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Westward across Canada by Canadian Pacific : "The Canadian Canadian Pacific Railway Company 1967

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^:-^kY4''E>:%:'Ej'M^^; Across Canada by Canadian Pacific
Travel, even the luxurious travel of today, in the
comfort of Canadian Pacific "Scenic Domes", is an
adventure. Travel, the Canadian Pacific way from
tidewater to tidewater across the wide provinces
of Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan,
Alberta and British Columbia is an adventure in
which the traveller of today follows the trail-
blazing of a glorious past into a boundless future.
The Canadian Pacific transcontinental main line
retraces in the 20th Century the routes of many
brave and pious explorers of the 17th Century.
It follows the track of such heroes as Pere Marquette, LaSalle, Radisson, Nicolet, Champlain,
Thompson, Fraser, Mackenzie, Joliet, Du Lhut, whose
names are indissolubly imprinted upon the histories
of Canada and the United States.
"Across Canada by Canadian Pacific", prepared
for riders of the longest "Dome" route in the world,
is based upon the railway practice of dividing
the track into Sub-Divisions. While the timetable
shows the distance between Montreal and Vancouver as 2881.2 miles and between Toronto and
Vancouver as 2,703.6, the "Mileage Boards"
found on telegraph poles along the right of way
start afresh at the eastern boundary of each
sub-division. For instance, Pembroke, 219.4 miles
from Montreal, is indicated on the track side by
Mileage Board 93 of the Chalk River Sub-Division.
In order to pinpoint points of interest in the scenery
for ready location from a moving train, reference
is made throughout this book to the nearest
mileage board and each sub-division traversed is
named at its start. Following the operational
practice of dividing the line from east to west,
these pages divide the Canadian Pacific transcontinental main line — the "Scenic Dome" route
— from Montreal and Toronto to Vancouver. At
the side of each page a yellow plan map bears
the names of all stations on that page. Because the
Canadian Pacific main line travels generally in an
east-west direction, "north" is used throughout
the book to indicate scenes and places on the
right as you travel from east to west.
Explorers of the river routes that first opened the
Great Lakes and the rivers to the Gulf of Mexico;
discoverers of the great prairies that sweep
majestically upward from lake level to the Rockies;
pioneers who traced mighty streams through the
mountain barriers to the Pacific Ocean, all led
the builders of the world's first transcontinental
railway. These great men of the past lead you,
who sit in the air-conditioned comfort of a high-
level "Scenic Dome", through forests and lakelands, along the edge of the rich Pre-Cambrian
Shield, through gentle farm-lands, by inland seas,
between great wheatfields, beside roaring streams
that point their silver arrows through the mountain
passes. In the wake of the explorers you see,
through the picture windows on four sides of you,
mines, mills, factories, great cities; Ottawa, North
Bay, Sudbury, Port Arthur-Fort William, Winnipeg,
Brandon, Regina, Moose Jaw, Swift Current,
Medicine Hat, Calgary, Vancouver: the pleasure-
lands of the Gatineau, Muskoka, French River,
the North Shore of Lake Superior, Lake of the
Woods, Banff, Lake Louise and the British Columbia
coast.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Montreal-Romford Pages 3 to 5
Toronto-Romford Pages 6 to 7
Sudbury-White River  Page 8
Regan-Fort William  Page 9
West Fort William-Kenora      .... Page 7 0
Keewatin-Brandon  Page 13
Kemnay-Moose Jaw  Page 14
Boharm-Medicine Hat  Page 15
Redcliff-Calgary  Page 18
Robertson-Banff  Page 19
Castle Mountain-Hector  Page 20
Field-Golden  Page 21
Moberly-Revelstoke  Page 22
Three Valley-Salmon Arm  Page 23
Tappen-Kamloops  Page 24
Tranquille-Spence's Bridge  Page 25
Drynoch-North Bend ,   . Page 26
China Bar-Vancouver  Page 27
Triangle Service  Page 28
Alaska  Page 29
Front cover shows "The Canadian" crossing Stoney Creek Bridge in the Canadian Rockies. Tfie World's Longest "Dome" Ride
■ i?    'Y 7.
m*tE.-:
* - c ■
An artist's sketch of Place du Canada—38-storey Le Chateau
Champlain luxury hotel... 28-storey modern office building —
new Canadian Pacific complex in the heart of downtown Montreal.
Montreal. City on an island.
Mountain and Metropolis sit beside the mighty St.
Lawrence river which flows 1000 miles down to
the sea. Montreal is the world's largest inland
seaport. It is the terminus for Canadian Pacific
transcontinental rail service, air lines and White
Empress liners. It is a blending of the new and
the old. Towering sky-scrapers rise beside historic
cathedrals. Picturesque market places and great
monuments invite you to explore.
Montreal has retained its Gallic flavour for over
three centuries. Hundreds of street names bear
testimony to its French history. There is a wide
variety of eating places. French cuisine is offered
at many, as well as specialties originating from
other countries. Excellent hotels — including Canadian Pacific's "Le Chateau Champlain"—fine foods,
French atmosphere, and traditional hospitality.
Perhaps most exciting are the plans for Canada's
Centennial in 1967. This year Montreal will become the crossroads of the world when Expo '67
opens on St. Helen's Island.
Winchester Montreal West is the junction for
Sub-Division Quebec, the Laurentian Mountains,
Saint John, Halifax, Boston and New York. North
of Sortin lies the great Cote St. Luc marshalling
yard of the Canadian Pacific, directly south is the
industrial suburb of Lachine. It was historically
named for LaSalle's dream of a  route to China
beyond the rapids. In modern contrast is Montreal's
great international airport at Dorval. Golf links
and bright new suburbs line the track to St.
Anne de Bellevue where Du Lhut defeated Iroquois
warriors in 1690. lie Perrot, across the east channel of the Ottawa River, was Lord Jeffery Amherst's camp in 1760 before the capitulation
of the French. Vaudreuil-Dorion, played a part in
the war of 1776, when de Lorimier captured an invading American force. On both sides of the island
the Ottawa River flows into the St. Lawrence —
greatest river draining to the Atlantic coast of
North America. Its 1,900 miles drains 359,000
square miles of Ontario, Quebec and north-eastern
United States.
M. & O. From   Vaudreuil,   named   for   an
Sub-Division early Governor of Canada, the line
follows the Ottawa River, the route of early explorers. Isle Cadieux, a flag station, marks Point
Cavagnal where an early missionary, Pere Gar-
reau, was martyred by Iroquois Indians in 1656.
Across the Ottawa, now widened into the Lake of
the Two Mountains, the gleaming spire of Oka
Church marks the site of an early Hudson's Bay
Post where J. G. McTavish, who went to the relief
of David Thompson, the mapmaker and explorer,
in 1811, settled down as factor. The lake broadens
out at Hudson Heights to be joined at Rigaud,
site of a Seminary and strange geological formation known superstitiously as "The Devil's Garden",
by the Rigaud River. Before St. Eugene, at mileage
21.6, the boundary into Ontario is crossed. From
here to Ottawa, farms replace the forests that
made many fortunes a century ago. Vankleek Hill
was given its name for Simeon Vankleek, a royalist
from Dutchess County, N.Y., serves a rich farm area.
Alfred, early settlement formed in 1798, bears the
POINTE CLAIRE
BAIE D'URFE
ISLE CADIEUX
ALSTONVALE
Ottawa, showing the Rideau Canal, Confederation Square and
Parliament Buildings
VANKLEEK HILL McALPIN
CALEDONIA SPRINGS
ALFRED
PLANTAGENET
PENDLETON
BOURGET
HAMMOND
LEONARD
NAVAN
BLACKBURN
OTTAWA
HULL
HULL WEST
OTTAWA WEST
WESTBORO
STITTVILLE
ASHTON
CARLETON PLACE
ALMONTE
SNEDDEN
PAKENHAM
ARNPRIOR
BRAESIDE
SAND POINT
CASTLEFORD
MAYHEW
RENFREW
PAYNE
HALEY'S
name of a son of George III. At mileage 50.1 the
South Nation River is crossed. Plantagenet, also
settled in 1798, bears another royal name. Bourget, once known simply as "The Brook", was named
for Bishop Bourget, head of the Roman Catholic
diocese of Montreal. The Rideau River, named by
Champlain on an early voyage, is crossed at mileage 85.9. Ottawa, capital of Canada, and Hull,
Que., across the Ottawa River, in addition to light
and heavy manufacturing and many other industries, are lumbering centres. The area was first
seen by Champlain, de Vigneau and Brule. First
called Bytown, Ottawa was started by Colonel By,
builder of the Rideau Canal, in 1 827, incorporated
as "Ottawa" in 1854 and chosen as capital of
Canada in 1858. Hull, processor of paper, matches,
textiles, cement and meat products, is the junction
for the Maniwaki and Lachute, Sub-Divisions of
the Canadian Pacific. At mileage 89.4, the line
crosses Brewery Creek, scene of ornithological
studies by Rt. Hon. Malcolm Macdonald. The
Canadian Pacific main line crosses the river twice
here and gives a magnificent view of the Canadian
Parliament Buildings, the Rideau Locks, Chaudiere
Falls and the industries. Carleton Place, Arnprior
and Renfrew typify the solid economy of this part
of prosperous Ontario.
Carleton Place After its two crossings of the
Sub-Division Ottawa in the capital area, the
transcontinental line skirts the river for a few miles.
By another route than that of Pere Marquette,
who, with fur trader Louis Joliet, his co-explorer of
the Mississippi, Ohio, Arkansas, Illinois and Chicago
Rivers, paddled up the Ottawa to Mattawa 350
years ago, the transcontinental line taps a rich
agricultural country. Carleton Place, junction for
Smiths Falls, is a manufacturing and market centre.
Chalk River Pleasantly sited, Almonte, named
Sub-Division for the Mexican General, is a textile centre. Note, south of track, the clever use of
mill tailraces in landscaping of gardens. At mileages 17.6 and 32.4 we cross Canada's Mississippi
River. Pakenham, marked by attractive falls south
of the railway, commemorates General Sir E. M.
Pakenham, killed at the Battle of New Orleans in
1815. Wide meadows and well-tended grain and
root crops characterize this part of Ontario. At
mileage 39, the Madawaska River is seen to the
south and the track crosses it at mileage 40. Arnprior, next, busily devotes itself to textiles, boatbuilding, electronics, dairy products, lumbering
and construction. Its name, like that of Braeside,
where the Ottawa River is visible north of the track,
is Scottish in origin. Sand Point, named for the
bar which juts into Chats Lake, faces Norway Bay.
Renfrew is noted for castings manufacturing,
woodworking, refrigerators, airplane engine parts,
plastics, flour, feed and textiles. The West Bonne-
chere River is crossed at mileage 59.8. Payne,
junction for the Eganville Sub-Division, and Haley's,
where magnesium is mined and the Chenaux Falls
Plant of the Ontario Hydro-Electric Power Com
mission is located, and Cobden, livestock centre
named for the 19th century British statesman, are of
interest. At mileage 74, Muskrat Lake lives up to
its name and at mileage 79, the Spring and Fall
migrations of Canada geese are a sight worth
seeing. The stopover flocks sometimes are numbered in thousands. Snake River Station marks the
crossing of Snake River. The Muskrat River, mileage
84.4, separated from the Ottawa by a narrow
range of hills, flows in the opposite direction. Many
eagles nest in this area. Mileage 91 shows part of
23-mile-long Allumette Island in the Ottawa River.
Pembroke, county seat of Renfrew, gateway to
hunting country, marks the limit of Champlain's
1613 exploration of the Ottawa River. This busy
city, named for Pembroke in Wales, makes box
shooks, match blocks, matches, office furniture, pulp,
lumber, veneer and electrical appliances. Between
mileage 98.5 and 101, conservationists will be
interested in the obvious signs of reforestation.
Petawawa is the railway station for a large
army training centre, used, as the surrounding
countryside gives evidence, by mechanized units.
The name is an Indian word for "murmuring
water" which is crossed at mileage 104. At
mileage 105, north of the track, the entrance to
Petawawa Military Camp is known as Montgomery's Crossing after Viscount Montgomery,
famous World War II Field Marshal. At mileage
106.5, the artillery range is visible. Chalk River,
end of the Sub-Division, is served by the Chalk
River, for which it is named. At Deep River, five
miles from here is Canada's atomic energy plant,
specializing in the production of atomic energy for
peacetime purposes.
E-lt^'"
Typical Ontario woodlands North Bay The North Bay Sub-Division is char-
Sub-Division acterized by geographical qualities
of equal interest to the sportsman and the industrialist. The conformation of the land that makes this
territory interesting to sportsmen endows the area
with power potentialities. The stretch between
mileage 7 and mileage 14 is well known as good
deer country, Bass Lake at mileage 9 is said to
have been so named because very few bass have
been caught in it. Between mileage 12 and 13, Hart
Lake is renowned for good pickerel fishing. At
mileage 14, Moor Lake lies south of the track.
Moor Lake Station serves the hydro-electric power
station opened at Des Joachims in 1950. The
Canadian Pacific main line track was diverted to
permit dams for this new development which
generates 480,000 h.p. Lakes north of the track
at mileage 16.5 and south at mileage 18 break
the wooded landscape and at mileage 19, there is
a good view to the north of the Laurentian Mountains across the Ottawa River. At mileage 22.4, a
sawmill on a backwater of the Ottawa River
indicates the country's character.
At mileage 26.5, the now widened Ottawa
River to the north covers the former main line visible
here at low water, as it is at mileage 28, just east
of Stonecliffe Station. Your whole train is visible
at mileage 30.5. Near where the track crosses
Grant Creek, a curve of almost 90 degrees skirts
the lake edge and the former track is visible
between mileage 31 and mileage 32 where the
diversion ends. Here the transcontinental line leaves
the Ottawa River. Near Bissett, at mileage 38, the
transcontinental line crosses a bridge once featured
by Ripley. Three bridges cross each other and
Bissett Creek, the C.P.R. at the top, the highway
and a local road. Between mileage 39 and
mileage 40, rapids, falls and a lake interest
fishermen south of the track and at mileage 44.5
beaver dams and lodges are visible in the surrounding marshland. The Ottawa River is seen
again to the north at mileage 50 and at Deux
Rivieres, the Magnassippi joins the Ottawa River,
the "two rivers" being selected as a name by
early French settlers. Another curve of almost 90
degrees at mileage 50.5 marks another diversion
of the transcontinental line with the former right-of-
way again visible under water on the north side.
At mileage 61, Ottawa River islands have
shown traces of camp sites of the early explorers
whose route to the west still parallels the Canadian Pacific main line. More beaver dams and
lodges north of the track at mileage 63 indicate the industry of Canada's national animal and,
at mileage 67, the Ottawa River parallels the
track. Northward a bridge carries the Timiskaming
Sub-Division across the Ottawa. Mattawa, long-
settled forest products centre, marking the
junction of the Mattawa and Ottawa Rivers, is
aptly named by the Indian word for "meeting of
waters". Here Champlain ended his journey of
exploration and here, two years later, he started
up the Mattawa to Lake Nipissing, the French
River, Georgian Bay and Lake Huron, a route
followed   for   many   years   by   early   explorers.
Mattawa has been a trading post since 1784.
From Mattawa, the Ottawa River swerves northward and the Mattawa River parallels the Canadian Pacific transcontinental line to North Bay,
north of the track. This is trapping and hunting
country and such sights as Earl's Lake, mileage
74.5, and the beaver lodges easily seen in lakes
at mileages 77 and 79, make it easy to believe
that Radisson, Marquette, Nicolet, LaSalle and
other pioneers fared well during their arduous
journeys. At mileage 83, the line crosses the Amable
du Fond River (trout). South of the track at Eau
Claire are beaver-filled lakes. Look north at
mileage 94 between Rutherglen and Bonfield for
a glimpse of Lake Talon, part of the chain of
lakes that formed the early canoe route to the
west. Bonfield, formerly named Callander, is a
lumbering centre. At mileage 98, north of the track,
Bonfield Falls are visible. Between mileage 98.5
and 102.5 Lake Nosbonsing, south of the track, is
known for bass, pickerel and maskinonge fishing.
Corbeil, an arm of Lake Nipissing, South
Bay, leads up to the naming of the city that ends
this sub-division. North Bay, historians known as
a stopping place for Champlain in 1615, is an
important centre. Diamond drilling equipment,
lumber and building products, commercial explosives, castings, dairy products, dressed lumber and
forest products; the operating headquarters of the
provincially-owned Ontario Northland Railway to
Hudson Bay; boat-building and hardboard make
this market for 120,000 acres of general farming
land a busy place. Islands visible to the south mark
the westward channel of the explorers, and four
miles south along the coast is the site of a post of
great importance in the days of the fur trade.
Cartier Westward   from   North   Bay,   the
Sub-Division Canadian Pacific transcontinental
line skirts the north shore of Lake Nipissing past the
sites of forts built by the North West and Hudson's
Bay Companies. South of the track between
Mileage 2 and Sturgeon Bay is an Indian Reservation. After mileage 5 the lake is out of sight.
Beaucage, named for the first family to settle in
the area, limits the western view of the historic
lake. Meadow Creek, crossed at mileage 12.9,
takes its name from the pastureland for which
Meadowside was named. Sturgeon Falls, named
for the cataract on the Big Sturgeon River, crossed
just west of the station, makes barrel and keg
staves and wood-pulp board — using many woods
of no other value. Founded in 1885, the town's
name was obvious to fishermen. Clues to early
denizens are given by Bear Creek, mileage 39
and Stag Creek at mileage 41.5. Markstay,
lumber and pulpwood centre, is named for an
English village. West of the station, the line
crosses the North Veuve River, and between
mileages 57.4 and 58.6 crosses the middle branch
five times. The river, bridged at mileage 67.3,
gives its name to Wanapitei, and Coniston, named
for the novel by the American author, Winston
Churchill, provides year-round employment, has a
matte smelter, four blast-type furnaces, a concentrator and a sintering plant.
(continued on page 8)
STONECLIFFE
DEUX RIVIERES
EAU CLAIRE CRAIGHURST
SEVERN FALLS
MacTier Earliest recorded visitors to the area
Sub-Division   between Toronto and Sudbury were
Champlain and Brule in 1615. Much of their route
paralleled two sides of a triangle, Toronto-North
Bay-Montreal.    West   Toronto,   once    known    as
Toronto Junction, is the junction for Windsor, Owen
Sound, Wingham and Chicago. As with other large
cities, Toronto's suburbs radiate for considerable
distances.   Weston,   for   example,  has   foundries,
woodworking,    aircraft,    agricultural    machinery,
bicycle   and   camera   factories.   As   the   suburbs
fringe   into   farmlands   the   rolling   country   gives
promise of the agricultural  bounty for which this
countryside is noted. South of the line across the
low   hills    near    mileage    10,   Toronto's    famous
Hospital   for   Sick   Children   has   a   fine   building.
Woodbridge   on   the   Humber   River,   has   textile
factories and a famous Fall Fair. Originally called
Burwick,  for  Rowland   Burr,  who settled  there  in
1837, it owes today's name to a bridge built by
a  man named  Wood.  Kleinberg was named  for
Miller Klein, who built the second mill on the Humber
River and Sam Bolton, early settler, left his name
to   his   village.   Tottenham   bears   the   name   of
Tottenham, England, Beeton that of an old-established family. Neat rows of trim sheds lining the
fields in this part of the country indicate a major
crop, tobacco. Tree-shadowed  Alliston is famous
for its native son, Sir  Frederick  Banting, co-discoverer  of   insulin.  Ypres,   named   for   a   famous
Canadian battle of World War I, is the junction for
Camp   Borden,   largest   military   establishment   in
Canada. Its 50 square miles includes training centres
or detachments of almost every armed service of
army and air force. At mileage 62.5, south of the
track a  lake enlivens the scenery, mileage 65.5
has   an   interesting   log   structure   still   in   use.  An
Ontario Provincial Forestry Station keys the extensive  reforestation  evident   in   this   sandy country,
at  mileage  66.  Midhurst,  named  for  an  English
counterpart,  and   a   high   bridge  at  mileage  68
from which a fine view can be enjoyed, a sawmill
— prophetic  of   the   changing   character   of   the
countryside — at  mileage  77,  dot the  extensive
reforestation   area.   Tied    by   its   present   transportation    importance   to   the   early   history   of
Huronia, Medonte is the junction for Port McNicoll.
Father  Brebeuf,   paddling  the  Ottawa,  Mattawa   and   French   Rivers  in   1626,  explored   this
area, to  return  later with  Lalement, Jogues and
Daniel.  Near  Port  McNicoll, The  Martyrs'  Shrine
commemorates the four, two of whom were tortured and killed at St. Louis, not far from Medonte.
At    Lovering    outcroppings    of    the    hard    rock
Canadian Shield are noticeable, as are meadows
to  the   south.   Severn   Falls  takes   its  name  from
the Severn River which is crossed here. At mileage
111.5   a   long   finger-lake   points   North   and    a
mile  and  a  half west  a   "pot  lake"  attracts the
eye.   Bala,   marked   by   the   Miskosh   and   Moon
Rivers, by  Bala  Falls south of the line and  Lake
Muskoka to the north, is the gateway to the Muskoka Lakes, a favourite summer holiday area.
MacTier the Ontario and Algoma  Districts of the
Canadian Pacific meet.
Automatic Block Signals
While the red, yellow and green lights that
you see from the "Scenic Dome" are welcome
because they add colour to the journey by
day or night, they have more serious business
to do. These are the lights of the Automatic
Block Signal System — an intricate series of
electrical sections called "blocks", into which
the transcontinental main line is divided.
Entrance of the train into each block is
governed by the colour light signal which
tells the engineman whether he may enter
the block or if he must stop.
More complicated than highway traffic signals, but governed by easily interpreted
rules, block signals sometimes require two or
more colour lights to convey their full meaning.
Many miles of main line are governed by an
even more intricate system known as centralized traffic control (CTC). The train dispatcher
is kept informed of the exact location of each
train on his territory by means of a series of
coloured lights on a control panel. By using
the buttons and toggle switches on the panel
he can control the track switches and signals
at each siding, or junction, so as to route
trains in the most efficient manner.
Many times, at a siding on signal track, trains
will "meet" without either train being required to stop.
The complex electronic circuits prevent the
dispatcher from making a mistake.
Parry Sound The transition from farm land
Sub-Division through wooded holiday lakes to
the Ontario Forest takes place between MacTier
and Romford, western end of the Parry Sound
Sub-Division, in a way marked by the changing
scenery that unrolls on all sides for the sightseer in
his comfortable seat in a Canadian Pacific "Scenic
Dome". Game, less evident in cleared land except
for occasional red-fox and ground hog, includes
deer, beaver, porcupine, skunk, mink and muskrat.
Toward the western limit the Canadian Shield
takes over with rocks, pot lakes and coniferous
trees in place of the more open country between
Muskoka and Lake Ontario. Lake Stewart, at
mileage 1.2 and Lake Joseph, mileage 3.5, two
of the Muskoka Lakes, lie north of the track. Rosseau Road perpetuates the old stage route to
Rosseau Village. In defiance of the major land characteristics,
a farm, sited on a lake north of the line enlivens
the scene at mileage 15. The Boyne and Seguin
Rivers cross on their way to Georgian Bay at mileages 20 and 22.6. Parry Sound, long-established,
deals in forest products, dressed lumber, wood
products and boat building, is a gateway to
Georgian Bay and noted fishing and hunting
centre. The high railway bridge across the
Seguin River gives an excellent view of Seguin
Falls on the north and the town lying picturesquely
in the valley. At mileage 26 a good view of
Georgian Bay rewards a southward look and at
27.5 Portage Lake connects with the Seguin
River and Mill Lake. Georgian Bay is in sight again
at mileage 28, and from the same window, mileage
29, the model town which houses employees of the
explosives plant at Nobel, named for the Swedish
inventor and philanthropist who established the
Nobel Peace Prizes. Another industry at Nobel is
a test plant for aircraft engines. Many lakes of
varying sizes line the track on both sides and alert
watchers may see deer and other small game.
At mileage 40 the buildings of Shawanaga
Indian Reserve attest Canada's interest in aboriginal tribes, and four and a half miles west the line
crosses the Shawanaga River, to be paralleled to
the south by a chain of lakes between mileages 45
and 46. Pointe au Baril, originally identified by a
barrel on a pole, at the apex of a narrow inlet
of Georgian Bay, is a popular summer resort south
of the line well seen from the high bridge at mileage 49. Sharp eyes may spot beavers at work in a
typical pond north of the line at mileage 51. At
mileage 55 the Naiscootyong River is crossed. The
tourist resort to the south is not far from the
"Naiscoot", or Burnt Point, which commemorates a
legendary fire that destroyed Indian hunting
grounds. Byng Inlet, named for a former Governor-
General of Canada, Lord Byng of Vimy, marks the
mouth of the Magnetawan River, crossed by a
bridge nearly 300 yards long. Britt, a typical
Ontario town, is a lake port, unloading large
cargoes of oil from United States lake ports
destined to Northern Onrario. At mileage 65.5 a
steel arch and concrete bridge carries a highway
over the railway and the Still River. Trim white
buildings, a flagpole and radio antenna south of
the line at mile 68 house the Still River Detachment
of Ontario's alert Provincial Police. Little Key River
is crossed at mileage 72.6 and lakes become more
frequent both sides of the track and to the north
at mileage 80.5 the Pickerel River flows parallel
for half a mile, when it swings south beneath the
tracks on its hurried way to Georgian Bay. Near
mileage 83, the French River, famous in Canadian
history, makes its way west through rocky banks.
North of the line at mileage 83.4, perched high on
the rocks, is a popular tourist resort catering to
golfers, fishermen and boating enthusiasts. Between
mileages 95 and 98 beaver lodges are visible in
lakes both sides of the line and deer and occa-
Muskoka Lakes area, Ontario
sional elk are seen from time to time. The line
crosses Kakakiwaganda Lake at about mileage
103. Pot lakes — with no apparent source or
outlets — characterize this rocky country and
there are many in the Sudbury Game Preserve
between mileage boards 104 and 110. The Wana-
pitei River is crossed at 112.9. A lone farm stands
out sharply against the surrounding bush at mileage 116 and at mileage 117.5, north of the track,
the Coniston smelter shows up. Another sight of
the big plant marks mileage 120.5, and all around
the geological formation of striated rock, tilted by
some ancient upheaval, shows the difficulties that
beset the engineers who blasted out the railway.
At Romford the Parry Sound and Cartier Sub-
Divisions merge and Canadian Pacific transcontinental trains from Toronto and Montreal follow the
same route across Canada.
Cartier South   of   the   line   Ramsey   Lake,
Sub-Division handy terminus for bush airplanes,
stretches from Romford to Sudbury, headquarters
of the Sudbury Division and junction for the Nickel
and Webbwood Sub-Divisions. Incorporated as a
city in 1930, Sudbury was established in 1883 wnen
the Canadian Pacific Railway was built and copper
ore, economic basis of the city's early prosperity,
was uncovered. Today, in addition to nickel and
copper mining, smelting and refining, this city of
diverse industries deals in rough and dressed
lumber, concrete, glass and paint, brick and cement
blocks, steel fabrication, concentrators, mining
equipment, tile, building products, ties and smaller
industries. At mileage 81.5 workings of nickel and
copper mines show to the north, and southward,
huge stacks indicate a smelter. Azilda, first station
to the west, commemorates Mrs. Azilda Beaudouin,
PARRY SOUND
PTE. AU BARIL BISCOTASING
WHITE RIVER
first white woman settler. South of the track, near
mileage 89, is Whitewater Lake. The Whitson
River is crossed near Chelmsford, named for a
town in the county of Essex, England. Larchwood
was named by a lumber developer for the
preponderance of this timber in the district. The
river crossed at mileage 97 is the Vermilion. A very
popular name in areas where Indians searched for
red earths for war paints, it occurs all across the
map of Canada. Levack, busy market area, serves
nickel mines in its locality and is the junction with
the mine railroad. At mileage 104.5 the lake to the
south, generally rough due to prevailing winds,
gives its name to Windy Lake station. Cartier,
junction of the Cartier and Nemegos Sub-Divisions,
serves three lumber camps in addition to its railway duties.
Nemegos North of the line, at mileage 1, is
Sub-Division Hess Lake. On the same side at
Geneva station is the lake of the same name. To
generalize a little, the Canadian Pacific main line
between Cartier and Kenora, penetrates the
"Great Lakes Forest Region" and there are many
evidences of lumbering to be seen. Such woods as
white, red and jack pine; tamarack, hemlock,
balsam fir, white spruce; sugar, red and silver
maple; red, bur and white oak; yellow birch; white
elm; white and black ash; white elm and hazel are
seen. At mileage 17.5, south of the track, the Spanish
River, scene of many a log run, parallels the train.
Pogamasing station serves woods operations along
the river which is crossed by the train at mileage
25. To the south, Pogamasing Lake is in sight
between mileages 26 and 28 and at the latter
point the Spanish River runs along north of the
track to mileage 30. Metagama, meaning "river
flows out of the lake", is a famous starting point
for hunters and fishermen. An arm of Biscotasing
Lake is crossed at mileage 52.5 and the lake itself
at mileage 54. Biscotasing, another Indian word,
means "body of water with long arms" — another
example of the picturesque tongue that named so
much of Canada! At mileage 78 the water to the
south is Cavell Lake. The line crosses Turnbull River
at mileage 80, Turnbull Lake lies south. Woman
River station is named for the fast water flowing
from the north. The Wakamagasing River is
crossed at mileage 95. The saw and planing mill
at Sultan handles lumber, ties, pit props and pulpwood. There are so many rivers and streams in
this game-filled area that only a few have names.
The river crossed twice at mileage 99 is The
Ridout, which parallels the north side of the track
past Ridout station. At mileage 1 05.5 the line crosses
the Kinogama and the Apiskanagama at 107.5.
The Kinogama is crossed again at mileage 1 1 1.7
and an arm of Nemegos Lake at 1 20. At Nemegos,
the Nemegosanda River is crossed. North of here
claims have been staked for iron, phosphate and
titanium. The Nebskwashi River marks mileage 1 35.
Chapleau, junction of the Nemegos and White
River Sub-Divisions, as well as being an educational and banking centre, has district headquarters
of the Ontario departments of Lands and Forests,
and Game and Fisheries. On the station lawn a
monument commemorates Louis Hemon, author of
the Canadian classic "Maria Chapdelaine", who
died there. The Kebsquasheshing River flows
through here.
White River Lakes, on both sides of the track
Sub-Division at mileage 3, continue to offer
glimpses of wild-life to the alert watcher. Herring
and ring-billed gulls are common and sharp eyes
will identify robins, cardinals, catbirds, bobolinks,
red-winged blackbirds. The track follows the
southern boundary of the Chapleau Game Preserve. Near mileage 32 the line crosses Goldie
Lake. At mileage 44 Lake Ogawisi lies north,
mileage 46 marks Carry Lake (south) and a creek
that serves Pickle Lake north of the track. Dog Lake
is crossed at mileage 57. Missanabie, Indian for
"big water", was a station on the old fur route by
water from James Bay to Lake Superior. Two rivers,
the Lochalsh and Lochlomond, crossed at mileages
61.6 and 64.2 and Lochalsh station testify to
Scottish settlers. Wabatongushi Lake lies north of
Lochalsh. At mileage 79, Hobon Lake to the south
heralds Franz, junction with the Algoma Central
and Hudson Bay Railway. An arm of Esnagi Lake
is crossed at mileage 87 and a power dam is visible
south of the track. The Magpie River is crossed at
mileage 88.2. Amyot, a tourist centre, shows
Negwazu Lake to the south. The lake parallels the
line to mileage 115. The White River is crossed at
mileage 117.6, the Pickerel at 122.6 and the
White River again at 129.2. Still in the coniferous
belt, with jack pine as the most important source
of pulpwood, White River, junction of the White
River and Heron Bay Sub-Divisions, is a meteorological reporting station which frequently registers
very low temperatures.
Heron Bay The White River is in sight (south)
Sub-Division at mileage 6 and is crossed at mileage 12.2. At 15.3 the line crosses the Bremner
River and an arm of White Lake (north) at mileage
19. Regan is the supply point for local woods
operations. Pulpwood cut in this area is driven
down the White River to Lake Superior for rafting
to Sault Ste. Marie. At Mobert, a contraction of
Montizambert, the Hudson's Bay Company post,
established before the Canadian Pacific was built,
still operates. There is an Ojibway Indian settlement
here. Tumbling rapids and fast white water to test
paddlers' skill to the utmost abounds in this country.
At mileage 24.7 the White River is crossed and
within one mile at mileages 32.9 and 33.9 the
Cedar River is bridged twice. Cedar Lake (north)
continues to mileage 36, Cedar Creek is crossed at
35.5 and Cache Creek, feeding Cache Lake
(south) at 39; at mileage 40.5 the lake itself is
spanned. Hemlo annually floats 150,000 cords
down the Little Black River, which, after barking,
is handled by flume, visible from the Scenic Dome,
to Heron Bay harbour. Little Black River is crossed at
mileage 50.4  and  Big  Pic River at 54.4. Heron Bay was named for the Jesuit missionary, Pere
Heron. Lake Superior (south) is visible at mileage
56.4. Formerly known as "Peninsula", Marathon,
a planned town, takes its name from pulp mills
that produce 500 tons of sulphate pulp per day.
Wood for the mill is driven down the Pic River to
Lake Superior and towed to Peninsula Harbour
where large rafts are frequently seen.
The line follows the deeply indented north
shore of Lake Superior, with starkly picturesque
rocky country to the north and the limitless
expanse of the great inland sea southward. Cold-
well, a commercial fishing village, Neys, several
highway bridges, the little Pic River [mileage 81),
Prairie River, mileage 90, and Steel River, spanned
at 94.8, and Jack Fish catch the eye. By day or
night the horseshoe curve around Jack Fish Bay is
an attention-holding sight. Watch here in breeding
season for little flotillas of wild duck. At mileage
1 02.7 a monument marks the joining of east and
west construction in the district in 1885. Terrace
Bay, once known as "Black", takes great pride in
a 370-ton pulp mill operated by power from
the Ontario Hydro-Electric Power Commission plant
on the Aguasabon River, which is crossed at
mileage 110.5. The power development (112.8)
generates 53,000 h.p., a 3,500-foot tunnel leading the water from Hayes Lake under the track to
the power house at the lake side. Schreiber,
junction of the Heron Bay and Nipigon Sub-
Divisions, was once called Isbester's Landing.
Nipigon Between Schreiber and  Fort Wil-
Sub-Division liam the Canadian Pacific main
transcontinental line follows the contour of Lake
Superior's rocky north shore, leaving the coast from
time to time by short cuts across promontories.
Rossport station is a shipping point for Lake
Superior trout. The Pays Plat River is spanned at
mileage 22.4. Pays Plat Bay, Crow Point, Gravel
Bay, Rainboth Point, Mountain Bay and Grant
Point face south to Isle St. Ignace — all sailors'
landmarks in Nipigon Bay. At mileage 33.2 the
track bridges Big Gravel River, the Jack Pine
River at mileage 45.4, Kama Bay at 50 and the
Jackfish River at 53.5. Mileage 62.4 marks the
Nipigon River and the name, meaning "clear, fast
water", well describes this summer holiday area.
Ground wood pulp, fishing camps, summer resorts
and a hydro-electric development on the southern
tip of Helen Lake (north) are the local industries.
Near mileage 65 an arm of Nipigon Bay is
crossed. Red Rock, named for the local rock formation, centres round a woodpulp board, container
board and paper industry with a daily tonnage
capacity of more than 800. Black Sturgeon River,
bridged at mileage 73.9, is said to have been well
named. The line crosses a 15-mile wide peninsula
between Red Rock and Hurkett — a centre for
commercial fishing and woods operations. Both
feeding Lake Superior, the Wolf (83) and Cold-
water Rivers (84) intersect the line. Dorion, a
commercial fishing port that once boasted lead
and zinc mines, is mineral-minded again with
diamond drills working on the old properties.
Ouimet bears the name of Hon. Gideon Ouimet,
Busy Marathon
minister in Sir John A. Macdonald's cabinet and
Pearl, that of the river bridged at mileage 96.3.
North of the line, at mileage 101, Loon Lake
names the station for Sibley Provincial Park. The
latter, a wild life sanctuary, extends southwest-
ward for 24 miles to end in the craggy promontory
known to travellers as "The Sleeping Giant" —
one of the guardians of Thunder Bay. The bay is
sighted at mileage 123, a magnificent natural
harbour guarded by Thunder Cape and Pie
Island. Here the twin cities, Port Arthur and Fort
William, western Great Lakes port, known as
the "Canadian Lakehead" annually ship 14 million tons. 25 grain elevators, holding more than
93,000,000 bushels, and four large paper mills,
line the waterfront. Other manufacturing, grossing
upwards of $75,000,000 annually, adds to the
prosperity of the great ports. Fort William, at the
mouth of the Kaministiquia River, is the junction of
the Nipigon and Kaministiquia Sub-Divisions of the
Canadian Pacific. Time changes here at the meeting
of the central and eastern standard time zones.
Westward travellers retard watches by one hour.
Kaministiquia The first post at the mouth of the
Sub-Division Kaministiquia River was built by
French settlers in 1678, but the city owes its name to
the fort constructed by William McGillivray of The
North West Company in 1801-3- Surrounded by
15-foot palisades, the fort buildings included a
metal-roofed powder magazine and the famous
Great Hall which was parchment-windowed, hung
with paintings — including King George III, Lord
Nelson and the Battle of the Nile. David Thompson's map, now in the Ontario archives in Toronto,
held one place of honour, a bust of Simon McTavish,
head of the company, the other. From the great
fort explorers and traders, by canoe and portage,
pioneered the route now approximated by the
Canadian Pacific main line. They saw, but not as
well   as   modern    travellers    from    their   "Scenic
REGAN
M0BERT
STRUTHERS
HEML0
HERON BAY
MARATHON
ANGLER
COLDWELL
NEYS
JACK FISH
TERRACE BAY
SCHREIBER
ROSSPORT
NIPIGON
RED ROCK
HURKETT
DORION
PEARL
LOON
MACKENZIE
PORT ARTHUR
FORT WILLIAM WEST FORT WILLIAM
MURILLO
KAMINISTIQUIA
FINMARK
BUDA
RAITH
SAVANNE
UPSALA
NIBLOCK
ENGLISH RIVER
MARTIN
BONHEUR
IGNACE
OSAQUAN
RALEIGH
TACHE
DYMENT
DINORWIC
WABIGOON
DRYDEN
OXDRIFT
MINNITAKI
EAGLE RIVER
GUNNE
VERMILION BAY
EDISON
PINE
HAWK LAKE
SCOVIL
MARGACH
KENORA
TO
Domes", Mount McKay (south), paddled the Kaministiquia River, which is bridged near West Fort
William, the Neebing River (mileage 7.6). Their
names included La Verendrye, Lord Selkirk,
Alexander Henry, Cadotte, Colonel Wolseley, and
rugged though the territory may seem to railway
travellers, to them, threading their way from lake
to lake it was really gruelling travel.
At mileage 18, the Kaministiquia is south of
the track, five miles west the tributary Strawberry
Creek is bridged. Vegetation here, as across the
Great Lakes, includes sumach, hawthorn, raspberry,
blackberry, honeysuckle and thimbleberry bushes
in addition to conifers. Kaministiquia, named from
the graphic Indian word for "twisting water",
serves a farming and mink-ranching district. The line
here crosses the Matawan River and again at
mileage 27.5. At mileage 31 Sunshine Creek is
crossed half a mile east of Finmark. Buda commemorates Budapest. Near mileage 48.5 several
tributaries of the Oskondaga River pass under the
line and southward, at mileage 51.5, lies McGhie
Lake. The Savanne River, visible (south) at mileage
58, and the station (71.3) where the north branch
of the same river is crossed, get their name from
the   Indian,  Savannah — a   level  tract  of   land.
Remember your French lessons? — Lac des
Milles Lacs—titles the water the line crosses at
mileage 71, actually the northeast arm of the
"Lake of a Thousand Lakes". The hardy voyageurs
who made the early trips through this beautiful,
but rugged, land of forests, lakes and streams,
would have had it easier had fire-watchers' towers
—like that south of the track at mileage 86,
been in existence. Fishermen will look hungrily at
the long lake south of the line at mileage 86.5,
and at the Firesteel River, spanned at 88-90.
At mileage 100 amateur naturalists will
scan the banks of Beaver River, and ornithologists the skies above Hawk Lake (109) south
of the track. English River, station and river are
close together, and Scotch River (mileage 112) tell
the nationalities of their namers, as does the
Megikons, the east branch of which is crossed at
mileage 126. Raven Lake borders the track to
the south at mileage 127. Mileage 139 marks the
crossing of the swift Gulliver River. Ignace, with
Azimik Lake to the south, marks the boundaries of
the  Kaministiquia   and   Ignace  Sub-Divisions.
Ignace The   fact   that   today's   short-cut
Sub-Division across Canada by Canadian Pacific follows in the main the routes of early explorers
is emphasized again by the naming of Ignace.
In the absence of factual data, but in the light of
the frequent recurrence of the French spelling of
the name of the Patron Saint of the Jesuit Order,
it is a safe assumption that Ignace was named by
an adventurous priest accompanying, as so many
did, an early trail blazer. Osaquan takes its name
from the river crossed at mileage 6. Raleigh,
named for the famous Sir Walter, is noted amongst
fishermen for its trout and pickerel. Tourist camps
are established on Raleigh Lake south of the track.
Tache is the name of a former Bishop of St.
Boniface, Manitoba. The Wabigoon River, bridged
at mileage 27.7, is named from the Indian "white
flower", possibly trillium or water-lily — both
abound. Dyment, shipping point for farms, lumber
camps and a gold-mining area, might add to the
wild life already listed possible sights of meadow-
larks and mourning doves. Dinorwic marks the
junction of a former trail known as the North
Highway and the Trans-Canada Highway. It was
a Hudson's Bay Post in the days of the fur trade. To
the south Dinorwic Lake, which connects with
Wabigoon Lake, attracts many anglers and at
mileage 50 the line crosses an inlet of Lake
Wabigoon. At mileage 52.8 the line passes between Thunder Lake to the north and Wabigoon
Lake. The Wabigoon River is crossed again at Dryden, a town that commemorates the late Hon. John
Dryden, Minister of Agriculture. Dryden is known
as "The Paper Town". The pulp and paper mill, one
of the first in Ontario, manufactures 140,000 tons
of pulp and 60,000 tons of all types of Craft and
specialty papers each year. There are 1,500
people employed in the operations. Oxdrift, a
shipping point for high-grade clover seed, owes
its unusual name to the fact that a herdsman
reported to railway construction engineers that
oxen missing from his tally had "drifted away".
The water crossed at mileage 75 bears the somewhat delicate name of Aubrey Creek but Minnitaki
on the nearby station board, has a less delicate
connotation, being the Indian invitation to "take a
drink". Beaver Creek, one of the many of this
name crossed by the Canadian Pacific transcontinental line between eastern and western tidewaters, is crossed at mileage 77.4 and Eagle River,
another name to be seen frequently, is a hunting
and fishing centre whose river drains Eagle Lake
south of the track which is seen again between
mileages 86-9. Vermilion Bay, again with a
connotation of war paint, today is a lumber
and pulpwood centre with tourist and fishing camps
on the lakes and rivers seen both sides of the line.
Thomas A. Edison was honoured by the
namers of the next station. Scovil takes its name
from the lake visible to the south and at mileage
139 the line crosses the southern tip of Island Lake.
Originally named Rat Portage because of the
muskrat crossing seen by La Verendrye after the
establishment of his fort on the west shore of the
Lake of the Woods, Kenora played an important
part in the early history of North American exploration being on the route of the La Verendrye
expeditions to the headwaters of the Missouri River.
In 1899, the nearby village of Norman was united
with Rat Portage and the new name taken from
KE for Keewatin, NO for Norman and RA for Rat
Portage was established. Today, grown to a sizeable town, this newsprint, brewing, commercial
fishing centre on the northern tip of the Lake of the
Woods, is the tourist entrance to a great holiday
land famous for its thousands of wooded islands
ideal for boating, swimming and fishing. A Canadian Pacific divisional headquarters, Kenora marks
the junction of the Ignace and Keewatin Sub-
Divisions. Fishing in French River
Typical of the lovely holiday country
for which Ontario is famous, the pictures on this page are clues to its
popularity. In the various seasons fishing, hunting, boating, canoe trips,
photography and painting attract
visitors from all over the world.
Ontario River in Autumn
The Lake of the Woods
Kakabeka Falls, Fort William
11 Topped by the famous "Golden
Boy" statue, the dome of the Manitoba Legislature is visible for miles
around Winnipeg. The building is
magnificently sited on the Assiniboine River and with its surrounding
greensward, to be enhanced by a
wide mall, is the outstanding architectural feature of Canada's "Gateway to the West".
The rugged beauty of the Aguasabon
River is typical of the region north of
Lake Superior, where The Canadian's
'North Shore Route' provides an unequalled opportunity to view this wild
and magnificent terrain.
The Aguasabon River
12 (Continued from page 7 0)
Keewatin Keewatin, Ojibway Indian word for
Sub-Division "home of the north-east wind",
is a busy town that mills 12,000 barrels of flour a
day and processes lumber. It is the starting point
for tourist expeditions to the Sturgeon River and
Black Sturgeon Lakes area. This seems to be a
country of manufactured names, Laclu is a French
contraction of nearby Lake Lulu. Busteed is named
for a former Canadian Pacific General Superintendent. Deception Lake is crossed at mileage 15
and north of the track, at mileage 19-21, is a
lake to tempt anglers. Proximity of this countryside
to the metropolitan centre of Winnipeg is indicated
westward by the number of summer camps seen
both sides of the track, the lakes north and south
of Ingolf, farthest west settlement in Ontario, being
typical. At mileage 33.4 the provincial boundary
between Ontario and Manitoba is crossed and a
bridge, mileage 35.5, crosses Caddy Lake,
Manitoba.
In this area, the central coniferous region
merges into prairie country, the transition being
marked by a marshy fringe from the neighbourhood of mileage 50 to approximately mileage
90. Darwin commemorates Charles Darwin, famous
scientist and author of "The Origin of Species", the
Bog River is crossed at mileage 69 and the Whitemouth River is crossed at mileage 71.3. Whitemouth,
a prosperous business centre, serves a well-populated district. The naming of Shelley attests to the
literary tastes of the surveyor who presumably
selected his favourite poet, Percy Bysshe Shelley,
for commemoration. Whether Julius was named for
the Roman Emperor is not known. At Molson the Lac
Dubonnet Sub-Division which links Great Falls to the
north with Winnipeg via Tyndall, noted for its
quarries, crosses the main line at Molson. Lydiatt is
the western boundary of the belt of marshland
separating the prairies from the central coniferous
region and prairie land characterizes the country
between here and Winnipeg, known to La Verendrye in 1738 when he established Fort Rouge.
Settlement of the Winnipeg of today, really
began with the building of Fort Gibraltar by men of
the North-West Company in 1806. Further development came five years later when the Earl of Selkirk
bought control of the Hudson's Bay Company in
order to obtain a grant of 100,000 square miles of
Red River lands for colonization. Wiped out three
years later by North-West traders, the colony
soon regained its feet and Winnipeg has developed
ever since. Financial and commercial headquarters
for Western Canada, Winnipeg's industries include
slaughtering, meat packing, flour and feed,
printing, publishing, general manufacturing, clothing, brewing, baking and transportation, it being
the focus of rail travel to the major points of the
compass. Fort Garry, a stone building established
by the Hudson's Bay Company, is maintained
today, and a relic of early Canadian Pacific days,
the earliest locomotive, "The Countess of Dufferin",
may be visited while the transcontinental train is in
the station. Here are the magnificent Manitoba
Parliament Buildings and, of course, the confluence of the Red and Assiniboine Rivers that made
the  site  so  attractive  for  settlement.   Winnipeg,
capital   of   Manitoba,   is   the   boundary   of   the
Keewatin and Carberry Sub-Divisions.
Carberry West   of   Winnipeg   the   Second
Sub-Division Prairie Plain, travelled by La Verendrye and his sons, 1736 to 1743, first white men in
the Red River country, is a granary of magnificent
proportions. Its settlement and development were
directly traceable to the building of the Canadian
Pacific Railway in the 1880's and the interrelation
of grain and transportation are nowhere more
clearly demonstrated than in the great marshalling
yards through which transcontinental trains all pass
west of Winnipeg station. To many the first sight
of the prairies comes as a shock — thanks to
graphic descriptions of "flat, treeless plains"
common to early geographies and school books.
The "grasslands" so adversely reported on by
early surveyors have today become a pattern of
wheat-lands divided into farms ranging from 320
to 480 acres in extent, mostly provided with trees
for wind-breaks around buildings, water holes and
in strategic places to guard against soil erosion.
From the air-conditioned all-around windowed
"Scenic Dome" the widened field of vision shows
the gently rolling character of the landscape not
easily seen from ground level. Lord Selkirk, who
measured land in his treaty with the Indians by "as
far as a horse can be seen across the prairie"
could have widened his boundaries if the chiefs
had had today's point of vantage. Busy Stevenson
Field Airport (mileage 5.7), south of the line, is an
international field.
To the south of the line, the Assiniboine River
which bore the canoes of the traders and, later,
the York boats of Hudson's Bay Company factors,
parallels the railway. Ox-waggon trails across the
trackless prairies in the early 19th Century may
actually have traced our path—at least as far as
Portage la Prairie before slanting north and west
towards the fur country. Portage la Prairie, famed
in history, junction with the Minnedosa Sub-
Division, a marketing, manufacturing and dairy
centre, owed it first settlement to Pierre Gaultier
de Varennes, Sieur de la Verendrye, Canadian-
born explorer who, with his sons Jean, Pierre, Louis
and Frangois, established Fort la Reine there in
1731. Paddling from Montreal by way of the
Ottawa, Lake Huron, Lake Superior, Pigeon River
(west of Fort William), the Lake of the Woods, the
Red and Assiniboine rivers, they discovered that
only 15 miles separated the new fort from Lake
Manitoba and established the portage which
opened a route via Lake Winnipeg and the
Hayes or Nelson Rivers to Hudson Bay. After their
father's death, Pierre and Louis became the first
white men to see the Rocky Mountains, probably
somewhere in Wyoming. Pierre, North Dakota,
named for the explorer, was the spot selected by
him for the burial of a momento, which was unearthed in 1913. MacGregor, junction with the
Varcoe Sub-Division, was named for a doctor.
Douglas owes its sometimes martial air to the
proximity of Shilo Military Camp. At mileage
1 31.3, the Assiniboine River is crossed on the out-
KEEWATIN
LACLU
LOWTHER
INGOLF
TELFORD
RENNIE
DARWIN
WHITEMOUTH
SHELLEY
JULIUS
MOLSON
LYDIATT
CLOVERLEAF
HAZELRIDGE
OAKBANK
NORTH TRANSCONA
WINNIPEG
ROSSER
MEADOWS
MARQUETTE
POPLAR POINT
HIGH BLUFF
PORTAGE LA PRAIRIE
BURNSIDE
BAGOT
MACGREGOR
AUSTIN
SIDNEY
MELBOURNE
CARBERRY
HUGHES
DOUGLAS
CHATER
BRANDON
13 KEMNAY
ALEXANDER
GRISWOLD
OAK LAKE
ROUTLEDGE
VIRDEN
HARGRAVE
ELKHORN
KIRKELLA
FLEMING
MOOSOMIN
RED JACKET
WAPELLA
BURROWS
WHITEWOOD
PERCIVAL
BROADVIEW
OAKSHELA
GRENFELL
SUMMERBERRY
WOLSELEY
SINTALUTA
INDIAN HEAD
QU'APPELLE
McLEAN
BALGONIE
PILOT BUTTE
REGINA
GRAND COULEE
PENSE
BELLE PLAINE
PASQUA
MOOSEJAW
skirts of long-established Brandon, junction of the
Carberry and Broadview Sub-Divisions. This mid-
prairie city houses an Experimental Farm, Mental
Hospital, Indian School, Provincial Exhibition and
Brandon College.
Broadview Where the Assiniboine and Cree
Sub-Division tribes roamed and hunted before
the white man came, the Second Prairie Plain maintains its modern farming character. Alexander,
characterized as are most prairie stations, by local
grain elevators, chose the second name of Sir
John A. Macdonald, Prime Minister at Confederation, for its own; Griswold marks an Indian Reservation; and Oak Lake, proud of the tourist resort to
the southwest, commemorates its watering place.
The bridge at mileage 46.1 crosses Gopher Creek.
Virden, with oil wells, mileage 47-48, is the junction
for Neudorf Sub-Division. Elkhorn's name commemorates a find of top specimen elk horns made
by surveyors of the line. Kirkella is the junction with
McAuley Sub-Division. Mileage 74.7 "marks the
boundary between the provinces of Manitoba and
Saskatchewan. Fleming, Saskatchewan commemorates Sir Sandford Fleming, former engineer in chief
of the Canadian Pacific Railway, noted surveyor
who mapped two passes through the Canadian
Rockies, and originator of the idea of Standard
Time. Moosomin gets its name from an early Indian
chief. Red Jacket is thought to commemorate the
North West Mounted Police, and Wapella is an
Indian word for "white snow". Broadview is the
junction of the Broadview and Indian Head Sub-
Divisions*
Indian Head Oakshela, from the Indian word for
Sub-Division "child", has an altitude of 1,959
feet. Sharp eyes may pick out gophers, coyotes,
jack rabbits, western meadow larks, Brewer's blackbirds and hawks throughout the prairie region. This
country forms part of "Palliser's Triangle", ah area
surveyed by Captain John Palliser for the Colonial
Office of Great Britain, 1857-60. His expeditions
took him from Lake Superior to beyond the Canadian Rockies. Actually, the triangle was a five-
sided, irregular area, the southern part, which the
Canadian Pacific traverses, being classified as
"arid". Look at it today! Thanks to later reports,
which stressed the summer rainfall, cereal experiments were made and the prairies came into their
own as a great wheatland. Plant breeders, under
the direction of the Department of Agriculture, developed rust-resistant, quick-ripening "hard" wheat,
today grown on 25,000,000 acres. Indian Head
ships much grain, in addition to bricks and milling
products, has a forest nursery station, experimental
farm and entomological laboratory. History does
not seem to record who was calling when Qu'Appelle was named. The naming of Pilot Butte, if
you note the lone hill north of the track, becomes
obvious. Tree-shaded Regina originally enjoyed
the name of "Pile of Bones", a translation of
"Wascana" which still applies to attractive Wascana Lake within the city limits.
The "Head End"
It takes power with a capital "P" to
pull The Canadian eastward and westward across Canada by Canadian
Pacific. At the "head end" of the train
as many diesel units as needed generate thousands of horsepower to pull
the train, light it, supply the kitchens
with cooking heat and operate the
air-conditioning.
Known as "A" units, the "1400 series",
have cabs for the engineman, fireman
and head end brakeman. "B" units,
"1900 series", are coupled as needed
for additional power. Each develops
1,750 h.p., consumes 1,500 gallons
every 1,000 miles and is re-fueled
every 450 miles. Average top speed
is 89 m.p.h., average weight 129 tons.
"A's" are 54' 8", "B's" 50 feet long
and cost $250,000. Each has a steam
generator for train heating.
In case you haven't a sub-teen boy to
explain it more scientifically, a diesel-
locomotive, by generating its own
electricity, has all the advantages of
an electric locomotive independent of
a stationary power distributing system.
It converts mechanical energy to
electrical energy which is reconverted
by motors and driving wheels to the
mechanical energy that moves the
train at the engineman's command.
Capital of Saskatchewan and seat of the
Legislature which, like the Canadian Pacific Hotel
Saskatchewan, stands high above the town as a
landmark for miles across the prairie, Regina is
the western training headquarters of the Royal
Canadian Mounted Police and the original headquarters of the force which was first known as the
North West Mounted Police. Pasqua, where the
Soo Line connection links Minneapolis, St. Paul and
Chicago with the Canadian Pacific main line, is the
Indian word for Prairie. Moose Jaw, trading centre
and junction of the Canadian Pacific Indian Head
and Swift Current Sub-Divisions, is Saskatchewan's
third largest city. At the confluence of Moose Jaw
River and Thunder Creek, Moose Jaw flouts the
prairie tradition with the pleasant lake seen from
the train just south of the track. The city busies itself
with elevators and milling, cold storage, meat
products, oil refining, insulation, dairy products,
machinery, furs and hides, sash and doors, bags,
blankets, seeds, rubber products and a number of
smaller industries. The location was first chosen by
Captain Palliser in September, 1857, the first settlers arriving in the spring of 1882, a few months
before the Canadian Pacific line was built. The
city's water supply is brought 12 miles by canal
from the Buffalo Pound Lake. Moose Jaw's 1 6 parks
total 256 acres.
14 Swiff Current Boharm, named for Lord Strath-
Sub-Division cona's home in Scotland, at an altitude of 1,802 feet above sea level, gives evidence
that the prairies, sloping generally from east to
west, are yet far from flat, since McLean to the
east has an altitude of 2,294 feet which, compared
with Broadview, 1,967 feet, shows a considerable
hump between the two points. Westward, the line
maintains a steady climb towards the foothills.
Caron, another grain shipping point, was named
for Sir Adolphe C. Caron, former Canadian
Minister of Militia. A combination of French "mort"
and Indian "lach" resulted in the word Mortlach,
the name of a local slough "Death Lake".
The sloughs of Saskatchewan are of interest
to wild life conservationists and hunters, as they
serve as feeding and breeding places for green-
neck mallard, black duck, pintail, canvas back,
widgeon, teal. Also seen in this part of the country
are the California gull and Franklin's gull, prairie
chicken, sharp-tailed grouse, Hungarian partridge,
snipe, ptarmigan. At mileage 99, Swift Current
Creek, north, parallels the line to mileage 110.
Aikins was named for Sir James Aikins, former
Lieutenant Governor of Manitoba. Saskatchewan's
252,700 square miles extending northward to the
sixtieth parallel of latitude enclose many different
types of country. From the central part of the
province northward, a land of lakes and forests
forms ideal holiday country. In the Saskatchewan
River Delta muskrat is especially plentiful.
Other fur-bearing animals are mink, weasel,
squirrel and beaver. The northern area is a range
for barren land caribou, deer, elk, moose and
antelope — all carefully protected by closed
seasons and hunting regulations. Ducks breed in
the northern country, too. Lumbering is carried on
in the Porcupine and Pasquia Hills regions and the
Torch River area. The Alkali Lakes seen from time
to time through southern Saskatchewan yield
sodium sulphate for paper mills in Ontario and
Quebec and the copper-nickel refineries at Sudbury, Ont. At mileage 110, a 1,000-foot bridge
spans Swift Current Creek, a tributary of the South
Saskatchewan   River.   Next  comes   Swift   Current,
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"Mounties" train at Regina
with an altitude of 2,432 feet, junction of the Swift
Current and Maple Creek Sub-Divisions handles
grain, creamery products, tanning and castings.
Time changes here at the meeting of Mountain
and Central time zones. Westward travellers
retard watches by one hour. The city's tree-lined
streets and parks are in direct contrast to the dry
surrounding hills which lend themselves for the
study of soil and crop problems of semi-arid
areas, carried out at the Dominion Agricultural
Experimental Station.
Maple Creek Buffalo, once monarchs of the
Sub-Division prairie and major source of food
for the nomadic Indians who ranged this countryside, are now practically unknown, except in
Government-protected herds. They played an
important part in the construction of the Canadian
Pacific Railway whose construction gangs feasted
on the trophies of hard-riding, sharpshooting professional hunters attached to commissariat units.
Harvesters from eastern Canada once thronged
West on "Harvester Excursions" to help garner the
crops. Today, throughout the west, tractor-combines load threshed grain right from the stalk to
waiting trucks.
North of the line, between Beverley and
Webb, Gander and Goose Lakes, a few miles
apart, attest the migration of the great Canada
geese every spring and fall. Antelope is named for
the river crossed at mileage 29 and a large lake
north of the track where this graceful game was
once plentiful. At Gull Lake the Gull and Antelope
Rivers are crossed and southward, mileages 39-40,
Whitegull Lake parallels the line. Two lakes are
seen north of Sidewood, another, at mileage 59,
lies south. Piapot, on the eastern slope of the long,
shallow bowl of which Medicine Hat is the low
point, commemorates an Indian Chief of the '80's.
The creek also named for him runs south of the
track for five miles. Watch for wild fowl around
an unnamed lake at mileage 75.5, and at Hay
Lake, northward from 80.4. Maple Creek is the
grain shipping point for the surrounding territory,
its name is from the water bridaed at mileage 84.9.
Hatton Sub-Division joins at Hatton, most
westerly station in Saskatchewan, the boundary
with Alberta lying midway between it and
Walsh, Alta. Box Elder Creek is spanned near
mileage 112. Between mileage 115.7, Mackay
Creek, and Irvine, named for Col. Irvine of the
Royal North West Mounted Police, four more
creeks are bridged. Ross Creek flows south of
Irvine, where the creek is spanned. Seven Persons Creek, crossed at mileage 146.2, owes its
somewhat strange name to the killing, south of
here, of seven Blackfoot Indians by warring Assini-
boines. Medicine Hat, famous "Gas City", claims
natural gas, chinaware, clay products, porcelain,
brick and tile, concrete, fertilizer, and flour milling
amongst its activities. Here the Maple Creek and
Brooks Sub-Divisions join and a line branches south
for the Canadian Pacific route through the southern
Rockies via the Crowsnest Pass and Coquihalla
Canyon. Originally called Saamis — Indian for
the tepee of a medicine man — Medicine Hut is
built on the southern terraces of the South Sas-
(Continued on page 18)
BOHARM
CARON
MORTLACH
PARKBEG
SECRETAN
CHAPLIN
UREN
ERNF0LD
MORSE
HERBERT
RUSH LAKE
WALDECK
SWIFT CURRENT
BEVERLEY
WEBB
ANTELOPE
GULL LAKE
CARMICHAEL
TOMPKINS
SIDEWOOD
PIAPOT
CROSS
CARDELL
MAPLE CREEK
KINC0RTH
HATTON
WALSH
IRVINE
PASHLEY
DUNMORE
MEDICINE HAT
15 Cci/iaci^Gac^
TRAINS/TRUCKS/SHIPS/PLANES/HOTELS/TELECOMMUNICATIONS
WORLD'S    MOST    COMPLETE    TRANSPORTATION    SYSTEM
RAILWAYS
STEAMSHIPS
AIRLINES
16
17 REDCLIFF
BOWELL
SUFFIELD
ALDERSON
TILLEY
BROOKS
CASSILS
LATHOM
BASSANO
CROWFOOT
CLUNY
GLEICHEN
STRANGMUIR
CARSELAND
DALEMEAD
INDUS
SHEPARD
OGDEN
£ALGARY
(Continued from page 1 5)
katchewan River at its junction with Ross and Seven
Persons Creeks. Industries, homes and a number of
large greenhouses are heated by natural gas.
Brooks In the 175.8 miles between Medi-
Sub-Division cine Hat and Calgary the track
rises 1,257 feet, a forerunner of the climax of
the long western slopes beyond the foothill city.
The 1,000-foot wide Saskatchewan is crossed aT
0.3. Redcliff busies itself with making glass, brick
and chinaware, takes its name from the nearby
river bank. Mileage 19.5 bridges one of the many
irrigation canals that supply this area.
The Suffield Sub-Division branches at Suffield, site of a Defence Research Board field
experimental station. Alderson bears the name of
a Canadian general, Commander of Canadian
troops in 1915-16. Sir Leonard Tilley, early statesman, lends his name to a grain shipping point
where 25,000 acres are irrigated, at mileage
53.4. Brooks, growing yearly, is headquarters of
the Eastern Irrigation District which supervises
167,000 acres irrigated from the Bow River.
Canning, seed and commercial fishing are other
industries. Pheasant and duck are hunted in the
area. Cassils Sub-Division is met at Cassils, where
4,200 acres are irrigated. Lakes break the landscape southward, at mileage 76, to the north at
mileage 87.6. Lord Lathom, director of an early
ranching company, is remembered at the next
station. A bridge (mileage 96.6) crosses a canal
of the Canadian Pacific Irrigation District established by the railway to aid farming, and Bassano,
junction of the Bassano and Irricana Sub-Divisions,
shows 1,000 acres of irrigated farm lands. Crowfoot commemorates a famous chief of the Blackfeet
who, with the Sarcees, Blood and Piegan tribes,
were early inhabitants of this part of the country.
Cluny is the name of a Scottish parish. A tributary of the Bow River is spanned near mileage 122.
Gleichen, a flour-milling point, serves 12,000 irrigated acres and is headquarters of the Black-
foot Reserve. Indus bears the name of the great
river in Pakistan, used as a source of irrigation
in that country. Nearing the junction of the Third
Prairie Plain with the foothills of the Rocky Mountain System, the land contours here are more
sharply marked than on the central and eastern
prairies. Valleys are deeper and wider, rivers
flow at greater speeds and have some evidence
of the glacial silt they carry from the moraines
that clog their icy sources. Climatic conditions
are affected by the proximity of the crags
and peaks to the west and "The Chinook", a
wind that seems almost fabulous to non-residents,
in the winter frequently raises temperatures from
sub-zero readings to thaws in minutes.
Often spoken of, but never photographed,
was the sleigh equipped with runners in the
front and wheels at the rear, with which farmers
outran the following Chinook! Ranching in this
area had its start in 1874 with the importation of
range cattle from the United States. In 1882
government regulations allowed the leasing of
tracts up to 100,000 acres. At the turn of the
century    the    historical    pattern    of    agricultural
Chuck-waggon race
settlement asserted itself and larger ranches
began to disappear with the encroachment of
farmlands on the ranges. Today average ranches
are of about 2,000 acres owned by the rancher
and 8,000 acres of provincial land under lease.
The first irrigation ditch recorded was dug in 1879
and seven years later 79,000 acres were under
irrigation. More than 10 times that area is now
irrigated in Alberta alone. Canadian Pacific
irrigation work started in 1906 and the company,
which pioneered the Eastern and Western Irrigation Districts had spent more than $25,000,000
by 1917 when the districts were formed. At
Shepard, junction is made with the Strathmore
Sub-Division. Ogden, with the "Ogden Shops" of
the Canadian Pacific, marks the eastern fringe of
Calgary, variously and affectionately referred to
in different stages of its history as "Cowtown",
"Foothills City" and "Oil City". All three names are
well justified. Calgary, founded as a North West
Mounted Police post, called Fort Brisebois, in 1875,
became Fort Calgary later in honour of,Calgary
on the Isle of Mull. Its location at the confluence of
the Elbow River and Nose Creek with the important
Bow River, was a natural one. For years its principal
interest was the surrounding cattle ranching, greatly
accentuated by the advent of the railway. Later,
discovery of the Turner Valley oilfields and the
more recent "strikes" to the north, gave the city
its present great importance to the oil industry.
"Cowtown" traditions are kept alive by the annual
"Calgary Stampede" when the whole city decks
itself in "chaps", sombreros and spurs to celebrate
the riding, "bronco-busting" and chuck-waggon
races in which famous riders, men and women,
compete. The Canadian Pacific hotel, named for
Captain Palliser, pinpoints downtown Calgary. Industries include: oil-drilling specialties; meat products; sash and doors; structural steel; castings;
fertilizers and chemicals; concrete blocks; prefabricated buildings; leather; oil-refining; cereals;
sheet metal; paper products; pipe castings and
explosives. Dinosaur Park on St.  George's Island
18 is notable for life-size models of prehistoric animals
found in the region. The city stands 3,438 feet
above sea level. Here the Brooks and Laggan
Sub-Divisions  meet.
Laggan The main and north channels of the
Sub-Division Bow River are crossed at mileage
7.7, and the Bow Valley, here barely defined in
the rolling land that conjoins the prairies and the
foothills, is devoted more to range land than
agriculture. Cochrane, serving farmers and ranchers
almost evenly, is a trading centre. The Bow,
south of the track between mileage 25.7 and
Calgary, crosses to parallel the line on the north.
Radnor, site of the Ghost Dam, was named for
Wilma, daughter of the Earl of Radnor. Morley,
is headquarters of the Stoney Indian Reservation.
Its Indian School, with an average attendance of
60, has a staff of 10. Traditional designs in
leather, bead and quill work are a specialty of
The Stoneys, who take part each year in Banff's
"Indian Days", at which, in addition to outdoor
demonstrations of dances, riding, roping, etc., the
lovely work is shown in competition.
Ozada, Stoney word meaning "forks of the
river", well describes the junction of the Kananaskis and Bow Rivers which takes place at mileage
51.8. At Seebe, the Stoney word for "river", are
the Horseshoe and Kananaskis dams and power
plants, and a mile west, 53.1, the Bow River is
bridged again. Kananaskis, where lime products
are produced, was named by Palliser for a legendary Indian. To the south the Bow widens into Lac
des Arcs with Pigeon Mountain directly south at
Exshaw. Mallard and Canada geese frequent the
lake in their seasons. North of the line near mileage
62 sharp eyes may detect bighorn sheep on the
steep slopes of the geological formation known as
The Gap. This shoulder of the Fairholme Mountains
forces the river into a sharp bend. Canmore,
named for Malcom Canmore, early Scottish king,
picturesque western town, is a coal mine centre.
Southwest, the Three Sisters, an aptly-named
triple-peaked    mountain,   calls   to   camera   fans.
Former monarchs of the plains at Banff
North of the line, near mileage 71, the eastern
boundary of Banff National Park is marked by a
gateway on the highway. In the 2,500 square
miles of the park, all living things — birds, animals,
wild flowers and trees — are protected by the
Government of Canada, and many travellers,
delighted with the sight of "tame" wild animals
from passing trains, have blessed the wise statesmen who marked out this great sanctuary. As a
tribute to the conservationists, the Canadian
Pacific selected names of national and provincial
parks to designate 18 "Scenic Dome" Lounge
Sleeper Cars in its transcontinental service. Carrot
Creek, bridged near mileage 72, flows from the
Fairholme Mountains to the north. South lies
Mount Rundle (9,675 feet). Mounts Peechee
(9,625 feet), Girouard (9,825) and Inglismaldie
(9,725) lie to the north. Also to the north, marked
by thin rivulets that turn into thundering cascades
seen closer, is Cascade Mountain (9,836). East of
Cascade Mountain the Cascade River is crossed,
parallels the track for a few hundred yards and
turns sharply south to join the Bow. Tunnel Mountain,
south, is a contrast to the flat lands at the feet of
Cascade and Stoney Squaw Mountains. Here, north
of the track, is the Royal Canadian Army Cadet
Corps Camp and the wild animal paddock maintained by the National Parks Department for
buffalo, rocky mountain goats and bighorn sheep.
Headquarters of Banff National Park are
located here, a detachment of the Royal Canadian
Mounted Police, hospital, movie theatre, hotels,
boarding houses and tourist bungalows cater
to thousands of visitors every year. Beyond the
town, where the Spray and Bow Rivers meet between the 1st tee and fairway of the championship
golf course, the valleys enclosed by Sulphur, Rundle
and Tunnel Mountains are dominated by Banff
Springs Hotel — built of stone quarried locally —
massive and hospitable as a Scottish castle.
This Canadian Pacific resort, one of the
holiday wonders of the world, fits the keynote of
gracious living into the outdoor symphony of cascades, rapids, mountain trails and scenic grandeur
played by the Canadian Rockies. Natural sulphur
springs provide medicinal bathing; buses and cars,
mountain ponies and bicycles are available for
sightseeing, scenic chair-lifts on nearby peaks open
incredible vistas. The Alpine Club of Canada maintains a headquarters on the slope of Sulphur
Mountain and The Trail Riders and Trail Hikers of
the Canadian Rockies, both with international
membership rosters, at Banff Springs Hotel. In the
town, Banff School of Fine Arts, an extension of the
University of Alberta, opens from mid-June to
mid-August each year a summer school of art,
drama, handicrafts and music, culminating in an
annual festival.
Left, mileage 82, the turrets of Banff Springs
Hotel are visible a mile away over the points of
deep green lodge-pole pines, to the north the
Vermilion Lakes are favourite feeding grounds for
moose. Between Banff and Lake Louise the narrow
meadows flanking the Bow River are a favourite
feeding area for deer and elk, occasionally a
bear — sometimes with her cubs — may be seen
KANANASKIS CASTLE MOUNTAIN
LAKE LOUISE
Sure-footed bighorn sheep
begging for "handouts" on the Banff-Lake Louise
highway, north of the track. North of the lakes is
Mount Norquay; south, the Bourgeau range. Near
mileage 83, to the north, is Mount Edith (8,380')
and, nearer the track, a huge cave known as the
Hole-in-the-Wall. The Bow River changes in
character as the land rises. Its colour takes on the
milky jade typical of glacial waters. The towering
peaks south of the track are: Mount Bourgeau
(9,61 5'), in the distance; Massive (9,790r) closer
at hand and Pilot Mountain (9,6900 directly south
of mileage board 93. From this point the pass
widens. Redearth Creek on the south and Johnston
Creek west of Mount Ishbel on the north, enter the
Bow River within a mile of each other. Copper
Mountain (9,1700 immediately south of where
Johnston Creek joins the Bow River, warns you to
look north for the south-eastern slopes of Mount
Eisenhower (9,3900/ the fortress-like mountain
which parallels the track for eight miles.
Formerly known as Castle Mountain, this tremendous formation, battlemented like a medieval
castle, was renamed to honour General of the
Army Dwight D. Eisenhower, brilliant Supreme
Commander of the Allied Forces in Europe, six
years before his election to the Presidency of the
United States. Storm Mountain, south of mile 1 06,
usually lives up to its name, its 1 0,372-foot peak
often being wreathed in clouds. Nearby, north of
the tracks beaver often build dams at the water's
edge. From here to Lake Louise Station, south of
the track are the many glaciers on the slopes of
the Bow Range. Tall peaks that tower above the
nearer mountains include Bident (1 0,1 090/ Quadra
(10,4100/ snow-covered Mount Babel (10,1750
and the ten Wenkchemna Peaks that surround the
famous Valley of the Ten Peaks. Tallest of all, four
miles south of mileage 112, is Mount Temple
(11,6360. To the north are Protection Mountain,
Redoubt Mountain (9,5200 and Ptarmigan Peak
(1 0,0700. From mileage 1 1 2 to Lake Louise, still to
the south, are Saddle Mountain, Fairview Mountain
and, seen between these two, Sheol (9,1180,
Haddo (10,0730/ Mount Aberdeen (10,3400 and
Mount Victoria (11,3650. Victoria's magnificent
glacier overhanging Lake Louise, and first sight
to greet visitors at Chateau Lake Louise, sheds its
waters through the lake and by way of Louise
Creek to join the Bow River near the station. From
Lake Louise Station motor roads lead: to the
Chateau, a thousand feet higher; Moraine Lake
Lodge in the Valley of the Ten Peaks; the Columbia
Icefield, eighty-five miles to the north where the
Athabaska, Dome and Saskatchewan Glaciers
combine to form 150 square miles of ice; Lake
Wapta Lodge; Yoho Valley Lodge; Emerald Lake
Chalet and Field. Chateau Lake Louise, on the
northern shore of the glacial lake for which it is
named, turns its sun-drenched wings to one of the
world's most beautiful scenic spots, the Victoria
Glacier. Its deeply wooded mountain trails are
favourites with riders. There is boating on the lake,
outdoor swimming in a sheltered, warmed pool
and many miles of Alpine flower trails around the
lake and surrounding hillsides for nature lovers.
As at Banff Springs Hotel, its neighbour 40 miles
east, orchestras play for week-night dancing.
Stephen, B.C., one mile and 52 feet above sea-
level, is the highest point on the Canadian Pacific
Railway.
The south side is the more spectacular as the
line curves to the left around the Beehive, Mount St.
Piran (8,6910 and Mount Niblock (9,7640. Near
mileage 121 look just south of the track for the
sign, "The Great Divide", which marks the boundary between Alberta and British Columbia, the
peak of the watershed. Beneath this sign a small
brook becomes two smaller streams that find their
way westward to the Kicking Horse River, the
Columbia and the Pacific; eastward to the Bow
River and eventually Hudson Bay and the Atlantic.
Stephen station is 219' west of the Continental
Divide which also marks the boundary of Yoho
and Banff National Parks. Summit and Sink Lakes,
altitude 5,339, mark the entrance to the Kicking
Horse Pass. Southward stand Pope's Peak (1 0,3760
and Narao Peak. Named for Sir James Hector,
surgeon and geologist on the Palliser expedition,
Hector station is reflected in Wapta Lake, source
of the Kicking Horse River, with Mount Bosworth
(9,0930 and Paget Peak (8,4170 to the north.
Six miles west, as the crow flies, but 1 1 Vi
miles by train, and 1,265' downhill lies Field. In
this eleven and a half miles is centred some of the
finest scenery and the most interesting engineering
feat on the Canadian Pacific transcontinental line,
the world-famous Spiral Tunnels. From mileage
126, Vanguard Peak, Cathedral Crag (10,0810
on the south, balance Mount Ogden and the lush
Yoho Valley to the north. The difference between
crow flight and railway mileage becomes apparent
as the track twice reversing by means of two spiral
tunnels descends 105.7' in less than a mile.
Between mileage 1 27 and 1 27.5 to the north of
the track and below it can be seen the entrance
and exit of the second tunnel from which the track
continues westward. At mileage 129.1, the train
enters   the   first   spiral   tunnel,   under   Cathedral Mountain (10,4640 and in three-fifths of a mile
turns almost a complete circle to emerge, headed
northeast, 55.7' lower. The track continues downgrade, crossing at mileage 130.6 the fast-running
Kicking Horse River, to mileage 131.3 when almost
another circle is made in close to 1,000 yards with
the track headed westward again and an upward
look to the left shows the track and tunnel entrance
at 129.1. Northward a closer view is obtained of
the Yoho Valley and to the south Mount Stephen
(10,4950/ below, the Kicking Horse River, already
a sizable stream, makes its way along the pass
and, to the north, Mount Field (8,6550 and Mount
Wapta (9,1 160 guard the Yoho Valley entrance.
Beyond them are Burgess Pass and Mount Burgess
(8,4730. As first constructed in 1 882-83, the line
between Hector and Field climbed laboriously up
the heavy grade, parts of which now form the
highway crossed by today's line, which was relocated 1907-8 when the spiral tunnels were
driven through the solid rock.
\EW\\v ^E\E ^i>E''''>i<'jjh
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VANGUARD PKX'E;,
''//CATHEDRAL
Map of tne Spiral Tunnels
The upper spiral tunnel, is 3,255' long, its
curvature is 288 degrees, the lower 2,922', its
curvature is 226 degrees and it emerges 50.4'
below its entrance. At mileage 133 across the river
is Mount Field.
Field, in Yoho National Park, junction of the
Laggan and Mountain Sub-Divisions, is also the
junction of the Mountain and Pacific Time Zones.
Westbound travellers retard their watches one
hour. Bears are occasionally seen near stations
in the mountains. No matter how pathetically they
look at you, don't yield to temptation and feed
them. They are as tame as any wild animal accustomed to human beings can be, but they have
no manners and do not know how sharp a supplicatory paw can be. Also, there is a heavy fine
imposed for feeding wild animals—this is for your
own protection. Take all the pictures you like—
from a reasonable distance.
Mountain Across  the   river,   well-engineered
Sub-Division motor roads lead up the scenic Yoho
Valley to Takakkaw Falls and westward past the
"Natural Bridge", bored through solid rock by the
Kicking Horse River, then north through the valley
of the Emerald River to Emerald Lake.
The line parallels the Kicking Horse River to
its junction with the Columbia River at Golden
and in this thirty-five mile stretch the change in
altitude is 1,489 feet. North of the track the Kicking
Horse River winds its way at ever-increasing speed
through rock-strewn rapids and gorges, and the
ever-present lodge-pole pine climbs to the timber-
line with, here and there, stands of poplar, marked
at grazing level by the teeth of countless winter-
feeding elk. Deer, bear and moose are quite
numerous here, too. South of the track west of
Field are Mount Dennis (8,3360/ Mount Duchesnay
(9,6020 and to the north the broad divided
valley formed by the Amiskwi River and Otterhead
Creek. The line threads its way between the Van
Home Range, north and the Ottertail Range, south.
At mileage 1 3 look south for Mount Vaux (1 0,891 0
and beyond it to the glacier between Allan and
Hanbury Peaks. At mileage 15.3 the track turns
sharply to skirt the Beaverfoot Range (9,0000 to
the south for several miles. The Kicking Horse
River races at foaming speed into the narrow lower
Kicking Horse Canyon, which the track follows
almost to Golden. Mileage 19.2 marks the western
boundary of Yoho National Park. The Canadian
Pacific crosses the Kicking Horse River five times
between mileages 21.4 and 33, and is crossed
itself by the highway at mileage 26.5. Carefully
scan the canyon wall on the south side, at
mileage 30, for the "Old Man of the Mountain".
Five hundred feet above the rails, at mileage 31.7
is the Trans-Canada highway. From the train the
road looks as if it were supported on stilts. North
of the track, mileage 35, is Moberly Peak (7,731')
and, south, the canyon winds out into the Valley of
the Columbia. Golden is the junction for Lake
Windermere Sub-Division.
For nearly thirty miles the Canadian Pacific
follows the Columbia River by taking advantage of
a fairly broad and fertile valley around the northern spur of the Dogtooth Mountains. A picturesque
sight on the north side of the track, just west of
Golden, is Edelweiss, a village of typical chalets
built by the Canadian Pacific for the Swiss guides
employed by the company for mountain climbers.
Frequent sharp spurs of the Van Home Range on
the right and the Dogtooth Mountains on the left
give rise to a succession of fast running, picturesque
creeks and rivers, the largest of which is the
Blaeberry, which joins the Columbia at mileage
44.8. To the north is Willowbank Mountain, soon
after which the line swings west again, crossing the
Columbia at mileage 52.5, half a mile west of
Donald, named for Sir Donald Smith (later Lord
Strathcona), and entering a spectacular canyon
where it parallels the Columbia to Beavermouth,
mileage 63, named for the junction of the Beaver
and Columbia Rivers. The level country between
Golden and Beavermouth is home to large numbers MOBERLY
FORDE
DONALD
BEAVERMOUTH
ROGERS
STONEY CREEK
GLACIER
ALBERT CANYON
TWIN BUTTE
GREELY
REVELSTOKE
of deer and moose. But it takes a keen observer to
spot them through the heavy growth. Now the
Columbia swings north in the magnificent "Big
Bend"   and   forces   its  way  through   the   Selkirks.
The Canadian Pacific crosses the Beaver River
a mile and a half west of Beavermouth, with the
first peak of the Selkirks, Cupola Mountain
(8,678'), due north and again follows a sharply
defined narrow valley south-westerly to Rogers,
mileage 67.8, named for Major Rogers, who discovered the pass. From Rogers the line climbs
again, this time to cross the Selkirks, next of the
mountain barriers. For eighteen miles the track
follows, at ever-increasing heights, the valley of
the Beaver River, south of the line. Wide flats and
dead forests tell of long-gone inundations. To
the north, as the train skirts the lower slopes of
Mount Rogers (1 0,546'), steep, tree-covered slopes
march down to the valley. Mileage 70 is the eastern
boundary of Glacier National Park, Mountain
Creek is bridged at 70.7, Raspberry Creek at
73.7. Two mountain cascades, crossed between
mileage 74 and Stoney Creek Station, are spectacular. Pouring- down the mountainside, Surprise
Creek, no bigger at its greatest visible height than
a pencilled line, cuts its way through a gorge
spanned by a truss bridge and splashes, noisily
and picturesquely in a foaming cascade to the
river bed 170 feet below. The bridge crossing
Stoney Creek, almost a twin brother of Surprise,
presented a stiff engineering problem. Here, the
steep sides of the gulch through which the torrent
speeds, drop 270 feet below the track level.
The contour of the land calls for a curve at the
western end of the bridge and, to cross the Stoney,
it was necessary to build an arch bridge, the
western end of which is slightly curved. Although
not thought of as such in the engineers' plans, this
unusual structure is an ideal site for photographs,
the curve of the train enabling it to be shown in
pictures shot from the "Scenic Dome".
At mileage 80.2, an even greater problem
faced the engineers who built the line. Mount
Macdonald (9,492') was in the way, its peak more
than a mile above the track level. To avoid it the
first line was built through Rogers Pass, compelling
a climb of five hundred feet in five miles and
needing, for its protection from slides, more than
four and a half miles of snow sheds, some of which
and the piers of old bridges can be seen to the
north. In 1916, by the boring of the Connaught
Tunnel, the climb was cut in half, the distance was
shortened by four and a third miles and curves
equal to seven circles were done away with. A
mile of solid rock roofs the concrete Connaught
Tunnel, five miles long, twenty-nine feet wide
and twenty-one and a half feet high. Fresh
air is forced through by giant ventilating fans at
the western end. Glacier is a challenge to the
senses with its magnificent panorama of peaks,
precipices and glaciers. South and east of the
station look up the valley for the lllecilewaet
Glacier, outlet for the lllecilewaet snow field,
forcing its way between Lookout Mountain and
Perley  Peak.  Beyond,  thrusting  its  peak   10,818
feet into the blue is Mount Sir Donald. A mile from
the station up the slope of Mount Abbott to the
south, sturdy piers of an old bridge show where the
Rogers Pass line crossed Loop Brook before the
tunnel was bored. Glacier is the station for
Glacier National Park, 521 square miles in area.
Between Glacier and Albert Canyon you may
spot mountain goats and sheep just below the snow
line and travellers carrying binoculars should look
on the slides and burns for grizzly bear in this
district. The altitude changes by nearly 2,300 feet
between Glacier and Revelstoke, a fact well
illustrated by the speedy, foaming waters of the
lllecilewaet River whose headlong rush westward
parallels the Canadian Pacific.
North and south of mileage 88 are Cougar
Mountain and Ross Peak. Southward Mount Green
(8,870') marks the western boundary of the valley
of Flat Creek which opens a vista to the south at
mileage 93.2. Snow sheds and tunnels, mileage
94-96, show the engineering difficulties overcome
when the line was put through. Ten crossings of
the lllecilewaet River are made between Glacier
and Revelstoke. Glacier Park's western boundary
is crossed at mileage 95.5, and between mileages
102 and 103 Albert Canyon, a narrow hundred-
and-fifty-foot gorge through which the river is
forced, parallels the rails to the north. The slow,
passage of the train gives you a chance to see this
fern-wreathed gorge. To the south lies the Albert
snowfield and near mileage 109 its tip may be
seen on the east slope of Albert Peak 1 0,008 feet
high. To the north, bounded on the east by Woolsey
Creek, lies Mount Revelstoke National Park, Twin
Butte Creek is crossed at 113.5, and southward,
as the valley widens out, at mileage 115, is Twin
Butte. Greely Creek, named for the famous editor,
is spanned at 118.8. The lllecilewaet, crossed at
mileage 122.3, pours through rocky Box Canyon
(mileage 123.2). Revelstoke, is an important
lumbering centre and junction of the Arrow Lake,
Mountain and Shuswap Sub-Divisions. A motor road
to the summit of Mount Revelstoke offers magnificent views of the scenic beauties of the Columbia
Valley. A championship ski-jump emphasizes winter
sports. Fishing and hunting are features of this area.
^'EY. ^4
x'2^y^^:y^ ■     -■■■ ~.~y  ^-,m^
Trail Riders, Alberta
22 Shuswap Of   the    Columbia    River's    1,150
Sub-Division miles, the 459 miles in Canada
drain an area of 40,000 square miles, serve the
lumber industry and generate thousands of horsepower. From its source in the giant snow-dome
that forms the Columbia Icefield, reached from
Lake Louise station 86 miles to the south, this
mighty stream, by the time the Canadian Pacific
main line crosses it at mileage 1.7, has wound its
way at varying speeds west and south in its search
for the wide waters of the Pacific. David Thompson,
the explorer and mapmaker, traced the Columbia
from its source to its mouth. In 1807, he made his
way to the Icefield via the Saskatchewan and in
the following years explored the river, evading
hostile Piegan Indians who had attacked Lewis
and Clarke in 1805, to the point where the
American expedition had struck the Columbia and
followed it to its mouth. His is still the sole comprehensive survey of the entire river. Southward, The
Columbia broadens into the Arrow Lake system,
served for many years by that most romantic of
all vessels the "stern-wheeler" S.S. "Minto".
Variously described as the Fraser Uplands or
Fraser Plateau, the country traversed by the
Shuswap Sub-Division, averaging an altitude of
1,200 feet above sea-level, grows Ponderosa pine,
the inevitable lodge-pole pine, Douglas fir and —
a change from the high country — large areas of
grassland. South of the track flows the Tonkawatla
River, also to the south Mount Begbie (8,956')
and Mount Macpherson (7,962') are visible and
Mount Revelstoke still commands the northward
view. At mileage 8.6 a lofty overhead bridge
carries the highway, three short tunnels momentarily obstruct the view of Eagle Pass and Summit
Lake between mileages 9 and 9.5. Snowsheds,
mileage 13.5, are a reminder of railroading
difficulties to be surmounted. At obviously named
Three Valley, Wap Creek flows from the south
into Three Valley Lake and at mileage 15.4 the
line crosses the Eagle River which necessitates two
more bridges within three miles. The mountains
to the north are the Gold Range (7,000'), southward Mount Griffin (7,075') of the Hunter Range
and, near mileage 22, are beautiful Kay Falls.
The transcontinental line, paralleling the Eagle
River, threads its way between the Hunter and
Shuswap Ranges, crossing the river three times
between mileages 24.6 and 26.3. North of the
track at Craigellachie (28.3) a simple cairn marks
the spot where the "last spike", driven November
7, 1885, completed the world's first transcontinental railway. For the record, it was a good, workable
spike, not a gold or silver one as some legends
claim. Eagle River is bridged at mileage 31.3.
Malakwa is the Indian word for mosquito and
fishermen in the local waters well understand its
choice for this station's name. The Eagle is spanned
again at mileages 32.8, 37.1 and 40.4. Solsqua,
Indian for bear, is another example of apt naming,
though few bears have been reported there
recently. At mileage 43.8 the eleventh crossing of
the Eagle River in the space of 28 miles is made,
and at 44.4, Mara Lake, entering Shuswap
Lake,    is    bridged.    Sicamous,    lake    mail    port
THREE VALLEY
Eagle Pass
and junction with the Okanagan Sub-Division, is
another Indian word — meaning "places cut
through". This is great duck country and the wild
migrants become tame enough to paddle close
for bread thrown on the quieter backwaters. Lumber, logs, ties, and saw and planing mills are the
local industries. Trout fishermen find this junction a
good starting point. South of the track lies Larch
Hills provincial forest, to the north Shuswap Lake,
a three-sided rectangle of which Salmon Arm,
paralleling the line is the south side, almost surrounds Bastion and Vella Mountains, behind which
White Lake has a fabulous reputation amongst
anglers. Canoe is a lumbering and farmers'
exchange warehouse centre.
Salmon Arm deals in dairy products, fruit,
poles, lumber, boxes and packing. Averaging a
mile wide, the lake between Sicamous and Salmon
Arm is a favourite feeding area for wild duck.
The South Thompson River, followed by the line
for much of the way  between Salmon Arm  and
For Camera Fans
In general, the precautions you take in shooting
through windows should be observed in making
photographs from the "Scenic Dome".
For colour transparencies of the various popular
makes, colour compensating filter No. CC30-R is
advised with exposure increases as recommended
for this filter on Daylight Type film. In order to
get exposures, either with colour or black and
white film, the use of an exposure meter is recommended, readings being taken from within the
"Scenic Dome". Where no meter is available, an
exposure increase through top or side windows of
one full camera stop is general practice.
Either the front or rear seats offer the best opportunities for pictures but please remember that
receding scenery sets up focusing problems. It is
generally considered that the best way to avoid
reflections is to expose as close to the glass as
possible and, of course, avoid halation by shooting
away from the sun. Train movement effects are
lessened considerably for lateral photographs by
using a 45° angle.
CRAIGELLACHIE
SALMON ARM NOTCH HILL
Orchards like  this  earn  British   Columbia's  apple  reputation.
MONTE CREEK
Kamloops, draws on the reservoirs of Shuswap and
Little Shuswap Lakes. This river, important to the
economy of British Columbia, is another example
of the far-reaching influence of the North West
Company, it having been discovered by Simon
Fraser in the first decade of the 19th Century and
named for his contemporary, David Thompson.
The tributary Salmon River is bridged at mileage
64.8. Between Tappen and Carlin, which bear the
names of an early contractor and lumber operator
respectively, the line parallels White Creek
(north), leaving it at a 90° angle to pass between
Notch Hill to the north and Mount Hilliam, Black and
Squilax Mountains to the south. The land, northward, slopes gently down to the main body of
Shuswap Lake — said to contain more varieties
of trout and other sporting fish, including steel-
head salmon trout and salmon from the Pacific,
than any other fresh water in British Columbia.
At mileage 84 the tip of Shuswap Lake
narrows to enter Little Shuswap Lake a mile west of
Squilax (87.5), Indian for "sheep". Chase Creek
is spanned at mileage 93.5. The high land to the
south, Ptarmigan Hills, is much gentler in appearance
than were the mountains of the Rockies, the Selkirks
and the Monashee Ranges. Now, the track parallels
the South Thompson River. The Shuswap Lake area,
more densely populated than any territory in
western British Columbia, is a prosperous fruit and
mixed farming belt. Between mileage 126 and
Kamloops sites of semi-subterranean prehistoric
Indian houses have been discovered between the
Canadian Pacific transcontinental line and the
South Thompson River. Kamloops, is the junction of
the Shuswap and Thompson Sub-Divisions. The city
was founded as a Hudson's Bay Company post in
1812. Fort Thompson was built in   1813  by the
North West Company and named for David
Thompson, explorer of the Kootenay District and
Columbia River — probably when Simon Fraser
named the Thompson River. Today's name comes
from the Indian "Kumeloops" meeting of the
waters. Cattle, forest products, canning, fruit and
vegetable shipping and registered seed are the
major local industries. Many lakes and streams in
this district are well-stocked with game trout. You
will see many irrigated farms and broad cattle
ranches and this countryside also contains gold,
copper and base metal mines.
CANADIAN PACIFIC
HOTELS
le Chateau Frontenac, Quebec, Que.
Le Chateau Champlain, Montreal, Que.
Le Baron Motor Hotel, Sherbrooke, Que.
The Royal York, Toronto, Ont.
The Royal Alexandra, Winnipeg, Man.
The Saskatchewan, Regina, Sask.
The Palliser, Calgary, Alta.
Chateau Lacombe, Edmonton, Alta.
The Empress, Victoria, B.C.
"(The Algonquin, St. Andrews, N.B.
f Banff Springs Hotel, Banff, Alta.
^Chateau Lake Louise, Lake Louise, Alta.
^Summer months only. Thompson From almost true north, the North
Sub-Division Thompson joins the south branch to
start the westward flow as The Thompson. Historians know that David Thompson, for all his
exploration, never saw this river that is a flowing
monument to him, and feel reasonably sure that
in his lifetime he did not learn that his name had
been given to it. At about mileage 4 the river
begins to widen into Kamloops Lake and, on the
north side, is joined by the Tranquille River near
mileage 6.5. The river and station take their name
from an early chief of gentle disposition, but are
better known in history for the discovery, in 1856 or
57, by prospector James Huston, of gold — start
of the Cariboo gold rush of that time. Six tunnels,
five of them in a mile and a quarter, were driven
through the glacier-scarred rock between mileages
8.5 and 13.8 and across the lake, opposite mileage
11, stands Battle Bluff, the bluff itself stained red,
scene of fierce Indian struggles long ago. Cherry
Creek, named for the river crossed near the station,
serves some of the finest ranching land in Canada
— look for log ranch houses and farms. Near
mileage 22.5 the line bridges Durand Creek.
Savona perpetuates the name of an Italian immigrant who ran a ferry across the western end of
Kamloops Lake in 1861. Walhachin, from the
Indian "Wallacheen" meaning "land of plenty",
was the scene of an early experiment in irrigation
when a group of Englishmen watered an orchard
and brought fine apples to bear. Then the bugles of
1914 blew, they crossed the Atlantic to war —
and none returned! A few trees, unkempt and
untended still bear lonely fruits. Ashcroft, named for
the birthplace of an early settler, was a gold-
rush town, born of the Cariboo discoveries,
today it is noted for the quality of its potatoes
and tomatoes. The rock formations of Black
Canyon, mileage 52.5, squeeze the river in a
roaring boil of white water and Glossy Mountain,
to the south, rears bald contours to a peak of
6,500 feet, Pukaist Creek is bridged near mileage
65, Pimainus Creek, at 67. Spatsum takes its name
from wild cotton that grows locally, Toketic, in
Indian, means Pretty Place. At mileage 71, the
track bridges the Nicola River. As the banks of the
Thompson come together railway and river both
seek the lowest possible levels through the Thompson Canyon. Drynoch bears the name of the seat of
the Clan McLeod on the Island of Skye. The highway crosses overhead at mileage 81.4 and for a
while, follows the route of the old Cariboo Trail and
at 84.6 the Nicoamen River is bridged by the railway. The Thompson piles higher and higher as its
banks close in until, at mileage 87.5 the gorge
graphically known as "The Jaws of Death" forces it
to its highest speed. Sage-brush, dwarf jack pine,
poplar and some bull pine grow in this area and
SPENCE'S BRIDGE
The Thompson River NORTH BEND
The Thompson River near Spence's Bridge
the soil and rocks take on strange hues — yellows,
purples, crimson. Northward, near mileage 91,
The Painted Canyon lives up to its name, and,
opposite mileage 93.5 a mottled granite crest
which overhangs the gorge is known as Botanie
Crag, taking its name from the creek that flows
into the Thompson. Northward from about mileage
95 the canyon flattens out, and across the narrow
plateau the Fraser River pours southward to join,
or be joined by the Thompson. At Lytton Simon
Fraser found a well-established Indian community, apparently centuries old. Traders made use
of its junction of the Fraser and Thompson and, of
course, it came into its heyday in the time of the
gold rush. Here can be seen the same phenomenon
as at the confluence of the Ottawa and St. Lawrence, with one clear and one muddy river
flowing together in sharp definement for some
distance. The Fraser, like the Ottawa, is drab; the
Thompson, filtered through lakes as is the St.
Lawrence, is clean. Near Cisco, named for the
late Chief Siska, at mileage 101, the Canadian
Pacific crosses to the right bank of the Fraser
and continues on a track hewn from the rock
ledge, passing through three tunnels between
mileages 101.2 and 102.7. The old Cariboo Road
toiled high above the river. Kanaka takes its
name from an old placer mining bar across the
river once worked by Hawaiian native labourers.
Kwoiek Creek, named for Kwoiek Peak, north of
the line, is spanned at mileage 104.6 and Skow
Wash Creek at 106.3. To the south is Kanaka
Mountain. The Salmon River is bridged by the
track at mileage 113. The bench lands are wider,
altitude at Chaumox — translated as "Too Hot" —
is only 568 feet above sea level and tiny gardens
and orchards — some in Indian Reservations —
are much more common than at higher levels.
North Bend, junction of the Thompson and Cascade
Sub-Divisions, is mainly a railway town noted for
its rich foliage and flower-filled gardens, of which
those at the station are a notable example.
Cascade Still   hemmed   between  mountains,
Sub-Division but keeping as close as possible to
water level, the track between North Bend and
Vancouver has a gradient of a little less than 4
feet in a mile. Its last 80 miles are through the
almost level valley of the Fraser by now a wide,
navigable river. West of North Bend, the stark
beauty of the Fraser Canyon, coupled with the
equally stark history of its early development is
memorable. At mileage 5.5, the Scuzzy River, flowing from north of the track, enters the Fraser.
Under the railway bridge is a series of basins, up
which salmon leap during the spawning season.
These mitigate the fierce Scuzzy Rapids, before
conservation a death trap for many fine salmon.
Between mileages 7.4 and 8, the gorge narrows
into a rock formation aptly christened "Hell's
Gate". Below it is "The Devil's Wash Basin", a
spinning whirlpool. Williams Creek (9.2) and
White's Creek (9.7) are crossed as the track winds
its way beside the rushing river between the
canyon walls. There are many outstanding views
and, west of Spuzzum (15.5), once a Hudson's Bay
trading post, a steel and concrete bridge spans
the Fraser on the site of the first bridge ever to
cross it. The first bridge, built by Joseph Trutch, was
the first suspension bridge west of the Rockies,
built on wooden towers and wire cables woven at
the site. Spuzzum River is crossed at mileage 17.1.
Simon Fraser, discoverer of the river, who
literally clawed his way down river on a series of
ladders built by the Indians, rested on the narrow
bench at Spuzzum, which was used as an Indian
burial ground. Well worth seeing is a giant rock
(23.5) in the middle of the river against which
the Fraser rages vainly and torments itself into
twisting eddies and backwaters. Yale was formerly
head of navigation on the Fraser and the start of
the Cariboo waggon road. Built in 1862-5 under
the orders of Governor James Douglas, this 400-
mile road was used by thousands of miners to
carry millions of treasure from the famous Cariboo
gold field. In 1848 a trading fort was built for
the fur brigades. Emory Creek is crossed at
mileage 31.2, Haig bears the name of the British
"Suicide Rapids" Hell's Gate
Field Marshal, and Odium, named for Canadian
General Victor Odium marks the canyon's end.
At mileage 48 is Ruby Creek, which owes its
name to the garnets found in the neighbourhood.
This  is  the  heart  of  the  fruit  and   dairy  lands.
"Friendly Folk"
Ever notice how friendly railway men are? You see
crews of passing trains wave to each other. Section
men miles away from anywhere stop work and
wave as the train goes by — and you wave in
return. This is friendliness, but it is more than that.
Everyone on the Canadian Pacific is concerned
with the welfare of your train and the hands flung
high in greeting tell a story to the crew of your
train. Watch a little more closely and you will see
that section men divide forces as you pass, one to
each side of the track. They have been keeping a
watchful eye on the running gear of the train and
the "highball" is an assurance that everything is in
order on both sides. This combination of efficiency
and friendliness spreads beyond the railway
family and trainmen can tell you of many instances
where residents near the track "check the train"
and give the proper signals.
Close to stations along the way activities are
divided between sawmills and packing plants
to which strings of trucks bring fresh gathered
crops. Agassiz, market town, station for Harrison
Hot Springs and site of a governement experimental farm. Ferries serve the Chilliwack Valley,
noted for its fine dairy herds. From Mission City,
pleasant townsite, and junction with Mission Sub-
Division, and a busy centre for fruit growing and
dairy country, the "Scenic Dome" vantage point
shows snow-topped Mount Baker forty miles south
in the State of Washington. In a few miles now,
on-shore breezes reaching inland bear the tang
of the great Pacific Ocean and at Port Hammond,
the track leaves the Fraser and heads northwest to
cross, by a long bridge, mileage 109.7, the Pitt
River, tide-water! The Coquitlam River is spanned
at 1 12.3. Coquitlam, marking sea-level, is named
for the nearby Indian Reservation. At mileage 1 15
look north for the eastern end of Burrard Inlet and
the old station of Port Moody which was the
original terminus of the Canadian Pacific, Canada's
first transcontinental railway. Now the many
activities of a busy harbour—fishing shacks, deep-
sea fishing craft, drying nets, piers, docks and
factories lead you into Vancouver, trans-continental
terminus of the Canadian Pacific Railway, gateway
to Alaska and the limitless Pacific Ocean.
NOTE  ON  AUTOMATIC  BLOCK  SIGNALS
SEE   PAGE  6
Canadian Pacific Highlights
In 1966, 64,751 people were employed by all
services of the Canadian Pacific. Canadian Pacific
Railway operated 16,650 miles of track with
1,098 diesel electric units and 54 rail diesel cars.
Canadian Pacific operated 81,734 freight cars,
341 coaches, 327 sleeping, dining and parlour
cars, 244 baggage, mail and express cars.
CHINA BAR
SPUZZUM
YALE
CHOATE
HAIG
ODLUM
KATZ
RUBY CREEK
WALEACH
AGASSIZ
HARRISON MILLS
DEROCHE
NICOMEN
DEWDNEY
HATZIC
MISSION CITY
SILVERDALE
RUSKIN
WHONOCK
ALBION
HANEY
PORT HAMMOND
PITT MEADOWS
COQUITLAM
PORT MOODY
BARNET
VANCOUVER
27 Vancouver, end of steel for the world's first transcontinental railway, is Canada's gateway to the
Orient, South Pacific and, by air, Europe. Canadian
Pacific Airlines serve five continents ... link Canada
with Japan — Hon§ Kong — Hawaii — Australia
— New Zealand — Mexico — South America —
Europe. Vancouver's golf courses, parks, fine buildings, sea beaches and pleasant climate attract
visitors from many countries. Fast Canadian Pacific
"Princess" liners, serve pleasant Vancouver Island
via Nanaimo, mainland British Columbia ports and
Alaska.
Vancouver
to ALASKA
NANAIMO
nmpv
y'EYy'    ii'%|
VICTORIA
\
SEATTLE
Princess liner near Victoria
Victoria, temperate capital of British Columbia, is
the entrance to the year-round playground of
Vancouver Island. Here The Empress, westernmost
of the Canadian Pacific chain of hotels from sea
to sea, set in its own garden facing the harbour,
close to business and shopping centres, is the
focal point of local society, headquarters for
visitors. Golf, motoring, tennis, sailing, fishing,
swimming, riding, picturesque parks and scenic
drives are the background of a holiday life that
includes shopping for woollens, china, silverware,
linens and many other imports.
The Empress Hotel,  Victoria
28 Red Indians no longer
roam the Canadian Prairies nor hunt and fish in the
rivers and lakes of the
Canadian Rockies, except
as other Canadians and
visitors, but . . .
At Banff, served by the
Canadian Pacific transcontinental main line, a feature of every summer is the
gathering from nearby Reservations of Canada's
original citizens who are interested in the preservation
of tribal arts, skills, games
and folk-lore known as
"Indian Days", when groups
such as that depicted here
are commonplace sights.
Alaska, "Land of the Midnight Sun", of deep fjords-
like chasms, glimmering green mountains and snowcapped peaks, a silent retreat into a still rugged
land. Here you'll find ancient Indian villages, fascinating totem poles, a museum of Eskimo, Russian
and Aleutian art treasures, glaciers, giant flowers,
and remnants of that robust and raucous era —
the Gold Rush.
Canadian Pacific's sleek, white, turbo-electric
powered "Princess Patricia" cruises from Vancouver to Skagway through the sheltered "Inside
Passage" on 7!/2-day cruises throughout the
summer. The air is fresh, sea gulls swoop overhead
and the sunny summer weather averages 65°.
Stops are made at Prince Rupert, British Columbia's
most northern city, famous for its floating fishing
village; Ketchikan, first U.S. city over the Alaskan
border, with fine totem poles; Wrangell, founded
by the Russians in 1 831; Juneau, capital of Alaska,
with native art in the Territorial Museum; and
Skagway, colourful goal of 15,000 prospectors on
their way to the Klondike dream. The past atmosphere of proud Alaska is carefully preserved today
for the enjoyment of tourists.
29 WESTWARD
Across Canada by Canadian Pacific
"^'- ■ <::=.;V';':?;: '^^-f:^::^^-■
THE MAIN LOUNGE
Tranquil pastel shades, harmonious as your own home
decoration; soft, clear light-
ing; luxuriously comfortable
chairs—moveable for chummy groupings; wall-to-wall
carpeting sympathetic in pattern to the decorative scheme;
wide picture windows—these
characterize the Main Lounge
of the Canadian Pacific Scenic
Dome Lounge Sleeper.
iJ%
THE MURAL LOUNGE
Named for famous national
and provincial parks, the new
cars are disc-braked for
smooth starts, smooth running,
smooth stops. The Mural
Lounge, snugly ensconced below the upper level Scenic
Dome of Canadian Pacific's
smart, new Lounge Sleeper
Car, is original. Intimate as an
exclusive club, each Mural
Lounge of the 18 "Park" cars
on the transcontinental route
has an original mural of the
national or provincial park for
which the car is named, covering two walls, signed by a
member of the Royal Canadian Academy of Arts. Banquette seats, thoughtfully arranged, and an etched-glass
third wall enhance these
unique rooms. THE SCENIC DOME
Scenery along the world's
longest "Dome" ride, across
Canada from tidewater to
tidewater, is enjoyed most
from the upper level "Scenic
Dome". Vision all-around and
as high as the sky is provided
by glare-proof picture-windows. Twenty-four seats,
spaced for comfort and upholstered for ease, fitted with
individual ash trays and armrests are points of vantage in
air-conditioned spaciousness.
THE COFFEE SHOP
Deluxe Scenic Dome Coaches
are the ultimate in luxurious
economy for transcontinental
travellers who go the Canadian Pacific way. The "Skyline" coaches feature a Coffee
Shop for economical meals in
addition to the 24-seat upper-
level Scenic Dome and 26
reserved seats with adjustable full-length leg rests for
travel comfort by day or
night. Wide, picture windows,
decorator design and wall-to-
wall carpets add to their
economical luxury.
The World's Longest Dome Ride
31 Canadian GaxuUc
TRAINS  /  TRUCKS  /   SHIPS  /   PLANES  /   HOTELS  /  TELECOMMUNICATIONS
WORLD'S   MOST   COMPLETE   TRANSPORTATION    SYSTEM
_0_
RAIL FREIGHT .. . Canadian Pacific's
largest transportation service. Serves
Canada and United States with modern
equipment—fast schedules—experienced
personnel. Transcontinental—trans-border—intercity—local services.
i%ai!^y_irx ,  „—    "' i-py^u g
RAIL PASSENGER . . . Canada's transcontinental streamlined scenic dome
train—The Canadian—operates daily between Montreal-Toronto and Vancouver
—connections to Saint John and Halifax.
STEAMSHIPS . . . White Empress liners
between Canada-Europe . . . winter
cruises New York to the Caribbean-
United Kingdom to North African waters
and the West Indies. Beaver cargo ships
and chartered vessels between Britain-
Europe-Canada.
v
AIRLINES ... Super DC-8 jet Empresses
serve five continents—link Canada with
Japan-Hong Kong-Hawaii-Australia-
New Zealand-Mexico-South America-
Europe. Daily transcontinental flights
across Canada.
Canadian Ghctfic
IT
MERCHANDISE SERVICES . . . This
fast-growing service—conceived by
Canadian Pacific—using all the tools of
transportation—provides for one-control
handling of shipments by rail-road-
water-air.
HOTELS . . . Year-round hotels in major
cities in Canada—famous summer resorts in the Canadian Rockies and eastern Canada—modern and attractive facilities for conventions and business
meetings — motor hotels.
Canadian Pacific since its completion
as Canada's first transcontinental railway has become the world's most complete transportation system operating
85,000 route miles by land, sea and
air to serve five continents.
As the world's leading privately
owned transportation company,
Canadian Pacific offers the widest
possible choice of services and facilities
to meet the diversified travel and shipping needs of individuals and industry.
Canadian Pacific provides modern
equipment — convenient schedules —
experienced personnel — world-wide
service—and a name highly respected
for reliability and performance.
Ii*
TELECOMMUNICATIONS . . . Highspeed circuits across Canada with connections throughout the world. Teletype
—telex—facsimile —telemetering—telegrams—broadcast transmission—integrated data processing.
Canadian Okcqfcc
y IQO •■*   in$-
TRUCKING ... Canadian Pacific Transport Company, and Smith Transport
Limited offer fast, safe, efficient, economical road transportation services
throughout the major areas of the nation.
EXPRESS . . . Safe, economical, fast
shipment and delivery of goods in Canada and abroad. Travellers' cheques-
money orders—foreign remittances.
PIGGYBACK ... Operating from 60 major
centres across Canada—Saint John to
Vancouver—one of the world's largest
piggyback operators.
^2$mW

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