertical walls of black rocks, where, repeatedly thrown
back upon itself by opposing cliffs, or broken by ponderous masses of
fallen rock, it madly foams and roars. Ten miles below North Bend is
Hell Gate, near which a projecting narrow rock is called Lady Duffer-
in's Walk. The railway is cut into cliffs 200 feet or more above, and
the jutting spurs of rock are pierced by tunnels in close succession.
Ten miles below Spuzzum the enormous cliffs apparently shut together
and seem to bar the way. The river makes an abrupt turn to the left,
and the railway, turning to the right, disappears in-
Yale Alt. 215 ing the river at Yale. Yale is at the head of naviga-
Kaig " 209 to a long tunnel, emerging into daylight and rejoin-
tion and was formerly an outfitting point for miners
and ranchmen northward. It occupies a bench above the river in a deep
cul de sac in the mountains, which arise abruptly and to a great height
on all sides. Across the river from Hope is the village of the same I
name—a mining town and trading post, whence trails lead over the
mountains in different directions. Southwestward may be seen Hope
Peaks, where great bodies of siver ore are exposed, and only await '•
suitable fuel to be worked profitably. Below Hope is the bottomless
Devil's Lake. Hope is also the junction of the Kettle Valley Line,
which runs from Nelson and Midway and through the Okanagan dis- :
trict. The canyon widens out and is soon succeeded by a broad, level
valley with rich soil and heavy timber. The rude Indian farms give •
place to broad, well-cultivated fields, which become more and more
frequent, and vegetation of all kinds rapidly increases in luxuriance ;'
as the Pacific is approached.
Ruby Creek is named from the garnets found
Ruby Creek A It. 96    in the
Agassiz "   54     vicinity.
At Agassiz, overlooked by Mount Cheam,
is  a  Government experimental
farm where fruit and grain are
grown in great variety. Agassiz
is   the   station   for    Harrison
Springs (hot sulphur), on Harrison   Lake,   five
miles north.
These springs
are   famed   for
their curative
properties,   and
are   visited   by
Harrison Hot Spring's Annotated   Guide
Hell Gate
invalids from everywhere on the Pacific Coast.   The St. Alice hotel
affords accommodation, and the country about is most interesting. At
Harrison Mills the Harrison River is just
Harrison Mills Alt.40 crossed above its confluence with the Fraser,
Nicomen "  25     where steamer is taken for the Chilliwack
District. The steamer " Vedder" operates be-
tween Harrison Mills Station and Chilliwack Wharf. Chilliwack Valley
is situated on the south side of the Fraser River opposite to Harrison
Mills Station, and comprises over 55,000 arces of rich agricultural land
and is famed for dairying, mixed farming and fruit growing. Two of
the finest equipped creameries in the Dominion are operating at Chilliwack, producing over one-half million pounds of butter annually, also
the largest fruit canning company in the country is now in operation
there. The city of Chilliwack has a population of 2,000 inhabitants,
and has the advantages of city water, telephones and electric light.
Until the opening of the Fraser River route, in 1864, the only access to
the northern interior of the province was by way of the Harrison Valley. A few miles beyond Nicomen, Mount Baker comes into view on
the left, fifty miles away—in the State of Washington—a beautiful
isolated cone, rising 14,000 feet above the railway level. From Mission
a subdivision crosses the Fraser River and
runs to the international boundary where rail
connection is made with the Northern Pacific
Railway for Seattle, Tacoma, Portland, and
all Oregon and California points. This line
•gives through connection for all the prominent points on Puget Sound, and for Portland and San Francisco.
Eight miles beyond, at the crossing of the Stave River, the finest view
of Mount Baker is had, looking back and up the Fraser, which has now
become a smooth and mighty river. The celebrated Pitt Meadows are
traversed, and a couple of miles before reaching Westminster Junction the Pitt River is crossed. Immense trees are now frequent, and
their size is indicated by the enormous stumps near the railway.
A subdivision diverges here to the
Westminster Junc. Alt. 28 important city of Westminster, on
(Westminster) "  12    the Fraser River, nine miles distant.
Pop. 17,500.
The town is the headquarters of the
salmon canning industry, which is represented by a dozen or more
extensive establishments.   It has also large sawmills (the product of
Alt. 21
"  16
"   19
"  21 , 1
Across   Canada
which is shipped largely to China, South America, Africa, Europe, and
Australia), and the Provincial Asylum and Penitentiary are located
here.   Steamers ply regularly to Victoria.
Pont MnnHv Alt 1% ^0T^- Moody, at the head of Burrard Inlet,
Bannett "16     was ^or a ^me the terminus of the railway,
u     ,. „   a.     From here to Vancouver the railway follows
nastings ^    the south shorc of the inlet and the outlook
is most delightful. Snow-tipped mountains, beautiful in form and color,
rise opposite, and are vividly reflected in the mirror-like waters of the
deep-et inlet. At intervals along the heavily wooded shores are mills
with villages around them, and with ocean steamships and sailing craft
loading with sawn timber for all parts of the world; on the other hand,
and towering high above, are gigantic trees, twenty, thirty and even
forty feet around. Passing Hastings, formerly a watering place, the
young city of Vancouver soon appears.
Vancouver—Pop. 207,000. The Pacific terminus of the railway, and
the location of one of its palatial hotels—the Vancouver.
The nearest ocean port to the great wheat lands. Until May, 1886, its
site was covered with a dense forest. From May to July its growth
was most rapid, but in July a fire, spreading from the surrounding
forest, swept away every house but one in the place, and, with this one
exception, every building now seen has been erected since that time.
The situation is most perfect as regards picturesqueness, natural
drainage, harbor f acilities and commercial advantages. It has extensive
wharves and warehouses, many hotels, churches, schools, etc., all of
the most modern character. Many of the city's buildings are of brick
and granite, and its private residences would do credit to cities of a
century's growth. It has many miles of asphalt streets and cement
sidewalks, is lighted both by gas and by electricity, and it has an electric street railway. The city's sewage system is second to none, while
an ample supply of pure water is provided by means of pipes laid
under the Inlet from a mountain stream opposite. Besides its magnificent and well-known hotel the Canadian Pacific has a large station
and offices in the city and it is a remarkable tribute to the growth of
both the city and the railway that large extensions have been made to
these edifices. There is a regular steamship service to Victoria,
Nanaimo, and San Francisco, to China and Japan, to Sydney, Australia, via Honolulu, one of the principal points of departure on the
coast for the Yukon, Cape Nome and other northern gold fields, and
an outfitting headquarters for miners and prospectors. The Canadian
Pacific Ocean Services, whose steamships are the finest vessels on the
Pacific, takes the shortest, safest and most pleasant route to the
Orient. Two magnificent new steamships have been added to this service. These are the "Empress of Russia" and the "Empress of Asia."
They are the fastest and most luxurious boats on the Pacific. Each
equipped with pretty cabins and public rooms, with a verandah cafe,
gymnasium and laundry, with a gay Filipkio band and the perfect
service of China boys, these vessels make the voyage between the
Orient and the American Continent one of the most delightful in the
world. The Far East is now brought near and Vancouver touches
the finger tips of dainty little Japan.
A large proportion of the silk trade passes through the port of
Vancouver, and the Canadian Pacific "Silk Train" is perhaps the most
famous freight train in the world.
The country south, towards the Fraser, has fine farms, and is adapted to fruit growing. The railway running from Vancouver to Steveston intersects this district and gives access to the salmon canneries at
the mouth of the Fraser River. The coal supply comes from Nanaimo,
Vanoouver from I Annotated   Guide
mSSBmwSkm& BBi
New Canadian Pacific Hotel at Vancouver
directly across the Strait of Georgia, and almost within sight. The
scenery all about is magnificent —the Cascade Mountains near at hand
at the north; the mountains of Vancouver Island across the water at
the west; the Olympics at the southwest; and Mount Baker looming
up at the southeast. Stanley Park is a magnificent public pleasure
resort. Opportunities for sport are unlimited at no great distance—
mountain goats, bear and deer in the hills along the Inlet; trout-fishing
in endless variety; and Capilano Canyon, a few miles across the Narrows, affords a pleasant outing. A stay of a week at Vancouver will be
well rewarded. A splendid Canadian Pacific Railway steamship connects with Victoria three times daily, a ferriage of about four hours
through a beautiful archipeligo. The "Princess" steamships are the
fleetest boats on the Pacific Coast Service, and are known among
steamship men as being the first Canadian boats to adopt oil for fuel
Victoria—Pop. 50,000. Capital of British Columbia, charmingly
situated at the southern extremity of Vancouver Island,
overlooking the Straits of Fuca to the Pacific, and beyond the Gulf of
Georgia, the mainland. Across the strait are the beautiful Olympic
Mountains, and far away to the east the white cone of Mount Baker is
conspicuous. The climate is similar to that of the south of England.
Besides the magnificent Government buildings, which rank amongst the
most handsome in America, the city has many fine public and private
structures, and the Canadian Pacific Railway has erected its palatial
Empress Hotel, so popular that it recently had to be enlarged. Beacon
Hill Park affords a fine view of the waters and the mountains on every
side. The city has an extensive trade, and many large commercial
houses, which do a very large outfitting trade for the Yukon. The
Chinese quarter is always interesting to visitors. The Esquimalt &
Nanaimo Railway extends north-easterly 139 miles to the great coal
the Water Front
BIHMlMlilllllKlM: 88
Across   Canada
Parliament Buildings, Victoria,3.C.
mines at Nanaimo, Port Alberni, the nearest Canadian port
to the Orient with Transcontinental connection and Courtenay,
passing through a fruitgrowing and f arm-
f ing as well as very
pretty country in
which are several
pleasant summer
resorts near which
good shooting and
fishing are obtainable. A large number of English folks
have settled in the
neigh borhood of
Duncan's where the
delightful climate
and fertile soil are
such as to combine
pleasure with proft. Many people who have achieved independence
have taken up residence at other points along during the past few
years. A very delightful Chalet Hotel is operated by the Esquimalt
& Nanaimo Railway at Cameron Lake. Steamboats afford connections with Vaneouver and British Columbia mainland, and with
Puget Sound ports, and steamships depart about every five days for
San Francisco, connecting there for Southern California, Mexico and
South American west-coast ports. Steamers from and to Vancouver
for Japan, the Hawaiian and Fijian Islands, and Australia stop at
Victoria, many tourists taking the steamer at this port, and there are
regular sailings for Alaskan points, both for tourists visiting the
wonderful fiords of the north coast, and those intending to explore
the great gold belt of the Yukon. Esquimalt Harbor, two miles from
Victoria, was formerly the British naval station and rendezvous on
the North Pacific, with naval storehouses, workshops, graving docks,
etc. This old association has attracted many ex-naval officers to
retire for their declining years to Victoria. While they were stationed
at Esquimalt they were captivated by the magic of that perfect
climate and by the fragrance of the lovely gardens which make
Victoria the Rose of the Pacific.
Seattle—Pop.  SOO,000.   Reached by the splendid Princess steamships of the Canadian Pacific Railway.   A beautiful and
progressive city which is attracting many visitors to this section of
the Pacific Coast.
C. P. U. Empress Hotel, Victoria, E.G. Indicates Double Track
Across   Canada
Canadian  Pacific   Steamer Princess  Charlotte
■fn      in ■!■■   i n ■■  u
_,,,—_„|—~0B—•.,»—.<-— «»—-«.—«»—-«>-—II—-II—■««——»»-"-«••"—'>-—™*---"4'.
An extensive steamship coast service is provided in connection with
the Canadian Pacific Railway. From Vancouver steamers ply daily
to Victoria; to Nanaimo daily. Also at regular intervals to Northern
British Columbia ports, west coast of Vancouver Island, and to
Skagway, Alaska, where connection is made with the White Pass and
Yukon Route during the summer season for Dawson, Atlin and other
Yukon points.
From Victoria, steamers depart daily for Puget Sound ports and
every Wednesday for San Francisco. Steamers from both Vancouver
and Victoria to Puget Sound make connection at Seattle with trains
for Portland, Ore., San Francisco and Southern California.
The Canadian Pacific "Princess" steamers for Alaska usually leave
Vancouver late at night, and when the traveller wakes the next morning he finds that the enchanting beauties of the trip have commenced.
It is usually shortly after breakfast that the steamer enters the famous Seymour Narrows, one of the swiftest passageways on this coast.
Here the waters narrow and rush through a rocky and tree-clad passage.
From here the course is through chain after chain of smooth waters
dotted with myriad islands of all sizes and shapes.
Mid-afternoon brings the first stopping place,
which is Alert Bay. This quaint Indian village
is   full   of   interest   to   the
tourist    and    the    steamer
always stops long enough to
allow passengers to properly
see the sights.  It has a mission  settlement,
a good hospital
and  a  cannery.
Every house his
its   totem   pole,
some   of   which
rise to a height
Across   Canada
Here may be seen the cedar lodges of the Kwaukiutis, an entire fleet
of Indian war-canoes, and the most complete collection of totem poles
to be found anywhere on the whole Pacific Coast.
Queen Charlotte Sound is reached at early evening, and if the
heavens are clear, a sunset of rare beauty will be viewed. This three-
hour ride across the Sound is all the open water that is experienced
upon the entire trip. Whales and porpoises are frequently seen. To
the northwest the dim outlines of the Queen Charlotte Islands may
be seen.
Soon Rivers Inlet is passed, with its many canneries and fleets of
fishing boats. Farther on are Namu, with more canneries, and Bella
Bella, on Campbell Island, where an Indian village and an interesting
mission are situated. Through Lama Passage the vessel finds its way
and into Milbank Sound, where the channel is very wide, and the
islands quite distant. During the night the ship passes through Finlayson Channel and early next morning a stop is made at Swanson
Bay, a tree-bound place, in the heart of which is situated an immense
mill for the manufacture of lumber and sulphite pulp.
Out into the channel the "Princess" steamer again finds it way, and
for most of a day plows steadily northward without stopping. Granville Channel, Douglas Channel and then Lowe Inlet, with its settlement lying close to the foot of a mountain, is reached. Late afternoon
brings the vessel to the mouth of the Skeena River, where a large fleet
of salmon boats are usually encountered. The Skeena is at present
navigable for 180 miles, and powerfully built stern-wheel boats leave
y- y
Juneau, Alaska
every few- days for the interior.   Up the river about three miles is
Port Essington.   It is not a very long run from Port Essington to
Prince Rupert, the terminus of one of the Canadian transcontinental I
railway lines. The ship usually leaves Prince Rupert in the very early ;
morning, and Port Simpson is soon passed.   This town is historic
in its interests, it being the first of the northern settlements estab- ;
lished by the Hudson's Bay Company.    The old post used by the
company is still there, though in active times ft was enclosed in a
stockade fortress with guns in the bastions.
After Port Simpson the liner passes Cape Fox just as it emerges
from Chatham Sound. This Cape is the extreme southeastern point of
Alaska. Dixon Entrance is now passed and again the islands stand at
a distance. Soon the boat proceeds up Revilla Gigedo Channel, and
from there into the almost landlocked Tongas Narrows.
After that, Ketchikan, the port of entry, is soon reached and the
traveller steps onto Alaskan territory for the first time. This is a busy I
town, as it is the outlet for an extensive copper mining district ands
has an assay office. The "Princess" liners always stop here to allow the 3
passengers to look over the town.    The Indian women, with their
woven baskets, are among the odd sights to be seen.  Splendid speci-*
mens  of  basket  weaving  may   be   obtained here.    After   leaving;)
Ketchikan, the ship finds its way into Clarence Strait passing en route!
Prince of Wales Island on the left, and Etolin and Zarembo islands
on the right. Annotated   Guide
The steamer usually arrives at Wrangell Narrows in the evening,
but as the land of the Midnight Sun knows no darkness in the summer
months, daylight is always at hand to show the way. The passage
through Wrangell Narrows is one of the most interesting of the entire
trip. The channel is tortuous and very narrow. Half-speed is ordered
and the vessel glides unharmed past jutting rocks which lie close to
the mirrored surface of the waters. Wonderful shadows are on every
side. At the very end of the Narrows, a mammoth mountain confronts
the ship. A sharp turn to the right, and the ship slides into a wide
channel called Frederick Sound. Here one obtains the first glimpse
of the glaciers. The Baird and the Patterson are the two most important glaciers in this district.
Stephen's Passage is now entered. The Sumdum glacier can be
easily seen while going through this passage. At the head of Stephen's
Passage is Taku Bay, from which the wonderful Foster glacier may
be seen. This monster is over one hundred miles long and extends over
that distance to Atlin Lake in the Yukon Territory. It is nearly a
mile wide on Taku Bay. To the left of Foster glacier lies Windom
glacier. All about the ship are ice floes and bergs of every description
from tiny cakes to large icebergs whose colors are nothing short of
wonderful. The "Princess" steamships usually make a call at Taku
Harbour to view the glacier, either on the north or southbound trips
during the tourist season.
Shortly after entering; Gastineau Channel, a sight of Treadwell, the
famous gold mining place, is obtained. Here are located the largest
quartz mills in the world, there being 900 stamps in operation day
and night. Near Treadwell is Douglas Island, the residential district
for the mining town. Across the channel from Douglas is Juneau,
which nestles importantly under the shelter of its mammoth mountain
and takes life easy. It is an up-to-date place, having the capitol
buildings.   Ample time is given to inspect the town.
The ship's course rounds towards the narrow waters of the Lynn
Canal after leaving Juneau, and an all-day journey in a straight-away
northern direction is taken. Famous glaciers come into view from
time to time, the most noted of which is the Davidson, which in the
last few years has become inactive.
Late afternoon brings the now deserted town of Dyea into sight,
and the only bend in the entire canal brings Skagway, the head port
of navigation, into view. The White Pass Yukon Railroad has its
southern terminus at this place.
Skagway is surrounded by monstrous snow-capped mountains which
seem ready to drop over and cover up trie town. As a tourist resort
it offers an endless program of attractions. Side trips in every direction are possible, while fishing of all kinds, and glacier inspecting and
plenty of mountain climbing are special things in which the tourist
may indulge. The "Princess" steamers remain long enough at Skagway to allow passengers to make the round trip to the summit of the
White Pass by the White Pass & Yukon Railroad. And if a sufficient
number of people want to go, they will remain while the trip as far
as White Horse is made.
This water journey occupies about eight days and is at once one of
the most delightful and comfortably accomplished trips that can be
imagined. The scenery is ever-changing and has the added advantage
of being a salt-water voyage over waters as calm as an inland lake.
It is really one of the finest trips in the world, and, as compared with
other journeys, is the most reasonable in price that has yet been
arranged. 94
Across   Canada
Prairie Scene in Southern Alberta
Dunmore and Kootenay Landing: 392 miles
(Alberta Division)
St. Pau!
Moose Jaw
St. Paul and Minneapolis, the Twin Cities
Alt. 704 of the Western States, politically two
" 825 municipal corporations, but in substance
" 1766 one large community of over half-a-
million population, are the social and
commercial centres of the Middle States. St. Paul is the capital of the
State of Minnesota and the terminus of nearly all the railway lines in
the Western States. From St. Paul to Moose Jaw, the train rushes
through the lakey way and a panoramic view of lakes, rivers, forests
and farms, etc., is obtained which will not be easily effaced from the
traveller's memory. Glenwood, Hankinson and Minot are flourishing
towns passed en route. At Moose Jaw the main line of the Canadian
Pacific is reached and followed to Dunmore.
From Dunmore the Crow's Nest Pass
Branch runs nearly due west (south of
the main line of the Canadian Pacific
Railway) to the mining regions of the
Kootenay, providing the shortest route
to the rich farming districts of Southern
Alberta and the gold and silver-lead
mines of Southern British Columbia. The
completion of this road is notable from
an engineering standpoint, for the celerity
of construction and the skill shown in
overcoming serious obstacles.
Lethbridge. Population 11,070. Altitude
2,976 ft. Lethbridare is a growing manufacturing and distributing centre. Tt has
a municipally owned street Tailwav system, and an up-to-date fire brigade and
police department. Located in the city
are churches, schools, lodges of fraternal societies, hospitals, theatres,
business houses and homes, as are usually found, $60,000 Y. M. C. A.
building, two dailv newspapers, nine banks, pay roll of over 8200,000
a month, flour mills.and elevators. There are seven large coal mines
within five miles of the city. Surrounding the city is a rich agricultural area, including a large irrigation enterprise. Railway facilities
are exceedingly good. Tt is expected that within a year Lethbridge
will be producing 7,000 tons of coal daily from seven mines.
Medicine Hat \
Bull's Head
Seven Persons
Winn If red
Bow Island
Grassy Lake
Purple Springs
2976 ■Hi
Annotated   Guide
West of Lethbridge there has been completed by the Canadian
Pacific Railway one of the most gigantic engineering works in Canada,
the bridging of the Belly River and the Old Man River, replacing
twenty wooden bridges by two immense steel viaducts, one 5,327.6 feet
in length with a maximum height of 314 feet above the river, and the
other 1,900 feet in length with a height of 146 feet above the bed of
the river. The cost of this work exceeded two million dollars. The
former is one of the notable steel structures of the world. It required
645 cars to transport the steel used in the construction of these viaducts, and nearly two thousand cars of material were used in the
building of these mammoth permanent structures.
This and other important improvements prove the policy of the Canadian Pacific to spare no expense to make its line the best in the world.
Kipp—Alt. 8,046 ft.   Is an old Indian trading place at the confluence
of the Belly and St. Mary rivers, and the scene of many a
conflict between the early white traders and the Indians.
Monarch—Alt. 8,093 ft.  Is another old trading post.  From it on a
clear day a view is obtained of the Rockies, the souare-
topped giant to the left, almost fifty miles away, being the "Chief,"
which lies partly in Canada and partly in the United States.
Pearce Alt. 8090 Macleod, Population 8,000. Situated on the
Macleod | 8103 Old Man River. 100 miles from Calgary and
40 miles from Lethbridge. It is one of the
most prosperous towns of Southern Alberta and has made remarkable
progress during the last twelve months. It is a distributing point for
the Crow's Nest Pass, no less than 3,000 carloads of produce for this
section of the province being handled weekly. Macleod is becoming
a railway and manufacturing centre. Macleod is the headquarters
for the Royal North West Mounted Police of South Alberta, and a
visit to the barracks is always interesting. In 1912 Macleod had the
low.'st i:;x rile in "-lie Dominion—seven mills. The single tax is in
. existence here end ihe muaicipality owns its own town site and controls its public utilities.
Following up the Old Man River the railway
Pelgan Alt. SSll passes to the south of the Porcupine Hills,
Chokio " 8422    between which and the Livingstone range of
Brocket " 8801 the Rockies there is an ideal ranching country,
Pincher       " 8761     evidenced by the thousands of sleek cattle
seen feeding on the nutritious grass which
everywhere covers the prairie. Westward from Macleod the Rocky
Mountains are almost continuously in view, rising sharp and clear out
of the western horizon, while the intervening country is a panorama of
undulating plain—Victoria Peaktothe south standing out in bold prominence, and beyond it Castle Mountain, one of the grandest in the entire
range. As the mountains are approached the earth's surface becomes
seamed with the numerous streams, small and large, which flow towards the Saskatchewan from their source amidst the enternal snows
of the Rockies. Tn all the streams trout of various kinds abound, from
the small, speckle species to the 20-lb. bull trout. Waterfowl, prairie 96
Across   Canada
Lundbreck Alt. 8910
Hillcrest       " 4114
chicken and the various other kind of grouse are plentiful, while further on in the mountains the more venturesome sportsmen can gratify
their ambition amongst the grizzly and black bear, elk, mountain sheep
and mountain goat. About six miles after leaving Macleod, a row of
large boulders placed in a direct fine mark the existence of a glacial
age, these having been evidently brought here by some prehistoric icefield. Four miles east of Pincher (pop. 1,250), Pincher Creek is crossed
on a bridge 800 feet long. In a valley to the right is the Indian Industrial School, where a large number of aboriginal youths are being educated and instructed in the various trades of the white man. The
thriving town of Pincher Creek lies to the south of the railway.
Cowley—Alt. 8,834 ft Is situated two miles west of the south branch
of the Old Man Biver, which is crossed on a splendidly
constructed bridge. To the right lies Massacre Butte, where a good
many years ago a party of German prospectors were butchered by
Indians, only one young girl being saved from torture. Now, of
course, it is settled with peaceful farmers.
At the crossing of the Middle Fork a glimpse
is caught of a pretty little fall, where the
waters of the river tumble and foam over a
crescent-shaped precipice on their way to
join the Old Man River. From here to Crowsnest Lake, the railway
follows the valley of the Middle Fork which narrows into deep canyons
and again broadens. Coal underlies a large portion of this region and
is seen cropping out in many places, at some of which mining operations
are being carried on. The mountains seem to have suddenly grown
nearer and rise abruptly in great masses on either side, forming an
apparently impassable barrier. "The Gap," however, provides an entrance and the train swings into this narrow defile between almost vertical walls, that on the south being the base of the Turtle Mountain,
whose flat, turtle-like proportions can be seen silhouetted against the
sky for many miles easterly. Frank (pop. 1,000) is the name of a new
coal mining town which has grown rapidly. Passing the cold sulphur
springs, which are visited by many for the curative properties of the
waters, Blairmore is reached. Looking to
the northwest the first view of Crows's Nest
Mountain is seen, a circular monolith with
its base deeply tinted in purple and green
and crowned and capped in a shimmering,
dazzling mass of snow and ice. It dominates the entire region, and
seemingly at its base are seven distinct pillars as if guarding the mother
mountain. Ten miles westward is the Crowsnest Lake (alt. 4,890 ft.),
a beautiful sheet of water, alive with trout. While it is frequently
calm on this lake, it is often described as the birthplace of the wind
which blows across the prairies. About half way up this lake isthesource
of the Old Man River, which flows out of a hole in the side os Sentinel
Mountain into the lake. This cave can be entered for some distance,
and the stream is supposed to be fed through a subterranean channel.
The scenery along the lake is continually shifting and changing, always
grand and always the reverse of monotonous. Leaving Crowsnest
Lake the line follows the shore of Island Lake (alt 4,409 ft.), which
might readily be taken for a huge mirror, so clear are its waters, land-
Fran k Alt. 4205
Blairmore " 4^8
Coleman "  4805
Sentry | 44W
Lethbridge Viaduct ndicates Double Track
Across   Canada
Crowsnest Mountain
locked on every side,
Immediately to the
west of the lake the
summit of the Rockies
is reached, the elevation being 4,427
feet, and here the traveller crosses
the dividing line between Alberta
and  British  Columbia, where  the
mountain   streams   flow   in   both
directions, to find its way either into the Saskatchewan and into Hudson Bay or into the Kootenay and Columbia rivers and the Pacific.
Crowsnest—Alt.4A44ft- After passing Summit Lake the railway
descends the valley of Michel Creek, and threads its way
along the steep side hill of the mountain, which towers far above to the
left, while to the right, hundreds of feet below, the Michel is seen like
a thin silver thread, winding and twisting in and out as it hurries along
to join the Elk River. Then comes the "Loop," where the line makes
some amazing turns and twists until finally, after turning up and
crossing the south branch of the Michel, it doubles back to within a
stone's throw of itself, and by looking upwards one can clearly discern
the railway cutting a long gash in the mountain directly overhead.
Three miles ara covered to make this distance of less than 200 feet.
Loop—As the train swings off to the west again, huge, rugged mountains appear on all sides, jagged and naked, their frowning
sides and lofty peaks scarred and seamed, but they are easily circled.
Coal again appears cropping out beyond the Loop.
Alt. 4J.58 ft. At Michel, the junction of
Michel Creek with the Elk River, the line
turns southward and follows the valley
of the Elk River, which can be seen from
the car windows, tearing and foaming
along as though joining in a mad, merry
race against the train. Elk River is one of the largest of the mountain rivers, and in high water presents a formidable and grand appearance.   The Elk River is followed to Fernie.
Fernie—Population 8J306. Is a thriving town in the heart of the
Crow's Nest district. The annual output of the Fernie mine
totals one million tons. There are seven hundred coke ovens in operation at this point. The town is the wholesale distributing point for a
large district east and south and is the outfitting point for parties
going into the Bull River country and Flat Head Valley, now easily
accessible over Government roads and trails. Fernie is one of the
most important points on the splendid Government highway from
Alberta to the International boundary, over which a large automobile
traffic is developing.
The line here passes through thickly timbered woods, fir, tamarac
and cedar growing in large quantities.
Morrissey—Alt. 8132 ft. Morrissey Creek, a noisy little rill, crossed
by a 50-ft. span Howe truss bridge, is a pretty mountain stream of clear, sparkling water.
Elko—Alt. 8,082ft.   Two-and-a-half  miles   east   of  Elko  the   line
crosses the Elk River, which continues oh its southward course
to join the Kootenay.  About a mile below the crossing is the Elk
Alt. 4165
"   3861
"   8775
"   3641
"   8461 Medicine hat to revelstoke - via Crows nest pass 100
Across   Canada
River Canon which extends several miles in which the water drops
600 feet in seething, foaming masses. The scenery is wild and the
environments are grandly beautiful. Here the traveller gets a last
glimpse of the projecting angles, lofty peaks and frowning precipices,
which, rising from their wood-encircled bases and lifting their ice-
crowned heads far into the sky, extend northward until lost from
sight in a dizzy, uncertain mist. To the south is Tobacco Plains, a
fertile country which is attracting settlement.
ii affray Alt. 2697 Leaving Elko the line strikes northwestward to
Colvalli I 2662 an open, grass-covered coun'.rv. At Wardner
Wardner 1 2484 the line crosses the Kootenay River, which is
here some 780 feet wide and crossed by a magnificent Howe truss bridge with a 170-ft. swing span to allow of the
passage of river steamers plying on the Kootenay. The Kootenay flows
south into Idaho, and returning pours its flood into Kootenay Lake, in
British Columbia, over 100 miles to the west. Leaving Wardner the
line continues in a northwesterly direction following the west banks of
the Kootenay, running through growths of magnificent large shade
trees and passing in and out through natural parks, while away in the
distance, grimly overlooking all is Sand Creek Range, the "Steeples,"
Mount Fisher, and Saunders Peak. Isador Canon, a deep cleft in the
earth is skirted, and the grade begins gradually to drop. Colvalli is
the junction for the Kootenay Central Line, through Fort Steele, past
Lake Windermere, to Golden.    (See page 66).
Cranbrook-—Alt. 8,018 ft. Pop. 4,000. A railway subdivisional point,
a typical western railroad town, is charmingly situated
in a hill-girt valley, surrounded by a dense forest growth, and overlooked by the white-tipped peaks of Baker and the main range of the
Canadian Rocky Mountains. Cranbrook is the centre of trade for the
mining interests in this locality, as well as for the rapidly growing
ranching industries. Fruit raising is also proving an additional asset
to this locality. British Columbia has no better apples than those
grown here, and all kinds of farm products are raised. In the lateral
valleys, which frequently occur, are also fine agricultural lands which
are attracting settlers. Cranbrook has, besides the shops of the railway, a number of well-stocked stores, chartered banks, hotels, churches,
schools, etc. It is the principal lumber manufacturing point in East
Kootenay, having numerous sawmills operating within its limits. The
place is lighted by electricity, and as a residential town it has no
superior in British Columbia. A subdivision of railway connects the
North Star, Kimberly and Marysville with Cranbrook.
At Swansea the train commences its wind-
Wattsburg Alt. 3230 ing course along the beautiful Moyie Lake.
Swansea        "  8185     This magnificent sheet of water, ten miles
long, lies between mountain ridges, and
occupying the whole valley, forces the railway into the mountain side,
in one instance disappearing through a tunnel 450 ft. in length. On
Moyie Lake are situated extensive galena mines; large deposits of
silver and lead ore have been located and are now being worked to
paying advantage.
Moyie—Alt. 8,045 ft. Is prettily situated at the southern extremity
of Moyie Lake, near which are the St. Eugene group of
mines. Trout and game abound here, grouse and partridge, as well as
larger game, being found in large quantities. Winding down the north
bank of the Moyie River, the railway penetrates a thickly wooded,
heavily timbered country, giants in cedar, fir, tamarac, cottonwood
and larch towering on all sides.
Aidridge   Alt. 3051     Looking across the Moyie River from Tochty
Tochty "  2964     a splendid view of the Yahk Mountains is
Yahk "  2817     obtained.     At  Yahk   Station the  valley   of
the Moyie which continues on its southward
course to join the Kootenay River in the neighboring state of Idaho,
is left, and by ascending the valley of Summit Creek to Summit
Meadow (alt. 2,860 ft.) the summit of the Purcell Range of the Selkirks is reached. Yahk is a junction point for Kingsgate, Spokane
and Portland. Annotated   Guide
If we decide to continue by the Canadian route and travel through
the beautiful Kootenay district and the Arrow Lakes to the Pacific
Coast, the next station after Yahk is Goatfell (alt. 2,857 ft.). And now
the downward course towards the valley of Kootenay Lake is commenced
the railway following Kid Creek, on the northern slope of the range, until Kitchener Station is reached, where the Goat River Valley is entered.
Kitchener—Alt. 2,435 ft. Several miles beyond and about four miles
east of Creston the line crosses the canon by a 150-ft.
span Howe truss bridge, 165 feet above the river bed. The Goat River,
compressed into a boiling flume, goes tumbling and foaming over the
sharp, jagged rocks nearly 200 feet below. When the river is in flood
it is difficult to imagine a grander or more magnificent spectacle.
Near Kitchener are great iron deposits which are being developed.
From Creston the line follows the southern
slope of Goat Mountain until the flats of the
Kootenay River are reached. These flats are
a famous resort for wild geese, wavies and
duck, and in the spring and fall of the year it
is no uncommon sight to see flocks of thousands of these game birds
feeding in the marshy places of the flats. Some very successful apple
orchards are found at Creston. Extensive reclamation works have
been constructed by an English syndicate near Bedlington, on the
international boundary, the object being to reclaim these lands so
remarkable for their fertility.
Sirdar—Alt. 1,802 ft.   Following the western slope of the Purcell
Range to Sirdar, a divisional point, and beautifully located
on the waters of Duck Lake, large flocks of geese and ducks are again
to be found.  Three miles further on is Kootenay Landing.
McNeillie Alt.:
Erickson    " 2106
Creston      " 1979
Kootenay Landing—Alt. 1,768 ft
Kootenay Lake are reached and
a beautiful  vista  of  mountain
scenery is opened up.  Here the
Kootenay    River,    which    has
flowed south through East Koo
tenay and Idaho, and turned
north again pours its waters
into Kootenay Lake—a magnificent sheet of water.    At
the   Landing  the   Company
has  constructed ■'A'
a slip for trans-
ferringto barges
the immense
quantities of
freight which
are from here
distributed t o
mines     of    the
Where the navigable waters of
Ranch near Balfour
Slocan, Nelson, Rossland and other points. From Kootenay Landing
the passenger takes steamer for Balfour, where the Canadian Pacific
Railway has recently erected a delightful hotel. Here is a splendid
centre from which to explore the lakes and mountains of the Kootenay
districts. Motor boats are available for the lakes and ponies for the mmm
Across   Canada
., Balfour
ve excellent tennis courts and for those who
_,. Canadian
There are five excelle
fish there are creeks and pools full of good sport. The view from the
hotel is one of the most beautiful in Canada. From Balfour one can
proceed by motor launch or by the regular steamer to Nelson, and
after a most delightful sail of 52 miles, the young, thriving, energetic
city- which, now boasting a population of 8,000, bids fair to become
the inland metropolis of southern British Columbia, is reached.
Nelson—From Nelson (Alt. 1,769 ft., Population 8,000) there is direct
rail and water communication with the mining regions of
West Kootenay and the Boundary district. The Boundary subdivision
of the Canadian Pacific parallels the Kootenay River to its junction
with the Columbia River, which is bridged at West Robson, continuing
thence through the Boundary country to Cascade (alt. 1^68 ft.),
Grand Forks (alt. 1,688 ft.), Greenwood (alt. 2$98 ft.) and Midway
(alt. 1,770 ft.), where the newly constructed Kettle Valley Railway
continues by way of Penticton to the Canadian Pacific main line at
Hope, and goes to Vancouver. This region is rich in mineral wealth,
and smelters at Grand Forks and Greenwood testify to its rapid development. Another subdivision runs to Trail, the smelter centre, and
to Rossland.
Another Canadian Pacific Railway line branches off at South
Slocan (13 miles from Nelson) to Slocan City, on Slocan Lake, where
steamers ply to New Denver and Rosebery, where the Nakusp-Slocan
subdivision is taken for Sandon, the centre of the Slocan silver-lead
mining district.
Kaslo and other points on Kootenay Lake are also reached from
Nelson by Canadian Pacific rail and steamer.
From West Robson connection is made in summer with the main
transcontinental fine of the Canadian Pacific by steamers on the
Arrow Lake to Nakusp and Arrowhead, whence there is rail communication with Revelstoke, the winter connection being via Slocan
and Rosebery to Nakusp, thence to Arrowhead as in summer.
The steamers of the Canadian Pacific Railway Company on these
inland waters are speedy, well-appointed, electric-lighted craft, and
the scenery is of that charming picturesqueness characteristic of the
mountains of British Columbia.    A trip steadily growing in favor
is to cross the
continent by the
main Une, returning by these lakes
and Crow's Nest
Pass — or vice
versa—as it enables the traveller to see a large
portion of the
mountain country
in different lati-
■ tudes.
Nelson, B.C., the Queen of the Kootenays
fill" Annotated   Guide
St. Paul and Minneapolis to Winnipeg
St. Paul to Winnipeg, 461 miles
St. Paul
Parker's Prairie
Thief River Falls
Alt. 704 St. Paul and Minneapolis form the
" 825 gateways for passengers from Chicago
" 1403 and the Middle and Southern States
" 1891 over the Canadian Pacific Railway,
1440 the main line of which is reached from
1489 here either at Winnipeg or Moose Jaw.
1875 The route to Winnipeg is through
1875 the lakey way of the Minnesota lakes
1890 which much resembles in outline a
1825 gigantic fish-hook, with the eye at the
1200 Twin Cities, the shaft running north-
1137 west as though in ages past some
titanic bass had struggled with it.
This belt is not comparatively wide through the first hundred miles of
its length out from tne Twin Cities, but broadens as it turns northward
through a territory which is at once the beauty spot and the black bass
preserve of the great west. West of this region the country smooths
down and sobers off into the famous prairies of the Red River Valley,
every foot of which is capable of furnishing its quota of wheat, corn
and other cultivated crops. East the land varies from prairie to pinery, but the Park Region itself is a territory with slightly rolling surface, where wood-rimmed lakes are divided by wooded prairies and
where prosperous farming has not harmed but heightened the charm of
the scenery. At Glenwood the Winnipeg Line leaves the main line and
strikes north towards the Canadian Boundary through Alexandria.
From Alexandria northward to the White Earth Reservation the
scenery in its nature varies but little, being a succession of well-tilled
farms, of beautiful groves of magnificent timber, and of picturesque
sheets of sparkling spring water. The country is rich enough to support
many busy business centres. Parker's Prairie is a rapidly growing town.
Ottertail is located on the shores of Great Ottertail Lake and already has
a large population. Richville and Dent are all located advantageously
in splendid farming territory and are towns of great promise. Detroit
(pop. 8,000) is an old established town for this section of the country.
It is finely located in the midst of numerous lakes and having within a
small radius a great number of summer hotels. Northward from Detroit until the Canadian Boundary is reached, the country although
farmed to some extent is as yet almost virgin territory. For fishing
and hunting the country just described stands without a peer.
Sixty-five miles from Winnipeg the
boundary is crossed at Emerson (pop.
1J500), the most northerly town of the
Province of Manitoba. Emerson has
grown rapidly during the past few years
and promises to attain a much more prominent position in the near
future, being now an important station on the new through Canadian
Pacific line between Winnipeg and the South. Dominion City, with a
population of 400, is fifty-five miles from Winnipeg. The route to
Winnipeg is up the fertile valley of the Red River of the North. On
either side are seen great stretches of prairie land that are now mostly
under the plough and the thriving settlements found every few miles
give the country an air of great prosperity. In old days Fort Garry
and the Red River Settlements were reached by following the current
in small boats and later on shallow steamboats were used for transportation purposes. The land along the rivers was taken up long before
the back country was opened and consequently some of the farms in
this neighborhood have been under cultivation for several generations.
The best and most convenient connection between Winnipeg and the
Twin Cities, Minneapolis and St. Paul, is afforded by the through
Canadian Pacific-Soo Line Route, by way of Glenwood and Emerson.
Alt. 792
"  787
"  761 mm
« uParkers Prairie
^s.              wit
^*s<^          Jfj K Alexandria
^^vA      H
GLENWOOD*^                 -^.j^
573 8
ii^ * *-.' „. i_
Across   Canada
Beautiful scenery, land and climate admirably suited for apple-
growing, and geological formation which experience has shown to be
highly mineralized—these and many other features have attracted a
steady settlement into southern British Columbia, so that it has become the most prosperous and well-settled area of the whole Province.
This area has hitherto been served, from the Crow's Nest as far as
the Midway and the Boundary District, by the Crow's Nest branch
of the Canadian Pacific Railway and its inland lake steamship services, but between Midway and the main line lay a barrier of mountains, which, to some extent, sidetracked a district that otherwise
might be considered the real Hinterland of Vancouver. The construction of the Kettle Valley Railway has surmounted that barrier and
there are now two connections with the main line of the Canadian
Pacific Railway, namely, at Haig and at Spence's Bridge. A through
car service has been arranged between Vancouver and Nelson, and as
the route passes through scenery of exceptional charm and interest, at
times indeed of real grandeur, it should rapidly become a favorite
route for tourists.
Track near Penticton. B.C.
By this new route the southern end of the Okanagan Valley, with
its wonderful capacity for fruit-growing, is placed in close touch with
the markets at Vancouver and the mining centres of the interior, so
that considerable impetus should be given to land settlement in this
region. The great mining and smelting industry of the Boundary
District is also made more readily accessible, and Vancouver and such
cities as Grand Forks, Rossland and Trail will benefit greatly by this
new link.
The supremely beautiful scenery along the Columbia River and the
lakes and mountains just west of Nelson will now be better known.
Different in character from the scenery of the main line, it is nevertheless just as fine in its own way.   Millions of people in Europe have •
flocked to the Italian lakes, but the Kootenays are just as wonderful.
The first station on the way up from Haig, just north of the
Coquahalla River Canyon, is named Othello, the beauty of which it
is difficult to describe, while there is good trout fishing and shooting Annotated   Guide
in its vicinity. Jessica is the third station within about two miles
or so of Ladner Creek, in a district of great natural beauty. At
Portia the railway reaches an elevation of about 2,000 feet above sea
level. The country has a very rocky, mountainous aspect at the next
station, which is called lago, to keep up the Shakespearean tradition.
Near Romeo there is a charming view looking up towards a bald,
rocky mountain from Slide Creek bridge. Coquahalla Summit is
opposite two delightful lakes. From this point the track falls both
ways, the average gradient going west being about 2.2 per cent.,
whilst that going east is considerably lighter, about 1 per cent. The
elevation of Coquahalla Summit is about 3,800 feet above set level.
The lakes are full of trout and are most interesting from a geological
point of view, on account of the many crater holes in the formation,
caused, it is supposed, from gaseous emanations in ages past. Juliet,
the next station, is eternally separated from Romeo by the summit.
At Slide Creek there are some picture rocks, rude representation of
a horse, supposed to have been painted by the Indians at some remote
date. Penticton, at the lower end of Okanagan Lake( is half-way
house to Nelson, and as such has an excellent hotel. The Incola, owned and operated by the Kettle Valley Railway. The balmy, equable
climate of the lower Okanagan Valley,, the excellent motoring, the
delightful bathing, the opportunities for motor-boating, sailing, fishing,
and, at the proper seasons, for hunting, combine to make this an ideal
holiday resort. Penticton is in the centre of one of the most fertile
orchard districts in British Columbia, and as such has a well-settled
community to take part in any social activities. Penticton is also the
southern terminus of the Canadian Pacific steamers plying on the
Okanagan Lake, the northern terminus being Okanagan Landing,
which has excellent train service through Vernon to Sicamous, on the
main line or the Canadian Pacific Railway. From Penticton the railway climbs up through the benches to a height which commands a
magnificent view of Okanagan Lake, then descends through forest-clad
ranges by romantic canyons till the farms and settlements of the lower
Kettle Valley are reached. After the junction is made with the Canadian Pacific Railway at Midway, the train passes by lake and mountain till the beautiful defile of the Columbia River is reached. Out of
the windows one looks down upon the sapphire waters of that noble
stream, flanked by tall trees and overtowering heights. The train
reaches Nelson in the evening and though the boat for Balfour and
the East does not leave till next morning, one can go straight on board
to one's comfortable
berth. At Balfour the
Canadian Pacific Railway operates the Kootenay Lake Hotel, a delightful centre for those
who are fond of boating,
fishing and tennis, in the
heart of glorious lake
and mountain scenery.
Coquihalla Canyon mmmmmmmmmmm
Across   Canada
adian racitic
Montreal    Quebec
St. John,
Shortest Route
The Canadian Pacific Ocean Services, Limited, Trans-Atlantic
Steamers ply on the Quebec-Liverpool Route in Summer, and
St. John, N.B.-Liverpool Route in Winter. The "Missanabie" and
"Metagama," sister ships, 12,600 tons, entered the service in 1915
and are the last word in passenger ship construction. They carry
but one class of cabin passengers and at moderate rates, also
third-class. Capacity 520 cabin and 1,200 third-class. Empress of
Britain, length 570 feet, breadth 65 feet, 14,500 tons register, 18,000
horsepower, makes the passage between Liverpool and Quebec in
less than a week. Accommodation for 350 1st Cabin, 350 2nd Cabin,
1,000 3rd Class Cabin passengers.
All Canadian Pacific Steamships are equipped with Marconi Wireless Telegraphy and a submarine signal system, thus ensuring
perfect safety in navigation. The submarine signal acts in foggy
weather in the same capacity as a lighthouse does in clear weather.
Complete information, relative to trip to or from Europe,
or around the  World, on application to  any
Canadian Pacific Agent.
Dominion Express Building.
W. <r. ANN ABLE,
General Passenger Agent,
MONTREAL, Que. Annotated   Guide
Canadian Pacific
Ocean Services, Limited
Empress of Russia and Empress of Asia
Gross register 16,850 tons, displacement 30.625 tons.    Quadruple
Screws, Turbine Engines; Sea speed, 20 knots.
15 Days—VANCOUVER to PEKING (Via Yokohama)
Complete information relative to trip to the Orient or Around the-World
will be cheerfully given by any Canadian Pacific Agent,
General Passenger Agent,
Windsor Street Station Montreal, Que, m, A2C 8 CANADA
T B. AK fl AfLAtftf IC
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