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Across Canada by Canadian Pacific Railway Canadian Pacific Railway Company 1913

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 —ii.iL u.J|iigg^lWWWWW
The World's Greatest Highway
Operates and controls in Canada and the United
States over  18,250 miles of Rail Track.
Owns over 100,000 miles of  Telegraph  Wires.
Controls over 400,000 tons of Shipping on
Atlantic, Pacific, Great Lakes of Canada,
and B.C. River and Coast Services.
Owns and operates eighteen Hotels in Canada
from the Atlantic to the Pacific.
Has for sale 10,000,000 acres of finest virgin
Farm Lands in Western Canada and British
Columbia. ^Wr
For further particulars apply to any
Canadian    Pacific   Railway   Agent
GEO. McL. BROWN, European Manager, London
H. G. DRING, Gen. Passenger T. J. SMITH, Gen. Freight
Agent, London Agent, London j^^^][^^]Rqf^£^^Sl^frE£51f^^^
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Annotated     Guide i
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The Dominion of Canada     II-V
Quebec to Montreal  4-7
Halifax to St. John, N.B  8
The Land of Evangeline  9-11
St. John to Montreal  12-15
New York, Boston, Portland and Montreal  1&-17
Montreal to Vancouver  18-87
Chalk River to Port Arthur 22-26
Port Arthur to Broadview  34^37
Winnipeg        38
Portage La Prairie to Broadview        41
Broadview to Swift Current  42-43
Swift Current to Calgary  44-48
Calgary to Field  50-62
Field to Vancouver  62-65 & 67-89
Great Lakes Route
Montreal to Toronto  27-28
Toronto to Port McNicoll  29-30
Port McNicoll to Fort William        31
Toronto and Winnipeg,
Via Georgian Bay and Muskoka Route 32-33
Winnipeg to 3Edmonton  39-40
Calgary to Edmonton        49
Calgary to Lethbridge        49
Kootenay Central Branch        66
British Columbia Coast Service        90
Vancouver to Alaska  90-93
Crows Nest Pass and The Kootenay 94-102
St. Paul, Minneapolis and Winnipeg 103-104
M 11
Across     Canada
in mnioi n wmunnuimi i uti n n ■ n i n namiimn imw m mi id
ANADA comprises the northern half of North America.
Its southern boundary is the United States, on the east
is the Atlantic, on the west the Pacific, and on the north
the Arctic Ocean. Its area is 3,729,665 square miles,
larger than that of the United States, and nearly equal
to that of Europe. The population was, according to
the census of 1911, 7,206,643, or nearly a fourth less
than that of Belgium. (Estimated population for 1913, 7,758,000.) The
census also showed that of the population 3,896,685 were British by
race or origin, 2,054,890 were of French descent, 393,320 Germans,
105,492 Indians and half-breeds, 36,795 Chinese and Japanese, while
almost every European race was represented in the remainder. During
recent years a large number of farmers from the United States have
settled in the Western Prairie provinces. Population to square mile,
Canada 1.93; Great Britain, 471; U. S. A., 25.
From Halifax on the Atlantic to Vancouver on the Pacific is 3,740
miles by rail. From Victoria on the Pacific to Dawson on the Yukon
River is 1,550 miles by ocean and river steamer and rail. Its most
southerly portion is in the latitude of Northern Spain and Italy, and
the most northerly portion of the mainland is in the latitude of Northern
The following table gives the area and population of the various
Area in
Square Miles.
Nova Scotia	
New Brunswick	
Prince Edward Island
British Columbia	
Northwest Territories
Yukon, &c	
21,428 1
7, 206, 643
In a country of such a vast extent, a wide variety of climate is
naturally to be found. Except on and near the ocean coast, the general
characteristic of the climate of Canada comprises a warm dry summer
and a dry cold winter. It is bracing and healthful, and in all respects
is a white man's country.
On the Pacific coast, owing to the Japanese current, the climate is
identical in temperature with that of the British Isles, which lie in the
same latitude.
The Dominion is governed, under a Governor-General appointed by
the British Crown, by a Legislature or Parliament, which makes the
laws. Parliament is composed of two Houses, the Commons, elected,
by the people, and the Senate, appointed by the Government.
The Cabinet or Government, which administers the laws passed by Annotated     Guide
Parliament, is composed of members of Parliament, who must have
the support of a majority of the Commons or elective branch in order
to hold power.
A change of policy, by reason of a change of Government, may occur
at any time, and an election to decide as to the views of the people
on the change may be held at any time.
The Dominion Parliament controls the criminal law, the militia, the
post office, railways, indirect taxation by the tariff and excise, trade
relations with other countries, and, speaking generally, all matters of
national concern.
The Dominion owns and controls the administration of the public
lands in the three Central Provinces and throughout Northern Canada.
These provinces contain many millions of acres of unoccupied agricultural government land, and the responsibility for their development
rests upon the Dominion Government.
The provinces are governed by legislatures elected by the people,
and have responsible government on the same principles as the Dominion.
They are charged with providing the civil law and administering both
civil and criminal laws.
j They provide for education and for municipal government, and for
direct taxation in their support, and generally all matters of a purely
provincial or local nature.
Primary education in Canada is amply provided for in all the provinces, and in nearly all it is free. The figures for 1911 show that there
were then 24,567 public schools, with 39,183 teachers and 1,319,433
pupils. Canada spent on education in 1911 $32,360,000. Eighty-five
per cent, of all the population over five can read, and 74 per cent, can
both read and write. The system of education is mainly compulsory
(except in Manitoba) and unsectarian.
There is no State Church in Canada, but there are numerous places
of worship belonging to the different denominations. According to
the census returns of 1911 the adherents of the principal religious
bodies were as follows:
Roman Catholics. 2,833,041
Presbyterians  1,115,324
Methodists  1,079,892
Anglicans  1,043,017
Baptists  388,666
Lutherans  229,864
Greeks  88,507
Jews  74,564
Mennonites  44,611
Congregationalists.. 34,054
Salvation Army  18,834
Christians  16,773
Evangelical  10,493
Buddhists  10,012
Brethren  9,278
Respect for law and maintenance of order are very prominent features
of life in Canada, as distinguished from most other new countries. The
criminal statistics show a slight increase, but there is very little serious
ciime in Canada. In 1908 (the latest year for which statistics are
available) there were 11,334 convictions in all for indictable offences,
of which 10,000 were first convictions. Only 202 of these offences
called for sentences of five years and over, and only in 14 instances
was sentence of death passed. In 3,126 cases the offender was allowed
the option of a fine.
Each Province supports its own police force, with the exceptions of
Saskatchewan and Alberta, which, with the Yukon Territory, are
policed by that fine body of men, the Royal North-West Mounted
Police. The force, which numbers about 650 officers and men, was
organized in 1873. The Canadian Pacific Railway has its own police
The Canadian Pacific Railway has been well called one of the wonders of
the world, and is the longest continuous track railway under one management in the world. It was constructed from coast to coast in five years
instead of ten as per contract, and its total mileage is over 17,500. IV
Across     Canada
It possesses 76 steamships, 2,052 locomotives, 2,583 passenger and
sleeping cars, and 79,085 freight cars. During the year ending June
30, 1913, it carried 15,298,048 passengers and 12,986,619,155 tons of
Canada has 1,133 Post Office and Government Savings Banks.
There are 30 chartered banks in the Dominion with branches all over
the country. In ten years their assets have trebled, their capital has
increased 50 per cent., and their note circulation has more than doubled.
The public deposits in Canada amount to $1,011,367,714.
The total savings of the people amount to about $150 per head—
the highest record of any country in the world.
$   901,306,426
Canada buys nearly $100 per annum per head of the population.
The census of the manufactures of Canada taken in 1911 for the
calendar year 1910 gives the following comparative statistics, compared
with those of the census of 1901 for the calendar year 1900, namely:—
Salaries, Wages
The capital employed in manufactures increased during the decade
by 178.58 per cent., and the value of products by 142.11 per cent:
The number of establishments employing five hands and over last year
was 19,202, being an increase of 4,552 in the decade.
The progess of Canada as an agricultural country may be seen in the
following figures for the crops for the years 1901, 1911 and 1913
Wheat,   .
55,572,000 bush.
22,224,000     "
151,497,000     "
55,363,000     "
215,851,300 bush.
40,641,000     "
348,187,600     "
66,023,000     "
231,717,000 bush.
48,319,000     |
404,669,000     "
76,720,000     "
35,375,000 acres were under cultivation in 1913, value of products
being $552,771,500. Exports of agricultural produce in 1913 totalled
Canada has also a large and increasing fruit production, consisting
principally of apples, but including also peaches, plums, grapes, and
small fruits. Annotated     Guide
The figures of the live stock for the same period are as follows:-
Live Stock
J. D. McGregor, of Brandon, Manitoba, won the prize for the best
animals out of 10,000 shown at the International Live Stock Exhibition,
Chicago, December, 1913.
Canada has the most extensive fisheries in the world, including
12,780 miles of sea coast and innumerable lakes and streams amounting
to 220,000 square miles of fresh water. The number of vessels and boats
engaged in the industry is 41,170, and the number of fishermen 91,132.
The principal fish caught are salmon, lobsters, cod, herring-, mackerel,
trout, halibut, and haddock. The value of the fish caught in 1912-13
was $33,389,464.    Exports of fish in 1913 totalled $20,237,348.
There are 56 fish-breeding hatcheries, and over 800,000,000 fry are
annually distributed. Canada's lobster plant is valued at $3,750,000,
with nearly 70 lobster canneries, the output of which in 1912 was,
110,823 cwt. live lobsters and 10,007,136 lbs. preserved lobsters.
Canada is rich in minerals, pari icularly in metals, and has the largest
nickel, corundum, and asbestos deposits in the world. Mineral production, 1912, $135,048,296. The Yukon goldfield is 125,000 square miles
in area. Canada has 1,234,269,310,000 metric tons of coal in coal
areas estimated at 109,168 square miles. The famous Cobalt mines
yielded in 1910 silver to the value of $15,500,000.
Canada's forest resources are almost illimitable. According to official
estimates, there are 1,248,798 square miles of forest area in Canada.
Such estimates do not include the great northern belt of forest, as to
which all is more or less conjecture.
Ontario contains the largest area of for|||jJands, estimated at 102,000
square miles. North of the Canadian Pacific Railway are about
60,000,000 acres covered by spruce, jackpine, and poplar. Red and
white pine are found in large quantities in many parts of the Province.
Canada possesses twice as large commercially potential water powers
as the United States, namely 16,600,000 h.p., of which only 1,016,521
h.p. has been developed. The greatest development up to date has
been in the provinces of Ontario and Quebec. Canada's share of
the 1,125,000 h.p. from Niagara Falls amounts to 450,000 h.p. There
are many undeveloped water powers along the line of the Canadian
Pacific Railway.
There were 889,572 miles of telephone wire in  Canada at the end
of 1912 and 370,884 telephones in use.    This is one telephone for every
eight of the population.
There are 134,700 miles of telegraph wire_ of which 102,700 miles
are owned and operated by the Canadian Pacific Railway.
There are 40 wireless telegraph stations.
Canada has three great National Parks in the Rocky Mountains:
(1) Rocky Mountain Park, with an area of 1,800 square miles; (2) Yoho
Park, area 560 square miles, and (3) Glacier Park, area 468 square
miles. Both the Canadian Government and the Canadian Pacific
Railway are spending large sums in developing these parks and making
them accessible to tourists, so that they are rapidly becoming the
Playgrounds of North America.
EEY\ ■%
Chateau  Frontenac,   Quebec
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Annotated Guide
via the Canadian Pacific Railway
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Description of the
173 miles
Quebec—Alt. 19ft. Population 78,067. This historic city occupies the
base and summit of a lofty crag projecting into the St.
Lawrence. Jacques Cartier, the first European who sailed into the
river, spent the winter of 1535 at the base of the cliffs and French fur
companies soon after established a headquarters for trading. As the
settlement grew, and the fortifications were enlarged, Quebec became
the stronghold of Canada, remaining so until captured by the British
under Wolfe, in 1759. No other city in America is so grandly situated
or offers views from its higher points so diversified and lovely. In
Upper Town, on the highlands, are the public buildings, churches,
convents, schools, business blocks and hotels, chief among which is the
Chateau Frontenac, on Dufferin Terrace. Lower Town is the commercial quarter and abounds in irregular narrow streets and quaint old
houses. Enormous transactions in lumber go on here annually. The
surrounding country is remarkably interesting in scenery, history, and
opportunities for sport, and the city is a delightful resort both ;n the
summer and winter months. The railways reaching the city are the
Canadian Pacific and Quebec & Lake St. John, the latter extending to
Lake St. John, Chicoutimi, and the head waters of the Saguenay. An
electric railway extends to Montmorency where may be seen the
famous falls and the shrine of Ste. Anne de Beaupre. To Levis, on the
opposite bank of the St. Lawrence, come the Grand Trunk, the Intercolonial and the Quebec Central. Transatlantic steamers of the
Canadian Pacific, Allan, Canadian Northern, Donaldson, White Star,
Dominion, Cunard and other lines call here in Summer and Autumn, and
local steamers depart for the lower St. Lawrence and the Saguenay
NOTE.—Owing to Canada's rapid development, population figures grow
rapidly out of date.    Those shown are based on the latest census (1911). Annotated    Guide
Pont Rouge
St. Basile
La Perade
Red Mill
Piles Junc.
A familiar sight in Quebec
Are ancient settlements,     originally
seigniories, fronting
upon the St. Law-.
rence.      Turbulent
rivers  come  down
from   the   hills  at
frequent   intervals,
giving water-power
to almost every village. The fishing is
excellent in all of
these streams
and one of them
(the Jacques Cartier) is a noted salmon river.
All the villages are quaint and picturesque in the
highest degree, and French is almost universally
spoken. j Lorette is mainly a settlement of
Christianized Huron Indians, founded 250 years
ago. Portneuf is a thriving factory town,
devoted principally to shoemaking and wood-
pulp. From Piles Junction a branch line extends
to the farming district of Grandes Piles, 27 miles
northward, near the great Shawinigan Falls in
the St. Maurice, a stream affording fine fishing.
The great water-power here is utilized by enterprising companies.
Three Rivers—Population 16,500. At the mouth of the St. Maurice,
and at the head of the tide-water in the St. Lawrence.
It was founded in 1634, and played an important part in the early
history of Canada. It is eminent for its Roman Catholic institutions,
and is one of the prettiest towns in the province. The chief industry
is the shipment of lumber, and over $1,000,000 has been invested in
mills and booms above the city where logs are prepared for the domestic
and foreign trade. There are large iron works and machine shops here,
where iron pipes, stoves and car wheels are manufactured in great
numbers from the bog-iron ore for which the vicinity is famous.
Steamers ply daily to adjacent river villages. A branch line from
Shawinigan Falls and Grand Mere, both thriving industrial towns, runs
through a French farming district and joins
the main line at Three Rivers.     The route
to Montreal lies across the lowlands stretching between the northern bank of the St.
Lawrence and the hills  which lie at a
constantly increasing distance from the
river.   This is for the most part a perfectly
level and cultivated plain, cut up into
narrow   fields   that   characterize   French
farming   districts   throughout   the
older parts of  Quebec,  and result
from the continual   subdivision of
bequeathed estates.   The compact
villages   are   very prosperous and
much resorted to in summer by city
people.    In each one the churches
and educational or charitable institutions of  the Roman Catholic
faith   are   the   most   conspicuous
buildings.     Near Louiseville (pop.
2,900), where Lake St. Peter is seen,
are the St. Leon (saline)  Springs.
Berthier Junction   is   the  station
for  a populous river-landing of the
same  name,   reached  by a  short
branch line.
Pointe du Lac
St. BartheEemy
St. 'Cuthbert
Berthier Junc.
•S2 6
Across    Canada
St. Vincent de
St. Martin Junc
Mile End
In a  Lumber   Camp
From Lanoraie diverges a branch
line   northward   to   Joliette   (pop.
6,846), St.  Felix (pop. 2,600) and
St. Gabriel de Brandon.   At Terrebonne   the   north   branch   of   the
Ottawa River is crossed.   Here are
the limestone quarries which furnish
most   of   the   stone   used   in   the
neighboring cities,  and in railway
bridge-building,   and   other   heavy
masonry.   The large building passed
at St. Vincent de Paul is the provincial penitentiary.   At St. Martin
Junction the Ottawa Subdivision is joined and followed around the
base of Mount Royal into Montreal.
Montreal—AU. 69. Place Viger Station and Hotel, a handsome
structure erected and operated by the Canadian Pacific
A large extension has recently been made to the Place Viger Hotel
which is now one of the most attractive and up-to-date hotels in Canada,
one of that chain which the Canadian Pacific operates from Atlantic
to Pacific.
For description of Montreal-New York, Montreal-Boston, Montreal-
Portland services see pages 16 and 17.
Place Viger Hotel,   Montreal MONTREAL TO HALIFAX AND QUEBEO
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Across    Canada
.jiiiiijiiiiiiiiiiwii^^' —
■■''''•■'-.'-. . AS, JM;
Description of the ■
276 miles
;  sftia8»
Halifax—Alt. 67. Population 65,000. The capital of Nova Scotia,
and from its long association with the army and navy of the
Mother Country the most thoroughly English city on the continent.
Its magnificent harbor is acknowledged to be one of the finest in the
world. Halifax is the present winter port for the British mail steamships, and is a military and naval station. It is a strongly fortified
city, chief of the fortifications being the Citadel, elevated 256 feet
above sea-level, and commanding the city and harbor; McNab's and
George's Islands in the harbor are also strongly fortified, the former
being said to be impregnable. The fortifications, tne Arm, Bedford
Basin, the Dockyard; the Dry Dock, largest on this Continent; Point
Pleasant Park, a public resort owned by the
Imperial authorities, and leased to the City of
Halifax; Dalhousie University, Pine Hill Theological College, the New Naval College and the
many public buildings, the public gardens, etc.,
etc., are all well worth a visit. Halifax enjoys
very important trade with Europe, the
United States, the West Indies, etc., etc.
Bedford Alt.  44
Windsor Junc.    "   129
^ Shubenacadie     "     66
Stewiacke "     86
The Dominion Atlantic
Railway, whose trainjs
from  Hali-
Nova Scotia Farm Scene Annotated     Guide
off at Windsor Junction to the west and south to Yarmouth, traversing
the romantic Annapolis Valley, scene of many a stirring incident in olden
days, and famed the world over as the home of Longfellow's Evangeljffif|l
There is also a branch of the Dominion Atlantic connecting Windsor
and Truro.
At St._ John, N.B., the Canadian Pacific have added the magnificent
steamship "St. George" to its Bay of Fundy service between St.
John, N.B. and Digby, N.S., providing speedy and comfortable service
between these points.
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The pretty college-town of Wolfville, embowered in orchards, and
reached after a seventy-mile rail journey through that wonderful
"Apple Empire" of Canada, the Annapolis Valley, is the headquarters
of visitors to the Land of Evangeline. It occupies the western slope
of the fertile ridge dividing the valley of the Gaspereau from the valley
of the Cornwallis. As Charles G. D. Roberts graphically pictures
it:—"Before the windows of Wolfville unrolls a superb view—marshes
of pale green, leclaimed from the sea by the spades of old-time Acadian
farmers; sharp strips of red or orange-tawny flats, where the retreating
tide has left the beach uncovered; to the left front a well-grouped
cluster of white cottages, spires and masts about a bridge—the shipping village of Port Williams; the long low lines of green upland outstretching from either side to almost the centre of the picture—the
Annapolis   Royal
delicious summer retreats of Starr's Point and Long Island; between
them and beyond, away to the far blue barrier of the Parrsboro shore,
the restless waters of Minas Basin, yellow in the foreground, but in
the distance purple, sapphire, green, or silver, as changing^ hour and
changing sky may decree; and in the middle distance, dominating all
the scene with its mass of sombre indigo, the majestic bastion of
Blomidon out-thrust against the tides. \ These are effects of full daylight; but by the aerial magic of sunrise (too seldom seen!) and the
voluptuous sorcery of sunset such transformations are wrought as
make the scene an ever-changing realm of faery."
Three miles djstant, to the east, is Grand Pre itself, now a rich
but scattered farming settlement. It is on the line of the Dominion
Atlantic, and travelers who are passing through obtain from the car
windows a good view of the scene of the Great Banishment. There
are the storied meadows, and there, close to the station, are willows
planted by Acadian hands. On the slope behind the station are
gnarled French apple trees and stiff French poplars, and a short way
further on is the Gaspereau mouth, where the exiles embarked.
5The ancient Acadian village which Colonel Winslow and his New
Englanders depopulated so effectually in that eventful autumn of
1755 is supposed to have extended in a long, thin line from about where 10
Acadian   Simplicity
the Grand Pre station
of the   Dominion
Atlantic now stands to
somewhere   near   the
next station of Horton
Landing. Then,
as   now,   the
Acadians trailed
their villages
along a single
street.   Close to
the station is a
row  of   gnarled
willows, whose
branches   perchance   tell
over to the young leaves of each recurring spring what they saw of
Evangeline and her sorrow. Here, suitably enclosed, is "Evangeline's
Well," and near it were unearthed some blacksmith's tools, sufficient
to j ustify the pleasant tradition that this was the very site of the village
smithy. In the immediate neighborhood were discovered foundations
of a largish building, which may have been the chapel in which the
Acadians were imprisoned before they were sent on board the ships.
Truro—AU. 60. Population 6,107. A pretty, thriving town in the
midst of most picturesque scenery possessing one of the finest
natural parks in North America, within one half mile of the Railway
Station. Good trout fishing is to be found in the neighborhood. In
the Stewiacke Mountains there are moose. In the spring and fall
grouse are plentiful, and geese, brant, duck, curlew and snipe are
common. From Truro a branch line runs to Pictou, from whence
steamers depart to Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island. A second
branch runs to New Glasgow and Mulgrave, on the Straits of
Canso, where connection is made with steamers for Cape Breton
Island. The railway is extended through the island to the Sydneys,
which have become great industrial centres. From them historic
Louisburg is easily reached by rail. A capital service has been inaugurated between North Sydney and Port aux Basques, Newfoundland—
the sea voyage only occupying six hours—there connecting with the
Reid-Newfoundland Co. Railway, which traverses the centre of the
island to St. John's on the eastern coast, and connects with the fine
steamship service to the different
bays of Newfoundland and to the
Labrador coast.
Nova Scotia Apple Harvest Annotated    Guide ii
Oxford Junc.
Spring Hill Junc.
Painsec Junc.
Alt. 834
a     94
«    199
*      68
i      26
The Acadian Iron Works are three
miles from Londonderry, with which
they are linked by a branch line.
Oxford has extensive factories, a
profitable industry, being the manufacture of the celebrated Oxford
cloths. From Oxford Junction a
branch runs to Pugwash and to
Pictou. Near Spring Hill are important coal mines—and from here a
branch line extends to the watering place of Parrsboro on the Minas
Basin. Amherst (pop. 9,500) is a manufacturing town with several
good hotels. The rame comprises moose, geese, and duck; and salmon
trout_ are plentiful in the lakes. A few miles from Amherst are the
remains of Fort Cumberland, of historic interest as the scene of hard-
fought battles between the British and French in the early days. Sackville has a fine college and Methodist academies, and is situated in a
choice grazing country. Railway connection is made from Cape
faffinentine, from which Prince Edward Island is reached. From
Painsec Junction a branch line extends to Point du Chene, connecting
with steamers for Summerside, Prince Edward Island.
The  Haunts   of   the   Moose
Moncton—Alt. 60. Population 11,600, is situated on a bend of the
E Petitcodiac River and is the centre of the Intercolonial
Railway system, the head offices and workshops of which are located
here. It has many important industries, prominent among which is
a cotton factory. Within eight miles of the city natural gas has. been
discovered and in the same territory oil in paying quantities has also
been found. An interesting feature of the river is the "Bore" of the
incoming tide, when the water rushes in with great force in a huge
wave, often seven feet high. Hunters for Northern New Brunswick
usually outfit and start from here.
Between Petitcodiac and Sussex on the line
from Moncton to St. John is a fine farming
country, and many pretty views are
obtained from the train. In the beautiful Kennebecasis Valley are some of the finest New
Brunswick farms. A great many small lakes
lie to the east and south, where large, trout are abundant.
I 12
Across     Canada
ffSJrrF" "P.
Reversible   Falls,   St.   John,   N.B.
ROUTE   FROM   ST.   JOHN,   N.B.,   TO
MONTREAL, QUE., 483 miles
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nrani omttni nn aniiiniiti ratm i hi
St. John, N.B.—/4fe. i5. Population 42,500, founded by United
Empire Loyalists. This is the wonderful "new
city" that rose from the ashes of the terrible conflagration which
destroyed old St. John in June, 1877, devastating nine miles of streets
and causing a loss of between twenty and thirty millions of dollars.
The citizens were resolute and enterprising, and stately buildings soon
filled the great gap left by the flames, and there is nothing now left to
indicate the awful calamity. Old St. John, with all her romantic
history is lost, but new St. John fills her place admirably, and is now
a busy modern centre. St. John is a maritime city—the winter port
for many Atlantic steamships—and an inspection of its fine docks and
harbour is always interesting. At present the' Dominion Government
is making large extensions to the harbor, there being under construction new deep water docks which will provide berths for twenty-
four ocean liners of the largest type. An immense new dry-dock, which
will be the largest in the world, is also being built, and altogether the
outlay will amount to about $25,000,000. In the new harbor twenty-
three wharves are to be*built, from 900 feet in length upwards. The Canadian Pacific has just completed a million dollar grain elevator, and many
important manufacturers have recently established large plants and
warehouses in this progressive city. The St. John River, "the Rhine
of America," with its wonderful "reversible cataract," should be seen by
every visitor; also the fine suspension bridge and railway cantilever
bridge near the falls. Steamers ply between St. John and Digby, N.S.,
making connection with the Dominion Atlantic Railway at Digby for
Halifax and Yarmouth, this being a favorite route between the chief cities
of the two provinces. The Eastern Steamship Co.'s Line gives connec
tion with  Eastport,
Westfield Beach
Fredericton Junc.
Portland and Boston. At Fredericton
Junction connections are made for
the city of Fredericton, one of the
most picturesque in Canada. Population 8,000. It is the capital of
New Brunswick and is well
worth a visit. Here are located the
Parliament buildings of the Province and a Dominion Experimental
farm.   The city is rapidly gaining prominence as an industrial centre.
At McAdam Junction connections are
Harvey Alt. 491      made for Woodstock, N.B., Houlton,
Magaguadavic "    891      Me.,   and  Presque Isle, Me., Plaster
McAdam June.'        *    445     Rock, N.B.,andEdmundston,N.B.,to Annotated    Guide
the north, St. Stephen, N.B., and the
beautiful watering place, St. Andrews,
N.B., to the south.   St.  Andrews is
situated on Passamaquoddy Bay, and
as a summer resort is not surpassed by
any   point   on   the   Atlantic   coast.
Here the visitor finds agreeable boating
and bathing facilities, numerous tennis
courts and croquet lawns, an electric-
lighted bowling green, a splendid golf
course,charming drives, enjoyable social
pleasures and a salubrious climate.   The Algonquin, the first of the great chain of hotels operated
by the Canadian Pacific   Railway across  the
continent, is the centre of the social life of the
Vanceboro—AU. 887.    This is the first station
after crossing the boundary
between   New Brunswick   and   the   State   of
Maine.   It lies close to the beautiful St. Croix
river,  the  outlet  of  the boundary   chain   of
lakes, and is an excellent point  for the sportsman.    The country about these stations is wild
and rugged, and intersected by streams
and   lakes—a   good   territory   for   the
sportsman.    The  villages  are  all  progressive.
At Mattawamkeag the Penobscot river
is crossed, and many canoeists make this
station their objective point, descending
the river from Moosehead Lake, a trip that
offers great inducements in the way of
fishing and attractive scenery. At
Brownville Junction the line of the
Katahdin Iron Works Railway is crossed.
The scenery along this section of the line is considered to rank among the
finest in Maine, Lake Onawa being, perhaps, as pretty as any of the
numerous waters. At Wilson Stream the road runs close to the base of
Boarstone Mountain. Two stately iron bridges will be noticed before
Greenville Junction (population 1 500), a busy little town on the shore
of Moosehead Lake, the grandest of all the countless waters of Maine,
is reached. The fishing and shooting
in this section is exceptionally good.
This is a very popular point with
those who love the rod and rifle, as
within easy reach are any number of
trout waters and rare good shooting
grounds, moose, caribou, deer, bear,
grouse, etc., being found within a
short distance. There are several
hotels that offer excellent accommodation. Guides, canoes, etc., can be obtained on the spot. Moosehead
Lake is about forty miles long by from one to fifteen wide, and its
scenery is unsurpassed.   From Greenville Junction steamers run to all
Lambert Lake
Lake View
Brownville Junc
Greenville Junc.
Somerset Junc.
Long Pond
Algonquin  Hotel,  St. Andrews, NJ3.
*. 14
Across     Canada
Spring HiBi
the points of interest, including Mount Kineo and the popular hotel at
its base, the Kineo House. Moosehead is a small station, on the lake
shore. Near here the Kennebec river leaves Moosehead Lake. Trout
Brook is, as its name indicates, close to good fishing water. From
Jackman the Moose river and its chain of lakes, where game and fish
are abundant, are easily reached. Long Lake is a link of this chain.
Holeb and Lowelltown are small stations near the boundary between
Maine and Quebec.
We now reach the Boundary mountains which
divide the State of Maine from the Province
of Quebec, and the remainder of the journey
is through Canadian territory. Lake Megantic is twelve miles long by from one to four
wide, and, like Moosehead, it is a favorite
spot with sportsmen. Near Lake Megantic is
Spider Lake, the "Geneva of Canada, ' where
the Club House of the Megantic Fish and
At Megantic Station sportsmen can find fairly
good accommodation, and secure guides for a shooting or fishing trip.
From here, Levis (opposite Quebec) is reached by the Quebec Central
Railway. At Lennoxville, distant three miles from Sherbrooke, connections are made with the Boston & Maine Railroad running south to the summer resort of
Newport, Vt., situated at the southern end of
Lake Memphremagog, where it connects with
the Montreal & Boston Air Line of the
Canadian Pacific Railway. Sherbrooke, the
metropolis of the English-speaking district of
the Eastern Townships, is a picturesque and attractive city, with a
population of 18,275 and possessing many busy factories. Here connection is again made with the Quebec Central to Levis, opposite Quebec.
The rapid Magog and St. Francis rivers unite their currents here, and
the falls of the Magog are well worth seeing. They provide a valuable
water power which is used for electrical development.
Game Club is located.
Rock Forest
Eastman Jct.
South Stukely
Alt. 701    Magog  is   situ-
689    ated   upon   the
shore of Lake
—a magnificent
sheet   of   water
dotted   with
manj^ islands
surrounded by rugged, heavily wooded
hills.    This lake is a justly popular
resort for summer tourists.     Its two
famous mountains—Orford and Owl's
Head, are the  most imposing of the
neighboring heights.    From
Magog a steamer makes a
circuit   of   the   lake   daily,
during  the summer season,
touching   at   all   important
points, including the fashionable   resort  of   New-
port,  Vt., at the
southern      extremity.
This cruise by steamer
forms a delightful side-
trip.   At Eastman Jct.
the Orford subdivision
of the Canadian Pacific is crossed and at
Foster j the   Drum-
gf|a| mondville   subdivision is crossed.
Market and  Church at Fredericton, N.B. Annotated    Guide
Station and Hotel, McAdam Jct., N.B
West Shefford Alt. 480
Brigham Junc. " 269
Farnham " 192
Ste. Brigide " 165
Iberville Junc. " 115
Iberville " ill
St. Johns " 116
L'Acadie " 131
St. Philippe " 117
St. Constant I 94
Adirondack Junc. " 98
Highlands " 117
Montreal Junc. " 155
Westmount " 162
Montreal (Windsor St.)
operations, costing over'
two million dollars, were
carried on without interfering in the slightest
degree with the passing of
trains. The old structure
has been removed and replaced with one twice as
wide and over four times
as heavy. On the north
shore of the St. Lawrence
we reach the pretty little
village of Highlands—
thence on to Montreal
Junction, whence .the
several lines of the Cana-
dian Pacific Railway
extend to Toronto,
Hamilton, Niagara Falls,
Buffalo, London, Detroit,
Chicago, Quebec, Ottawa,
Winnipeg, Vancouver and
Pacific Coast, Sault Ste.
Marie, St. Paul, New York
and Boston. From here
we enter the City of
Montreal and run along
elevated tracks, until the
train stops under a new
and modern train shed
and we have arrived at
the stately Windsor St.
Station of the Canadian
Pacific Railway.
At Brigham Junction   the Montreal and
Boston Air Line from the White Mountains,    Boston   and    Portland converge
with the St. John-
Montreal line; and
at Farnham the
Stanbridge and St.
Guillaume subdivi-
sion    of     the
Canadian Pacific
Railway is crossed.
At  Iberville Junction a railway runs
to   St.   Hyacinthe
and Sorel, and the
Rutland     Railway
connects from New
York,   Troy,   Burlington,    etc.     St.
Johns   (pop.   7,000)   is   a  busy  and
prettily situated town on the Richelieu River.    Crossing the  broad   St.
Lawrence by a wonderful steel bridge
a fine view is obtained up and down
the river.   Just below are the famous
Lachine Rapids.   This bridge, which is
one   of  the   largest in America,   was
considered at the time of building to
be of sufficient size and strength to
carry    the     Company's    traffic    for
some years to come.    Recently, however, so rapidly has the traffic over this
part of the line increased   that   the
Canadian Pacific has found it necessary
to double-track the structure.   These
The Haunt
of Big Fish i6
Across    Canada
Concourse, Windsor Street   Station, Montreal
ne Qz3i aim nuoBamin
(   ! jmniniinoouinrants
Montreal is but a day's or a night's ride from the principal cities of
the United States on the North Atlantic seaboard—New
York, Boston and Portland, Me.—and there is a choice of several
routes from the first-named place.
Adirondack Route, via N. Y. Central
Route I—Is by the New York Central up the east shore of the
picturesque Hudson River to Albany, N.Y.; thence via Utiea and the
attractive summer resorts of the Adirondack Mountains (Saranac
Lake, Paul Smith's, Loon Lake, etc.), crossing the St. Lawrence River
on the Canadian Pacific Bridge above the Lachine Rapids, and into
the Windsor Street Station at Montreal. This trip may be pleasantly
varied in summer by taking the steamer in the morning from New York
up the Hudson to Albany, and thence by rail as above.
Rutland Route, via Troy and Rutland
Route II—Is by the New York Central to Troy, B. & M. Troy to
White Creek and thence Rutland Railroad by way of the east shore
and islands of Lake Champlain to Iberville Junction, from which point
the trains utilize the lines of the Canadian Pacific Railway, landing
passengers in the Windsor Street Station, Montreal.
D. & H. Route, via Troy and Saratoga
Route III—Is also by the New York Central to Troy, thence
Delaware & Hudson Rd. via the west shore of Lake Champlain;-
This route can be varied in summer via steamer through Lakes George
and Champlain at an expenditure of about 12 hours' time and slight
additional cost in price of ticket. Annotated    Guide
Boston and Montreal: 341 miles
Via Montreal & Boston Air Line
Boston From  Boston there is a through service by Canadian
Newport Pacific trains. The route traverses the most interesting
Montreal parts of New England, skirts the White Mountains of
New Hampshire, and runs through the rich valleys of
Northern Vermont, with the Green Mountains in view, and along
Lake Memphremagog, and through the English settled portions of
Southern Quebec to Montreal, crossing the St. Lawrence by the
Canadian Pacific bridge, just above the city, and stopping at the
Windsor Street Station, from which transcontinental trains depart.
Portland, Me., and Montreal: 286 miles
Via the White Mountains
Portland—From Portland, the route lies through Southern Maine and
Central   New   Hampshire,   entering   the   famed   White
Mountains at North Conway, and crossing the startling Crawford
Notch to Fabyans and Lunenburg, and thence
to St. Johnsbury, Vt., from which the same route as
from Boston is followed to Montreal. Maine Central
trains run from Portland to St. Johnsbury, where
connection is made with Boston & Maine and
Canadian Pacific trains,
St. Johnsbury
Montreal—During the summer months through sleeping and parlor
cars   are   run   between   Kennebunkport,   Old   Orchard,
Portland and Montreal.
C.P.R. Headquarters,   Windsor Street Station,  Montreal iS
|   JiauEiairjiBUflHBCraasisaonusiri!
D m! KnMQ HiuMMcnuiauaoi w uuniDi hu uduk}| uiinna
■'      □
VANCOUVER, B.C., 2898 miles
i m fflOKi iKtnumn mnmna i mairaisD i an im kj uv. m
Montreal—(Windsor Street Station). # AU. 109 ft. Population (with
suburbs), 562,801. The chief city and commercial capital
of Canada is situated on an island formed by the St. Lawrence and
Ottawa Rivers, and on the site of the ancient Indian village of
Hochelaga, visited by Jacques Cartier in 1535. A trading-post was
established here by the French 250 years ago; and this-was the last place
yielded by the French to the British in 1760. For many years it was
the chief centre of the fur trade. Atlantic steamships of the Canadian
Pacific, Allan, Donaldson, Canadian Northern, White Star-Dominion,
and other well-known lines run here. The St. Lawrence River and canals
bring this way much of the trade of the Great Lakes. Recently the city
has gained prominence by being the location of the largest floating
dry dock in the world. Numerous railway lines, mostly controlled by the
Canadian Pacific and Grand Trunk Companies, radiate from here
in all directions. Both these companies have their principal offices
and workshops here, and both have great bridges over the St. Lawrence
River. The city has a far-reaching trade, and great manufacturing
establishments; has seven miles of fine wharves of masonry, vast
warehouses and grain elevators; imposing public buildings, handsome
residences and superior hotels, one of the best of which is the Place
Viger Hotel, which is connected with the C. P. R.'s new Place Viger
Station, and operated by the Company. The Canadian Pacific's
other station, the Windsor, is the largest building of its kind in Canada.
It is a huge grey stone structure, built on the most modern lines and
equipped with every facility for the operation of the railway and the
comfort of the public. Here are located the head offices of the
company. From the Windsor Street Station trains leave for Toronto,
Detroit, Chicago, St. John, N.B., Halifax, New York, Boston, Portland,
Sault Ste. Marie, Duluth. St. Paul, Minneapolis, Winnipeg and
Vancouver; and for Ottawa by the Short Line. From the Place Viger
Station trains run to Ottawa by the North Shore Line, to Quebec,
Mont-Laurier in the Laurentian Mountains, and local points. In
Montreal are the Angus Shops of the Canadian Pacific where the
] Company builds and maintains a great proportion of its rolling stock.
These shops cover an area of 200 acres and are claimed to be the largest
and most modernly eouipped shops on the continent. Connected
with them are a free school for apprentices, a library, lunch rooms, where
good meals can be obtained at reasonable prices, a fire brigade, police
force, ambulance corps, an athletic association and many other features
of a similar nature, all fostered by the Railway for the purpose of
furthering the welfare of its employees. These shops employ over six
thousand men and turn out a complete new train every working day.
Westmount is a beautiful residential surburb in the slopes of Mount Royal
All transcontinental trains depart from
Westmount Alt. 152      the   Windsor   St.   Station,   and   run
Montreal Junc.        "    155     through to the Pacific Coast without
change. The railway lines through the
city are on a high stone viaduct, and thence on the brow of an embankment until Montreal Junction is reached, where the lines to New York,
Boston and New England points, and the Maritime Provinces, via the
St. Lawrence bridge, diverge, and then strike west through a beautiful
and highly cultivated district sloping down on the St. Lawrence River,
along the bank of which an almost continuous village extends from
Western Junction to Ste. Anne's. Thousands of Montreal people live
here in summer. A little beyond Montreal Junction the old village of
Lachine on Lake St. Louis, an expansion of the River St. Lawrence,
is seen at the left; and above the trees,
further to the left, a view is had of the great
steel bridge built by the Canadian Pacific
Railway Company across that noble
stream (see page 15). Lachine was for
a long time the point of departure of the early trading military expedi-
Alt.   88
«      98
u    108 Indicates Double Track
Across     Canada
A It.   97
"     92
"    104
tions; and it was from here that Duquesne set out in 1754 to seize the
Ohio Valley—an expedition that culminated in the defeat of Braddock.
iust beyond Montreal Junction is Sortin, where the Canadian Pacific
as built immense new railway yards.
One of the five mouths of the Ottawa River
Ste. Anne's AU. 116 is crossed by a fine steel bridge at Ste. Anne's,
Vaudreuil       "     85     at  the   head   of   the   Island   of   Montreal.
Directly under the bridge are the locks by
means of which steamboats going up the Ottawa are lifted over the
rapids. Ste. Anne's was once the home of the poet Moore, and is the
scene of his well-known Canadian Boat-Song. Here are the splendid
buildings of the Macdonald Agricultural College. At Vaudreuil, the
transcontinental road for over ten miles skirts the south side of the
pretty Lake of Two Mountains, on whose shores are the fashionable
resorts of Como, Hudson and Hudson Height ■. On
the opposite shore of the lake is established the
famous Trappist Monastery whose silent inmates
are largely engaged in agriculture and dairying.
At Rigaud, on the left, is seen Rigaud Mountain,
near whose summit is a curious deposit of stones—a bare, desolate,
isolated spot around which vegetation is luxuriant. There is the usual
legend of its being the Devil's Playground. From here a branch line
extends seven miles northward to Point Fortune, a summer resort on
the shores of the Ottawa River. Five and a half miles beyond Rigaud
the Province of Ontario is entered. St. Eugene, a very flourishing
French-Canadian town, is the first station passed in Ontario, and eleven
miles beyond is Vankleek, a thriving English-Canadian town.   Caledonia
Springs is a favorite health resort on
account of the medicinal properties ot
its waters, a fact which has l~d the
Canadian Pacific Railway to operate
here one of its magnificent chain of
hotels,   and   beyond   it   are   several
villages of recent birth which were
brought into existence by the construction of this section of the C. P. R.
Before reaching Ottawa, the Rideau
River, which connects Lake Ontario  at Kingston with the political
capital, is crossed, and the banks of the Rideau canal are followed to
the Sparks Street station in the heart of the city.
Ottawa—Alt. M4 ft. Pop. 100,000. The Federal Capital of the
Dominion of Canada is picturesquely situated at the
junction of the Rideau River with the Ottawa. The Chaudiere Falls,
which here interrupt the navigation of the Ottawa River, afford water-
power for a host of sawmills and other manufactories. Vast quantities
of lumber are made here from logs floated down from the Ottawa River
and its tributaries. The city stands on high ground and contains many
fine residences, the Royal Mint, Victoria Museum, large hotels, etc.
The stately Government buildings, however, overshadow all. Rideau
Hall, the residence of the Governor-General, is in the city limits.   Many
improvements have
been made in Ottawa during the
last few years, now
the most picturesque capital in the
world. The Driveways in and about
the city are unexcelled. Ottawa
possesses charms of
situation and surroundings of which
every Canadian
may well be proud.
From here the
■ Maniwaki Subdivi-
Caledonia  Springs Hotel
St. Eugene
Caledonia Springs
'■^frgtp Annotated    Gui
sion runs north to the town of Maniwaki, and opens up the sporting
possibilities of the Gatineau and its tributary streams and lakes. The
Waltham subdivision, along which the sportsman may find the best
of fishing and abundance of game, also runs from this point. A subdivision of the Canadian Pacific Railway extends southward to Prescott,
on the St. Lawrence, where ferry connection is made with Ogdensburg!
N.Y., and rail lines to New York.
i -~  H
■» r' l—T,  s
Parliament Buildings,  Ottawa
Bells Corners
Leaving Ottawa (Sparks St. Station) the
railway crosses the Ottawa River on the
Royal Alexandra Bridge and skirts the
city of Hull (population 18,500), and again
crossing the Ottawa a couple of miles up
stream returns to the vity and enters the
Broad St. Station. In the passage over the two bridges, good views are
obtained of the city and of the Ottawa River. The railway follows the .
south bank of the Ottawa River for a distance, and on its wide
stretches may be seen enormous quantities of saw-logs held in
"booms" for the use of the mills below.
Carleton Place (Junction)—Alt. 448ft- Population4,000. Junction
of a subdivision running south to
Brockville on the St. Lawrence River, crossing the Montreal and
Toronto line at Smith's Falls. At Carleton Place are large woollen
factories, stove foundry and railway and other workshops.
Proceeding from Carleton Place, the line
takes a north-westerly course, still following
the beautiful Ottawa Valley, which, to
Pembroke and beyond, is well cultivated by
English, Scotch and German farmers. Large,
clear streams come rushing down to the
Ottawa from the hills at the west, and these,
and the Ottawa as well, afford fine fishing—
maskinonge, trout and bass being common.
There are frequent bright and busy manufacturing towns, and sawmills occur at
favorable places all along the river. -At
Almonte (pop. 3,600) are_ large woollen
-Srhflls and other manufactories.    Pakenham
Sand Point
Snake River
417 22
Across    Canada
{pop. 2,200) and Arnprior (pop. 4,395) are also
important manufacturing points, the latter municipality having large saw mills employing over 800
men and manufacturing 60,000,000 board measure
of pine lumber per annum. From Renfrew (pop.
4,100) a subdivision runs to Eganville, and it is also
the junction of the Kingston subdivision of the
Canadian Pacific, extending southward through a
district abounding in iron, to Kingston (at the head
of the St. Lawrence). Pembroke, population 6,500, is
one of the most important
towns in the Ottawa Valley.
It is a lumbering and industrial centre, and is surrounded by choice farming
country. Situated on Allumette Lake, an expanse of
the Ottawa River, Pembroke is an attractive residential town. A good boat service on the Ottawa
River, which is navigable for 50 miles west, affords
access to the many summer resorts in this section.
From Pembroke to Mattawa the railway continues
along the west bank of the Ottawa. Little towns are growing up around the
sawmills, which occur wherever water power is to be had. As the wilder
country is approached, opportunities for sport with gun and rod increase.
AU. 881
1 474
" 465
"    608
(Lake Superior Division)
752 miles
□miiTJiiiiauii mniiiaui u minion
Moor lake
Deux Rivieres
Chalk River—Alt. 628 ft.—is the western terminus of  the Eastern
Division and eastern terminus of the Lake Superior
Division, with an engine-house and the_usual railway buildings and
Mattawa (pop. 1,528) is an old fur-trading
post of the Hudson's Bay Company, but
at present of most importance as a
distributing point for the lumbering
districts and agricultural country about
Lake Timiskaming and Kipawa. A subdivision runs to Timiskaming and Kipawa,
and from each station famous fishing and
hunting grounds may easily be reached.
At Timiskaming there is steamer connection with Haiieybury, from
which place canoes and guides can be procured and an endless series of
trips, unsurpassed anywhere, can be made, including those to the peerless Timagami district. From Kipawa Junction there is a short line to
Kipawa, whose beautiful lake is an ideal camping ground. Game and
fish are in plenty.   This is a favorite centre for moose hunters, and
guides and supplies for shooting expeditions
may always be obtained here. An attractive
point for tourists is Lake Timiskaming, and
no more enjoyable canoeing can be imagined
than in the exploration of these waters which
abound in fish. To the south of the railway
is Algonquin Park, established by the Ontario
Government as a forest and game preserve.
At Mattawa the line leaves the Ottawa and
strikes across
toward Lake Nipis-
sing through a
somewhat wild and
broken country,
with frequent lakes
and rapid streams.
Fishing and shooting   are   excellent.
Return from  tbe Moose Hunt
Eau Claire
699 nnotated    Guide
Little villages surrounding sawmills continue to occur and newly-made
farms are not infrequent. There is pMtty of good land near by, but the
railway here, as in many other places, follows the streams and the
" breaks " in the country, and the best is not seen from the car windows.
Bonfield was originally intended as the eastern terminus of the Canadian
Pacific Railway to which connecting roads would run, but when the
control of the railway passed from jthe Canadian Government to the
present Company the transcontinental line was extended to Montreal.
North Bay—Alt. 660. ft. Pop. 7,715. The capital town of Nipissing
District, situated on Lake Nipissing, an extensive and
beautiful sheet of water, 90 miles long and 20 wide. Steamers ply on
the lake, and the district is much frequented by sportsmen. North
Bay is a railway divisional point, with,repair shops, etc. The Ontario
Government Railway, known as the Timiskaming & Northern Ontario
.    Hill
Lumbering on the  Ottawa River
Railway, runs from here to Cobalt,
Cochrane, etc., in the Timiskaming
country. This railway has been materially assisted in its traffic by mineral
discoveries made along the line of route,
the chief being the silver mines at
Cobalt. From North Bay to Heron Bay,
on Lake Superior, the line traverses a
comparatively wild region, where forests,
meadows, lakes and rocky ridges alternate. The scenery is striking and in
places extremely interesting. There are
wide intervals of good agricultural land,
and the settlements already extend for 100 miles beyond Lake Nipissing;
but timber cutting is as yet the principal industry. The lands belong
to the Province of Ontario, and are open to settlers. The large, clear,
rockbound lakes are in places so numerous that, with their connecting
arms they form a labyrinth of waters covering great areas and offering
matchless opportunities to sportsmen and canoeists. j Bear, moose ana
deer abound throughout this region, and the fishing in the many lakes
and rivers is capital. Sturgeon Falls (pop. 2,000) is a thriving town.
Leaving the station, the railway, crosses directly over the falls of the
Sturgeon River.
. 664
Sturgeon Falls
Cache Bay
Romford Junc.
841 24
Across    Canada
AU. 855
I    891
"    888
"    885
8 1879
" 1350
8 1158
8 1268
" 1883
8 1897
Woman River
8 1488
" 1888
8 1863
8 1419
Sudbury—Alt. 855 ft.   Sudbury is the junction point where the main
line from  Toronto converges  with  the  main line  from
Toronto    For descriptive notes see pages 32 and 33.
From Sudbury (pop. 6,000) the important
"Soo" Subdivision leads off to Lake
Huron, and thence along its shore and the
Ste. Marie River to Sault Ste. Marie, 179
miles, at the outlet of Lake Superior,
where an immense iron bridge affords
connection with two American railway
lines, one extending to Duluth, the other
to St. Paul and Minneapolis, and thence
on through Minnesota and North Dakota
to Moose Jaw, on the Main Line of the
Canadian Pacific Railway. Passengers
can, in summer, by taking the " Soo " train
from Montreal, travel to Sault Ste. Marie
by this line and thence take steamship to
Fort William. Within a few miles of
Sudbury, and reached by two short lines of railway, are the most
extensive copper and nickel deposits known in the world, and the vicinity
has, in the Moose Mountain Range, the largest iron range in Canada.
Large quantities of the ores have been shipped from the mines, and a
number of smelting furnaces are in operation near Sudbury reducing the
ores on the spot. Game is abundant in the neighborhood. Approaching Phelan a good view of the high falls of the Vermilion River is to be
had for a moment; and from here to Bisco the scenery is particularly
fine. Cartier is a subdivisional point, with the
usual collection of sidings and railway
structures. Bisco is situated on an extensive
and irregular lake called Biscotasing, and
has a considerable trade in furs and lumber.
Chapleau (pop. 1,250) is another subdivisional
point, with railway work-shops, and is a
bright railway town. Farming operations on
a small scale are carried on here. The town
is charmingly situated on Lake Kabequashes-
ing, the waters of which flow into James Bay.
Near Missanabie, where Dog Lake is crossed,
a short portage connects the waters flowing
southward into Lake Superior with those
flowing northward into Hudson Bay.   Furs
are brought here
from the far
north for shipment. Twelve
miles south of
Missanabie is
excellent trout
fishing. Several
mines are operated near Michipicoten on Lake
Superior. Beyond Missanabie
for sixty miles
are many very
heavy rock cuttings. White
River, in addition to buildings
common to all
On ihe shores  of Lady Evelyn Lake
White River
1045 SS   Indicates Double Track
Via Sudbury I
Across     Canada
Heron Bay
comes into full view.
stations, has yards for resting cattle en route from the Northwest 'co the
eastern market.    From White River Station the railway follows the
river of the same name to Round Lake,
and then crosses a level tract with occasional
rocky uplifts to the Pic River, which is crossed
by a high iron bridge; and a mile beyond
is Heron Bay from which for sixty miles the
line is carried through and around the bold
and harsh promontories of the north shore of
Lake Superior, with deep rock cuttings,
viaducts and tunnels constantly occurring,
and at frequent intervals, where the railway
is cut out of the face of the cliffs, the lake
No part of this wonderful scenery should be
missed by the traveller who should be on the lookout before reaching
Heron Bay. The great sweep around Jackfish Bay is particularly
fine. Jackfish is the great coaling station for ths railway on the northeast angle of Lake Superior, and near it gold and zinc mines are being
profitably operated. Beyond Schreiber (a subdivisional point and refreshment station) a chain of islands separates Nipigon Bay from Lake
Superior, and the shore of the bay is followed to and beyond Nipigon
(pop. 400). From this point trips can be made to Nipigon Lake, the
trout fishing on which and the tributary streams has been declared to
be the_ finest in the world. The Ontario Government has recently, by
Order in Council, set aside Lake Nipigon and the land for twenty miles
around it as a Forest Reserve, thus retaining the sporting advantages
of this wonderful region for the public for all
time. Between Rossport and Gravel some of the
heaviest work on the entire line of railway
occurs. The constantly changing views on
Nipigon Bay are charming. All of the streams
emptying into Lake Superior contain speckled
trout in plenty, and in some of the streams, the
Nipigon River especially, they are noted for their
large size—six-pounders being not uncommon.
Nipigon River, which is crossed by a fine iron
bridge a little before reaching the station, is a
beautiful stream, well known
to sportsmen. Everywhere
on Lake Superior, whitefish
and the large lake trout are
common. Three miles beyond Nipigon the railway
turns around the base of Red
Rock, a high bright-red cliff,
and avoiding the heads of
Black Bay and Thunder Bay,
takes a straight course for
Port Arthur, and from the
higher elevations delightful
views of Thunder Bay are to
be had.
Port Arthur—AU. 618 ft.
Pop. 15,000.
At the head of Lake Superior.
Owns its own electric railway,
light, power, telephone and
water works. Has lumber
mills, blast furnaces, large
grain elevators and coal docks.
It has substantial buildings
and hotels, wholesale houses,
extensive school system, two
magnificent hospitals, the judicial centre for district of Thunder Bay, and is the western terminus
of the Lake Superior Division of the Canadian Pacific Railway and a
port of call of its Great Lake Steamers. An electric railway connects
Port Arthur with Fort William.
. 681
On the North Shore of
.Lake Superior. Annotated    Gui
(Summer Months Only)
Montreal to Toronto, 338 miles
Toronto to Port McNicoll, 109 miles
Port McNicoll to Fort William, 550 miles
^        »
From the Windsor Street Station the run to Ste. Anne de
Bellevue and Vaudreuil is that described on the transcontinental
trip.    At Vaudreuil the Montreal & Ottawa Short Line branches
off along the Ontario bank of
the   Ottawa   River  to  the
Dominion Capital.     The St.
Lawrence curves away towards
the   south,   while   the  railway
keeps on a direct course towards
through a
with  many
and with
Alt. 177     tracts of the original forest   here
8    191      and there.   At.  St.  Polycarpe
8    225     Junction the Grand Trunk Railway
I    225     is  crossed,   and  at   Kempton  the
8    251      Prescott   subdivision   of   the Can-
|    279     adian   Pacific   Railway,   extending
8    267      northward to Ottawa and south-
1    298     ward to Prescott, where connection
8    328     is   made   during   summer   months
8    824      with    the    River    St.    Lawrence
8    273      steamers, and during summer and
8    238      winter   by   ferry   with   the   New
8    247      York   Central   &   Hudson   River
"     ...      Railroad for all important points
8    273     in New York State.    At Merrick-
8    ...      ville, a considerable manufacturing
8    852      town, a fine iron bridge carries the
line over the Rideau River.
OJne   of  a   Thousand   Waterways
St. Clet
St. Polycarpe Junc.
St. Telesphore
Dalhousie Mills
Glen Norman
Glen Valley
Apple Hill
Avon more
Smiths Falls—Alt. 428ft. Pop. 6,861.
Junction with Ottawa
and Brockville subdivision of the
Canadian Pacific
Railway; and
at Carleton
Place, 13 miles
northward, with
the transcontinental line of the
Canadian Pacific
Railway. The
town has a number of important
for   which   falls
in the Rideau River afford ample water-power. Superior bricks are
made here and good building-stone abounds. There are excellent
refreshment rooms at the station.
Macdonald College,  Ste. Anne  de Bellevue 28
Across    Canada
Elmsley—Alt. 438.
Perth—Alt. 488. Pop. 4,600. A prosperous town with a number of
mills. Quarries of fine building stone
and deposits of mineral phosphates are
worked in the vicinity. The town is
modern and has modern lighting and
water systems.    For 100 miles beyond
the counr
Sharbot Lake
Mountain Grove
Central Ont. Junc.
try is
more or
less broken by
rocky uplifts and
with timber. Iron,
p h o s -
phate, asbestos and other valuable minerals abound.
Just west of Perth the Canadian Pacific has
completed work on its new line from Montreal to Toronto via the Lake
Shore, opening up a picturesque and fertile agricultural district hitherto
somewhat neglected. The new line leaves the present main line, which
is double tracked from Montreal, a distance of 144 miles, at Glen
Tay, about 15 miles from Smiths Falls. Leaving Glen Tay, the
line travels south-westerly to Belleville. There it strikes almost due
west for a few miles, and then follows the shore of Lake Ontario to
Agincourt, a point on the present main line, 13 miles east of Toronto.
It is about 200 miles from Glen Tay to Toronto by the new route, and
the new line will enable the Canadian Pacific Railway to lower considerably the time for its Montreal-Toronto service. The Kingston
subdivision of the Canadian Pacific, from Kingston on the St. Lawrence
to Renfrew on the main line of the Canadian Pacific Railway, is crossed
at Sharbot Lake, a favorite resort of sportsmen, and especially noted for
the good fishing it affords. Close connections are made here by Canadian Pacific Railway day trains from east and west for Kingston, via
that branch, on the fine of which are many picturesque spots. Tweed,
on the Moira River, a logging stream, is a busy town in the centre of a
rich farming and dairying district. Connection is here made with the
Bay of Quinte Railway from Tamworth, Napanee and Deseronto (and •
Kingston by day train from the West). Central Ontario Junction is at
the crossing of the Central Ontario Railway, extending from Picton and
Trenton on Bay of Quinte northward to a number of large and extensively •
worked iron mines.    Havelock is a railway
subdivisional point, with the usual buildings.
At Norwood a fine farming country is reached, for which this is the market town.
Pop. 20,000.    On the Otonabee River, which
here falls 150 feet within a few miles, affording an immense
water power, which is utilized by many large mills and manufactories.
The city is well built and has a large trade.   The surrounding country
has extraordinary attractions for sportsmen and pleasure seekers.
Beautiful lakes, rivers and waterfalls occur in all directions, and the
fishing is especially good. The
Peterboro or  Rice   Lake
canoe, so well known to all
sportsmen, is made here, and
with one of them a
great  extent  of
territory may be
reached from this
point.     Steamship
and  Railway lines
radiate from here
in all directions.
Locks at   Peterboro
Indian River
AU. 700
8 671
"    709
Peterboro—AU. 683 ft.
^8SS nnotated    Guide
Man vers
Burketon June,,
Glen Major
Locust Hill
Leaside Junc.
Toronto (Union Stn.)
At Bethany Junction, near Peter-
AU.   645 boro, a branch line of the railway
8      968 from Port McNicoll on Georgian
8    1067 Bay,  connects  with   the main
8    1057 line.   The stations following are
"      888 centres for a  fine   agricultural
8      845 country.   Wheat, rye, oats, bar-
8      886 ley, butter, cheese and fruit are
"      667 largely    produced,   and   much
8      668 attention   is   given   to   cattle
8      4®9 raising.    From Burketon Junc-
8      252 tion   a subdivision of the Can-
  adian  Pacific  Railway runs to
8      254 Lindsay  and Bobcaygeon  and
the  Kawartha
Lake District.
Toronto (pop. 475,296), the capital and chief town
of Ontario, and the next city to Montreal
in the Dominion, is situated on Lake Ontario, and
has a most complete railway system, reaching out
to every important place and district in the province.
It has immense manufacturing establishments, and
some of the largest commercial
houses in the country. Its educational institutions are widely
known. Its people are nearly all
of English or Scotch extraction,
and while the city has strongly
marked English characteristics,
it is distinctively western in the
intensity of its activity and
energy. The Canadian Pacific,
Grand Trunk and Canadian
Northern Railways radiate from
here in all directions, and on
Lake Ontario many fine trips can
be made by steamer, including
a visit to Niagara Falls, via
Queenston or Lewiston and
trolley car. Canadian Pacific
trains run via Hamilton and
Welland to Niagara Falls and
Buffalo, making close connection for Rochester, Syracuse, Troy, Albany and New
York. At West Toronto
the London, Owen Sound
and Muskoka subdivisions
of the Canadian Pacific
Railway diverge, the former
extending to London and
Detroit, connecting at the
latter point with the Wabash Rd. for St. Louis, Chicago and other western United States
points. The Muskoka line runs through the lovely Muskoka lakes
and Georgian Bay districts to summer vacation resorts such as Point
au Baril, with its two thousand islands, and to the famous fishing
grounds of French and Pickerel River, connecting with the Montreal-
Vancouver transcontinental route at Sudbury, and the other during
the summer connecting at Owen Sound with one of the Canadian
Pacific Great Lakes Steamships for Sault Ste. Marie, Port Arthur and
Fort William.
Parkdale—Alt. 805 ft. The train to connect with the Great Lakes
Steamships leaves the Union Station, Toronto, and passes
through Parkdale, one of Toronto's fine residential suburbs, and West
Toronto, a busy manufacturing city, now really part of the city
C.P.R.  Office, Toronto 30
Across    Canada
Alt. 4%7
"  520
"   554
"   629
"   700
" '885
Some of the finest farm lands ot Ontario are passed and many fine
orchards are seen from the train. At Bolton the Owen Sound and
Muskoka lines divide—the former running through an old settled and
prosperous farming country to the port of Owen Sound, while the latter
takes a more northward route, passing through the prosperous
villages of Tottenham, Alliston, Beeton, Utopia, Craighurst, etc., to
Coldwater Junction where the transcontinental line is left and the
journey continued over the new branch line to Port McNicoll on
the   shores of the famous   Georgian   Bay,  with its thirty thousand
Islands. Port McNicoll is a natural
port and lately adopted as the
Eastern terminus of the Canadian
Pacific Railway Company's Great Lakes
fleet. Large grain elevators, a huge
movable crane and all the latest facilities go to make this new port one of
the finest on the Great Lakes. Fishing
and shooting in the vicinity are good,
and the boating among the Islands
cannot be surpassed. The steamships
of the Canadian Pacific Railway
Company, with their spacious decks,
airy cabins, daintily furnished ladies'
rooms, splendid smoking rooms, and
commodious dining rooms start from
here on the westward trip, sailing
through the Georgian Bay archipelago
to the open waters of Lake 5tiuron.
Sault Ste. Marie, Ont.—Alt. 688 ft.   Pop. 15,000.    Passengers may
go ashore here while the vessels pass through
the locks. Situated on the banks of the beautiful and romantic St.
Mary's river, at a point where the flow from Lake Superior to Lake
Huron is obstructed by tossing and tumbling rapids, is located the
industrial city of Sault Ste. Marie. It has, within the last ten years,
sprung from what lacked little of being a wilderness to its present size
and importance on the industrial and commercial map. The city is
surrounded with a halo of interest from the early times of the Hudson's
Bay Company .to the present, when the material results of the
greatest feats of engineering to be seen on the Continent attract the
Humber                 A It. 880
Cedar Mills
Beeton                     '
Baxter                     '
Craighurst               '
Coldwater Junc.    '
Coldwater               '
Fesserton                 '
Port McNicoll
680 Annotated    Guide
eyes of the thousands of visitors who come annually in search of
recreation and health. Hour after hour it is possible for one to see the
great passenger and freight boats pass through the locks.
The Canfaian Government lock is nine hundred feet long and sixty
feet wide. It is the longest in the world to-day. It was built in 1888-
1895 at a cost of about $4,000,000.
Of equal interest to both citizens
and visitors are the great industries
of the Lake Superior Corporation. Connection ii
here made with the Soo-
Pacific Line which leaves
the Canadian Pacific
Transcontinental route at Sudbury, crosses the
Rapids of St.
Mary's on a
magnificent iron
bridge, and runs
westward to
Gladstone,   St.
C.T?TR.   Great Lakes Steamer
Paul and Minneapolis, and after traversing the
States of Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota and North Dakota, rejoins
the Transcontinental route near Moose Jaw, in Western Canada.
Connection is also made with the Duluth, South Shore & Atlantic
Railway for Duluth and points on the South Shore of Lake Superior,
and steamers for Lake Superior (South Shore), Michigan, Huron and
Erie. From the "Soo," enjoyable side trips may be made to the
Desbarats Islands, on the north shore of Lake Huron, Mackinac, etc.,
etc., and the Michipicoten gold fields on Lake Superior.
Port Arthur—See page 26.
For Route west of Fort William see Transcontinental Rail Route,
page 34.    It is at Fort William that the Lake and Rail routes unite.
Steamship route is during season of navigation only, from about the
middle of April to the end of November, weather and water permitting,
Sailings are subject to change without notice.
While water is low on Lake Superior, steamers may omit Port
Arthur, calling only at Fort William. In such cases ticket holders
to Port Arthur or beyond will be supplied, if they so desire, with rail
transportation between Fort William and Port Arthur.
Elevators  and  Harbor,  Port   McNicoll I >
Across    Canada
1237 miles
(Via the Georgian Bay & Muskoka Route)
West Toronto
AU. 254- The Georgian Bay and Muskoka route
" 805 via C. P. short line to Winnipeg from
" 894 Toronto not only brings these two cities
within 38 hours of each other, but opens
up a virgin tourist region which possesses innumerable attractions to
the sportsman, and which will soon be the summer home of thousands.
The line runs through portions of the old settled agricultural districts of the counties of York and Peel and the
full length of the historic county of Simcoe.
Bolton—Alt. 848 ft. Passing through North Parkdale
and West Toronto, which are growing in importance as manufacturing centres, and several other
pleasantly located towns, the line diverges at Bolton from
the O'fren Sound line, and at Coldwater Junction crosses the
road just lately built by
Coldwater Junc.
Severn Falls
AU. 727 the Canadian Pacific,
682 from Port McNicoll to
688 Bethany Junction on the
Toronto-Montreal Main
Line, which is a great grain route from the West. Crossing
the Severn River the wilds of Muskoka are entered, and
for miles the forests and lakes and rocks of this picturesque
region furnish pretty views. There are falls on the Severn
River, and at Bala, on the Muskosh River, both cataracts
of no ordinary beauty.
Bate Falls—Alt. 755.   Pop. 800.
Muskoka Lakes—Bala is the gateway to the great clustering
Muskoka Lakes, through which thousands of
tourists enter the "Killarney of America'  every summer.   The
island dotted Bala Bay is a magnificent sheet of
water, and in it and the surrounding waters is
excellent fishing.  Through the many lakes communication is established during the season of
navigation by the splendidly equipped steamers
of the Muskoka Lakes Navigation &
Hotel Company.
^&3»    '
U. 790ft. A subdivisional
point, is the station for all
points  on Lake Joseph, one of the
largest of the Muskoka Lakes, which
can also be
reached from
Gordon Bay,
a n other
On Lake Muskoke Annotated    Guide
Parry Sound—Alt. 686 ft. Pop. 4,000. The road at Parry Sound skirts
the shores of Georgian Bay, giving admirable views
of that great inland water, which has 30,000 islands among its other
attractions. The town is reached by a steel viaduct 1,700 feet long
and 120 feet above the valley
of the Seguin River which
furnishes power to a municipal
plant which supplies light and
power at extremely cheap rates.
Parry Sound is a growing town,
and the advent of the C. P. Ry.
has greatly increased its
Point au Baril—Alt. 642. One
of the beauty
spots of the region is Point au
Baril, a very attractive vacation
resort with excellent hotels, from
which splendid views of the
Georgian Bay archipelago are also
Byng Inlet—Alt. 628 ft. Pop.
1,200. Is located
in an arm of Georgian Bay, and
has a splendid harbor with
water deep enough to float the
largest ships. Lumbering operations are here, as elsewhere along
the line, extensively carried on.
Return from the  Hunt
The French  River, which, with the Pickerel
River, gives the outflow of Lake Nipissing into
Georgian Bay, is crossed on a splendid structure
with a span of 415 feet.   Rocks of the glacial period are prevalent from
here north. At Romford the main
Romford June. Alt. 848 transcontinental line of the C. P. Ry.
Sudbury *    865     is reached, and its tracks are followed
on the way west to Sudbury and around
the north shore of Lake Superior to Winnffliig and Vancouver.
For description of the route between Sudbury and Pacific Coast see
pages 24 and 25.
Around Jack Fish Bay
North Shore of Lake
Superior 34
Across    Canada
C. P. R. Station at Port Arthur
wnnanmmmjnnnr nn nicraimnrnnirmnmircaii urn ui an n i imiorin mi;
684 miles (Manitoba Division)
911 nmannnatoiiiraHiraaaBWi □Bhoiiiioi
Fort William
Population 25,000. At the mouth of the
Kaministikwia River, a broad, deep stream
with firm banks, affording extraordinary
advantages for lake traffic. The fine steel
lake steamships of the Canadian Pacific Line oly between here and
Port McNicoll (see pages 30 and 31).
At Fort William westbound passengers should set their watches back
one hour, in conformity with "Central" standard time.
From the beauty of situation, accessibility and the opportunities
for sport in the neighborhood, Fort William and Port Arthur have
become favorite resorts for tourists. A long promontory of basaltic rock
on the opposite side of the bay, called the "Sleeping Giant," whose
Indian legend takes one back to aboriginal days, terminates in Thunder
Cape, behind which lies the abandoned Silver Islet mine, which
yielded almost fabulous wealth before it was flooded. Pie Island, another
mountain of columnar basalt, divides the entrance to the bay, which
is flanked on the west by Mount Mackay, overlooking Fort William.
Looking west, tetween Pie Island and Thunder Cape, Isle Royale, a
popular summer resort, may be seen in the distance. Fort William was
formerly a very important Hudson's Bay Company's post, and was the
great rendezvous of the hunters, voyageurs and chief factors of the
Company. The fur house of the old fort is now used as an engine
house. The harbour is noted for its great coal docks and large grain
elevators. These elevators have a combined capacity of nearly
30,000,000 bushels of grain. The new million dollar coal dock of the
Canadian Pacific on the McKellar River at this point is one of the
best equipped structures of its kind on the continent. The river has
been dredged out so that the largest freighters plying the Great Lakes
can have easy access to the dock, which has a storage capacity of over
two million tons of coal. The machinery operated by electricity is capable
of unloading a ten thousand ton freight steamer in ten hours, and the coal
can be transferred to cars for shipment by rail in equally fast time.   There
Grain Elevator at Fort William Annotated     Guide
are railway workshops and the usual
buildings   and   sidings   incident   to   a
divisional point.    From Fort William to
Winnipeg  the railway traverses a wild
broken region, with  rapid  rivers  and
many   lakes,   but   containing  valuable
forests and mineral deposits.   Murillo is
the railway   station   for   the   Rabbit
Mountain    silver    district,   and   four
miles from the station are the
Kakabeka Falls, where the Kaministikwia leaps from a height
rivalling that  of   Niagara.     The falls are best  reached   from
Fort William by railway.   The railway follows im this river to
Kaministikwia, and then ascends the
Mattawan and Wabigoon rivers. There
is excellent trout fishing near all the
stations as far as Finmark. At Eagle two
beautiful falls are seen, one above and
the other below the railway. The scenery
is of the wildest description and deep
rockbound lakes are always in sight. The
Sawbill mining country is reached from
Bonheur station by Government waggon
road. Wabigoon (pop. 250) is the point
of departure for the Manitou mining
region, and the Lower Seine and Rainy
Lake country can be reached by this
route. Steamers operate on these
waters during navigation, and in winter
there is a good sleigh road. At Dryden
(pop. 840) the Ontario Government has
established an experimental farm, there
being large areas of good land especially
suited for mixed farming and dairying.
Settlement is progressing rapidly, the
chief advantages of the district, besides
the facility with which the land is cleared, being the proximity of good
markets, the illimitable supply of timber and water, abundance of fish
and game, winter employment for settlers in the lumber camps, and
healthiness of the climate. Kenora (pop. 6,159), at the principal
outlet of the Lake of the Woods. This district
is one of the finest summer resorts in America.
The Tourist Hotel is a first class modern house.
Kenora is an important mining centre with
several large sawmills, the product of which
is shipped westward to the prairies. It is the key to the gold fields now
being developed in its immediate vicinity and in the Rainy Lake and
Seine River districts to the south, which are reached by steamer, the
route lying through one of the most picturesque regions on the continent. The Lake of the Woods is the largest body of water touched
by the railway between Lake Superior and the Pacific. Its fisheries are
very valuable, the annual shipments being large. The lake is studded
with beautiful islands. Its waters break through a narrow rocky rim at
Kenora and Keewatin, and fall into the Winnipeg River. Near Keewatin
are. the immense works of the Keewatin Power Co., creating one of the
Eagle River
Vermilion Bay
Hawk Lake
1182 36
Across    Canada
greatest water-powers in the world,
making of the Lake of the Woods a
gigantic mill-pond with an area of 3,000
square miles, and affording most convenient sites for pulpmills, sawmills,
flouring mills and other establishments for
supplying the needs of Western Canada
and manufacturing its products on their
way to eastern markets. At Keewatin a
mammoth flour mill, built of granite quarried on the spot, is owned and operated
by the Lake of the Woods Milling Co.
Numerous pretty lakes are passed, and Manitoba is entered j ust after
leaving Ingolf. At Whitemouth, where settlement is reaching large
proportions, sawmills again occur, and beyond, to Red River, the country
flattens out and gradually assumes the characteristics of the prairie.
From Molson, a subdivision runs to Lac du Bonnet. The main line
runs via Norquay and Hazeiridge, and at St. Boniface (pop. 9,000)
the Red River is crossed by a long iron bridge and Winnipeg is reached.
Entrance to Rotunda, Royal Alexandra Hote 1-  Winnipeg S  Indicates Double Track
Across    Canada
Main Street, Winnipeg
Alt. 761. Population
200,000. Capital of the Province of Manitoba, formerly
known as Ft. Garry (pop. in
1871, 100). Situated at the
confluence of the Red and
Assiniboine rivers, both navigable by steamboats, it has
been, for many years, the
chief post of the Hudson's
Bay Company, which has
here very extensive establishments. Winnipeg commands
the trade of the vast region
to the north, east and west.
The city is handsomely built,
superior brick and stone being
available, and has sixty miles
of electric railway in the city
and forty-four miles of suburban track, parks, hospital,
great flouring mills, grain
elevators, huge abattoirs,
many notable public buildings, including Provincial
and Dominion offices,
and is the greatest grain market in the British Empire. The Royal
Alexandra, owned and operated by the Canadian Pacific Railway, ranks
amongst the finest hotels in the world. It was erected at a cost of
$1,250,000, has been extended to twice its original size, and is most
handsomely decorated and furnished. The hotel is adjacent to tne
Company's Railway Station, which is also a magnificent building.
Immense workshops of the Canadian Pacific Railway are here, and the
railway has also in this city the two largest train yards in the world.'
One yard, which has been completed for several years, has 110 miles of
track. The second is even larger, as it includes seventy tracks of a
total mileage of 183 miles. In connection with this yard development
the Canadian Pacific has a transfer elevator of a million bushels
capacity. Land offices of the railway are located in the city, and here
also are the chief Western Immigration offices of the Government,
and the immigration sneds. The C. P. R. owns large areas of good
agricultural land, and has a comprehensive colonization policy for
facilitating the settlement of practical farmers. A number of ready-
made farms are prepared each year, and loans of live stock are made to
experienced farmers settling on C. P. R. lands between Winnipeg and the
Rocky Mountains. Sectional maps and pamphlets giving valuable information as to the nature and character of the lands traversed by the
road are supplied to those who desire them free of cost by the Land
Branch of _ the Department of Natural Resources. Agents at all points
along the line can give full information and prices of the Company's lands
in the vicinity of the respective stations. The Canadian Pacific Railway
has two subdivisions leading southward on either side of the Red River
to Emerson and Gretna, on the U. S. boundary, connecting at the former
point with the train service of the Soo Line for St. Paul and Minneapolis.
Two subdivision lines of the Canadian Pacific Railway go southwest,
Harvest on the Canadian Prairies Annotated     Guide
the first to Arcola in Saskatchewan, thence to Regina through the
Moose Mountain country, a section now being rapidly settled, and the
second to Napinka in Southern Manitoba, connecting at Souris and
Napinka with
Bergen AU. 781    the   subdivision
Rosser "    795   from  Brandon
Meadows "    790   through to Este
Marquette        "    805   van, the junction
Reaburn "   804   with the new
Poplar Point    "    812   Soo-Pacific line;
High Bluff       1    827   and   two   other
run north and north-west, one to Selkirk,
Winnipeg Beach, a summer resort 50
miles from Winnipeg and Gimli; and the
other to Stony Mountain, Stonewall and
Teulon, 40 miles north of the city. Though
the country here is apparently as level as
a billiard table, there is really an ascent
of 100 feet from Winnipeg to Portage la
Prairie. Fort  Garry
There is a belt of fertile land west of Winnipeg, and from Rosser as
far as Poplar Point the scattered farms visible are chiefly devoted to
dairy products and cattle breeding. Beyond Poplar Point farms
appear almost continuously. The line of trees not far away on the
south marks the course of the Assiniboine River, which the railway
follows for 130 miles. Reaburn is half way between Montreal and
Vancouver. Long Lake, a favorite resort for sportsmen, is passed
after leaving Reaburn.
Portage la Prairie—Alt. 85 ft. Pop. 7,000. On the Assiniboine
River. The market town of a rich and populous
district, and one' of the principal grain markets in the province. It has
large flour mills and grain elevators, a brick plant, foundry, machine
shops, a biscuit factory and several other industries. The northwest
subdivision of the Canadian Pacific Railway branches off from here,
towards Saskatoon and Edmonton.
Via Portage la Prairie on the Great West Express
Mtxu nun u ouiutiiw aiiiuuiima ritiiiiiwiQimu 11 iiiiauutm uiiniumn mioiiii inmnrninitiuiic Q
Generally speaking, the main line of the Canadian Pacific Railway
means the transcontinental line between Montreal and Vancouver.
But there is really another main line which is that portion of the system
over which the through trains between Winnipeg and Edmonton are
All trains on this line start from Winnipeg and follow the transcontinental main line to Portage la Prairie, 56 miles west. From
Portage la Prairie the line branches in a northwesterly direction and
follows that general direction the complete distance to Wetaskiwin,
where it joins the Calgary-Edmonton line and goes directly north into
This entire Winnipeg-Edmonton main line passes through some of
the most productive country in all the prairie provinces and has on its
line some of the most progressive towns and cities.    It is a gently
'*n - 40
Across    Canada
rolling prairie most of the entire 849 miles Yorkton is one city making
substantial progress. At Saskatoon (population 20,000), the largest
city between Winnipeg and Edmonton, the line crosses the South
Saskatchewan River, and at Edmonton it crosses the North Saskatchewan River on a high level bridge, recently completed at a cost of over
a million dollars and giving it an entrance into that city on Jasper
avenue almost in the centre of the city.
The company has also just completed a fine new office building in
Edmonton, where the ticket and telegraph offices are housed in a six
story structure, that is the pride of the people of the city. A new office
building has also just been completed in Saskatoon for the better
housing of the company's offices.
At Minnedosa the branch line from Brandon joins this line, and at
Lanigan, an important branch from Kirkella, on the transcontinental
line, joins the Winnipeg-Edmonton line. Further west, at Colonsay,
comes in the branch from Moose Jaw and Regina, and at Macklin
another line from Moose Jaw, known as the Outlook branch, makes a
direct connection. At Wilkie, also short branches running north, west
and south of a rich wheat country. By way of the Outlook branch
passengers can make close and direct connection between the twin cities
of St. Paul and Minneapolis and Edmonton, it being a continuation
of the line running from North Portal to Moose Jaw. It will thus be
seen that the opening of the country between the two main lines has
all the time been the aim of the company.
For a line passing through a prairie country the Winnipeg-Edmonton
line has more of scenery than generally falls to a purely agricultural
country. At Wynyard there is a beautiful body of water, Quill Lake, 40
miles in length, the railway passing close to its shore for many miles, and
in the valley of the North Saskatchewan River there is an ever-pleasing
change to the rise and fall of the land on either side. Near Wolfe in
Saskatchewan and Sedgewick in Alberta are successful Ready Made
Farm Colonies established by the Canadian Pacific for British settlers.
Edmonton Population 67,000, is the capital of the Province of
Alberta, and is situated on both banks of the north
Saskatchewan River. That part to the south was originally known as
the city of Strathcona, but was amalgamated with Edmonton two years
ago. The C. P. R. enters Edmonton now by means of a magnificent
steel high-level bridge, 2,550 feet long, 152 feet above water level,
which carries also street car tracks and traffic roads. This was opened
in the summer cf 1913. Edmonton was established as a trading post
of the Hudson's Bay Company in 1795, and the remains of the old fort
are still standing on the same bluff overlooking the river as
the splendid Parliament Buildings of the Province of
Alberta, opened last year. The University of Albeita, the
Robertson Presbyterian College, and many other educational institutions are situated here. Two other great
transportation systems operate into Edmonton. The city
is run on very progressive municipal lines, and owns and
operates all its own public utilities; and it was one of the
pioneer cities of Western Canada to bring into
force a single tax system of land assessment.
It is the distributing centre for the vast
Peace River country to the north and
north-west, and is  also   the   centre  of  an
important and
rapidly developing
coal industry, the
production of mines
in  and  around
£-» -;
Saskatoon University Annotated     Guide
Resuming our description of the scenery traversed along the Main
Line of the Canadian Pacific Railway, between Portage la Prairie and
Brandon stations succeed one another at
intervals of five or eight miles, and many of
them are surrounded by bright and busy
towns; and at nearly all are tall and massive
elevators, with now and then a flour mill.
From MacGregor a subdivision extends 56
miles to Varcoe. After passing through a
bushy district, with frequent ponds and
small streams, containing many stock farms,
for which it is peculiarly adapted, the
railway rises from Austin along a sandy
slope to a plateau, near the centre of which
is situated Carberry (pop. 1,200), an important grain market. From
Seweil it descends again to the valley of the Assiniboine. The Brandon
Hills are seen towards the southwest. From Chater, the Miniota
Subdivision of the Canadian Pacific Railway, running northwestward
towards the Saskatchewan country, is operated to Miniota, a distance
of 71 miles. Four miles beyond Chater the Assiniboine is crossed by
an iron bridge and Brandon is soon reached.
Brandon—Alt. 1,199 ft. Pop. 18,000. A divisional point; one of the
largest grain markets in Manitoba, and the distributing
market for an extensive and well settled country. It has grain elevators,
flouring mills, planing mills, ten banks, etc. The city is beautifully
situated on high ground, sloping up from the Assiniboine River. It
has a central steam heating system which greatly reduces the cost of
heating business houses. The Dominion Experimental farm is within
the city limits. Subdivisions run north to Minnedosa, Yorkton,
Sheho, etc.; south to Deloraine, Lyleton, etc., the Arcola Branch to
Regina, via Arcola, through the Moose Mountain country. At
Schwitzer it connects with the Souris subdivision which runs southwest to Estevan, on the Soo-Pacific line, connecting Western
Canada with the Middle and North-Western States of the Union.
Beyond Brandon the railway draws away from the Assiniboine
River  and  rises  from   its valley to a rolling or undulating prairie
well occupied by prosperous farmers, as the
thriving villages at frequent intervals bear
evidence. Virden and Eikhorn are market
towns of attractive districts, and at the
latter place is an Indian Industrial School
erected by the Dominion Government. . The
Lanigan-Saskatoon line branches off at
Kirkella and runs through a rich farming
country studded with thriving villages and
towns to Lanigan and Saskatoon. A mile
east of Fleming, the Province of Saskatchewan is entered. Moosomin, the first town
reached in that Province, is the station for
Fort Ellice at the north and the Moose
Mountain district at the south. From White-
wood the country northward is accessible
by  a  bridge  over  the   Qu'Appelle   River.
Percival stands upon a ridge 100 feet higher than the general level.
All the way from  Brandon to Broadview the frequent ponds and
copses afford excellent   opportunities   for   sport—water   fowl   being
Oak Lake
Red Jacket
2039 42
Across    Canada
245 miles. (Saskatchewan
Indian Head
Pilot Butte
(   |iuniimn romnmi mn urn im urn n milium minimm P imiiimiiDiiim:rr.iDi njiitiminmmrnnitjmii mmioi im i mm □ i m n 111 n ioiii iirnminmimm 11 [itmii 111 m Of niiu n m uiiiromniDm nn n i 11 nnni nimiantiifimiioflmiiiimc Q
Broadview—Alt. 1,961 ft.    Pop. 1,200.   A railway divisional point,
prettily situated at the head of Lake Ecapo in an excellent
mixed farming district.   A reservation occupied by Cree Indians is not far
away. The standard time changes here to " Mountain "—one hour slower.
Westward the line follows a gradually
rising prairie. Grenfell, Wolseley, at
which the Reston subdivision joins the
main line, and Sintaluta have already
become important local markets. A little
beyond Sintaluta, Indian Head (pop.
2,000) is approached. A Government
farm is situated on the north side of the railway, and on the south is the
Government forest nursery. In this locality are numerous large farms
on which great yields of wheat are obtained. The town of Indian Head
is making rapid growth, consequent upon the successful farming of the
district around it.
Qu'Appelle—Alt. 2,123 ft. The supplying and shipping point for a
large section. A good road extends northward to Fort!
Qu'Appelle, and beyond. Fort Qu'Appelle, 20 miles distant, is an old
post of the Hudson's Bay Company, beautifully situated on the Fishing
Lakes in the deep valley of the Qu'Appelle River. There are several
Indian reservations in its vicinity, and an important Indian mission and
aa^       school.    For eight miles beyond Qu'Appelle station the country
is somewhat wooded.
At McLean (which stands 150 ft. higher
than Qu'Appelle and 400 ft. higher than
Regina) the great Regina plain is entered.
This plain extends westward as far as the
Dirt   Hills,   the   north
ward extension of the
Missouri Coteau, and
these are soon seen rising on the southwestern
horizon a dark blue line.
The plain is a broad
treeless expanse of
finest agricultural land,
with little change in the
soil to a depth of twenty
feet or more. Balgonie
station is in the centre
of a large grain growing
area.  Passing Pilot
Butte,   a   rounded   hill
Gram Elevators by night lending  <gg   name tQ  a
station near by, Regina is seen spread out on the plain ahead.
Regina—Alt. 1,884 ft. Pop. 45,000.\ The capital of the Province of
Saskatchewan and the distributing point for the country far
north and south. The Moose Mountain subdivision extends southward
from Regina to Arcola, connecting there with the Arcola subdivision,
thus giving an alternative through route between Regina and Brandon,
.while the lines via Colonsay and Bulyea, to the north, give a choice of
two routes to Saskatoon and Edmonton.    Beyond the station the
Exhibition buildings and Lieut.-Gover-
AU. 1857 nor's residence may be seen on the right,
" 1881 and a little further, on the same side, are
" 1908 the Royal North-West Mounted Police
" 1869 barracks. On the south bank of Wascana
Lake are located the new Provincial
Government buildings for Saskatchewan, occupying 160 acres. These
splendid buildings were erected at a cost of $1,500,000. Northward
from Regina is reached Lost Mountain Lake, Saskatchewan's famous
summer resort where conditions are ideal for the enjoyment of outdoor
Grand Coulee
Belle Plaine
Pasqua Annotated     Guide
Royal   North West  Mounted Policeman
The city is  situated in a fine
life.   All along the line the work of double tracking
the transcontinental main line across the prairies
may be seen from the train.     From Pasqua a subdivision extends southeast through
Estevan to the international boundary line at Portal, where connection
is made with the "Soo" Line from
St.  Paul and Minneapolis, and it
is by this route   that   passengers
from the Middle States travel to
the   Pacific  Coast.   Trains   run
through between St. Paul and Minneapolis and Moose Jaw, where connection is made with the Transcontinental express trains.
Moose Jaw—Alt. 1,766 ft. Pop.
j 28,000. A railway
divisional point. The name is an
abridgment of the Indian name,
which, literally translated, is "The-
the - cart - with- a - moose - jaw - bone."
agricultural country, extending from the Elbow of the Saskatchewan
on the north to the Dirt Hills on the south. The finest stockyards on
the line between Winnipeg and the coast are located here. Mills and
elevators indicate the district's wheat producing qualities, Moose Jaw
being one of the largest milling points in the Province of Saskatchewan.
The city is also an important wholesale centre. The Outlook subdivision
of the C. P. R. runs from Moose Jaw to Outlook, and thence via Kerrobert to Macklin where it joins the Winnipeg-
Edmonton line of the Canadian Pacific.
At Outlook there is one of the largest
bridges in Canada. It is 300 feet long, has
eight 240-feet truss spans, supported by
concrete piers with approaches, consisting of
three 80-feet, seven 60-feet and nine 45-feet
plate girder spans on steel towers. The
height of the bridge from rail level to water
line is about 140 feet. The completion of this
bridge has opened up a sixth route between
Winnipeg and Edmonton, and provides the
most direct connection between St. Paul,
Minneapolis and Edmonton. Another new
line has been opened from Moose Jaw southwestward to Expanse, a
distance of 35 miles. From Moose Jaw the line steadily rises on the
eastern slejpb of the coteau and winds through an irregular depression
to the basin of the Chaplin Lakes—formerly known as the Old Wives
Lake—extensive bodies of water having no outlet and consequently
alkaline.    The northernmost of these lakes T -'■
is reached at Chaplin.    The country
C H \iw^~
Rush Lake
C.P.R.   Station   at   Moose  Jaw 44
Across    Canada
fl j    Jfel^J^i
is treeless from the eastern border of the Regina
plain to the Cypress Hills, 200 miles, but the soil is
excellent nearly everywhere.    The prairies about
and beyond Chaplin lakes are marked in all directions by old buffalo trails and scarred and pitted by
their "wallows."   Antelope may now be sometimes
seen, and coyotes and prairie dogs.   Near Morse is a salt lake, and not
far beyond is Rush Lake, a large area of fresh water and a favorite
resort of  water fowl—swans,  geese,  ducks and  pelicans—which  at
times congregate here in myriads.    At Rush Lake there are some
splendid farms, and on the south side there is one of 700 acres under
irrigation.   There are a number of these in various districts aggregating
about 110,000 acres.
Swift   Current—Alt.   2,420 ft.      Terminus   of   the   Saskatchewan
Division.      (For  description   of   service   between
Minneapolis, St. Paul and Moose Jaw, see page 103.)
ii ra □iiiium 11 >□ u i ininn i on mmm i □ mnui mi o iutin i mrour i: u n
(Alberta Division)
Swift Current—AU. 2,420 ft. Pop. 4,850. A railway divisional
point, on a pretty stream of the same name. Swift
Current is in the centre of a very large agricultural district, extending
from the International boundary on the south to the Saskatchewan
River on the north. Branch railway lines radiate to the northwest
to Cabri and Empress and southeast to Vanguard. The soil is particularly
adapted for grain farming and the country is being rapidly filled up
with American and Canadian settlers. The Government has erected a
Meteorological Observing Station.
From Swift Current to Medicine Hat, on
Alt. 2468      the South Saskatchewan River, the line
"    2478     skirts the northern base of the Cypress
"    2581      hills,   which  gradually  rise  towards  the
"    2558     west, until they reach an altitude of 4,790
Gull Lako .      u   2560     ft., and in places are covered with valuable
Wtuwt. Annotated    Guide
#   Y/tf'
Crane Lake
Maple Creek
Cm minings
AU. 2465
|    2.£S7
1    #40(5
1    #S0S
larvesting on  the   Western Prairies
timber. Gull Lake is another growing
town surrounded by splendid farming land
and has two good hotels. At Crane Lake
there is another large stock farm. This
farm, 1,200 acres of which are irrigated,
is entirely devoted to stock raising, 7,000
cattle and 500 horses being usually on the
range. It is impossible to conceive of a
better stock country than that lying between the Cypress Hills and the
Railway. Rich in the grasses that possess peculiar attractions for
horses and cattle, the valleys and groves of timber give ample shelter
all seasons oi the year, and the numerous streams flowing out of the
Cypress Hills afford an unfailing supply of water. The handsome
profits realized by the stockmen testify better than words to the value
of this district for cattle raising.   Lakes and ponds occur at intervals
to Maple Creek. At this station are
extensive yards for the shipment of
cattle. The town is supported by trade
with the cattle ranches, and farming is
successfully carried on in the vicinity.
From Forres to Dunmore, rocks of the
Cretaceous age occur, in which the
remains of gigantic saurians and other
extinct animals are abundant. At Dunmore there is what may be taken
as a typical mixed farm, for not only are capital crops raised, but a
number of valuable horses and cattle are also bred and pastured here.
From Dunmore the Crows Nest line leads off westerly through the
Rocky Mountains, to Kootenay Lake and to the mines of the Kootenay,
in whose greater development it is proving a powerful factor by supplying
cheap fuel for its smelters from the Fernie mines. (For descriptive
notes of Crows Nest Pass Route, see pages 94 to 102.)
From Dunmore the main line drops
into the valley of the South Saskatchewan,
which is crossed by a fine steel bridge at
Medicine Hat.
Medicine Hat—Alt. 2,168 ft. Population 12,000. On account
of the immense flow of natural gas and
other advantages Rudyard Kipling christened it "The town that was born lucky."
It is situated in the valley of the South
Saskatchewan and is the centre of a
magnificent mixed farming district. Apples, plums and small fruit are quite at
home here and a demonstration farm is
operated by the Provincial Government.
The city is a divisional point, with large
railway shops all operated by natural gas.
An important station of the Royal
North-West Mounted Police.   There is an 46
Across     Canada
Medicine Hat
(For description of service Medicine
Hat to Revelstoke via Kootenay and
Arrow Lakes see pages 94 to 102.)
C.P.R.   Suprly   Farm,   Strathmore
abundance of coal all through the
district, but the light, heat and power
in the city is derived entirely from
natural gas, which is sold to manufacturers at 5 cents per thousand
cubic feet, and for domestic purposes
is growing rapidly and is becoming an
Strathmore "
at 13J cents.    Medicine Hat
industrial centre.
Beyond the river the railway rises to the high prairie-plateau  which
extends, gradually rising, to the base of the
mountains. At Redcliff, which is, like Medicine
Hat, becoming an important industrial centre,
the railway crosses a fine stock raising country,
where some of the largest herds of Galloway
cattle in the world are to be seen. There is a
strong upgrade to Bowell, then a rapid descent
to Suffield, followed by a steady rise. Bow
River occasionally appears to the south. The
prairie here is seen to advantage, and before
August it is a billowy ocean of grass. Cattle
ranches are spread over it, and farms appear
at intervals. The entire country is underlaid
with two or more beds of good coal, and
natural gas is frequently found in boring deep
wells. This gas is utilized at Langevin in
pumping water for the supply of the railway,
and both there and at Tilley it can be seen
burning brightly. From this station, on a
very clear day, the higher peaks of the Rocky
Mountains may be seen,   120 miles away.
Just West of
Carlstadt the
line enters the
three million
acre Irrigation
Block of the
Canadian Pacific
The Block extends from this
point to within
a few miles of
Calgary, a distance of 145
miles. This is
project  on the
the   largest    irrigation
continent   and   is  divided   into   three
sections.    Work has been completed on
the Western section and a great part of
the land marketed.    The Eastern section,
extending   from Carlstadt to Bassano, is
now also ready for settlement.     About three miles south of Bassano
is located the great Horse-Shoe Bend dam which has made the waters
of the Bow River available for irrigation on this Eastern Section.
By means of the dam the ordinary water level at the site is raised 45
feet, resulting in the waters flowing from the far distant eastern slope of
the Rocky Mountains being diverted through a total length of 2,500 miles
of canals and distributing ditches over about 1,800 square miles of
fertile prairie country, irrigating approximately one third of that area.
C.P.R. Irrigation Dam, Bassano
IS ! Annotate d 1 G u i d
Altogether, the structure has a total length of nearly 8,000 feet,
being made up of two main parts: a reinforced concrete spillway,
720 feet in length, with 24 electrically operated gates, which permit of
the free passage of the river at highest floods; and a concrete-faced
earthen portion, 7,000 feet long, of a maximum height and width of 45
and 350 feet respectively.
Leading from one end of the spillway is the main canal, 90 feet
wide, capable of discharging 3,800 cubic feet of water per second at a
depth of eleven feet, through head-
gates which form an integral part of
the main structure.
At Bassano a branch line runs northwest to Standard, joining trie Acme
subdivision at Irricana.
At Crowfoot the Rocky Mountains
may again be seen. Near Crowfoot, and
south of therailway is a large reservation
occupied by the Blackfoot Indians, and
some of them are seen about the stations.
At Namaka are located some of the most
productive farms in Western Canada
and very rich harvests are reaped
annually. From Gleichen to Shepard
the line traverses the Western section
of the Canadian Pacific Co.'s irrigation project and the canals and
ditches are crossed at several points. From Gleichen to Shepard there
is also a cut-off which traverses the irrigation belt. Irrigated farms
are seen on each side of the track, and at Gleichen and Strathmore
are located the Irrigation Experimental Farms where the results from
the application of water in growing crops and trees may be noted.
Beyond Gleichen (alt. 2,900 ft., pop. 500) the Rockies come into full
view—a magnificent line of snowy peaks extending far along the southern
and western horizon. Near Strathmore are located a great number
of the Canadian Pacific's "Ready Made" farms._ Under this policy
the Company improves farms in advance of their sale, so that the
arriving settler finds awaiting him a farm with a comfortable house,
fine barn, a drilled well and about fifty acres in crop. The whole farm
is fenced. The price of these improvements is added to the price of the
land, the whole sum being payable in a space of twenty years. This
policy has been extended to three Prairie Provinces, and is also being
adapted to smaller areas in the Columbia Valley along the line of the
Fairy  of   the  Prairies m
Across    Canada
Kootenay Central Branch north of Golden. At Langdon the railway
falls to the valley of the Bow River. From Langdon, branch lines
run northward to Acme. As one approaches Calgary one sees the great
Ogden shops, at which the equipment of the railway on this section of
the line is repaired and renovated.
Calgary—A It. 8,425 ft.    The largest   city in_ Alberta, it   has   80,000
population, with upwards of 425 retail stores, 150 wholesalers,
75 manufacturers, 25 banks.
General offices of the Canadian Pacific Railway are located here;
including the head offices of the Department of Natural Resources,
under whose j urisdiction comes the great Bassano Irrigation project. The
extensive Western car shops of the C. P. R. are near Calgary. These
shops will eventually employ about 3,500 men. The new Canadian
Pacific Hotel Palliser ranks among the finest in North Ameria.
The city owns, operates and controls its public utilities, including
municipal street railway, gravity waterworks system, light and power
plant and street paving plant. All these are profitable enterprises,
and yield a big revenue. Forty miles of street railway are in operation.
The city is supplied with natural gas from Bow Island, which is sold
at low rates, both to manufacturers and for domestic use.
The most imposing building in Calgary is undoubtedly the Palliser,
the new C. P. R. hotel. Externally the building is French Renaissance.
Buff pressed brick, Roman size, is used for the facing of the walls while
Indiana limestone is used for trimmings. Its ground measurements
are 227 feet by 145 feet and it rises to a height of 120 feet above the
sidewalk. From the roof a magnificent view of the snow-capped
peaks of the Rockies is to be had.
It comprises ten floors—basement, ground, mezzanine and seven
service floors, with a roof garden and sun parlor on the roof. The
structure is built of steel and reinforced concrete throughout. In
shape, it is rectangular as far as the first floor; above that, it is "E"
shape, contained in one long wing of 46 feet wide by 227 feet long, on
the north side, with three projecting wings at right angles on the north
or street side—these wings being 99 feet long, 46 feet wide for the two
end ones, and 54 feet wide for the centre one. The advantage of this
design is, of course, that sufficient lighting for all rooms is secured.
There are no "inside rooms." The spaces between the wings also
afford provision for skylights for the lighting of the lower floor.
Entering from Ninth Avenue, one passes through the vestibule
into the entrance hall (46 x 32 feet), with the Palm Room (42 x 50
feet) on the left and the Drawing Room on the right, Beyond is the
Rotunda, 147 feet long by 40 feet wide. The floor of the Rotunda,
vestibule, entrance hall and elevator hall is of grey Tennessee marble,
and the columns that support the roof are finished in Botticino marble,
with Sylvian marble for the bases. On the right of the Rotunda is the
main Dining Room, 38 feet wide and 142 feet long, running the whole
depth of the ground floor from north to south and finishing in a semicircular bay at the south end. On the left of the Rotunda are the flower
stand, bar, and cafe, the floors of which are large heather-brown tiles.
To the north of the Rotunda are the elevator hall and the spacious
The first floor contains a beautiful ball-room, 48 x 50 feet,
situated at the north end of the centre wing. At either side of the ballroom, in courts, are pergolas, extending to the side wings. The remainder of this floor, and the whole of the floors above, is occupied by bedrooms, with an average of about fifty per floor.
The bedrooms range in size from 12 x 15 feet to 20 x 14 feet, and are
usually in pairs, with connecting doors between, and bathrooms on
either side. Inside each wing is a broad con id or running down the
centre. Every bedroom is finished with mahogany doors, with a full
length heavy plate glass mirror on the bedroom side of the door. The
furniture of the bedroom is all fumed oak, with dull brass fittings.
There is hot and cold running water, ice water service, telephone, and
portable reading lamp in every bedroom. C. P. R. Bridge  over the Saskatchewan River at Edmonton
mmuninioiUHiHincKucnuni Q
From Calgary an important branch line connects with Edmonton,
the Capital of the Province of Alberta (see p. 40), and another south to
Lethbridge and Macleod.
The Canadian Pacific Calgary to Edmonton branch line passes
through and serves an exceptionally rich region, well suited for mixed
farming and_ especially for dairying, which is, indeed, the staple industry
of the inhabitants. For a distance of thirty miles after leaving Calgary
the line skirts the extreme western boundary of the C. P. R. Irrigation
Block, as far as Crossfield. The undulating prairies continue all the
way, but after leaving Crossfield the character of the countryside
gradually changes. Unlike Southern Alberta—i.e., the lands along the
main transcontinental line of the C. P. R.—Central Alberta is wooded.
Bush will be seen everywhere and clumps of trees, until presently,,
when nearing Edmonton, the clumps are in some parts continuous.
Olds—(58 miles) where one of the three Agricultural Schools recently
established by the Alberta Provincial Government is located.
Red Deer—(95 miles), population 8,600, is an important town, and the
centre of a splendid mixed farming and dairying district.
It is situated on the Red Deer River, and has in the neighborhood
valuable coal, clay, sand and gravel deposits. It will also be the sub-
divisional point for the new C. P. R. branch westward to Rocky Mountain House (between 50 and 60 miles), now in course of construction.
Lacombe—(113 miles), population 1,800, is also in the heait of a
mixed farming district, and is the location of a Dominion
Government Experimental Farm. A branch line runs from here eastward via Coronation to Monitor, and will eventually connect with the
C. P. R.'s Moose Jaw to Macklin branch at Kerrobert. Near Lacombe
is Gull Lake, a summer and bathing resort that is quickly becoming
popular amongst the people of Southern and Central Alberta.
Wetaskiwin—(152 miles),   population 8,600, is the junction  point
for the main line to Winnipeg.
Edmonton—(194 miles).   See page 40.
Cailgsiry to' Lethferijfige
The line south from Calgary to Macleod and Lethbridge also passes
through a good farming country. Aldersyde (where a cut off line
branches direct to Lethbridge), High River, Cayley, Nanton, Claresholm
are some of the more important stations—all yielding substantial grain
and cattle traffic. Near High River is a ranch famed foi its breed of
Percherons. At Lethbridge is the headquarters of an irrigation district
now operated by the Natural Resources Department of the Canadian
Pacific Railway, formerly by the Alberta Railway and .Irrigation Company. Near here is Coaldale, a prosperous Ready Made Farm Colony
settled with Old Country farmers. 50
Across     Canada
Calgary From Calgary along the main transcontin-
Keith AU. 8651     ental line the Bow is closely followed and by
Cochrane        "    8748     the time Cochrane is reached, the traveller is
Morley "    4066     well within the rounded grassy foot-hills and
river "benches," or terraces. Here the valleys are seen to cut the mountains transversely. Further on, in the
main ranges, as distinct from the foothills, the valleys will be found
running parallel with the mountains, north and south, and these valleys
open into each other across the mountain ranges by the passes, the lowest
of which is 5,000 ft. above sea level, the highest 7,000 ft. Geologically the
transverse valleys by which entrance is made to the mountains represent
the grooved course of ancient glaciers, and many of the rivers flowing in
these beds can be followed directly up to the remnants of these ancient
glaciers. The remnant glacier of the Bow River to-day occupies a
field thirty miles long by six to ten broad. Extensive ranches are passed
in rapid succession—great herds of horses in the lower valleys, thousands
of cattle on the terraces, and flocks of sheep on the hilltops may be
seen at once, making a picture most novel and interesting. Sawmills
and coal-mines appear along the valley. After leaving Cochrane, and
crossing the Bow, the line ascends to the top of the first terrace, whence
a magnificent outlook is obtained towards the left, where the foothills
rise in successive tiers of sculptured heights to the snowy range behind
Morley is interesting to the tourist as the reservation of the Stoney .
Indians, once the most warlike tribe of the native races of America, but
now one of the most industrious and peaceful.
Kananaskis—AU. 4,818 ft- Approaching Kananaskis the mountains
suddenly appear close at hand and seemingly an
impenetrable barrier, their bases deeply tinted in purple, and their
sides flecked with white and gold, while high above, dimly outlined in
the mists, are distant snowy peaks. The Kananaskis River is crossed
by a high iron bridge, a little above where it joins the Bow, and the
roar of the great falls of the Bow (called Kananaskis Falls) may be
heard from the railway.
Exshaw—Alt. 4,847 ft. At Exshaw is one of the largest cement works
in Canada. Here the difference between the ordinary upland
stream and a glacier-fed river is first noticed. Tumbling from great
heights, the former may be foamy and tumultuous; but the latter is
always milky-green, with the sediment of glacial silt, infinitesimally
fine particles formed by the grinding of the ice over the rocks.
The mountains now rise abruptly in great
The Gap—AU. 4,880 ft. masses, a bend in the line brings the train
between two almost vertical walls of dizzy
height. This is the gap by which the Rocky Mountains are entered.
Through this gateway the Bow River issues from the hills. Beyond
it the track turns northward and ascends the long valley between the
Fairholme range on the right and the Kananaskis range opposite. The
prominent peak on the left is Pigeon Mountain, and in approaching
the station called The Gap, a magnificent view is obtained of Wind
Mountain and the Three Sisters also on the left. A remarkable contrast
between the ranges ahead is noticeable. On the right are fantastically
broken and castellated heights; on the left, massive snow-laden
promontories, rising thousands of feet, penetrated by enormous alcoves  52
cross    Canada
in which haze and shadow of gorgeous coloring lie engulfed. The
jaggedness of profile observed from the plains is now explained. These
mountains are tremendous uplifts of stratified rocks of the Devonian
and Carboniferous ages, which have been broken out of the crust of the
earth and slowly heaved aloft. Some sections, miles and miles in breadth
and thousands of feet thick, have been pushed straight up, so that their
strata remain almost as level as before; others are tilted more or less
on edge (always on this slope towards the east) and lie in a steeply
slanting position; still other sections are bent and crumpled under
prodigious side-pressure, while all have been broken down and worn
away until now they are only colossal fragments of the original upheavals. This disturbed stratification is plainly marked upon the faces
. of the cliffs by the ledges that hold the snow after it has disappeared
elsewhere, or by long lines of trees which there alone can maintain a
foothold and this peculiarity is one of the most striking and admirable
features of the scenery. Many ranges of prodigious mountains like,
these must be traversed before the Pacific Coast is reached, and grandeur
and beauty will crowd upon the attention without ceasing as the train
speeds through gorge and over mountain, giving here a vast outlook
and there an interior glimpse, then exchanging it for a new one with
the suddenness of a kaleidoscope. Observation cars, specially designed
to permit of unobstructed views, are attached to the through trains.
Canmore—Alt. 4,888 ft.—Near Canmore are large coal mines and
here is obtained a striking profile of the Three Sisters, the
third or farthest south rising to an altitude of 9,743 feet, with Wind and
Pigeon Mountains looming up beyond. On a hill behind the station,
and all along the embankments of ths valley traversed by the railway,
are group after group of isolated and curiously weathered conglomerate
monuments, called "hoodoos"—giant earthen pillars, ten times the
height of a man, some of them—composed of hard enough material to
withstand the erosions that have played havoc
with the surrounding bank.   On either side of the
beautiful level valley the mountains rise in solid
masses westward, until the great bulk of Cascade
Mountain closes the view.
Bankhead—Alt. 4,596 ft. The pass
suddenly, and as the
mountains are penetrated the
scenery becomes grander and more
awe-inspiring. The walled masonry,
shooting up in Seven Peaks, on the left
is Rundle, called after an early missionary to the Indians.    Here the line for
The Gap—Entrance to the Canadian Rockies from the Prairies Annotated    Guide
TheThree Sisters
a time leaves
the Bow and
strikes up the
valley of the
directly toward
the face of
Cascade Mountain, which, though miles
away, is apparently but a stone's throw
distant, and which seems to rise 'in an
enormous mass and advance bodily to
meet us; this marvellous effect should
not be missed by the traveller.
Banff—AIL 4,521 ft. Station for Canadian National Park and Hot
Springs. This park is a National Reservation of 5,732 square
miles, embracing parts of the valleys of the Bow, Spray and Cascade
rivers, Lake Minnewanka and several noble mountain ranges, and beyond
the I Divide," the Yoho Valley and the country to the west and south of it.
The Park is the largest in the world, being nearly half as large again as the
famous Yellowstone Park in the States. No part of the Rockies exhibits a
greater variety of sublime and pleasing scenery, and nowhere are good
points of view and features of special interest so accessible as in this
district where so many good roads and bridle paths have been constructed.
The railway station at Banff is in the midst of impressive mountains.
The huge mass northward is Cascade Mountain (9,825 ft.); eastward is
Mount Inglismaldie and the heights of the Fairholme sub-range, behind
which lies Lake Minnewanka. South-eastward from Inglismaldie, in
the same range of the Fairholmes, the sharp cone of Peechee (called
after an Indian chief) closes the view in that direction; this is one of the
highest mountains visible. To the left of Cascade Mountain, and just
north of the track, rises the wooded ridge of Stoney Squaw Mountain,
beneath which lie the Vermilion lakes, seen just after leaving the
station. Up the Bow, westward, tower the distant, snowy, central
heights of the Main range about Simpson's Pass, most prominently the
square, wall like crest of Mount Bourgeau. A little nearer, at the left,
is seen the northern end of the Bourgeau range, and still nearer, the
razor-like back of Sulphur Mountain, along the side o which are the
Hot Springs, and on whose summit, at 7,455 ft., an observatory has been
established. The isolated bluff southward is Tunne' Mountain, while
j ust behind the station Mount Rundle, 9,798 ft. rises sharply, so near at
hand as to cut off the entire view in that direction. Just before reaching
the station, the train passes along a large corral of 800 acres in which
are about one hundred buffalos, the last specimens of the monarchs of the
plains. In well constructed cages are specimen^ of the various wild
animals found in the Rocky Mountains. The village of Banff is a short
distance southwest of the station, on the hither side of the Bow, and the
Canadian Pacific Banff Springs Hotel about a mile further on. A steel
bridge takes the carriage-road across to the hotel located on an eminence
between the foaming falls in the Bow and the mouth of the rapid 54
Across    Canada
Spray River. This hotel has just been reconstructed on a truly magnificent scale, and has a kitchen capable of supplying 600 dinners at
one time. It is most favorably placed for health, picturesque views,
canoeing, driving, walking and mountain-climbing. In direct connection
with the hotel there has been opened what is probably the finest
bathing establishment on the continent. It is built in the form of three
terraces, the outer and lower one of which forms the great semi-circular
cold water swimming pool, which is one hundred and twenty feet in
diameter and varies from three to seven feet in depth. The second terrace
contains the sheltered warm sulphur-water pool which is supplied by
piping the water direct from the Hot Springs on Sulphur Mountain at
the rate of 1,165 ga'lons per hour. This pool measures 28 feet by 80 feet
and vartes from four feet to seven feet in depth. The water in the pool
is maintained at a temperature of 110 degrees Fahrenheit—about five
degrees lower than at the source of supply—by the continuous flow of
water. The bathing space is enclosed by a screen of plate glass between
concrete posts, to protect the bathers against the breezes. Adjoining
the sulphur plunge, there are ten shower baths, and complete Turkish
and Russian baths finished in marble and fitted with all the latest
plumbing devices. One hundred dressing rooms are provided at this
level, and on the third terrace there are the cooling rooms, private
sulphur baths, and rooms for the Swedish masseur and his attendants
who were brought irom Europe to take charge of the bathing establishment. The roof of the third terrace forms a wide promenade upon
which "chairs are placed to enable guests to obtain both a view of the
bathers below and of the whole magnificent panorama of the mountains.
The entire structure is of reinforced concrete and the pools are lined
throughout with) white glazed tile, and lighted by electricity so that
they may be used at night as well as by day. Still another attraction
at Banff is the new golf course. Golf enthusiasts who have played the
game on the ordinary country golf links will find the sport at Banff even
more fascinating. Here the environments are such as no country club
could hope to duplicate. Nestling among the mountains, completely
surrounded by gigantic peaks, and with the glacier-fed Bow River
flowing throughout its length, the course is superbly located. Nature
making it not only one of the highest courses on the American continent,
but also one of surpassing beauty. The links are reached from the
Banff Springs hotel by a foot-path which leads directly to the clubhouse. The house is nicely furnished and provided with all conveniences. In Banff, itself, there are a sanitarium and hospital, and a
museum of more than local interest has been established by the Government. Nine miles from Banff is Lake Minnewanka, on which a fine launch
has been placech There is capital fishing the trout being of extraordinary size. Wild sheep (the big-horn)
and mountain goats are
occasionally to be seen on
the neighboring
heights. Some
Banff Hot Springs Hotel, Owned and Operated by the Canadian Pacific Railway Annotated    Guide
Swimming   Pool,   Banff  Hot  Springs  Hotel
fossil remains and markings of mammoth pre-historic creatures are
found on the mountain slopes surrounding this lake, as well as on
Cascade Mountain. At the upper end of the lake is the valley of
Ghost River, a strange region where the mountain rivulets gurgle off
into subterranean reservoirs and the granite walls are pitted with caves.
Between Banff and the lake is Bankhead, where are located the anthracite mines, operated by the Canadian Pacific Railway, whose output
will eventually provide the country as far east as Winnipeg with fuel.
The hot springs are at different elevations upon the eastern slope of
Sulphur Mountain, the highest being 900 ft. above the Bow. All are
reached by fine roads, commanding glorious landscapes. The more
important springs have been improved by the Government, and
picturesque bathing houses have been erected and placed under the care
of attendants. In one locality is a pool inside a dome-roofed cave,
entered by an artificial tunnel; and, adjacent, another spring forms an
open basin of warm sulphurous water. Since the opening of the railway
these springs have been largely visited, and testimony to their wonderful
curative properties is plentiful.
These springs are reached by a delightful drive of about a mile
along a winding, pine-bordered road, up the valley of the Bow River to the
base of Sulphur Mountain.
Among the other pretty drives radiating from Banff is "the Loop,"
a beautiful roadway around the Bow Valley, in full view of the superb
Bow Falls, skirting the base of Mount Rundle, to the banks of the Bow
River ; another interesting drive is that along the north side of the
Vermillion lakes to Edith Pass; another favorite outing is that to
Tunnel Mountain, by way of its spiral, tree-lined roadway. Of the
longer trails that have been opened probably the most important is that
up Brewster Creek, at the head of which is a huge glacier. West from
Lake Minnewanka there is another trail through Aylmer Pass and down
the Ghost River, returning to the lake by way of the Devil's Gap.
5There is also another magnificent trail from the Spray Lakes to Kananaskis Lake. From one to two weeks can
be profitably spent on these last two trips.
Of interest to motor-car enthusiasts is
the new automobile road on which Banff
will be an important stop-over point.
This road is now being built by the
Dominion Government, the British Columbia Government and the Canadian
Pacific Railway. It starts at Calgary and
runs through the Mountains to Banff.
At Castle Mountain it branches off through
the beautiful Vermillion Pass to connect
with a road already in existence running
Buffalo  at Banff
I X.
1 56
Across     Canada
Mount  Assiniboine
from Golden to Cranbrook on the Crow's Nest Pass line of the C. P. R.
From here there is a road to Macleod and from that point there is
connection with Calgary, making a five hundred mile automobile
road, which when completed will be the grandest highway in the world.
Twenty miles south of Banff is Mount Assiniboine, the Matterhorn
of the new world, the ascent of which, after several unsuccessful
attempts, was made in the autumn of 1901 by the Rev. James Outram
and a party of Swiss guides. The way to it leads through beautiful
valleys studded with transparent blue lakes and park-like prairie
Sawback—Alt. 4,637 ft. Upon leaving Banff the railway rejoins the
Bow and follows it up through a forested valley. The view
backward is very fine. The Vermillion lakes are skirted, and ahead an
excellent view is had to the right of Mount Bourgeau and the snow-
peaks far to the west, enclosing Simpson's Pass. Then a sharp turn
discloses straight ahead the great heap of snowy ledges that form the
eastern crest of Pilot Mountain, 9,680 ft., the landmark of mountain
trappers, for it is seen and easily recognizable from both ends of the
Bow Valley. Hole-in-the-wall Mountain is passed upon the right,
against whose side can be seen a cavernous opening to a mountain
grotto.   This cave is 1,500 feet above the valley bed, 12 feet from floor nnotated     Guide
to roof, and runs back in the mountain for 160 ft., where a round chimneylike aperture gives glimpses of the open sky. A lifsfe beyond the station
Castle Mountain looms up ahead, on the right, a sheer precipice of 5,000
ft.—a giant's keep, stretching for eight miles, with turrets, bastions and
battlements complete. A natural drawbridge, portcullis and gateway
can be plainly distinguished against this ochre wall. The back of this
mountain is a gradual slope, glacier-covered and overlooking a wild
region of canon, torrent and bridges of rock.
Mount Castle station is at the base of
SVSount Castle Alt. 4657 the great peak whose name it takes.
Eldon "    4814      After passing this point, the mountains
on each side become exceedingly grand
and prominent. Those on the right (north-east) form the bare, rugged
and sharply serrated Sawback sub-range, with a spur, called the Slate
Mountains, in the foreground at Lake Louise. On the left, the lofty
Bow range fronts the valley in a series of magnificent snow-laden
promontories. At first, enchanting glimpses are caught only through
the trees, as you look ahead; but before Eldon is reached,
the whole long array is in plain view. Turning to the left,
and looking back, the central peak of Pilot Mountain is
seen, like a leaning pyramid, high above the square-fronted
ledges visible before. Next to it is the less lofty, but almost
equally imposing, cone of Copper Mountain, squarely opposite
the sombre precipices of the Castle. Westward of Copper
Mountain, the top of Vermillion Pass opens through the range,
permitting a view of many a lofty spire and icy crest along
the continental watershed, from whose glaciers and snowfields
the Vermillion River flows westward into the Kootenay.
Most prominent on the east side are the precipitous face of
Storm Mountain (10,309 ft.), and the snow dome of Mount
Ball (10,825 ft.). West of the entrance into Vermillion Pass,
towering up tier after tier, is a chaotic sea of mountains; and
beyond, standing supreme over this part of the range, is the
prodigious, isolated, helmet-shaped mountain named Temple
^ "\ (11,'626 ft.)—the loftiest and grandest in this whole
■^. 'Y^> panorama.   This great snow-bound m o u nt a i n,
ia^Sf!;. whose crest exhibits precipitous walls of ice flash-
Lake  Louise,   the  Pearl  of   the  Rockies Across    C anada
'til in I ~^" MMMMMI&
Chateau   Lake   Louise
ing blue in the sunlight, becomes visible at Sawback station, and from
Eldon almost to the summit its white-crowned precipice is the most
conspicuous and admirable feature of the wonderful valley.
Lake Louise—A It. 6,032 ft. Beyond Lake Louise the railway leaves the
Bow and ascends a tributary from the west, which
courses through a gap in the Bow range. Looking upward to the right,
north-west, towards Bow Lake and the huge rounded snow-capped peak
of Mount Daly, a view is obtained of the glacier. It is a broad crescent-
shaped river of ice, the further end concealed behind the lofty yellow
cliffs that hem it in. It is 1,300 feet above you and a dozen miles away.
Further north are other glacial fields, one of which is the source of three
great continental rivers flowing to the three different oceans, the Athabasca or Mackenzie River flowing to the Arctic, the Saskatchewan to
the Atlantic, and the Columbia to the Pacific. The glacier presents
some exceptionally interesting features, among others an enormous
cavernous passageway, the size of a railway tunnel, cut out by subterranean rivers. This is also the region of Mounts Columbia, Bryce,
Athabaska and Forbes.
Lake Louise is the station for the Lakes in the Clouds. Lake Louise,
the first of the lakes encountered, is about three miles from the station
and is reached by an electric railway over a four per cent grade or by carriage drive over a well constructed road. The Lakes in the Clouds are
rare gems whose loveliness and charm surpass description. On the
margin of Lake Louise, alt. 6,670 ft., there is a Canadian Pacific hotel,
« 1
1   tlfffej
a &
PROFILE   OF   CANADIAN   PACIFIC Annotated    Guide
Canadian Pacific  Hotel  System
recently much enlarged, where excellent accommodation is provided.
A good trail entirely surrounds Lake Louise and there is a bridle-path to
Mirror Lake, 6,655 feet up the mountain, and a still further ascent to
Lake Agnes, during which a magnificent view of the Bow Valley and
the surrounding mountains is obtained. Both lakes lie literally above
the clouds, nestling in the rocky cirques among the peaks of the Beehive,
St. _ Piran, Niblock and Whyte. Trails also lead across the stream
draining Lake Louise to Fairview Mountain on the left side and to
the Saddleback still farther eastward, from which one can look across
an abyssmal gorge 2,000 ft. deep to the avalanches of Mount Temple,
the forested vale called Paradise Valley, the scarred battlements
of Mount Sheol and the pinnacled heights of Castle Crags behind
Fairview Mountain. Other trails lead round to the right of Lake
Louise directly on to the
Glacier bed of Mount
Victoria, the great palisade
of snow,  11,355 ft._ high, ALBERTA
that shuts off all view to '
the south.   This trail also
a2 sex
2182 SEE
Miles from  Montreal      2300
RAILWAY   FROM   CALGARY   TO   YALE Across     Canada
connects with the route to Abbot Pass, a deep canyon between Victoria
and Lefroy, 11,220 ft. A stiff climb over this pass and down to the rear
of Lefroy and Victoria leads by a chain of beautiful mountain tarns to
O'Hara Lake and Cataract Creek, which flows directly down to Wapta
Lake, on the main line, at Hector Station. O'Hara Lake, recently opened*
to the public by a well-made pony trail from Hector, is a worthy rival
of Lake Louise and presents features of wild Alpine grandeur in its surroundings that cannot be surpassed. It may be reached also from
Lake Louise and Field, and by a combination of the trail Lake
McArthur may be visited. The roadway eastward along the Bow River
rounds to the rear of Mount Temple and descends to a beautiful vale
called the Valley of the Ten Peaks, in the midst of which lies Moraine
Lake, an emerald gem set in a glacier crescent; for the Ten Peaks engirt
one side of the lake like a scimitar and between each pair of the peaks
is fathomless snow, with the ribboned green of a glacier hanging down
to the valley bed. In these waters the supply of trout is exhaustless.
In the surrounding valleys big game—goat, big-horn and bear—
abounds. From Moraine Lake trails lead to the summit of Wenkhemna
Pass, and back to Lake Louise by way of Sentinel Pass and Lake
Annette, a small emerald sheet of water on the side of Mount Temple.
From this latter trail the Giant's Steps can be reached.
Northward from Lake Louise are the Slate and Waputik ranges, and
overtopping all, like the sky-line of a citadel, with white edging on
every rock, ledge and crest hidden in the clouds, is the great buttressed
mass called Mount Hector, after Sir James Hector, of the Palliser
expedition in 1858, one of the first to explore the Rockies. Annotated     Guide
We //ne f^//j from HECTOR
Old line:—      distance 4-1 mil es, grade 4-5 _
t/eir line:  .,      32    . 2!$>
On old line 4 engines   could   haul 710 tons
On .ie» line 2      «        can        -    980 Ions
There are three nen tunnels  nort SS90ff & 3200ft long.
the two longer being spiral, urtth a radius  of 573 ft.
To enable visitors to climb and explore in safety, the Canadian
Pacific Railway has brought from Switzerland a number of Alpine guides
of the highest class, j One of these is always stationed at Lake
Louise. The others will be found at Field, Emerald Lake and Glacier.
These guides live with their families at the model Swiss village of
"Edelweiss" established by the Canadian Pacific near Golden.
The station at the summit of the Rocky Moun-
Stephen Alt. 6821 tains. Mt. Stephen—one of the chief peaks of
Hector "   5199   the Rockies in this latitude—is named in honor
of the first President of the Canadian Pacific
Railway Company. Here is the "Great Divide," and a sparkling
stream separates into two, the waters of one flowing to the Pacific and
those of the other to Hudson Bay. At this point is seen the granite
shaft_ erected to the memory of Sir James Hector, discoverer of the
Kicking Horse Pass, by which the Canadian Pacific Railway crosses
the highest range of the Rockies. From here the line descends rapidly,
passing the beautiful Wapta Lake at Hector, and crossing the deep
gorge of the Kicking Horse River just beyond. The line clings to the
mountain-side at the left, and the valley on the right rapidly deepens
until the river is seen as a gleaming thread five or six hundred feet
below. Above is a serrated sky-line whose craggy margin hides the
glaciers and the real summit of the range. Looking to the right, the
Yoho, one of the grandest mountain valleys in the world,
stretches away to the north, with great, white, glacier-bound
peaks on either side. Looking forward to the right, the
heights of Mount Field are seen. On the left the basilicalike
spires of Cathedral Mountain loom against the sky, and just
beyond is the duomolike head of Mount Stephen. On its
shoulder is seen a vast, shining, green glacier, the forepart of
this monster, which hangs obliquely forward, measuring nearly
a thousand feet in length and its lower outer edge showing a
Near Field, B.C. 62
Across    Canada
vertical depth of almost a
hundred feet. Here, too.
can be seen a silver-lead
mine on the mountain side,
2,500 feet above its base.
Coming from the east
the road first enters the
corkscrew, tunnel of 3,200
feet, under Cathedral
Mountain. Emerging from
the tunnel twist the track
runs back east across the
Kicking Horse River, and
thenenters the eastern
spiral tunnel of 2,910 feet
under Mount Ogden, and
after describing an elliptic
curve emerges to again
cross the Kicking Horse
westward. The whole
thing is a perfect maze,
the railway doubling back
upon itself twice, tunnelling: under mountains and
crossing the river twice in
order to cut down the
Put in brief, the work
which has now been completed is as follows:—
Length of two tunnels,
1J4 miles; length of cutting outside of tunnels,
7 miles; increase in length of track, 4J4 miles; reduction in grade, from
4.5 to 2.2; approximate cost of work, $1,500,000; number of men
employed, about 1,000, with complete outfit of steam equipment.
Time of work, twenty months, from October, 1907, to July, 1909;
75 carloads of dynamite were used, or upwards of 1,500,000 pounds of
the explosive.    The cost of explosives alone came to over $250,000.
This is not merely the greatest piece of tunnelling ever attempted in
Canada, but the first introduction of this spiral system of tunnels on
this continent.
Field—Alt. 4,066 ft.    Terminal Alberta Division.    Trains leave Field
on Pacific time—one hour earlier than Mountain time.   (See
British Columbia Division.)
Emerald   Lake   Chalet
I   '»can«Ocn
(British Columbia Division)
tmaaamoa aomru-mnaa
Field—AU. 4,066 ft. At Field is a charming hotel managed by the
railway company—the Mount Stephen House—not far from
the base of Mount Stephen and facing Mount Field. This is a favorite
stopping place for tourists, and the hotel has been recently enlarged
to meet the wants of increased travel. Field combines all possible
attractions for the mountain tourist. From here is reached that great
glacier field first seen northward from Laggan. There is excellent
fly-fishing for trout in the lakelets and streams near the village. Two
thousand five hundred feet up the right hand slope of Mount Stephen,
along an easy bridle-path, is a wonderful fossil bed, an area of 150
square yards,_ where the mountain side has tumbled forward and
disintegrated in a rockslide of shaly, shelving limestone
slabs. These slabs, which cover a large area beyond the
chief patch, for the most part consist of thin, laminated
plates or layers. On a sharp knock the layers separate,
revealing countless fossil specimens, fern-like and perfectly marked, principally trilobites and agnostus.   The Annotated    Guide
summit is only four or five thousand feet above the fossil beds, and offers
a splelraid and exhilarating ascent to climbers with a steady head for
narrow ledges. Looking down the valley from the hotel, Mount Dennis
is seen on the left, and the Van Home Range on the right. The two
most prominent peaks of the latter are Mounts Deville and King, the
former on the right. Fossil beds are also found in the Van Home
Range. 1 The Ottertail group with its sheer wall, snow caps and abrupt
declivities giving unexpected views at every turn, is particularly attractive to the climber.
A road crossing the bridge of the Kicking Horse River, to the base
of Mount Burgess, leads through a forest of spruce and balsam to a
natural bridge of rock, under which the river pours in a cataract. Five
miles farther along the same trail is Emerald Lake, a lovely expanse of
green water nestling in the forest to the rear of Mount Burgess and
completely surrounded by lofty peaks, whose green, ribboned glaciers
can be seen protruding from the rocky cirques of the upper slopes. A
chalet hotel offers excellent accommodation for tourists wishing to spend
some time at the lake, or to visit the great Yoho Valley which lies beyond.
An excellent trail has been cut round the end of the lake and up the
gravelly saddle of rock to the right, where one passes through a forest
into the very lap of the summits. A tarn lies in the centre of this
upland meadow, and the trail leads to its right-hand margin into the
gorge of the marvellous Takakkaw Falls. These wonderful falls are
amongst the finest in the known world. An enormous volume of seething, boiling water rushes over the precipice on the far side of the narrow
gorge and descends the rock side in clouds of foam, a sheer drop of
1,200 feet. The Takakkaw Falls is one of the most striking attractions
in the mountains and ought not to be missed by any tourist. Excellent
camps are maintained here by the C. P. R. for the accommodation
of tourists who wish to explore this wonderful region.
From the Yoho Pass there is a good trail to the Twin Falls past other
C. P. R. mountain camps.   These
Falls are of even greater interest
than the Takakkaw, owing to a
perpendicular  drop of two vast
columns of water and the dense
clouds of steamlike spray caused
by their concussion with the rock
floor below.    This trail continues on to the Yoho Glacier,
and a further trail has been
constructed to the summit of
Yoho Peak.    The return
journey may be made via
the Takakkaw Falls and
the Yoho Valley,
the road swinging
around shoulder
Field and
Mount Stephen House, Canadian Pacific Hotel at Field 64
Across    Canada
the Kicking Horse River to Field Village. An alternate route from the
Takakkaw Falls to Field is offered by the trail from Yoho Pass through
Burgess Pass. This is one of the prettiest trails in the vicinity of Field,
magnificent views of the President Range-being obtained from Mount
Burgess. Another picturesque side trip from Field is that along the old
grade to the Ottertail Valley where a magnificent view of the triple-
headed Mount Goodsir may be had. The round trip distance by
carriage over this road is 16 miles.
Ottertail Alt. 8967
Leanchoil 8677
Two miles beyond Field,
very lofty, glacier bearing
heights are seen at the
north. The line follows
the Kicking Horse, whose
narrow valley divides the
Ottertail and Van Home
ranges. Mount Goodsir
(11,676 ft.), the highest of
the Ottertail group, is seen
from Ottertail Creek. The
Ottertail to the left
appears sheer and
pinnacled, with no amphitheatre among the
craggy heights, while the
Van Home to the right
are ochre-colored in their
slopes and show an undulated succession of
trough and crest among
their summits. About a
mile away from the valley
bed of the Kicking Horse
River, at the base of the
Ottertails, is a strange field of rakish
looking -"hoodoos," with pillars left
standing by the wash of mountain
torrent, with stones tilted at all sorts of tipsy
angles on their heads. The line, which has
gradually curved towards the south since crossing the summit at Stephen, runs due south from
here to Leanchoil, where the Beaverfoot River
comes in from the south and joins the Kicking
Horse. At the left, the lofty peaks of the Ottertail Mountains, walled,
massive and castellated, rise abruptly to an immense height; and,
looking south, a magnificent range of peaks extend in orderly array
towards the southeast as far as the eye can reach. These are the
Beaverfoot Mountains, appearing to slope away from the railway. At
the right Mount Hunter, a long, gradual slope, pushes its huge mass
forward like a wedge between the Ottertail and Beaverfoot ranges.
The river turns abruptly against its base and plunges into the lower
Kicking Horse canyon, down which it disputes the passage with the
railway. Near Palliser can be seen a group of hoodoos in process of
Twin   Falls.,
Yoho  Valley
Palliser—Alt. 8,283 ft. The canyon rapidly deepens until, beyond
Palliser, the mountain sides become vertical, rising straight
up thousands offieet, in a bronze wall crested by a long line of unnamed
peaks, and within an easy stone's throw from wall to wall. Down this
vast chasm go the railway and the river together, the former crossing
from side to side to ledges cut out of the solid rock, and twisting and
turning in every direction, and every minute or two plunging through
projecting angles of rock which seem to close the way. With the
towering cliffs almost shutting out the sunlight and the roar of the
river and the train increased an hundredfold by the echoing walls, the
passage of this terrible gorge will never be forgotten. FIELD TO REVELSTOKE 66
Across     Canada
Glenogle   AU. 8008     The train suddenly emerges into daylight as
Golden "    2578     Golden is reached.   The broad river ahead is
Moberly      "    2548     the   Columbia   moving   northward.     The
supremely beautiful mountains beyond to the
left and south are the Selkirks, rising from their forest clad bases and
lifting their ice-crowned heads far into the sky. They extend
in an apparently unbroken line from the southeast to the
northwest, gradually melting into the remote distance.   Parallel with them and rising eastward, to the right and the
north from the Columbia, range upon range, are the Rockies,
only the loftiest peaks to be seen just now over the
massive benches upon which they rest.   Golden is
a lumbering town upon the banks of the Columbia,
at the mouth of the  Kicking Horse.    During the
summer steamers make trips up the Columbia to
Windermere on the lakes at the head of the river.
PI uiiwiu
M ountain
In order to facilitate the development of agriculture, fruit growing and mining in this valley, and to
encourage tourists to visit the beautiful district
round Lake Windermere, the Canadian Pacific has
for some years been engaged on the construction of
the Kootenay Central branch connecting Golden,
on the main line, with Fort Steele and Wardner,
on the Crows Nest Pass line, a distance of about 180 miles.
Trains are already running south as far as Spillimacheen, where
the journey may be continued by boat or automobile to Invermere,
on the shores of Lake Windermere, where there is a small but excellent
hotel. An automobile stage runs on the Government road from Golden
to Fort Steele and Cranbrook. From the road one can see the Ready
Made Farm settlements which the Canadian Pacific Railway has prepared at Parsons, Harrogate, Spillimacheen and other suitable locations.
The automobile road which is being constructed by the Canadian Pacific
Railway in conjunction with the Federal and Provincial Governments
through the Vermillion Pass from Banff will join this Government road
at Sinclair, over sixty miles up the valley from Golden. With the slope
of the Rockies on the left and the wonderful panorama of the Selkirk
Mountains on the right, this newly opened valley offers to the touiist
and the sportsman a virgin route of marvellous beauty. At various
points irrigation companies are supplying the water for apple-growing,
and there is already considerable settlement near the Windermere Lake.
Excellent sport may be had in the canyons and creeks which run up on
either side of the valley—this being one of the most convenient ways
of reaching the great ice field which caps the Selkirks. On Toby Creek,
Earl Grey, when Governor-General of Canada, erected a hunting lodge.
C. P. R. Station at Golden Annotated    Guide
(Continued from Golden)
From Golden to Donald the railway follows down the Columbia on the
face of the lower bench of the Rocky Mountains, the Selkirks all the
way in full view opposite, the soft green streaks down their sides
indicating the paths of avalanches. From the railway to the right.
of the track, shortly after leaving Golden Station, can be seen the
model Swiss village of "Edelweiss," erected by the C. P. R.for its Swiss
guides. Heretofore the company's guides have always returned to
Switzerland at the end of each season, but now they remain in Canada
the whole year round. Moberly is the site of the oldest cabin in the
mountains, seen just to the left, where a Government encineering
party, under Mr. Walter Moberly, C. E., engaged in the preliminary
surveys of the railway
route, passed the winter
of 1871-2.
Donald        Alt.
Beavermouth "
Donald    lies    in    the
shadow of the Selkirks.
From here the railway crosses the Columbia to the base
of the Selkirks, always    wooded    in
contrast   to  the
naked stone of the
Rockies.     A   little
further down,   the
Rockies   and   Selkirks,   crowded together,   force    the
river   through  a
deep, narrow gorge,
the railway clinging
to the slopes high
above it.    Emerging from the gorge
at   Beavermouth,
the most northerly
station of the transcontinental   route,   the   line
soon turns abruptly to the
left and enters the Selkirks
through   the   Gate   of   the
Beaver River—a passage so
narrow   that   a   felled   tree
serves as a foot-bridge over
it—just where the river makes its final and mad plunge down to the
level of the Columbia. Here a natural bridge is seen across the boiling
at Edelweiss,
Swiss  Guides
Six Wile Creek
Bear   Creek
A little way up the Beaver the line
crosses to the right bank, where,
notched into the mountain side, it
rises at the rate of 116 feet to the mile,
and the river is soon left a thousand feet
silver thread winding through the narrow and
densely forested" valley. Opposite is a line of huge tree-clad hills,
occasionally showing snow-covered heads above the timber line.
Nature has worked here on so gigantic a scale that many travellers fail
to notice the extraordinary height of the spruce, Douglas fir and cedar
trees, which seem to be engaged in a vain competition with the
below, appearing as a 68
Across    Canada
mountains themselves. From Six Mile Creek station one sees ahead,
up the Beaver valley, a long line of the higher peaks of the Selkirks,
en echelon, culminating in an exceedingly lofty pinnacle, named Sir
Donald (10,808 ft.), which is seen more closely at Glacier House.
Again, from Mountain Creek Bridge, a few miles beyond, where a
powerful torrent comes down from high mountains northward, the same
view is obtained, nearer and larger, and eight peaks can be counted in
a grand array, the last of which is Sir Donald leading theline. A little
further on, Cedar Creek is crossed and not far west of it is a very high
bridge, spanning a foaming cascade, whence one of the most beautiful
prospects of the whole journey is to be had. So impressed were the
builders with the charm of this magnificent picture of mountains, that
they named the spot The Surprise. The principal difficulty in construction on this part of the line was occasioned by the torrents, many of
them in splendid cascades, which come down through narrow gorges
cut deeply into the steep slopes along which the railway creeps. The
greatest of all these bridges crosses Stony Creek,—a noisy rill, flowing
in the bottom of a narrow, V-shaped channel, 300 feet below the rails—
one of the loftiest railway bridges in the world. As Bear Creek station
is approached, a brief but precious glimpse is caught of Mount Tupper
Rogers' Pass
through a gap in the cliffs
on the right. This station
is 1,000 feet above the
Beaver, whose upper valley can be seen penetrat-
ing the mountains
southward for a long distance. The line here leaves the Beaver and
turns up Bear Creek along continuous grades of 116 feet to the mile.
Many of the difficulties of the railway from snow in the winter occur
between Bear Creek and the summit on the east and for a similar
distance on the west slope of the Selkirks, and these have been
completely overcome by the construction, at vast expense, of sheds, or,
more properly, tunnels, of massive timber work. These are built of
heavy squared cedar timber, dovetailed and bolted together, backed
with rock, and fitted into the mountain sides in such a manner as to
bid defiance to the most terrific avalanche. Beyond Stony Creek
Bridge, the gorge of Bear Creek is compressed into a vast ravine between
Mount Macdonald on the left and Mount Tupper on the right, forming
a narrow portal to the amphitheatre of Rogers' Pass, at the summit.
The cowled figure of a man, with his dog, on the western edge of one
of the crags, shapes itself out of the rocks, and gives the name of Hermit
to the range. The way is between enormous precipices. Mount
Macdonald towers a mile above the railway in almost vertical height. Annotated    Guide
Mount Sir Donald
Its base is but a stone's
throw distant, and it is so
sheer, so bare and stupendous, and yet so near, that
one is overawed by a sense
of immensity and mighty
grandeur. This is the climax
of mountain scenery. In
passing before the face of
this gigantic precipice, the
line clings to the base of
Mount Tupper and as the
station at Rogers' Pass is
neared, its clustered spires,
resembling in one spot a line
of heavily burdened camels,
now known as "the camels
coming out of Egypt/3
appear, facing those of Mount Macdonald, and nearly as high.
Apparently these two matchless mountains were once united, but ages
ago some terrific convulsion of nature rent them asunder, leaving
barely room for the railway.
Rogers" Pass—Alt. 4,302 ft—This pass was named after Major A- B.
Rogers, by whose adventurous energy it was discovered
in 1881, previous to which no human foot had penetrated to the summit
of this great central range. The pass lies between two lines of huge
snow-clad peaks. That on the north forms a prodigious amphitheatre,
under whose parapet, five or six thousand feet above the valley, half a
dozen glaciers may be seen at once, and so near that their shining
green fissures are distinctly visible. In this direction, at the head of
the largest glacier, may be seen a group of sharp serrated peaks, clear
cut against the sky. The tallest is Swiss Peak, so called in honor of the
members of the Swiss Alpine Club who first stood upon its highest
pinnacle. The changing effects of light and shadow on this brotherhood
of peaks, of which Tupper and Macdonald are among the chief, can
never be forgotten by the fortunate traveller who has seen the sunset
or sunrise tinting their battlements, or has looked up from the green
valley at a snow-storm trailing its curtain along their crests with
perchance a white peak or two standing serene above the harmless
cloud. On the south stretches the line of peaks connecting Macdonald
with Sir Donald, Uto, Eagle and Avalanche, from south to north—the
rear slopes of which were seen in ascending the Beaver. This pass valley
has been reserved by the Government as a national park. 70
Across     Canada
1           ■■■   .1.11 .    —.—I.
** o v m*t
c o v o Alt.
The  Loops  at Glacier
Selkirk Summit—Alt. 4,851ft. Summit of the pass. The mountains
to the right are: Tupper, the group of castellated
granite crags directly above the Pass; Hermit, a rounded height; the
Swiss Peaks, distinct from the peaks on each side by deeply notched
ravines; Rogers' Peak, sloping down a gradual sky-line to Sifton,
which is separated by a deep ravine from Grizzly, which in turn stands
opposite to the pyramidal heights of Cheops, a veritable Titan of this
group, with the profile of a hatted Napoleon plainly silhouetted against
that face of Cheops overlooking the vast glacial field of the whole
Hermit Range. On the crags of the Swiss Peaks a second cowled figure
with his inseparable dog can be seen as if a companion of his brother
on Mount Tupper; and looking out of the pass towards the west, and
over the deep valley of the lllecillewaet, is Ross Peak. Leaving the
summit, and curving to the left, the line follows the slope of the Axial
range, of which Sir Donald is the chief. At the right is the deep valley
of the lllecillewaet, which makes its way westward by a devious course
among numberless hoary-headed mountain monarchs, winding in leaps,
cascades, and falls betwixt forests of tropical luxuriance and clefts
worn through ancient morainal heaps. Directly ahead is the lllecillewaet Glacier of the Selkirks. Passing a long snowshed (not through it,
for an outer track is provided that the summer scenery may not be lost)
a sharp curve brings the train in front of the lllecillewaet Glacier,
which is now very near, at the left—a vast cascade of gleaming ice
falling 4,500 feet from the summit of the snow field in which it has its
source—one glacier of a group of glaciers all together—the ice field,
of which the lllecillewaet is one of a number of outlets, embracing an
area of about ten square mile:..
Glacier House—Alt. 4,086 ft.   The sta- yj
tion and hotel at Glacier
are within thirty minutes' walk of the _.,
lllecillewaet Glacier, from which, at the <<?$£&
Glacier Hotel—Canadian Pacific Railway Annotated    Guide
left, Sir Donald (10,808 ft.) rises a naked and abrupt pyramid, to a
height of a mile and a quarter above the railway. This stately monolith
was named after the late Sir Donald Smith (Lord Strathcona), one of
the promoters of the Canadian Pacific Railway. Farther to the left are
sharp peaks—Uto, Eagle, Avalanche and Macdonald—second only to
Sir Donald. Rogers' Pass and the snowy Hermit range, the most
prominent peaks of which are called the Swiss Peaks, are in full view.
Again to the left, at the west end of the Hermit range, on the south
side of Bear Creek, comes Cheops, so named after the Great Pyramid,
the tomb of the Pharaoh Shufu (Cheops) who lived about 3,700 B.C.
and in the foreground, and far down among the trees, the lllecillewaet
glistens across the valley. Somewhat at the left of Cheops the shoulders
of Ross Peak are visible over the wooded slope of the mountain behind
the hotel, which is called Abbott. Between Ross and Abbott in the background is an enormous wall of snow. This is the Mount Bonney
Glacier. To the right of Ross, between Ross and Cheops, a glimpse
is caught of the Cougar Valley where are the wonderful caves of Nakimu
(Indian for Grumbling Caves). Turning again to face the Great
lllecillewaet Glacier a "V" shaped valley is seen on the right. This
is the valley of the Asulkan brook, a gem of mountain beauty, where
a series of white cascades foam through vistas of dark spruce and fir,
The  Imperial  Limited  at   Glacier
where falls leap from ledges above in clouds of flying spray, and
shining open meadows lead the traveller to listen for the tinkle of the
Alpine herd. 'Efee peaks going from right to left are—Afton, the sharp
apex; the Rampart, an oblong wall; the Dome, a rounded rock; Castor
and Pollux, two sharp spires farthest south. To the left of the Asulkan
Glacier comes a forested dome, Glacier Crest, the western boundary of
the Great lllecillewaet Glacier, which is banked on the other side by the
lower dopes of Sir Donald, from whose summit an immense number
of glaciers can be seen. The hotel serves not only as a dining station
for passing trains, but affords a most delightful stopping place for
tourists who wish to hunt, or explore the surrounding mountains or
glaciers. The Company has greatly enlarged the hotel to accommodate
the increasing number of tourists who are not satisfied with the short
stop made by train. Here in the heart of the Selkirks every comfort
and luxury are found, and here many gather annually to spend the
summer amidst the wonders of nature. The lllecillewaet Glacier is
exactly two miles away, and its slowly receding forefoot with immense
crevices of abysmal depth cutting across the crystal surface is only 72
Across    Canada
a few hundred feet above the level of the C. P. R. hotel. To the
left of the Great Glacier and 3,000 feet above the hotel another view is
from the trail at the foot of Sir Donald. Easy trails also lead to Marion
Lake. On Mount Abbott, 1,500 ft. above Glacier House, on Mount
Avalanche, is Cascade summer house, directly above the mountain
torrent seen tumbling down the green shoulder from Avalanche Peak
to the head of the Asulkan Valley, where the ice flow of two main
branches of the glacier meet. Good routes have been also mapped by
the guides up Eagle and Sir Donald, the former being an easy climb.
This peak is so named from a large rock figure exactly resembling an
eagle which is perched upon the knife-sharp edge of the mountain.
It is seen to best advantage from the trail leading to Mount Avalanche.
The Asulkan Valley trail branches off from the main glacier trail about
a quarter of a mile from the hotel and crossing the Asulkan brook
climbs up the east side of the valley to the forefoot of the Asulkan
glacier, distant four miles from the hotel. The summit of the Selkirk
Range as crossed by the railway and the nearby village of Rogers Pass
(distance 4 miles), are reached from Glacier by another fine pony trail,
and from4iere the trail to Roger's Amphitheatre may be taken, where
is located a hut that may be used as a base for exploring and climbing
the neighboring peaks and glaciers. From Rogers Pass there is another
trail that follows along Bear Creek to Baloo Pass. From here is reached
the famous Nakimu Caves, a series of natural caverns, with beautiful
interior marble markings, situated on the lower slopes of Mt. Cheops
in the Cougar Valley. The return journey from the Caves to the
hotel may be made via a trail and carriage drive that follows the
lllecillewaet River. A glacial stream has been caught and furnishes
fountains about the hotel. Game is very abundant throughout these
lofty ranges, whose summits are the home of the mountain goat. Near
Glacier a tunnel nearly five miles in length is in course of construction
in order to secure easier gradients for the railway. When completed this
will be the longest tunnel in North America.
Continuing the descent from the Glacier House, and following
around the mountain-side, the loop is soon reached, where the line
makes several startling turns and twists, first crossing a valley leading
down from the Mount Bonney glacier, touching for a moment on the
base of Ross Peak, then doubling back to the
.$|£jP|§§|||8)rr<3^ right a mile or more upon
The Great Glacier Annotated    Guide
itself; then sweeping around
to the right, touching
Mount Cheops, on the other
side of the lllecillewaet,
crossing again to the left,
and at last shooting down
the Valley parallel with its
former course. Looking
back, the railway is seen
cutting two long gashes, one
above the other, on the
mountain slope, and further
to the left, and high above
the long snow-shed the
summit range, near Rogers'
Pass, is yet visible, with Sir
Donald overlooking all.
Ross Peak
Alt. 8435
I    2707
The lllecillewaet River is
here of no great size, but,
of  course,   turbulent.     Its
water is at first pea-green
with glacial  mud,  but
rapidly   clarifies.   About
Ross Peak station are many
silver mines penetrating the
crest of one  of  the lofty
hills north of the railway,
and a series of interesting
caves   have   recently  been
discovered about 2,000 feet
above the track.
These caves are
reached   by   an
excellent pony
trail and are exceedingly   interesting. ^^^^^^^^^
Albert Canyon—AU. 2,821 ft. Just
east of the station
the train runs suddenly along the very
brink of several remarkably deep
fissures in the solid rock, whose walls
rise straight up, hundreds of feet on both sides, to wooded crags, above
which sharp, distant peaks cut the sky. The most striking of these
canyons is the Albert, where the river is seen nearly 150 ft. below the
railway, compressed into a boiling flume scarcely 20 ft. wide.
Twin Butte—AU. 1,878 ft. This station takes its name from the huge
double summit near by, now called Mounts Mackenzie
and Tilley. After passing the station, there looms up at the right the
conspicuous and beautiful range named Clachnacoodin. As the western
base of the Selkirks is approached, the narrow valley again becomes a
gorge, and the railway and river dispute the passage through a chasm
with vertical rocky walls, known as a box canyon, standing but
ten yards apart. The line suddenly emerges into a comparatively
open, level and forest-covered space, swings to the right and reaches
Revelstoke, the northern gateway to the wonderfully rich mining camps
of West Kootenay.
Revelstoke—AU. 1,492 ft. Population 8,500. On the Columbia
River—a railway divisional point and a gateway to the
great West Kootenay mining camps. The Hotel Revelstoke facing the
station has all modern conveniences. A fine tourist resort—fishing,
hunting, boating and mountain climbing can be enjoyed here.    On
lllecillewaet River 74
Across    Canada
A Fair Alpine Climber
Mount Revelstoke, immediately north of the city, the Provincial and
Dominion Governments are now building a fine automobile road, 18
miles in length.   On the summit of this mountain is one of the most
beautiful Alpine parks to be found anywhere.   A comfortable chalet has been
provided    for    the   accommodation   of
tourists.   The Columbia, which has made
a   great  detour   around   the    northern
extremity of the Selkirks, while the railway
has come directly across, is here   much
larger than at Donald, from which it has
fallen   1,071   feet,   and 28   miles  below
Revelstoke expands into the Arrow lakes,
along   which   there   is   much   beautiful
country, and where the opportunities for
sport are  unlimited.    A steamer makes
regular trips of some forty miles up the
river.   It is a most delightful trip by rail
from Revelstoke to Arrowhead and steamer
down the beautiful Arrow Lake to Nakusp
past the famous Halcyon Hot Springs, a
well-known resort, where there is an excellent hotel with villas.    Opposite
"%      Halcyon is Halcyon Peak (10,400 ft.),
and there are pretty waterfalls near
the hotel. There are trails to different
points on the lake and to the mountain's crest.    Game is plentiful, and
there is excellent boating and fishing.
Nakusp is near the foot of the upper
lake, on the moraine of an old glacier,
where rail  communication is made
with Rosebery, on Slocan Lake (from
which the Canadian Pacific Railway
steamer Slocan runs to Slocan City at
the southern extremity of the lake, where there is rail connection with
the Lower Kootenay River) and with Sandon, in the very centre of the
rich Slocan silver mining regions.   From West Robson, the Boundary
subdivision runs along the banks of the Lower Kootenay River, a
magnificent fishing water, to the picturesque city of Nelson, near where,
at Balfour, is located the Kootenay Lake Hotel of the Canadian Pacific
Railway.   This hotel is situated in a district that offers many attractions
to the tourist.    A motor launch licensed to carry sixty passengers will
run during the summer of 1914, in connection with this hotel from Nelson.
The Balfour Hotel has
excellent tennis courts,
and    the    annual
tournament   there
attracts visitors from
far and wide.   A more
delightful place for a
brief or lengthy stay
will   hardly   be
imagined. The fishing in the vicinity is
excellent, big game is
plentiful and the
scenery   unexcelled.
There is another
Canadian Pacific
Railway Steamboat
service between Nelson (seepagel02) and
Kootenay Landing,
making  connections
with  the  trains  of
the    Crows   Nest
C.P.R.   Steamer
B.C.   Lake   Service
Across     Canada
Pass route at the latter place, and other steamers run regularly
to the numerous gold, silver and copper mines on the Kootenay Lake,
affording opportunities for enjoying the magnificent lake and mountain
scenery of this picturesque locality. The Columbia River is bridged at
West Robson, and trains run through from Nelson to the great smelting
centre of Trail, and to the town of Rossland, a mining camp of pheno-,
menal growth, the wealth of which has been
demonstrated by actual production. Still
another subdivision runs from West Robson
through the Boundary Country of Midway
(99 miles), and is opening up another very
rich mineral region.
On the Columbia River, and the Arrow,
Slocan and Kootenay lakes is a steamship
service, operated by the Canadian Pacific
Railway Company, which is unsurpassed in
American waters. The steamers are speedy,
sumptuously appointed, and have all the advantages of the latest
modern construction.
Resuming the journey on the main line, the two peaks south-east are
Mackenzie and Tilley. The mountains beyond are in the Gold or
Columbia range and the most prominent one of them in view, towards
the south-west, is Mount Begbie, imposing and glacier-studded.   The
Columbia is crossed, and the Gold range is
Clanwilliam Alt. 1812 at once entered by Eagle Pass, which is
Three Valley " 1634 so deep cut and direct that it seems to
Craigellachie     "    1222     have  been   purposely   provided  for  the
railway, in compensation, perhaps, for
the enormous difficulties that had to be overcome in the Rockies and
Selkirks. Lofty mountains rise abruptly on each side throughout, and
the pass is seldom more than a mile wide. The highest point reached
by the line in this pass is Summit Lake, 7 miles from, and only 400 ft.
above the Columbia. Four beautiful lakes—Summit, Victor, Three
Valley and Griffin—occur in close succession, each occupying the entire
width of the valley, and forcing the railway into the mountain sides.
The valley is filled throughout with a dense growth of immense trees-
spruce, Douglas fir, hemlock, cedar, balsam, and many other varieties-
giants, all of them. Sawmills occur at intervals. At Craigellachie the
last spike was driven in the Canadian Pacific
Railway on Nov. 7,1885—the rails from the east
and the west meeting here.   The Shuswap lakes
are the
Salmon Arm
AU. 1210
" 1147
u    1150
centre of
one of
the best
sporting regions
on the   line.
within a day
caribou are
abundant; the
deer shooting
within a reasonable distance is
very good, and
on the lakes
there is famous
sport in deep trolling for trout
during the   proper   seasons.
The   London Times has well
described this part of the
line:—"The  Eagle River leads
"us down to the Shuswap Lake,
"so^ named   from   the    Indian
"tribe that lived on its banks
The Late Donald Smith (Lord Strathcona) driving the
fast spike at Craigellachie, November v, 1885 Annotated    Guide
'' and who still have a ' reserve' there._ This is a most remarkable body of
'' water.   It lies among the mountain ridges, and consequently extends its
"long narrow arms along the intervening valleys like a huge octopus in
"half-a-dozen directions.    These arms are many miles
"long, and vary from a few hundred yards to two or
"three miles in breadth, and their high, bold shores,
"fringed by the little narrow beach of sand and pebbles,
" with alternating bays and capes, give beautiful views.
"Therailway crosses one of these arms by a drawbridge
"at Sicamous  Narrows,  and then  goes for
"a long distance along the southern shores
"of the lake,  running entirely around the
"end | of 1 the    Salmon    arm."      Sicamous
Junction is the station for the mining and
agricultural  districts   to   the south,   where
there is a large settlement.    An   excellent
Canadian   Pacific   Ry.   hotel   here   makes
splendid headquarters for those wishing to
remain over to shoot, fish or make a daylight
trip through the mountains. There is
excellent trout fishing within a few minutes'
paddle of the hotel, between April 1st and
July 1st, also September 15th and November
1st.   Small craft are always obtainable.
A branch railway runs to Vernon and
Okanagan, at the head of Lake Okanagan, a
magnificent sheet of water on which the str.
Okanagan plies to Kelowna and to Penticton,
at the foot of the lake. Kelowna is a growing
town of over 3,000 population. Tributary to
the town are some fifty thousand acres of first
class fruit lands, much of which is under cultivation. Many thousand more acres of land are
being converted into fruit orchards in other
Okanagan districts. As showing the adaptability of the soil it may be stated that a very good grade of tobacco is
grown commercially near Kelowna. At Penticton a strong Land
Company has purchased an extensive tract of land, which it is rapidly
irrigating and cultivating until to-day it has over 3,000 acres of the
finest fruit lands in British Columbia producing rich returns each season.
There is excellent hotel accommodation at Penticton for travellers. The
Hotel Incola is an ideal resort for any time of year owing to the sunny,
dry climate of the valley. Vernon is a charming spot, and the whole
country is a vefylable earthly paradise.   A short distance east of Vernon 78
Across    Canada
■        y 7 : i,      /§£a ^   ■
\ M.eM
Apple Blossom Time
is the Coldstream Estate, lately the property of Lord Aberdeen, formerly
Governor-General of Canada. It contains some 13,000 acres of first-class
fruit,   and a large part of which is in a high state of cultivation.
--~ Further down the
lake are Peachland
and Summerland,
which are making
considerable progress. This is a
land of vineyards
and orchards, which
is now having a
development, as
well as a Mecca for
keen sportsmen, for
there is an abundance and variety of
large and small
game, including
caribou, bear, deer,
bighorn and mountain goat.
Resuming the transcontinental trip, a writer says: "For 50 miles the
"line winds in and out the bending shores, while geese and ducks
" fly over the waters and light and shadow play upon the opposite banks.
"This lake with its bordering slopes gives a fine reminder of Scottish
"scenery. The railway in getting around it, leads at different and
" many times towards every one of the thirty-two points of the compass.
" Leaving the Salmon arm of the Lake rather than go a circuitous course
"around the mountains to reach the south-western arm the line strikes
"through the forest over the top of the intervening ridge (Notch
"Hill). We come out at some 550 feet elevation above this 'arm,'
-'and get a magnificent view across the lake, its winding shores on
"both sides of the long and narrow sheet
"of water stretching far on either hand,
"with high mountain ridges for the opposite
"background. The line gradually runs
"down hill until it reaches the level of
"the water, but here it has passed the lake,
"which has narrowed into the south branch
"of the Thompson River. Then the valley broadens and the eye that
"has been so accustomed to rocks and roughness and the uninhabited
"desolation of the mountains is gladdened by the sight of grass, fenced
" fields, growing crops, haystacks, and good farm houses on the level
"surface, while herds of cattle, sheep and horses roam over the valley and
'■' bordering hills in large numbers. This is a ranching country extending
"feu- into the mountain valleys west of the Gold Range on both sides of
"the railway, and is one of the garden spots of British Columbia. . .
"The people are comparatively old settlers, having come in from the
Notch Hill Alt.
Fruit Grower's Ranch at Vernon Ann otated    Guide
"Pacific Coast, and it does one's heart good, after having passed the
"rude little cabins and huts of the plains and mountains, to see their
"neat and trim cottages with the evidences of thrift_that are all around."
Kamloops—Alt. 1,151 feet. Pop. 5,250. Subdivisional point and
principal town in the Thompson River valley, begun
many years ago around a Hudson's Bay post. The north fork of the
Thompson comes down from the mountains 200 miles northward, and
here joins the main river. It is a beautiful spot, whose dry invigorating
climate pre-eminently makes it a desirable resort for health and pleasure
and the abundance of whose furred, feathered, and finny game adds
to its charms for tourist and sportsman. The broad valleys intersect at
right angles. There is a background of hills, and fine groves line both
banks of the streams. Steamboats are on the river, and sawmills
briskly at work give employment to a large number. The triangular
space between the rivers opposite Kamloops, is an Indian reservation,
overlooked by the stately Mount St. Paul. The principal industries
around Kamloops are cattle and horse raising and fruit growing under
irrigation. The latter industry is progressing very rapidly as this
district is well adapted for all kinds of fruit culture. This is the supply
point for a lar^®ranching and mineral region southward, especially in
the Nicola valleys and for the valley of the North Thompson, a rapidly
Hotel  Incola,  Penticton,   Okanagan  Valley
developing district rich in timber, mineral ana agricultural wealth.
The mines being operated in the immediate vicinity of the town are
largely similar to those of Trail Creek, principally gold and copper.
The town operates its own electric light and {water plants and is at
present developing hydro-electric power.
Tranqullle—AU. 1134.
Cherry Creek—Alt. 1142. Just below Kamloops the Thompson
widens out into Kamloops Lake, a broad, beautiful
hill-girt sheet of water, along the south shore of which the railway runs
some twenty miles. Half-way a series of mountain spurs project into
the lake, and are pierced by numerous tunnels, one following the other
in close succession. At Savona the lake ends, the mountains draw
near, and the series of Thompson River canyons is entered, leading
westward to the Fraser through marvellous
Savona Alt. 1158     scenery.   Quick-silver mines of great value
Walhachin " 1258 are being operated in this locality. From here
Ashcroft "    998     to Port Moody, the nearest point on Pacific
Spatsum "    855     tide water, the railway was   built  by the
Government and transferred to the present
Company in 1886. At Walhachin there is the only commercial orchard
visible from the main line through which a mono rail system of
some ten milesffij projected. Ashcroft (pop. 900) has developed into a
busy town, being the pcgffit of departure for Cariboo and Omineca gold KAMLOOPS TO YALE Indicates Double Track
Spence's Bridge
fields in the northern interior of British Columbia. Trains of freight
waggons drawn by long strings of pack mules, laden with merchandise,
depart from and arrive here almost daily. There are extensive cattle
ranches in the vicinity, and considerable farming is done. Three miles
beyond Ashcroft the hills press close upon the Thompson River, which
cuts its way through a winding gorge of almost terrifying gloom and
desolation, fitly named the Black Canyon.
At Spence's Bridge the old waggon road
AU. 768 up this valley to the Caribou gold
'' 752 country crosses the river; and the railway
" 670 is here thrown over the mouth of the
" 746 Nicola River, whose valley to the south
is an important grazing and ranching
region into which a subdivision of the Canadian Pacific Railway has
been built to the village of Nicola. Below this point the scenery becomes
very striking and peculiar. The train runs upon a sinuous ledge cut
out of the bare hills on the irregular south side of the stream, where
the headlands are penetrated by tunnels, and the ravines spanned by
lofty bridges, and the Thompson, in the purity of a trout brook, whirls
down its winding torrent path as green as an emerald. Sometimes the
banks are rounded cream-white slopes; next, cliffs of richest yellow,
streaked and dashed with maroon, jut out; then masses of solid rust-red
earth, suddenly followed by an olive-green grass slope, or some white
exposure. With this fantastic coloration to which the brilliant emerald
river opposes a striking contrast, and over which bends a sky of deepest
violet, there is the additional interest of great height and breadth of
prospect, and a constantly changing grote^queness of form caused by
the wearing down of rocks of unequal hardness, by water, and wind,
into towers, monuments, goblins, and griffins. The strange forms and
gaudy hues of the rocks and scantily herbaged terraces impress themselves most strongly on the memory. Five miles beyond Drynoch,
Nicomen, a little mining town, is seen, and on the opposite bank of
the river gold was first discovered in British Columbia in 1857. The
mountains now draw together again, and the railway winds along their
face hundreds of feet above the struggling river. This is the Thompson
Canyon.   The corge rapidly narrows and deepens, and the scenery
Old Bridge at Spuzzum Annotated    Guide
becomes .wild beyond
description. The
frowning cliffs opposite
are mottled and
streaked in many striking colors, and now and
then, through breaks in the high escarpment,
snowy peaks are seen
Lytton AU. 687 glistening a b o v e t h e
Keefers " 655 clouds. At Lytton, a
small trading town, the
canyon suddenly widens to admit the Fraser, the chief river of the
province, which come down from the north between two great lines
of mountain peaks, and whose turbid flood soon absorbs the bright
green waters of the Thompson. The railway now enters the canyon
of the united rivers, and the scene becomes even wilder than before.
Six miles below Lytton the train crosses the Fraser by a steel cantilever
bridge, Tiigh above the water, plunges into a tunnel and shortly emerges
at Cisco. The line now follows the right-hand side of the canyon, with
the river surging and swirling far below. The old Government road,
built in the early '60's, and abandoned since the opening of the railway,
attracts attention all along the Fraser and Thompson valleys. Usually
twisting and turning about the cliffs, it sometimes ventures down to
the river's side, whence it is quickly driven by an angry turn of the
waters. Six miles below Kanaka, where it follows the cliffs,
opposite to the railway, it is forced to the height of a thousand feet
above the river, and is pinned by seemingly slender sticks to the face of
a gigantic precipice. The canyon alternately widens and narrows.
Indians are at times seen on projecting rocks down at the water's
edge, spearing salmon or scooping them out with dip-nets, and in
sunny spots the salmon are drying on poles. Chinamen are noticed
on the occasional sand or gravel bars washing for gold; and
irregular Indian farms or villages alternate with the groups of huts
of the Chinese. 84
Across    Canada
North Bend
North   Bend
Alt. 487     North Bend (a
"    895     divisional
point)  is a
desirable   and  delightful
stopping-place for tourists
who wish to see more of
the Fraser Canyon than is
possible from the
trains.   At Boston  Bar, a few
miles below,
where mining
operations   are
carried on, the
principal canyon
of the Fraser
commences, and
from here to
Yale, 23 miles, the scenery is not only intensely interesting, but startling.
It has been well described as "matchless." The great river is forced
between vertical walls of black rocks, where, repeatedly thrown back
upon itself by opposing cliffs, or broken by ponderous masses of fallen
rock, it madly foams and roars. Ten miles below North Bend is Hell
Gate, near which a projecting narrow rock is called Lady Dufferin'8
Walk. The railway is cut into the cliffs 200 feet or more above, and the
jutting spurs of rock are pierced by tunnels in close succession. Near
Spuzzum the Government road, as if seeking company in this awful
place, crosses the chasm by a suspension bridge to the side of the
railway, and keeps with it, above or below, to Yale. Ten miles below
Spuzzum the enormous cliffs apparently shut together and seem to
bar the way.   The river makes an abrupt turn to the left, and the
railway, turning to the right, disappears into a long
Yale AU. 215 tunnel, emerging into daylight and rejoining the
Hope      *    209     river at Yale.    Yale is at the head of navigation
and was formerly an outfitting point for miners and
ranchmen northward. It occupies a bench above the river in a deep
cul de sac in the mountains, which arise abruptly and to a great height
on all sides. Across the river from Hope is the village of the
same name—a mining town and trading post, whence trails lead over
the mountains in different directions. Southwestward may be seen
Hope Peaks, where great bodies of silver ore are exposed, and only
await suitable fuel to be worked profitably. Below Hope is the bottomless Devil's Lake. The canyon widens out and is soon succeeded by a
broad, level valley with rich soil and heavy timber. The rude Indian
farms give place to broad, well-cultivated fields, which become more
and more frequent, and vegetation of all kinds rapidly increases in
luxuriance as the Pacific is approached.
Ruby Creek is named from the garnets found
Ruby Creek Alt. 96   in   the
At Agassiz, overlooked by Mount Cheam,
is a  Government  experimental
farm where fruit and grain are
grown in great variety.    Agassiz
is    the   station   for    Harrison
Springs (hot sulphur), on Harrison   Lake,   five
miles north.
These springs
are famed for
their  curative
properties,   and
are visited by
Harrison Hot  Springs Annotated    Guide
Hell   Gate
invalids from everywhere on the Pacific Coast. The St. Alice hotel
affords accommodation, and the country about is most interesting.   At
Harrison Mills the Harrison River isffiast crossed
Harrison Mills AU.40 above its confluence with the Fraser, where
Nicomen " 25  steamer is taken for the Chilliwack District. The
steamer "Vedder" operates between Harrison
Mills Station afflfchilliwack Wharf. Chilliwack Valley is situated on the
south side of the Fraser River opposite to Harrison Mills Station, and
comprises over 55,000 acres of rich agricultural land and is famed for
dairying, mixed farming and fruit growing. Two of the finest equipped
creameries in the Dominion are operating at Chilliwack, producing over
one-half million pounds of butter annually, also the largest fruit canning
company in the country is now in operation there. The city of Chilliwack
has a population of 2,000 inhabitants, and has the advantages of city
water, telephones and electric light. Until the opening of the F/aser
River route, in 1864, the only access to the northern interior of the province was by way of the Harrison Valley. A few miles beyond Nicomen,
Mount Baker comes into view on the left, fifty miles away—in the
state of Washington—a beautiful isolated cone, rising 14,000 feet
above the railway level.   From Mission a subdivision crosses the Fraser
River and runs to the international boundary
Mission Alt. 21    where rail connection is made with the Northern
Whonnock " 16 Pacific Railway for Seattle, Tacoma, Portland,
Haney I    19   and all Oregon and California points. This line
Hammond       "    21    gives through connection for all the prominent
points on Puget Sound, and for Portland and
San Francisco. Eight miles beyond, at the crossing of the Stave
River, the finest view of Mount Baker is had, looking back and up
the Fraser, which has now become a smooth and mighty river. The
celebrated Pitt Meadows are traversed, and a couple of miles before
reaching Westminster Junction the Pitt River is crossed. Immense
trees are now frequent, and their size is indicated by the enormous
stumps near the railway.
Westminster Junc.     Alt. 28
(Westminster) "   12
Pop. 18,894
salmon canning industry,  which
A subdivision diverges here to the
important city of Westminster on
the Fraser River, nine miles distant.
The town is the headquarters of the
is represented by a dozen or more
extensive establishments.    It has also large sawmills (the product of 86
Across    Canada
which is shipped largely to China, South America, Africa, Europe, and
Australia), and the Provincial Asylum and Penitentiary are located
here.    Steamers ply regularly to Victoria.
Port Moody AU. 18 Pdrt Moody, at the head of Burrard Inlet,
Barnett "    16     was for a time the terminus of the railway.
Hastings "   24     From here to Vancouver the railway follows
the south shore of the inlet, and the outlook
is most delightful. Snow-tipped mountains, beautiful in form and color,
rise opposite, and are vividly reflected in the mirror-like waters of the
deep-set inlet. At intervals along the heavily wooded shores are mills
with villages around them, and with ocean steamships and sailing craft,
loading with sawn timber for all parts of the world; on the other hand,
and towering high above, are gigantic trees, twenty, thirty and even
forty feet around. Passing Hastings, formerly a watering place, the
young city of Vancouver soon appears.
Vancouver—Pop. 140,000. The Pacific terminus of the railway, and
the location of one of its palatial hotels—the Vancouver.
The nearest ocean port to the great wheat lands. Until May, 1886,
its site was covered with a dense forest. From May to July its growth
was most rapid, but in July a fire, spreading from the surrounding
forest, swept away every house but one in the place, and, with this one
exception, every building now seen has been erected since that time.
The situation is most perfect as regards picturesqueness, natural
drainage, harbor facilities and commercial advantages. It has extensive
wharves and warehouses, many hotels, churches, schools, etc., all of
the most modern character. Many of the city's buildings are of brick
and granite, and its private residences would do credit to cities of a
century's growth. It has many miles of asphalt streets and cement
sidewalks, is lighted both by gas and by electricity, and it has an electric
street railway. The city's sewage system is second to none, while an
ample supply of pure water is provided by means of pipes laid under the
Inlet from a mountain stream opposite. Besides its magnificent and
well-known hotel the Canadian Pacific has a large station and offices in
the city and it is a remarkable tribute to the growth of both the city
and the railway that large extensions are being made to these edifices.
There is a regular steamship service to Victoria, Nanaimo, and San
Francisco, to China and Japan, to Sydney, Australia, via Honolulu,
H.I., Suva, Fiji, and Puget Sound, and Alaskan ports, it being
one of the principal points of departure on the coast for the Yukon,
Cape Nome and other northern gold fields, and an outfitting headquarters for miners and prospectors. The Canadian Pacific Railway
White Empress Line, whose steamships are the finest vessels on the
Pacific, takes the shortest, safest and most pleasant route to the Orient.
Two magnificent new steamships have been added to this service. These
are the "Empress of Russia" and the "Empress of Asia." They are
the fastest and most luxurious boats on the Pacific. Each equipped
with pretty cabins and public rooms, with a verandah cafe, gymnasium
and laundry, with a gay Filipino band and the perfect service of China
boys, these vessels make the voyage between the Orient and the
American Continent one of the most delightful in'the world. The Far
East is now brought near and Vancouver touches the finger tips of
dainty little Japan.
A large proportion of the silk trade passes through the port of Vancouver, and the Canadian Pacific "Silk Train " is perhaps the most
famous freight train in the world.
The country south, towards the Fraser, has fine farms, and is adapted
to fruit growing. The railway running from Vancouver to Steveston
intersects this district and gives access to the salmon canneries at the
Vancouver  from Annotated    Guide
New Canadian Pacific Hotel at Vancouver
mouth of the Fraser River. The coal supply comes from Nanaimo,
directly across*the Strait of Georgia, and almost within sight. The
scenery all about is magnificent—the Cascade Mountains near at hand
at the north; the mountains of Vancouver Island across the water at
the west; the Olympics at the south-west; and Mount Baker looming
up at the south-east. Stanley Park is a magnificent public pleasure
resort. Opportunities for sport are unlimited at no great distance—
mountain goats, bear and deer in the hills along the Inlet; trout-fishing
in endless variety; and Capilano Canyon, a few miles across the Narrows,
affords a pleasant outing. A stay of a week at Vancouver will be well
rewarded. A splendid Canadian Pacific Railway steamship connects
with Victoria three times daily, a ferriage of about four hours through
a beautiful archipelago. The "Princess" steamships are the fleetest
boats on the Pacific Coast Service, and are known among steamship
men as being the first Canadian boats to adopt oil for fuel purposes.
Victoria—Pop. 67,700. Capital of British Columbia, charmingly
situated at the southern extremity of Vancouver Island,
overlooking the Straits of Fuca to the Pacific, and beyond the Gulf of
Georgia, the mainland. Across the strait are the beautiful Olympic
Mountains, and far away to the east the white cone of Mount Baker
is conspicuous. The climate is similar to that of the south of England.
Besides the magnificent Government buildings, which rank amongst the
most handsome in America, the city has many fine public and private
structures, and the Canadian Pacific Railway has erected its palatial
Empress Hotel, so popular that it recently had to be enlarged. Beacon
Hill Park affords a fine view of the waters and the mountains on every
side. The city has an extensive trade, and many large commercial
houses, which do a very large outfitting trade for the Yukon. The
Chinese quarter is always interesting to visitors. The Esquimault &
Nanaimo Railway extends north-easterly 78 miles to the great coal
I iiwwiMumiiflmimwsiMiiiiM
the   Water  Front
Across    Canada
mines at Nanaimo, and on to
Port Alberni, the nearest
Canadian port to the Orient
with transcontinental connection, passing through a fruitgrowing and farming as well as very
pretty country in
which are several
pleasant summer
resorts near which
good shooting and
fishing are obtainable. A large number of English folks
have settled in the
neighborhood of
Duncan's where the
delightful climate
and fertile soil are
such as to combine
pleasure with profit. Many people who have achieved independence
have taken up residence at other points along during the past few years.
A very delightful Chalet Hotel is operated by the Canadian Pacific
Railway at Cameron Lake. Steamboats afford connections with
Vancouver and British Columbia mainland, and with Puget Sound
ports, and steamships depart about every five days for San Francisco,
connecting therefor Southern California, Mexico and South American
west-coast ports. Steamers from and to Vancouver for Japan, the
Hawaiian and Fijian Islands, and Australia stop at Victoria, many
tourists taking the steamer at this port, and there are regular sailings
for Alaskan points both for tourists visiting the wonderful fiords
of the north coast, and those intending to explore the great gold belt
of the Yukon. Esquimalt Harbor, two miles from Victoria, was
formerly the British naval station and rendez-vous on the North
Pacific, with naval storehouses, workshops, graving docks, etc. This
old association has attracted many ex-naval officers to retire for their
declining years to Victoria. While they were stationed at Esquimalt
they were captivated by the magic of that perfect climate and by the
fragrance of the lovely gardens which make Victoria the Rose of the
Seattle—Pop. 800,000.   Reached by the splendid Princess steamships
of the Canadian Pacific Railway.   A beautiful and progressive
city which is attracting many visitors to this section of the Pacific Coasti
C.P.R.  Empress  Hotel,  Victoria, B.C, SS2S2SS   Indicates Double Track
Across     Canada
llfcito^  UM
'i\\" —in run ^»^
Canadian Pacific  Steamer Princess  Charlotte
An extensive steamship coast service is provided in connection with
the Canadian Pacific Railway. From Vancouver steamers ply daily
to Victoria; to Nanaimo daily. Also at regular intervals to Northern
British Columbia ports, west coast of Vancouver Island, and to
Skagway, Alaska, where connection is made with the White Pass and
Yukon Route during the summer season for Dawson, Atlin and other
Yukon points.
From Victoria, steamers depart daily for Puget Sound ports and
every Wednesday for San Francisco. Steamers from both Vancouver
and Victoria to Puget Sound make connection at Seattle with trains for
Portland, Ore., San Francisco and Southern California.
The Canadian Pacific "Princess" steamers for Alaska usually leave
Vancouver late at night, and when the traveller wakes the next morning
he finds that the enchanting beauties of the trip have commenced.
It is usually shortly after breakfast that the steamer enters the famous
Seymour Narrows, one of the swiftest passageways on this coast.
Here the waters narrow and rush through a rocky and tree-clad passage.
From here the course is through chain after chain of smooth waters
dotted with myriad islands of all sizes and shapes.
Mid-afternoon brings the first stopping place,
which is Alert Bay. This quaint Indian village
is full of interest to the
tourist and the steamer
always stops long enough to
allow passengers to properly
see the sights. It has a mission settlement,
a good hospital
and a cannery.
Every house has
its totem pole,
some of which
rise to a height
of fifty feet.
Across    Canada
Here may be seen the cedar lodges of the Kwaukiutis, an entire
fleet of Indian war-canoes, and the most complete collection of totem
poles to be found anywhere on the whole Pacific coast.
Queen Charlotte Sound is reached at early evening, and if the heavens
are clear, a sunset of rare beauty will be viewed. This three-hour ride
across the Sound is all the open water that is experienced upon the
entire trip. Whales and porpoises are frequently seen. To the
northwest the dim outlines of the Queen Charlotte Islands may be
Soon Rivers Inlet is passed, with its many canneries^ and fleets of
fishing boats. Farther on are Namu, with more canneries, and Bella
Bella, on Campbell Island, where an Indian village and an interesting
mission are situated. Through Lama Passage the vessel finds its way
and into Milbank Sound, where the channel is very wide, and the
islands quite distant. During the night the ship passes through
Finlayson Channel and early next morning a stop is made at Swanson
Bay, a tree-bound place, in the heart of which is situated an immense
mill for the manufacture of lumber and sulphite pulp.
Out into the channel the "Princess" steamer again finds its way, and
for most of a day plows steadily northward without stopping. Granville Channel, Douglas Channel and then Lowe Inlet, with its settlement lying close to the foot of a mountain, is reached. Late afternoon
brings the vessel to the mouth of the Skeena River, wherealarge fleet
of salmon boats are usually encountered. The Skeena is at present
navigable   for   180   miles,   and  powerfully  built stern-wheel boats
Juneau, Alaska
leave every few days for the interior. Up the river about three miles
is Port Essington. It is not a very long run from Port Essington to
Prince Rupert, the terminus of one of the Canadian transcontinental
railway lines. The ship usually leaves Prince Rupert in the very early
morning, and_ Port Simpson is soon passed. This town is historic in
its interests, it being the first of the northern settlements established
by the Hudson's Bay Company. The old post used by the company
is still there, though in active times it was enclosed in a stockade
fortress with guns in the bastions.
After Port Simpson the liner passes Cape Fox just as it emerges from
Chatham Sound. This Cape is the extreme southeastern point of
Alaska. Dixon Entrance is now passed and again the islands stand at
a distance. j Soon the boat proceeds up Revilla Gigedo Channel, and
from there into the almost landlocked Tongas Narrows.
After that, Ketchikan, the port of entry, is soon reached and the
traveller steps onto Alaskan territory for the first time. This is a busy
town, as it is the outlet for an extensive copper mining district and
has an assay office. The " Princess'' liners always stop here to allow the
passengers to look over the town. The Indian women, with their
woven baskets, are among the odd sights to be seen. Splendid specimens [ of basket f weaving may be obtained here. After leaving
Ketchikan, the ship finds its way into Clarence Strait passing en route
Prince of Wales Island on the left, and Etolin and Zarembo
islands on the right. Annotated    Guide
The steamer usually arrives at Wrangell Narrows in the evening,
but as the land of the Midnight Sun knows no darkness in the summer
months, day-light is always at hand to show the way. The passage
through Wrangell Narrows is one of the most interesting of the entire
trip. The channel is tortuous and very narrow. Half-speed is ordered
and the vessel glides unharmed past jutting rocks which lie close to the
mirrored surface of the waters. Wonderful shadows are on every side.
At the very end of the Narrows, a mammoth mountain confronts
the ship. A sharp turn to the right, and the ship slides into a wide
channel called Frederick Sound. Here one obtains the first glimpse
of the glaciers. The Baird and the Patterson are the two most important glaciers in this district.
Stephen's Passage is now entered. The Sumdum glacier can be
easily seen while going through this passage. At the head of Stephen's
Passage is Taku Bay from which the wonderful Foster glacier may be
seen. This monster is over one hundred miles long and extends over
that distance to Atlin Lake in the Yukon Territory. It is nearly a mile
wide on Taku Bay. To the left of Foster glacier lies Windom glacier.
All about the ship are ice floes and bergs of every description from tiny
cakes to large icebergs whose colors are nothing short of wonderful.
The "Princess" steamships usually make a call at Taku Harbour to
view the glacier either on the north or southbound trips during the
tourist season.
Shortly after entering Gastineau Channel, a sight of Treadwell, the
famous gold mining place, is obtained. Here are located the largest
quartz mills in the world, there being 900 stamps in operation day and
night. Near. Treadwell is Douglas Island, the residential district for
the mining-town. Across the channel from Douglas is Juneau which
nestles importantly under the shelter of its mammoth mountain and
takes life easy. It is an up-to-date place having the capitol buildings.
Ample time is given to inspect the town.
The ship's course rounds toward the narrow waters of the Lynn
Canal after leaving Juneau, and an all-day journey in a straight-away
northern direction is taken. Famous jpaeiers come into view from
time to time, the most noted of which is the Davidson, which in the last
few years has become inactive.
Late afternoon brings the now deserted town of Dyea into sight, and
the only bend in the entire canal brings Skagway, the head port of
navigation, into view. The White Pass Yukon Railroad has its
southern terminus at this place.
Skagway is surrounded by monstrous snow-capped mountains which
seem ready to drop over and cover up the town. As a tourist resort
it offers an endless program of attractions. Side trips in every direction
are possible, while fishing of all kinds, and glacier inspecting and plenty
of mountain climbing are special things in which the tourist may indulge.
The Princess steamers remain long enough at Skagway to allow passengers to make the round trip to the summit of the White Pass by the
White Pass & Yukon Railroad. And if a sufficient number of people
want to go, they will remain while the trip as far as White Horse is
This water journey occupies about eight days and is at once one of
the most delightful and comfortably accomplished trips that can be
imagined. The scenery is ever-changing and has the added advantage
of being a salt-water voyage over waters as calm as an inland lake.
It is really one of the finest trips in the world, and, as compared with
other journeys, is the most reasonable in price that has yet been
arranged. 94
Across     Canada
' ■w^YEJ-"'**^
Prairie Scene in Southern Albert
Dunmore and Kootenay Landing: 392 miles
(Alberta Division)
St. Paul and Minneapolis, the Twin
St. Pau! AU.   704     Cities of the Western States, politically
Minneapolis " 825 two municipal corporations, but in sub-
Moose Jaw        "    1766     stance one large community of over half-
a-million population, are the social and
commercial centres of the Middle States. St. Paul is the capital of the
State of Minnesota and the terminus of nearly all the railway lines
in the Western States. From St. Paul to Moose Jaw, the train rushes
through the lakey way and a panoramic view of lakes, rivers, forests
and farms, etc., is obtained which will not be easily effaced from the
traveller's memory. Glenwood, Hankinson and Minot are flourishing
towns passed en route. At Moose Jaw the main line of the Canadian
Pacific is reached and followed to Dunmore.
From Dunmore the Crows Nest Pass
Branch runs nearly due west (south of
the main line of the Canadian Pacific
Railway) to the mining regions of the
Kootenay, providing the shortest
route to the rich farming districts of
Southern Alberta and the gold and
silver-lead mines of Southern British
Columbia. The completion of this
road is notable from an engineering
standpoint, for the celerity of construction and the skill shown in overcoming
serious obstacles.
Lethbridge. Population 14,000. Altitude 2,975 ft. Lethbridge is a growing
manufacturing and distributing centre.
It has a municipally owned street railway
system, and an up-to-date fire brigade
and police department. Located in the city are churches, schools, lodges
of fraternal societies, hospitals, theatres, business houses and homes, as
are usually found, $60,000 Y. M. C. A. building, two daily newspapers,
nine banks, pay roll of over $200,000 a month, flour mills and elevators.
There are seven large coal mines within five miles of the city. Surrounding the city is a rich agricultural area, including a large irrigation
enterprise. Railway facilities are exceedingly good. It is expected
that within a year Lethbridge will be producing 7,000 tons of coal daily
from seven mines.
Medicine Hat
Bull's Head
Seven Persons
Bow Island
Grassy Lake
Purple Springs
2975 r«Ti'
nnotated    Guide
West of Lethbridge there has been completed by the Canadian
Pacific Railway one of the most gigantic engineering works in Canada,
the bridging of the Belly River and the Old Man River, replacing twenty
wooden bridges by two immense steel viaducts, one 5327.6 feet in
length with a maximum height of 314 feet above the river and the
other 1900 feet in length with a height of 146 feet above the bed of the
river. The cost of this work exceeded two million dollars. The former
is one of the notable steel structures of the world. It required 645
cars to transport the steel used in the construction of these viaducts,
and nearly two thousand cars of material were used in the building of
these mammoth permanent structures.
This and other important improvements prove the policy of the Canadian Pacific to spare no expense to make its line the best in the world.
Kipp—Alt. 8,046 ft.   Is an old Indian trading place at the confluence
of  the  Belly  and  St. Mary ravers, and the scene of many a
conflict between the early white traders and the Indians.
Monarch—AU. 8,098ft.    Is another old trading post.    From it on a
clear day a view is obtained of the Rockies, the square-
topped giant to the left, almost fifty miles away, being the "Chief,"
which lies partly in Canada and partly in the United States.
AU. 8090
«   8108
Macleod, Population, 8,000. Situated on the
Old Man River, 100 miles from Calgary and
40 miles from Lethbridge. It is one of the
most prosperous towns of Southern Alberta and has made remarkable
progress during the last twelve months. It is a distributing point
for the Crow's Nest Pass, no less than 3,000 carloads of produce for
this section of the province being handled weekly. Macleod is
becoming a railway and manufacturing centre. Macleod is the
headquarters for the Royal North West Mounted Police of South
Alberta, and a visit to the barracks is always interesting. In 1912
Macleod had the lowest tax rate in the Dominion—seven mills.
The single tax is in existence here and the municipality owns its own
town site and controls its public utilities.
Following up the Old Man River the railway
passes to the south of the Porcupine Hills,
between which and the Livingstone range of
the Rockies there is an ideal ranching country,
evidenced by the thousands of sleek cattle
seen feeding on the nutritious grass which
; everywhere covers the prairie. Westward from Macleod the Rocky
! Mountains are almost continuously in view, rising sharp and clear out
[of the western horizon, while the intervening country is a panorama of
'undulating plain—Victoria Peak to the south standing out in bold prom-
I inence, and beyond it Castle Mountain, one of the grandest in the entire
: range. As the mountains are approached the earth's surface becomes
! seamed with the numerous streams, small and large, which flow towards
the Saskatchewan from their source amidst the eternal snows of the
Rockies. In all the streams trout of various kinds abound, from the
small, speckle species to the 20-lb. bull trout.    Waterfowl, prairie
AU. 8811
8761 96
Across     Canada
Alt. 3907
a   4110
join the Old Man River.
chicken and the various other kind of grouse are plentiful, while further
on in the mountains the more venturesome sportsmen can gratify their
ambition amongst the grizzly and black bear, elk, mountain sheep and
mountain goat. About six miles after leaving Macleod, a row of large
boulders placed in a direct line mark the existence of a glacial age, these
having been evidently brought here by some prehistoric icefield. Four
miles east of Pincher (pop. 1200), Pincher Creek is crossed on a bridge
800 feet long. In a valley to the right is the Indian Industrial School,
where a large number of aboriginal youths are being educated and instructed in the various trades of the white man. The thriving town
of Pincher Creek lies to the south of the railway.
Cowley—Alt. 3,880 ft. Is situated two miles west of the south branch
of the Old Man River, which is crossed on a splendidly constructed bridge. To the right lies Massacre Butte, where a good many
years ago a party of German prospectors were butchered by Indians,
only one young girl being saved from torture. Now of course it is settled
with peaceful farmers.
At the crossing of the Middle Fork a glimpse
is caught of a pretty little fall, where the
waters of the river tumble and foam over a
crescent-shaped precipice on their way to
From here to Crowsnest Lake, the railway
follows the valley of the Middle Fork which narrows into deep canyons
and again broadens. Coal underlies a large portion of this region and
is seen cropping out in many places, at some of which mining operations
are being carried on. The mountains seem to have suddenly grown
nearer and rise abruptly in great masses on either side, forming an
apparently impassable barrier. "The Gap," however, provides an
entrance and the train swings into this narrow defile between almost
vertical walls, that on the south being the base of the Turtle Mountain,
whose flat, turtle-like proportions can be seen silhouetted against the
sky for many miles easterly. Frank (pop. 1,000) is the name of a new
coal mining town which has grown rapidly. Passing the cold sulphur
springs, which are visited by many for the curative properties of the
waters, Blairmore is reached. Looking to
the northwest the first view of Crowsnest
Mountain is seen, a circular monolith with
its base deeply tinted in purple and green
and crowned and capped m a shimmering,
dazzling mass of snow and ice. It dominates the entire region, and
seemingly at its base are seven distinct pillars as if guarding the mother
mountain. Ten miles westward is the Crowsnest Lake (alt. 4,890 ft.),
a beautiful sheet of water, alive with trout. While it is frequently
calm on this lake, it is often described as the birthplace of the wind
which blows across the prairies. About half way up this lake is the source
of the Old Man River, which flows out of a hole in the side of Sentinel
Mountain into the lake. This cave can be entered for some distance,
and the stream is supposed to be fed through a subterranean channel.
The scenery along the lake is continually shifting and changing, always
grand and always the reverse of monotonous. Leaving Crowsnest
Lake the line follows the shore of Island Lake (alt. 4,409 ft.), which
might readily be taken for a huge mirror, so clear are its waters, land-
4440 Indicates Double Track
Across    Canada
Crowsnest  Mountain
locked on every side.
Immediately to the
west of the lake the
summit of the Rockies
is reached, the elevation being 4,427
feet, and here the traveller crosses
the dividing line between Alberta
and  British Columbia, where the
mountain   streams   flow   in   both
directions, to find its way either into the Saskatchewan and into Hudson
Bay or into the Kootenay and Columbia rivers and the Pacific.
Crowsnest—Alt. 4,448 ft. After passing Summit Lake the railway
descends the valley of Michel Creek, and threads its way
along the steep side hill of the mountain, which towers far above to
the left, while to the right, hundreds of feet below, the Michel is seen
like a thin silver thread, winding and twisting in and out as it hurries
along to join the Elk'River. Then comes the "Loop," where the line
makes some amazing turns and twists until finally, after turning up and
crossing the south branch of the Michel, it doubles back to within a
stone's throw of itself, and by looking upwards one can clearly discern
the railway cutting a long gash in the mountain directly overhead.
Three  miles are covered to make this distance of less than 200 feet.
Loop—As the train swings off to the west again, huge, rugged mountains
appear  on all sides, jagged and naked, their frowning sides and
lofty peaks scarred and seamed, but they are easily circled.    Coal
again appears cropping out beyond the Loop.
AU. 4,158 ft. At Michel, the junction
of Michel Creek with the Elk River, the
line turns southward and follows the
valley of the Elk River, which can be
seen from the car windows,, tearing and
foaming  along  as  though  joining  in  a
mad, merry race against the train.   Elk River is one of the largest of
the mountain rivers, and in high water presents a formidable and grand
appearance.   The Elk River is followed to Fernie.
Fernie—Population 5,500. Is a thriving town jn the heart of the
Crowsnest district. The annual output of the Fernie mine
totals one million tons. There are seven hundred coke ovens in operation
at this point. The town is the wholesale distributing point for a large
district east and south and is the outfitting point for parties going into
the Bull River country and Flat Head Valley, now easily accessible
over Government roads and trails. Fernie is one of the most important
points on the splendid Government highway from Alberta to the
International boundary, over which a large automobile traffic is developing.
Cokato—Alt. 8,221 ft.   The line here passes through thickly timbered
woods, fir, tamarac and cedar growing in large quantities.
Morrissey—Alt. 3,128 ft.   Morrissey Creek, a noisy little rill, crossed
by a 50 ft. span Howe truss bridge, is a pretty mountain
stream of clear, sparkling water.
Elko—AU.  8,080 ft.     Two-and-a-half miles east of Elko the line
crosses the Elk River, which continues on its southward course
to join the Kootenay.    About a mile below the crossing is the Elk
AU. 4161
"    3850
a    s771
3446 Medicine Hat to revelstoke - via crows nest pass IOO
Across    Canada
River Canon which extends several miles in which the water drops
600 feet in seething, foaming masses. The scenery is wild and the
environments are grandly beautiful. Here the traveller gets a last
glimpse of the projecting angles, lofty peaks, and frowning precipices,
which, rising from their wood-encircled bases and lifting their ice-
crowned heads far into the sky, extend northward until lost from
sight in a dizzy, uncertain mist. To the south is Tobacco Plains,
a fertile country which is attracting settlement.
Jaffray Alt. 2,694
Colvalli   I    	
Wardner"  2,481
Leaving Elko the line strikes northwestward to
an open, grass-covered country. At Wardner the
line crosses the Kootenay River, which is here
some 780 feet wide and crossed by a magnificent
Howe truss bridge with a 170-ft. swing span to allow of the passage
of river steamers plying on the Kootenay. The Kootenay flows south
into Idaho, and returning pours its flood into Kootenay Lake, in British
Columbia, over 100 miles to the west. Leaving Wardner the line
continues in a north-westerly direction following the west banks of
the Kootenay, running through growths of magnificent large shade
trees and passing in and out through natural parks, while away in the
distance, grimly overlooking all is Sand Creek Range, the "Steeples,"
Mount Fisher, and Saunders Peak. Isidor Canon, a deep cleft in the
earth, is skirted, and the grade begins gradually to drop. Fort Steele
(alt. 2,682 ft.), the centre of the Fort Steele Mining Division, and a
prosperous mining town, lies seven miles north on the Kootenay Central
branch which is being built to connect the Crow's Nest line with the
main line at Golden, B.C. (See page 66.)
Cranbrook—Alt. 2,911 ft. Pop. 4,000. A railway subdivisional point,
a typical western railroad town, is charmingly situated in a hill-girt
valley, surrounded by a dense forest growth, and overlooked by the
white-tipped peaks of Baker and the main range of the Canadian
Rocky Mountains. I Cranbrook is the centre of trade for the mining
interests in this locality, as well as for the rapidly growing ranching
industries. Fruit raising is also proving an additional asset to this
locality. British Columbia has no better apples than those grown here,
and all kinds of farm products are raised. In the lateral valleys, which
frequently occur, are also fine agricultural lands which are attracting
settlers. Cranbrook has, besides the shops of the railway, a number of
well stocked stores, chartered banks, hotels, churches, schools, etc.
It is the principal lumber manufacturing point in East Kootenay,
having numerous sawmills operating within its limits. The place is
lighted by electricity, and as a residential town it has no superior in
British Columbia. A subdivision of railway connects the North Star,
Kimberly and Marysville with Cranbrook.
At Swansea the train commences its winding
Wattsburg AU. 8226 course along the beautiful Moyie Lake.
Swansea "    8185     This magnificent sheet of water, ten miles
long, lies between mountain ridges, and
occupying the whole valley, forces the railway into the mountain side,
in one instance disappearing through a tunnel 450 ft. in length. On
Moyie Lake are situated extensive galena mines; large deposits of silver
and lead ore have been located and are now being worked to paying
Moyie—AU. 3,044 ft. Is prettily situated at the southern extremity
of Moyie Lake, near which are the St. Eugene group of mines.
Trout and game abound here, grouse and partridge, as well as larger
game, being found in large quantities. Winding down the north bank
of the Moyie River,_the railway penetrates a thickly wooded, heavily-
timbered country, giants in cedar, fir, tamarac, cottonwood and larch
towering on all sides.
Looking across the Moyie River from Tochty
a splendid view of the Yahk Mountains is
obtained. ^ At Yahk Station the valley of
the Moyie which continues on its southward
course to join the Kootenay River in the neighboring State of Idaho,
is left, and by ascending the valley of Summit Creek to Summit
Meadow^ (alt. 2860 ft.) the summit of the Purcell Range of the
Selkirks is reached. Yahk is a Junction point for Kingsgate, Spokane
and Portland.
Aldridge Alt. 8047
Tochty " 2960
Yahk " Annotated     Guide
AU. 2121
" 1979
"    1847
^______ '^Sff^
Kootenay Lake^p
If we decide to continue by the Canadian route and travel through
the beautiful Kootenay district and the Arrow Lakes to the Pacific
Coast, the next station after Yahk is Goatfell (alt. 2,857 ft). And now
the downward course towards the valley of Kootenay Lake is commenced
the railway following Kid Creek, on the northern slope of the range, until
Kitchener Station is reached, where the Goat River Valley is entered.
Kitchener—Alt. 2,481ft. Several miles beyond and about four miles
east of Creston the line crosses the canonjly a 150-ft. span
Howe truss bridge, 165 feet above the river bed. The Goat River,
compressed into a boiling flume, goes tumbling and foaming over the
sharp, jagged rocks nearly 200 feet t|||>w. When the river is in flood it
is difficult to imagine a grander or more magnificent spectacle. Near
Kitchener are great iron deposits which are being developed.
From Creston the line follows the southern
slope of Goat Mountain until the flats of the
Kootenay River are reached. These flats are
a famous resort of wild geese, wavies and
„__^^____^^__ duck, and in the spring and fall of the year it
is no uncommon sight to see flocks of thousands of these game birds
feeding in the marshy places of the flats. Some very successful apple
orchards are found at Creston. Extensive reclamation works have been
constructed by an English syndicate near Bedlington, on the international boundary, the object being to reclaim these lands so remarkable for their fertility.
Sirdar—Alt. 1,713 ft.    Following the western slope of the Purcell
Range to Sirdar, a divisional point, and beautifully located
on the waters of Duck Lake, large flocks of geese and ducks are again
to be found.   Three miles further on is Kootenay Landing.
Kootenay Landing—Alt. 1,764 ft.    Where the navigable waters of
Kootenay Lake are reached and
a beautiful vista of mountain
scenery is opened up.    Here the
Kootenay River,  which   has
flowed south through East Kootenay and Idaho, and turned
north again pours its waters
into Kootenay Lake—a magnificent sheet of water.    At    a
the   Landing  the   Company     >;
has  constructed
a slip for transferring to barges
the   immense
quantities of
freight which
are from   here
distributed    t o
Slocan, Nelson, Rossland and other points. From Kootenay Landing
the passenger takes steamer for Balfour, where the Canadian Pacific
Railway has recently erected a delightful hotel. Here is a splendid
centre from which to explore the lakes and mountains of the Kootenay
Ranch  near  Balfour 102
Across     Canada
Canadian Pacific Hotel, Balfour
districts. Motor boats are available for the lakes and ponies for the
mountains. There are five excellent tennis courts and for those who
fish there are creeks and pools full of good sport. The view from the
hotel is one of the most beautiful in Canada. From Balfour one can
proceed by motor launch or by the regular Steamer to Nelson, and
after a most delightful sail of 52 miles, the young, thriving, energetic
city which, now boasting a population of 8,000, bids fair to become
the inland metropolis of southern British Columbia, is reached.
Nelson—From Nelson (Alt. 1,769 ft., Population 8,000)i there is direct
rail and water communication with the mining regions of
West Kootenay and the Boundary district. The Boundary subdivision
of the Canadian Pacific parallels the Kootenay River to its junction
with the Columbia River, which is bridged at West Robson, continuing
thence through the Boundary country to Cascade (alt. 1^.68 ft.)
Grand Forks (alt. 1,583 ft.), Greenwood (ah. 2,298 ft.) and Midway
(alt. 1,770 ft.). This region is rich in mineral wealth, and smelters
at Grand Forks and Greenwood testify to its rapid development.
Another subdivision runs to Trail, the smelter centre, and to Rossland.
Another Canadian Pacific Railway line branches off at Slocan Junction
(13 miles from Nelson) to Slocan City on Slocan Lake, where steamers
ply to New Denver and Rosebery, where the Nakusp-Slocan subdivision
is taken for Sandon, the centre of the Slocan silver-lead mining district.
Kaslo and other points on Kootenay Lake are also reached from
Nelson by Canadian Pacific rail and steamer.
From West Robson connection is made in summer with the main
trans-continental line of the Canadian Pacific by steamers on the
Arrow Lake to Nakusp and Arrowhead, whence there is rail communication with Revelstoke, the winter connection being via Slocan and
Rosebery to Nakusp, thence to Arrowhead as in summer.
The steamers of the Canadian Pacific Railway Company on these
inland waters are speedy, well-appointed, electric-lighted craft, and
the scenery is of that charming picturesqueness characteristic of the
mountains of British Columbia. A trip steadily growing in favor
is to cross the continent by the main line, returning by these lakes and
Crowsnest Pass—or vice versa—as it enables the traveller to see a
large portion of the mountain country in different latitudes.
Nelson, B.C.,  the Queen of the Kootenays Annotated     Guide
St. Paul and Minneapolis to Winnipeg
St. Paul to Winnipeg, 461 miles
St. Paul
Parker's Prairie
Thief River Falls
I   j jjimMMTffrjhnMnjiujHngiBBBPnninBgcttniDittfti iimi^m mmnnn ifluHumiiiiiLiiaimMajiniiflflininirnumijnniBu-mniiinji^i^jiinunnntiiiiicujwrhMitjjj.MBpifcTnrrrn.iJiituqfuiBimiHin^jmgtjj^[^
St. Paul and Minneapolis form the
gateways for passengers from Chicago
and the Middle and Southern States
over the Canadian Pacific Railway,
the main line of which is reached from
here either at Winnipeg or Moose Jaw.
The route to Winnipeg is through
the lakey way of the Minnesota lakes
which much resembles in outline a
gigantic fish-hook, with the eye at
the Twin Cities, the shaft running
northwest as though in ages past
some titanic bass had struggled with
it. T|^s belt is not comparatively wide through the first hundred miles
of its length out from the Twin Cities, but broadens as it turns northward
through a territory which is at once the beauty spot and the black bass
preserve of the great west. West of this region the country smooths
down and sobers off into the famous prairies of the Red River Valley,
every foot of which is capable of furnishing its quota of wheat, com
and other cultivated crops. East the land varies from prairie to
pinery, but the Park Region itself is a territory with slightly rolling
surface, where wood rimmed lakes are divided by wooded prairies and
where prosperous farming has not harmed but heightened the charm of
the scenery. At Glenwood the Winnipeg Line leaves the main line and
strikes north towards the Canadian Boundary through Alexandria.
From Alexandria northward to the White Earth Reservation the
scenery in its nature varies but little, being a succession of well-tilled
farms, of beautiful groves of magnificent timber, and of picturesque
sheets of sparkling spring water. The country is rich enough to support
many busy business centres. Parker's Prairie is a rapidly growing town.
Ottertail is located on the shores of Great Ottertail Lake and already has
a large population. Richville and Dent are all located advantageously
in splendid farming territory and are towns of great promise. Detroit
(pop. 8,000) is an old established town for this section of the country.
It is finely located in the midst of numerous lakes and having within
a small radius a great number of summer hotels. Northward from Detroit until the Canadian Boundary is reached, the country although
farmed to some extent is as yet almost virgin terrritory. For fishing
and hunting the country just described stands without a peer.
Sixty-five   miles   from   Winnipeg   the
Emerson Alt. 792     boundary is crossed at Emerson (pop.
Dominion City      "    787     1,600), the most southerly town of the
Winnipeg a    761      Province of Manitoba.    Emerson has
grown rapidly during the past few years
and promises to attain a much more prominent position in the near
future, being now an important station on the new through Canadian
Pacific line between Winnipeg and the South. Dominion City,
with a population of 400, is fifty-five miles from Winnipeg. The
route to Winnipeg is up the fertile valley of the Red River of the
North. On either side are seen great stretches of prairie land that are
now mostly under the plough and the thriving settlements found every
few miles give the country an air of great prosperity. In olden days
Fort Garry and the Red River Settlements were reached by following the
current in small boats and later on shallow steamboats were used for
transportation purposes. The land along the rivers was taken up long
before the back country was opened and consequently some of the farms
in this neighborhood have been under cultivation for several generations.
The best and most convenient connection between Winnipeg and
the Twin Cities, Minneapolis and St. Paul, is afforded by the through
Canadian Pacific-Soo Line Route, by way of Glenwood and Emerson. ar»p»
5738 «?*#¥»
Annotated    Guide
ia the quaintest and, historically, the most interesting oity in America. One of the
finest Hotels on the continent. It occupies a commanding position overlooking the
?t- L^>r??5?' lts sit* beinS unrivalled. Rates, $5.00 per day and upward. One mile
irom C.P.R. Station.   American plan.
is a handsome structure immediately opposite the Viger Square, at Place Viger Station,
ij miles from Windsor Street Station, and at a convenient distance from Ocean Line
docks. ■ Most tastefully furnished, the style and elegance characterising the Chateau
Frontenac at Quebec being also found here. Rates, $3.50 per day and upward,
American plan.
(Open from June to September)
has recently been thoroughly renovated and much enlarged. Best natural golf links in
Canada.   Rates $5.00 per day and upward.   American plan.
is especially convenient for other travellers, owing to its location at the junction with the
main line of the Company's branch lines intersecting New Brunswick. Rates, $3.00 per
day and upward.   American plan.
Situated at the Railway Station, furnished with every modern convenience. European
This Hotel is one of the finest in the system.   Rates, $4.00 per day and upward.   European
(Open from May to October)
in the Canadian National Park, on the eastern slope of the Rocky Mountains, is 4,500 feet
above sea levelj at the junction of the Bow and Spray Rivers. A large and handsome
structure.   Rates $4.00 per day and upward.    American plan.
(Open from June 10th to October 15 th)
is 1 quiet resting place in the mountains, situated by Lake Louise, from which there is a
good carriage drive. A convenient base from which to explore the Lakes in the Clouds.
The Chateau is situated about 2J miles from Lake Louise Station. Rates, $5.00 per day
and upward.   American plan.
a Chalet Hotel fifty miles west of Banff, at the base of Mount Stephen, which towers
S.oeo feet above. This is a favourite place for tourists, mountain climbers, and artists. The
wonderful Yoho Valley is reached by way of Field. Rates, #4.00 per day and upward.
American plan.
(Open from June 15 th to September 30 th)
a most romantically situated Swiss Chalet Hotel, with accommodation for forty guests.
The gateway to Yoho Valley. Seven miles from Field Station. Rates, 84.00 per day and
upward.   American plan.
(Open May to October)
in the heart of the Selkirks, within forty-five minutes' walk of the Great Glacier, which
covers an area of about thirty-eight square miles. Rates, $4.00 per day and upward.
American plan.
(Open May 10th to October 15 th)
A new first-class Tourist Hotel at Balfour, B.C., near the junction of the Kootenay River
and Kootenay Lake. An ideal resort for sportsmen. Rates, $3.30 per day and npward.
American plan.
built on the shores of the Shuswap Lakes where the Okanagan branch of the C.P.R begins.
Rates, $3.30 per day and upward.   American plan.
A new first-class Hotel at the foot of navigation on Okanagan Lake, reached by the C.P.R.
Steamers. An ideal resort at any time of the year owing to the growing dry climate of the
Okanagan Valley.   Rates, $3.00 per day and upward.   American plan.
the Pacific Coast terminus of the Railway, is an Hotel which has been greatly enlarged to
serve the pressing demand, and designed to serve the large commercial business of the
city as well as the tourists who find it profitable and interesting to remain a day or longer.
Rates, $2.00 per day and upward.   European plan.
The Chalet at Cameron Lake, on Vancouver Island, E. & N. Ry., is an attractive place for
a holiday.   Rate, $3.50 per day.   American plan.
A short distance from boat landing. One of the most beautiful Hotels on the American
Continent.   Rates, $2.00 per day and upward.   European plan. CANADIAN  PACIFIC
The   World's  Greatest Highway
OPERATING over 18,000 miles of Railway, the
CANADIAN PACIFIC has the most complete
and far-reaching service, not only in Canada itself, but also
for the United States of America.
Fleets of Palatial Modern Steamers on Atlantic and
Pacific (Managers and Agents :—Canadian Pacific Ocean
Services, Ltd.) connecting Canada with Europe and with
All British Service from Vancouver to New Zealand
and Australia by Canadian-Australasian Steamship Line.
Canadian Pacific Hotels are to be found in the chief
commercial and tourist centres.
Lands in Western Canada and British Columbia for
sale at moderate prices.
Through Tickets at lowest rates to all points in
ROUND THE WORLD. Fast Freight Services from
Europe to the rich markets of the New World.—Ship
your goods via C.P.R. Parcels by Dominion Express to
Canada and U.S.A.
For T^ates, Sailings, and further Information, apply :—\
European Head Office: 62-65, Charing Cross, S.W.
67-68, King William Street, E.C.
6, Water Street, LIVERPOOL
1. Mount Street, MANCHESTER
4, Victoria Square, BIRMINGHAM
18, St. Augustine'* Parade, BRISTOL
120, St Vincent Street, GLASGOW
41, Victoria Street, BELFAST
Or Local Agents everywhere
GEO. McL. BROWN, European Manager. London
!        H.G. DRING, Gen. Passenger Agent. London    T.J. SMITH, Gen, Frewht A«at.Und<


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