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Maintenance-of-way rules and regulations Canadian Pacific Railway Company. Western Division Nov 30, 1907

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This Book is the Property of the
Canadian Pacific Railway Company
who, by accepting it, agrees to return it to the proper
officer when called for, or forfeit twenty-five cents. fo?
IN EFFECT, JULY 1st, 1902.
The following Rules and Instructions are
issued for the information and guidance of
Maintenance-of-Way employees. They supersede all previous instructions inconsistent
4i>sistant  Chief   Engineer
Second Vice-President.  INDEX.
General Notice
General Rules.
..     6
Roadmasters  10
Section Foremen    ,  12
Extra Gang Foremen \  14
Road Watchmen  14
Crossing Watchmen  15
Track Walking and Inspection  15
Signals  17
Roadbed  20
Drainage  21
Ballast  22
Ballast Sections  23
Cross Ties      24
Piling New Ties  27
Switch Ties  2&
Tamping  31
Rail Braces  31
Tie Plates  32
Bolting and Joints  33
Spiking  34
Curve Easement  35
Elevation of Outer Rail  36
Gauging  38 4
Rail  40
Curving  42
Expansion  43
Switches and Frogs  44
Switch and Signal Lamps  49
Guard Rails  5o
Track Posts and Signs  51
Shimming      56
Policing      58
Track Material  59
Explosives  60
Clearing Right of Way  60
Tools  61
Accidents  64
Reports ,  64
Hand and Push Cars  66
Telegraph Repairs  67
Road Crossings ;  67
Trespassing on Right-of - Way % 68
Work Trains .:  69
Water Supply  69
Snow and Ice -  70
Fences and Cattle Guards  70
Track Sections  73
Inspecting and Loading ties, posts, poles, &c  74
Bridge and Building Masters    79
Bridge and Building Foremen    80
Bridge Watchmen    82
Bridge Repairs    82
Building Repairs       84 o
Bridge Numbering  85
Foremen of Painters  85
Painting Structural Steel  86
Masonry Foremen  87
Pumpmen  88
Bridge Inspection  90
Instructions regarding Inspection Reports  94
Fire Protection at Bridges  99
Interlocking ".  100
Highway Crossing Bells  112
Personal Injury  115
Ballast Sections,Broken Stone, Earth and Gravel. 124-125-126
Bumping Post ,  127
Bolts  128
Car Stops 129-130
Cattle Guard and Wing Fence  131
Derailing Switch  132
Gates, Steel  133
Farm Crossings  134
MacPherson's Patent Safety Switch and Frog  135
Double Slip Switch, No. 7, with Rigid Centre Frogs 135
Rail Joints  136
Road Crossings  137
Split Switch, 15 foot  338
Spring Frog, No. 9 Cross over and Turnout  139
Spring Frog, No. 9, Guard Rail and Clamp  140
Rigid Frog  141 6
Tie Plates  142
Track Gauges and Levels '• 143
Track Posts and Signs 144-145-146
Number Boards for Bridges    147
Track Tools 148-149
Tie tiles  150
To enter or remain in the service, is an assurance of
willingness to obey the rules.
Obedience to the rules is essential to the safety of passengers and employees, and to the protection of property.
The service demands the faithful, intelligent, and
courteous discharge of duty.
To obtain promotion, capacity must be shown for greater
Employees, in accepting employment, assume its risks.
All maintenance of way employees must do all in their
power to prevent accidents, even though in so doing, they
may have to perform some one else's duty. GENERAL  RULES
A. Every employee whose duties are prescribed by
these rules, must have a copy of them accessible
when on duty.
B. Special instructions, issued by proper authority,
must be observed.
C. Employees must be conversant with the rules,
and obey them. If in doubt as to their meaning,
they must apply to proper authority for an explanation.
D. Persons employed in any service on trains are
subject to the rules.
E. Employees must render every assistance in their
power in carrying out the rules.
F. Any violation of the rules must be reported.
G. The use of intoxicants by employees, while
on duty, is prohibited. Their use, or the frequenting
of places where they are sold, is sufficient cause for
H. The use of tobacco by employees when on duty
in or about passenger stations, or on passenger cars,
is prohibited.
I. Employees, on duty, must wear the prescribed
badge and uniform, and be neat in appearance.
J. Employees must be courteous and considerate in
their dealings with the public, especially with passengers and other patrons of the Company.
K. Persons authorized to transact business at stations or cm trains, must be orderly and avoid causing
annoyance to passengers.
L. In case of danger to the Company's property
employees must unite to protect it.
M.   Employees must always be vigilant to protect, and must promptly report anything detrimental to
the Company's interests.
N. An employee dismissed for cause, or leaving the
service, must not be re-employed, unless with the
sanction of the General Superintendent with whom
last employed.
O. Persons previously employed on another railway, if given employment, must not be retained in
the service of the Company unless satisfactory evidence in writing is obtained as to previous good
P. Persons whose hearing, sight, or color perception, is known to be defective, must not be employed
in any capacity where such defect may endanger the
safety of life or property.
Q.   Employees must pass the required examinations.
R. Employees must devote themselves exclusively
to the Company's service, attending during the prescribed hours, and residing wherever required. They
must not, directly or indirectly, engage in any other
business or trade without permission. Employees
who are liable to be called upon for duty at any time,
must keep the proper officer advised as to where they
can be found.
S. Employees must on leaving, return all property
of the Company which should be in their posisession,
making good any loss, or any damage done to it
through misuse or neglect.
T. Supplies and material must be properly and
economically used and cared for. Scrap and other
material of value must be turned in to the Company.
U. Unless authorized to do so, employees must not
receive or pay out money on the Company's account
or use the Company's credit. V. The giving of presents by employees to their
superiors and the acceptance by employees of gratuities or rewards from patrons of the Company are
W. The Company reserves the right to deduct from
the pay of its employees: fees for medical attendance;
rents, where employees are its tenants; and fines for
neglect of duty. Fines will be credited to a fund to
be devoted to the benefits of employees.
X. Employees must not subject the Company to
the service of a Garnishee Order on their wages or
assign their wages without permission. They must
reimburse the Company any expense thereby incurred.
Y. All accidents involving injury to person, or
damage to track, structures, or rolling stock, must
be reported promptly by telegraph to the proper officer, and confirmed by mail. In case of injury to
person, the names and addresses of as many witnesses
as possible must be obtained.
Z. Cars must not be placed on the main track to
be loaded or unloaded unless authorized by a train
AA. Wood, lumber, stone, or other material, must
not be piled within six feet of the rails.
BB. Employees must familiarize themselves with
the location of all structures and obstructions along
the line that will not clear them when on top or side
of cars or engines.
CC. The telegraph must not be used unless advisable in the Company's interests, and telegrams must
be as brief as possible consistent with clear understanding.
DD. Employees desirous of appealing to the head
of the department must do so through the proper
officer. 10
1. Roadmasters have charge of the track, roadbed and right-of-way and are responsible for keeping everything pertaining to the roadway on their
divisions in proper repair.
2. They must be constantly vigilant in the inspection of their divisions, going over every section,
either walking, by hand icar, or velocipede, at short
intervals, and frequently visit all points where any
new, or special works of repair are in progress. They
must maintain a complete knowledge and close practical control of all works and employees under their
3. They have charge of the sectionmen and other
laborers employed by the Company on roadway work
on their divisions; and shall report their time in the
manner prescribed.
4. In the appointment of Foremen, Roadmasters
must see that they are thoroughly practical, experienced, sober and trustworthy, of sufficient education
and intelligence to enable them to read and understand these rules, the time tables and all "written
orders, and to make accurate returns of the time of
the gangs, and of the material used on their sections,
and other necessary reports. 11
5. They shall assign the duties to each Foreman
in, their charge, and must see that such duties are
promptly and properly performed.
6. They must report any defect in bridges, trestles,
culverts or water supply.
7. They must see that the employees in their
charge are provided with, and understand all rules
and instructions concerning their duties, including
the meaning and use of signals; that materials are
safely kept and economically used, attend to the removal of slides, snow or other obstructions; in case
of accident, arrange for the necessary force to
promptly clear the road; they must use stan&ard
watches, (see-^talaA) have the correct time and compare with each Foreman at least once a week; see
that the work of contractors and others does not endanger the safety of the road and make careful and
prompt enquiry and report fully on the prescribed
forms all accidents occurring on their divisions.
8. They must be familiar with the instructions
issued for the government of trains and trainmen,
and report any neglect of duty or violation of rules
that come under their notice. They must report
when they find any wheels with worn tires deep
enough to injure the frogs and switches.
9. They must see that all Foremen have a complete outfit of tools in good condition, and will report all defective tools and material on the proper
10. They will not permit experimental trials of new
appliances without proper authority. 12
11. Section Foremen receive their instructions from
and report to the Roadmaster.
12. They have charge of the maintenance of track
on their sections, and are responsible for its safety.
13. They must see that the track is in good line
and surf ace, properly spiked and jointed, and that
it is in true gauge; that the cross ties are properly
spaced, lined and tamped; that the roadbed is- in
good order; that the proper slopes and ditches are
preserved or provided, and that the drainage is not
interfered with.
14. They must personally engage in work, and
see that all employees in their charge perform their
duties. They may suspend for neglect, misconduct
or incompetence but will report the same to the
Roadmaster, who alone may authorize discharge.
16. They must carry a reliable watch, and when
practicable compare time each day with the Company's clock at the nearest telegraph station, or
with the conductor of a train or Foreman of
adjoining section.
16. Section Foremen must have with them when
at work a copy of the current time-table, and must
know the time of all regular trains at all points of
their sections. They with their men must watch
both sides of passing train© and if any dangerous
defect in the train is noticed, give the trainmen the
stop signal and advise them of the defect. They
should give enginemen and trainmen a slow signal
when trains are following each other closer than ten
minutes. 13
17. They must give special attention to points,
where obstructions are liable to occur; ex&mine
the slopes of cuts, and remove anything likely to
fall or slide; remove combustible material from the
vicinity of the track, fences, bridges and building©;
extinguish fires that occur along the road; see that
fences are kept in order, remove sediment from
water tanks, report any failure which they cannot
remedy in the water supply, and report all overhead
wires that are less than 25 feet above top of rail.
They must render assistance in the case of accidents.
During heavy storms they must go over their sections
and take every precaution to prevent accidents.
18. They must provide ventilation in enclosed
water tanks. The lower sash in the upper windows shall be kept open full height, except during
the winter months.
19. The track must never be obstructed without
first displaying stop signals, see Rules 38 to 48.
20. Section Foremen are responsible for the proper
spiking, jointing, lining and gauging of the track on
bridges and trestles at all times, and they must report
to the Roadmaster and Train Dispatcher by wire if
necessary, any dangerous defect in surface or line.
In case of defects of surface on small pile trestles
the Section Foreman, in the absence of Bridgemen, or
in cases of emergency, shall correct the surface by
shimming under the rail.
21. They must see that the track about which contractors or others are working is safe for the passage
of trains at full speed, or proper signals displayed. 14
^2. Section Foremen must ascertain daily if the
Electric Bells at Road Crossings are in working
order, and should they find the bell out of order,
must at once place a watchman at the crossing,
and report same. The duty of the watchman is to
prevent persons and vehicles from crossing the
tracks when trains are approaching.
23. Extra Gang Foremen receive their instructions
from and report to the Roadmaster, and in performing their special duties they must conform to the
rules and instructions for the Section Foremen.
24. Road Watchmen receive their instructions
from and report to the Section Foremen.
25. They must carefully examine the track for
obstructions and see that it is in a safe condition.
Should any obstruction to the track 'occur, which
they cannot instantly remove or repair, they must
at once display stop signals in each direction (see
Rule 39, and, if necessary, advise the Section Foreman.
2-6. Night Watchmen, before going off duty, must
notify the relieving watchmen or the Section Foremen, of the trains due which have not passed, and
of any other matters requiring attention. 15
21. Crossing Watchmen receive their instructions
from and report to the Section Foremen.
2S. They must prevent persons and vehicles from
crossing the track when trains are approaching, and
operate gates when they are provided.
29. Green signals must be used by watchmen stationed at public road crossings at grade to prevent
persons and vehicles from crossing the track when
trains are approaching.
Red signals must be used by them only when
necessary  to  stop  trains.
30. They must keep the crossing clean and flange
ways clear, and perform such other duties as may be
31. During heavy wind, snow and rain storms,
every precaution must be taken to prevent accidents.
Each Section Foreman must be out, and have with
him a sufficient number of men to insure safety to
trains. Men going out to watch track, in storms
or in ordinary track walking, must have with them
signals to stop trains. During heavy rain storms,
all waterways must be inspected, and all obstructions
removed therefrom.
32. Section Foremen must see that all parts of
their sections are examined daily, or at such regular
intervals as the Roadmaster may direct in writing.
This examination must be made by the Foreman,
personally,   where there  is  any liability  of  danger 16
to the tracks either from freshet or other cause;
when no such danger is liable he will send an experienced trackwalker to examine the part of the
section which the Foreman has not examined.
33. Trackwalkers must carry a spike maul, spikes
and wrench or such tools as are most liable to be required, together with the signals to stop trains; they
must examine the track, roadbed, frogs, switches,
road-crossings, farm crossings, bridges, trestles, culverts, cattle-guards, fences and overhead wires, and
report promptly to Foreman any defect or obstruction which they cannot fully repair or remove,
after (protecting the point, if obstructed, by the
prescribed signals.
34. They must drive live stock off the right-of-way
(where fenced), and close gates at farm crossings
that may «te left open, and report or repair defective
gates or gate fastenings. Gates frequently left open
should be reported to the Roadmaster.
35. Section Foremen must personally inspect the
whole of their sections at least twice a week, or
oftener if so instructed by the Roadmaster, and
shall observe particularly the conditicwi of the main
track, switches and frogs, and make necessary repairs.
36. Section Foremen must examine particularly the
tops of piers and abutments, stringers and girders,
remove all chips and dirt, and keep water barrels
filled. Special care must be exercised to prevent fires
from extending to fences and adjoining property.
37. Trackwalkers must report, and Section Foremen must replace, all main track rails which shew
breaks, cracks, splits and flaws, or other serious
Ban 17
38. The track must never in any way whatever
be obstructed without first being protected by the
proper signals, as extra trains may pass over the
road at any time. Any work that would interfere
with the safe passage of trains at full speed is an
obstruction. The track may be obstructed for making repairs to within fifteen minutes of the time
of passenger trains, and ten minutes of the time of
freight trains, but never without the protection of
the proper signals.
39. Where the main track is to be obstructed for
repairs or renewals, or by loaded push cars or otherwise, or an obstruction of the track is discovered,
first send a flagman in each direction, a sufficient
distance from the obstruction to insure full protection, at least:—
In daytime, if there is no
down grade towards the obstruction within one mile,
and there is a clear view of
2,000 yards (40 telegraph
poles) from an approaching
^    train.
500 Yards,
(10 Telegraph poles)
1200 Yards,
(24 Telegraph poles)
At other times and places, if
there is no down grade towards the obstruction within one mile.
1800 Yards-, (
(36 Telegraph poles) i
If there is a down grade towards the obstruction with
in one mile. 18
40. The flagman must, after going back a sufficient
distance from the obstruction to insure full protection, take a position where there will be an unobstructed view of him from an approaching train of,
if possible, 500 yards (10 telegraph poles), first
placing two torpedoes (two rail lengths apart)) on
the rail on the same side as the engineer of an
approaching train, 100 yards (2 telegraph poles)
beyond such position. The flagman must remain in
such position until recalled or relieved.
41. Flagmen must always on the approach of a
train display stop signal, and, if not already done,
place two torpedoes on the rail, as before described,
and then return 100 yards (2 telegraph poles) nearer
the protected point.
42. Flagmen and those acting as flagmen must
each be equipped for day time with a red flag and
four torpedoes, and for night time and when weather and other conditions obscure day signals, with
a red light, four torpedoes, three red fusees, and a
supply of matches.
43. If impossible to thus protect the defective
point in both directions, and perform the required
work, a red flag by day and, in addition, a
red light by night or when weather or other
conditions obscure day signals, must, in the absence
of a flagman, be first fixed, clear of passing trains,
on the same side of the track as the engineer of
an approaching train, and where it will be clearly
in his view, 1200 yards (24 telegraph poles), if no
down grade, and, if there is a down grade within one
mile,   1800   yards   (36   telegraph   poles)   from  the 19
defective point, oi as much further as may be necessary to insure full protection, with two torpedoes
placed on the rails opposite each other so as to
make one explosion, 100 yards beyond the red flag.
When this has been done, the flagman may return
to assist in the work.
44. When the main track is unsafe for trains to
pass over at their usual speed, the defective point
Ipiust be protected as prescribed by Rule^Ji, except that yellow instead of red flags and lights
must be used, and that the two torpedoes must be
placed, two rail lengths apart, on the rails on the
same side as the engineer of an approaching train.
100 yards beyond the yellow signal.
45. The explosion of torpedoes that have been
placed upon the rail by flagmen, by hand, push, or
motor cars and velocipedes, is dangerous and is prohibited.
46. Foremen and others must replace torpedoes
which are exploded, or removed from the rails when
passing their hand, push, motor cars, or velocipedes
over the track where torpedoes are placed.
47. Red, green or yellow clothing may be mistaken
for signals', and should not be worn by maintenance
of way employees.
48. Any defect in roadway or structures over which
trains should run at reduced speed, which will not
be repaired that day, besides being protected by proper signals, must be reported by wire to Roadmaster
or Bridge and Building Master, giving location and
character of defect A duplicate of this report must
be sent to the Train Dispatcher who will issue slow 20
orders for trains passing defective point. Roadmasters and Bridge and Building Masters must give
defect so reported immediate personal attention,
so that slow orders may be cancelled as soon as
49. The Roadbed is the foundation of the track,
and upon its strength and permanence, depends the
stability of the track.
50. To secure this strength the roadbed at sub-
grade must be of full standard width, which for
minor branch lines is not less than fourteen feet, and
on main lines and important branches is not less
than sixteen feet; for double track it should be thirty
feet in width. To secure uniformity, Section Foremen must use standard roadbed and ballast templates, unless otherwise directed.
51. To be permanent the slopes of embankments
and cuttings, except in rock, should be flat enough
to readily admit of the growth of vegetation, which
Section Formen should encourage, in order that the
(slopes may be permanently protected agaimst the
action of the elements.
52. Material used for roadbed repairs, trestle filling
and other improvements, should, when possible, be
taken from points where the removal of the same
will benefit the roadbed by widening cuts, ditching,
grade reduction or alignment improvement.
53. The roadbed at sub-grade, as shown on the
©tandard plans, should be crowned to facilitate its
drainage by raising the centre four  inches higher 21
than the sides.   This rule must be followed when
preparing track for re-ballasting.
54. Narrow banks on curves should be widened to
the standard width from track centres as established
by the Engineer.
55. On sections where the roadbed, ballast section
line, gauge and drainage are up to the standard, a
grass line must be constructed on the slopes of the
embankments, at their intersection with the surface
of the roadbed, the top of which must be flush with
the surface of the roadbed, so as not to interfere with
the drainage of the surface of the ballast or the roadbed. The edge must be parallel with, and a uniform
distance below the rail and be clearly cut.
56. The worst enemy of the roadbed is water, and
the further it can be kept away, or the sooner it
can be diverted from the roadbed, the better the
track will be protected.
57. Ditches in cuts must be dug uniformly and
parallel to the track, in accordance with the standard
roadbed cross isection. They should be graded and
enlarged so as to pass all water freely during
[heaviest storms, and be deep enough to thoroughly
drain the ballast and the surface of the roadbed.
All new ditches must be dug, and all old ditches
cleaned before the advent of winter.
58. Surface water should be intercepted by surface
ditches on the upper (side of cuts when necessary
or practicable. 2&
59. When efficient side ditches in wet cuts cannot
be maintained on account of the character of the
material or lack of space, the ditches should be under-
drained by means of stone or tile drains and the
trench filled with gravel or cinders. They must be
laid at such points and in such manner as directed
by the Engineer.
60. Material taken from ditches or elsewhere must
be deposited on the slopes of embankments below
the ballast and not be put on the tops or slopes of
61. Box cross drains should be put in wherever
necessary, they must be placed deep enough and
upon such grade as will thoroughly drain the ditch
from which they lead. They must not be placed
where slopes of embankments or sidehills will be
washed away unless properly protected.
62. Ballast is used to give perfect drainage, to
prevent upheaval by frost, to distribute the bearing
of the ties, and insure a uniform support thereto.
63. In the selection of ballast, the volume and
character of traffic, the climatic conditions, and the
nature of the material in the sub-grade should be
64. Broken stone ballast should be uniform in
size and composed of rock that will not easily disintegrate.
65. Gravel ballast will be used ordinarily. It
should be clean, not too coarse, and of uniform size
and character.   It should  be   free   from   fine  sand. 23
loam and clay, which will make dusty track, cause
weeds to grow and will interfere with drainage.
It should not contain large stones for they will cause
rough riding track.
66. The practice of mixing new ballast with old
unsuitable material which was between and around
*he ends of ties is prohibited.
67. Preparatory to ballasting track, centres and
grade line should be given by the Engineer. All
unsuitable material above the bottom of the ties
must be removed and used to widen narrow embankments, according to the standard roadbed section.
Track should be thrown to line, then ballast may
be delivered in the middle or on the side of the track.
68. Avoid wasting ballast down the sides of embankments. Material for raising and ballasting must
not be taken from the slopes of the embankment
to the reduction of the same below standard.
69. Where there is heaving, pr wet spots, the wet
material must be taken out to such a depth and in
such a manner as to insure drainage, and the space
be filled with cinders, gravel or other good material.
70. The depth of ballast under .the ties, for main
lines and important branches, must be not less than
eight inches, and for minor branch lines it should be
not less than six inches.
The   Standard   Broken   Stone   Ballast   Section
should be used only for clean broken stone or slag.
72. The   Standard   Coarse   Gravel   Ballast   Section
should be used  only  for clean coarse gravel, and
engine cinders. 24
73. The Standard Earth Ballast Section should be
used for all material that will not drain freely.
74. The Roadmaster will insure that the proper
standard ballast section is used for the different
classes of ballast.
75. When ballasting is completed, the ballast
must be trimmed to standard, the track must be
in perfect gauge and surface, and lined according to
the stakes furnished by the Engineer.
76. Cross ties will be furnished as follows:
No. 1 Ties are exactly 8 ft. long, ends sawed square,
7 in. thick and have 7 to 12 in. face, those sawed
on four sides have 9 in. face.
No. 2 Ties are exactly 8 ft. long, ends sawed square,
6 in. thick and have 6 to 8 in. face.
Cull Ties include all ties not conforming to the
above specifications. Cull Ties generally will be used
in sidings and spurs if sound and otherwise fit for
77. Bark must be removed from all ties except
Jack pine and tamarac before they are placed in
78. Ties must not be used unless they have been
inspected and marked or stamped C. P. R. on the
tie end.
79. Ties of uniform size and full standard should
be used for joint ties. 80. Joint ties must be spaced as shewn on standard
plans; the remaining ties must be spaced uniformly
between the joint ties.
81. All ties must be laid and kept at right angles
to the track.
82. The spacing of ties will vary according to the
size of the ties, the alignment and the amount of
traffic. The average number per 33 ft. rail length will
be from 15 to 18 and the space between them must
not be less than 10 in. or greater than 15 in., for main
tracks. The average number per 30 ft. rail length
will be 16. In sidings, ties will be spaced from 15 in.
to 20 in. apart.
83. The ends of cross ties in single tracks must
be lined true on the south or east side of the track.
The distance from the lined end of an eight
foot tie to the outer edge of the base of standard
80 lb. rail is 16 inches. A gauge notch should be
cut in the spike maul handles for measuring this
distance. On double track, line the ties on the outside of each track.
84. Cross ties should never be notched, but if
necessary must be adzed, in order to obtain a true
uniform bearing for the tie plate or the base of the
85. Every Foreman must keep a supply of wooden
tie plugs, which will be provided on requisition, in
his hand-car house and with his gang. The invariable rule must be to plug every hole wherever a
spike is drawn, except where the tie is to be renewed
that season, and, when possible respike into the
plug and not weaken tie by making a new hole. 26
86. In moving new ties with a pick, the point
should be struck into the side of the tie and not into
the face.
87. When new rails are laid and the joints thereby changed, the ties must be spaced to suit the new
88. In order to maintain the standard gauge at
least three lines of spikes must be drawn if old steel
is being replaced by steel of wider section. " Rail
Cut" ties must be adzed to uniform bearing, and old
spike holes plugged.
89. During the autumn of each year the Roadmaster must walk over each section on his division,
accompanied by the respective Section Foremen, and
they must count and mark the ties which in their
judgment should be renewed during the next season,
and make requisition for new ties accordingly.
There is probably no item in track work where
Roadmasters and Foremen can waste or save so
much money as in selecting ties which are to be
renewed. Care must be taken not to destroy good
ties when testing with a pick. Renewals should not
exceed six ties per rail length in one season. Foremen must not renew ties which in their judgment
will safely last another year.
90. The work of renewing ties should be started
as early in the spring as the frost will admit, and,
as the renewals progress, correct the gauge, surface,
line and ballast section.
91. Roadmasters must personally inspect all ties
removed from the track before they are disposed
of, to see that none have been removed which might 27
have remained in the track with safety another year.
92. The excessive rail cutting of serviceable ties in
the track is often the result of the adjoining renewed
ties not furnishing their proportion of rail support,
on account of being improperly tamped, which compels the older solid bedded ties to do double work,
and results also in rough riding track. Sound rail
cut ties shall be removed from main track if cut iy2
in. under the rail, when they should be turned and
used in sidings. When renewing ties, the old tie-bed
and adjacent ties should be disturbed as little as possible. Preferably the material should be removed
from about the old tie, the track jacked up sufficient-
,ly to permit its removal, without allowing material
to run in under the adjacent ties, and the new tie
then slipped in and bedded, after trimming up the
old tie-bed for its reception}, if necessary. In any
case the new tie must be solidly tamped and the
track left in perfect line and surface.
93. The tamping and ballast trimming for all
ties renewed should be completed each day.
94. New ties carried in stock, or those delivered
along the track for use in the following season, must
be neatly piled for seasoning as near the point where
they are to be used as possible, according to the standard method best suited to the quantity and local
(a) Piles of ties should be located at least 12 feet
from the nearest main track rail, on the most suitable piling ground, with a clear distance of 50 feet 28
or more between piles, so located as not to obstruct
the view or cause snow to drift on the track, and
when piled in yards they must not be less than 6
feet from the nearest siding rail.
(&) Whenever possible ground supports of sound
stuff must be used, giving not less than 6 inches clear
space under the bottom of the piles, and in any case
there must not be more than 2 ties in contact with
the ground.
(c) All ties requiring peeling before use in the
track, should, when time permits be peeled before
being piled.
(d) Square piles of ties should have one side parallel with the track. Triangular piles should have
one angle pointed toward the track and the back of
tii- pile parallel thereto, and where possible a uniform distance therefrom.
(e) The roof layers of square piles should be laid
as dose as possible; in all other layers there should
be one inch of space between ties; to accomplish
this, for large ties, seven only need be used per layer.
(f) Old ties which are removed from track must be
piled at the end of each day not more than sixty to
the pile, on opposite side of track from telegraph
line, at least twelve feet from track, for burning and
be burned when dry after being so ordered during
the first suitable weather, unless some other disposition is arranged for by the Roadmaster.
95. Section Foremen must keep a record of tie
renewals in the manner prescribed and report the
same on forms provided for that purpose.
9€. Sawn switch ties must be used for all permanent switch turnouts, cross-overs and railway
crossings placed as shown on the plans.
97. They should be of the best local wood, ends
sawed square, and shall vary in length in three inch
steps as shown on the standard plans and specifications. They must be seven inches thick and nine
inches in width.
98. They must be placed, spaced and lined in
exact conformance with the standard plans.
99. Bills of switch ties, for 15 ft. split switches
should be taken from the following table.
Bills of ties for cross-overs will be supplied by the
Engineer. 30
No. OF
to  f—1
S3 S2
ci-i fe
Ft.      In.
No.    No.
Ft. In
8       0
8   0
8       3
8   3
8       6
8   6
8       9
8   9
•9       0
9   0
9       3
9   3
9       6
9   6
9       9
9   9
10       0
10   0
10       3
10   3
10       6
10   6
10       9
10   9
11       0
11   0
11       3
11   3
11       6
11   6
11       9
11   9
12       0
12   0
12       3
12   3
12       6
12   6
12       9
12   9
13       0
13   0
13       3
13   3
13       6
13   6
13       9
13   9
14       0
14   0
14       3
14   3
14       6
14   6
14      9
14   9
15       0
15   0
15       3
15   3
15       6
15   6
15       9
15   9
16 Head-
16   0
Lineal feet
Feet B. M.
For MacPherson Switches add 4 pieces plank
3" x 8" x 10'0" lone.
asm 31
100. Satisfactory surface cannot be maintained with
any kind of ballast except by properly tamping the
material under the ties with shovels and tamping
101. Ties must not be equally tamped throughout
their whole length. A sixteen-inch space on each
side of the rail must be thoroughly tamped, the
centre of the ties must be tamped lightly in order
to prevent the ties from becoming centre-bound.
Tamp joint and shoulder ties particularly hard.
102. When ties are being renewed they must be
tamped at once to give as solid a bearing as that
of the ties immediately adjoining to preserve the
surface of the rail.
103. When track is being re-ballasted, the ballast
must be put under the ties and well tamped with
shovel blade, and before ballast is trimmed it must
be thoroughly tamped with tamping bars.
104. When re-surfacing or ballasting track through
tunnels and snow-sheds or under over-head bridges
or alongside of water-tanks, freight or passenger
platforms and coal chutes, the general surface of
the track must not be raised except by special instructions from the Engineer.
105. Rail braces shall be used on shimmed track,,
guard rails and switches, as shewn on the standard
plans, and on curves where they are already supplie%d.
106. Where old rail-braces are used they must be
placed in pairs, one on each end of the same tie;. 32
on 4 deg. curve use four pairs for 30 ft. rail length,
increasing one pair per rail length for each additional degree of curvature until eighteen pairs are
used per rail length on eighteen degree curves.
107. They should extend from the point on the
tangent where elevation of the outer rail begins, to
the same point at the other end of the curve, but
their frequency along the easement curve or tangent
should diminish in the same ratio as the elevation of
the outer rail decreases.
108. The standard forms of tie plates will be used
to prevent spreading of track, canting of rails and
the cutting of ties by the rails. Tie plates except
under joints must be placed in pairs, one on each
end of the same tie.
109. All ties on curves, and all cedar ties on tangents for all main track laid with 80 lb. rails shall
be so equipped.
110. The end with the widest margin must be
placed on the outside of the rail.
111. On tangents only two spikes should be used in
each plate; on curves use three or four as required.
In general on curves less than 6 deg. three spikes
should be used, and on sharper curves use four
112. In laying these plates before ties are placed
in the track the line side of the tie is marked, and
the plate put on, the otner plate being then put in
its proper position by gauging it from the line plate.
The plates may be forced into the tie with sledge 33
hammer and block, or by an hydraulic press. If put
on after rails are laid, the tie should be carefully
adzed the full length of the plate, the spike holes
plugged, the rail lifted, the plate slipped in and be
settled into the tie with a short section of rail provided with cross bar handles.
113. At the time that the rail is laid the two centre
bolts should be placed in each joint, and tightened
sufficiently to hold rail in line and preserve the
expansion before the joint is spiked. The remaining
bolts should then be placed and tightened as soon as
possible. All joints must be full bolted and rails
drilled when necessary.
114. Nuts should be tightened a second or a third
time within thirty days after the track is laid.
115. Inspect the rails before bolts are tightened,
and take out kinks or bends with the rail bender.
116. When rails of different weights or sections
join each other it must be done with compromise
splice bars, made to fit the different rail sections and
bolt holes.
117. Spikes must be driven in the slots, inside and
outside of rails and angle bars, as follows: on tangents use two spikes per tie, on curves or creeping
track use 3 or 4 spikes as required, except on bridges
or trestles where spiking in slots or against the end
of angle bars, or in any way anchoring the rails to
the bridge ties is prohibited.
118. Place the nuts of all track bolts on the outside of the rails'. ikM 34
119. Track must be laid with broken joints on main
lines and important branch lines; on minor branch
lines it shall be laid as directed.
120. When track is laid with broken joints, they
must not vary more than eighteen inches from the
middle of the opposite rail.
121. Short rails may be used in inside line of rails
in curves of large central angle, in order to maintain position of joints near centre of outer rail. The
difference in length of outer and inner rails in feet
for all curves is ascertained by dividing the central
angle of the curve in degrees by twelve.
122. Track must be fully spiked, using the system
commonly known as " Cross-spiking," with inside
and outside spikes driven on opposite sides of the
centre of the tie.
123. Spikes must be set one-half of their own
width from edge of rail and driven vertically to a
full bearing on base of rail and they must be kept
in this position. Driving sloping spikes, or giving
them a final lateral blow to close the spikes against
the rail, is forbidden.
124. The inside and outside spikes should be set as
far apart as the face and character of the tie will
admit. Spikes must not be driven in old holes unless they have been plugged.
125. The track gauge must always be used when
doing any track spiking.
126. Boat spikes 8 in. x % in. should be used for
spiking frog.and switch blocking to the ties. 35
127. Long track spikes for shimming work will be
furnished on requisition, they will be 7, 8 and 9
inches in length. Spikes having a 90 degree twist
must be used at all places where the rail is spiked
direct to a stringer.
128. Spikes on the outside of main track curves
■ must be removed as soon as they are neck-worn one-
eight of an inch.
129. Curve easements are transitions from tangent
to curve, or from lighter curve to sharper curve, by
the introduction of equal chords of regularly increasing degree of curvature.
130. The object of easing curves at their extremities is to turn the trucks gradually, and thus avoid
shock to car and rail, to secure a regularly increasing
elevation of the outer rail, and a regularly increasing
extra width of gauge, which shall be consistent with
the increasing degree of curvature. The length of
easement curves will vary according to the amount
of elevation of the outer rails. Lining this part of
the track by eye introduces a fiat piece of curve and
a corresponding sharp piece of curve, with which the
changing elevation of the outer rail seldom accords.
In consequence, the introduction of these easements
can only successfully be made by following the stakes
set by the Engineer.
131. The Engineer will set centre stakes for all
curves and easements. Track in which the rail is
to be renewed shall be centered, and thrown to line
ahead of the track layers. The Engineer will give
location and information concerning the elevation
posts. 36
132. The elevation of outer rail on curves must be
adapted to the speed of all classes of trains which
pass over them with due regard for comfort, safety
and economy in track maintenance.
133. The elevation on single track must not exceed
6 -nches.
Elevation Table.
Rate of Speed in Miles Per Hour.
134. If after having -elevated the outer rail according to table, the relative wear of rails indicates too
much or too little elevation, the necessary adjustment in elevation, or speed of trains, shall be
promptly made. 37
135. Uniformity of elevation is far more important
than the exact amount of elevation.
136. The grade line must be maintained along the
inner rail and the elevation obtained by raising the
outer rail.
137. The full elevation of outer rail must not be
continued* beyond the end of the central curve, but
should decrease uniformly, generally one half inch
in thirty feet, along the easement curve to the tangent point, where both rails should be level. The
Engineer will supply the stakes and notes for elevation of outer rail for all curves to whose ends
easement curves  have  been applied.
138. For curves not having ends eased as above
described the full elevation should be extended to the
end of the curve from where it should run out gradually on the tangent to a level with the inner rail,
by reducing the elevation of the outer rail one-half
inch to each 30 ft. rail length; except in cases where
tangents are too short to permit.
In such cases distribute the run off between the
respective curves to the best advantage and in proportion to the elevations given to the outer rail of
the respective curves.
139. For compound curves full elevation should extend all the way round the sharper curve to the
point of compound, and from there it should be run
down gradually on the lesser curve, same as In the
case of tangents, until the elevation of the lesser
degree of curve is reached, unless they be connected by an easement curve, when the elevation should
decrease the same as for easement curves, according to the Engineer's instructions. 38
140. Track levels must be tested by the Roadmaster at the beginning of the working season, and
the date of the inspection recorded. All sluggish
bubble tubes must be replaced.
141. On all tangents the tops of the rails must be
level with each other, except the approaches to
curves which are not eased.
142. The track level must be used when surfacing
either curves or tangents.
143. The track-jack must not be used between the
rails, unless protected as per rule 38.
144. To ascertain the proper elevation for the outer
rail on curves, whose degree is unknown or on curve
easements for which the Engineer has not provided
information, use the middle ordinate of the following chord lengths for the various speeds, which is
approximately the proper elevation for the outer rail.
Speed 20 Miles per
Hour,   Chord Length, 32 ft.
40 ft.
48 ft.
56 ft.
64 ft.
72 ft.
80 ft.
145. Perfect gauge is one of the principal features
of good track, gauge kinks on tangents are as detrimental as low joints.
146. Gauge of track must be exact and uniform
as prescribed. 39
147. The standard gauge is 4 ft. 8*£ inches. Extra
width of gauge on account of curvature must be given
as follows:—
On curves of 3 and 4 degree  ^_ inches
"   5 and 6 degree  y_     "
"   7, 8 and 9 degree  %
"   10, 11 and 12 degree..   .. yz
"   13, 14 and 15 degree.... %     "
"   16 to 20 degree  %     "
148. The extra width of gauge should be given by
the inside rail, and be uniformly decreased on the
easement curve, from point of central curve to point
of tangent; i.e., line the outside rail.
149. For curves not having ends eased as above,
the full extra width of gauge should extend to the
end of the curve and the extra width be gradually
decreased on tangent to tangent gauge on the low
or inner rail in a distance of sixty feet.
150. Track gauges must be inspected once every
six months by the Roadmaster and date of inspection
1st. They must be exactly 4' 8%", between  gauge
2nd. The tee end must be square with the centre
line of the gauge.
3rd. The  heads   or ends  must be firmly fastened
to the rod, and the rod must be straight. 40
151. The standard length of new rail is 33 ft.
Short tnew rails have ends painted green, seconds
or defective new rails have ends painted white;
seconds must not be laid in fast running main track.
152. Rail is the most expensive portion of the
track, defects in which are usually permanent and
apparent. They must be handled carefully before
being put in the track, and must be uniformly supported after being placed there.
153. The rails may be distributed either from the
ends or sides of car. If distributed from sides, both
ends of rail must be dropped simultaneously. Skids
will ■ invariably be used whenever necessary to unload them into piles. In all cases the greatest care
must be used to avoid injury to rails by dropping
them on hard substances or uneven surfaces.
154. When necessary to make holes in rails for
bolts they must be drilled with the proper tools furnished for that purpose.
155. Short rails are advisable only as a temporary
expedient on tangents and on inside rail of curves,
they must not be used on the outside of curves and
no piece shorter than ten feet should be used in
main track.
156. When new steel is being laid all kinks must
be taken out with the rail bender, and the track
must be perfectly gauged. The spacing and renewal
of ties and surfacing and lining of the track should
follow as closely as possible. 41
157. The rails must be laid consecutively to line
and gauge, throwing out the rails from the old track
ahead as the new rails are laid. Split points will
be used for closing track for passage of trains. Accurate expansion cannot be secured if long stretches
of rail are fastened upon one side of the track and
subsequently thrown into line.
158. Track centres will be furnished by the Engineer every 200 ft. on tangents and every 50 ft. or less
on curves. The track must be laid to conform exactly to the line so established.
159. Roadmasters and Section Foremen must watch
the flange wear of the outer rail on sharp curves, on
account of the weakening of the rail and the extra
width of gauge which this wearing will cause, and
change worn rails to the inside of the curve, or remove them from the main track entirely if they
have been previously changed under the following
First—When the joint bars are being cut or struck
by the wheel flanges.
Second—When the rail is weakened by the side of
the head being worn as much as one-eighth
of its original width.
Third—When the side of the rail head is worn to
the slope of the wheel flange and fillet,
over which wheels are liable to climb.
160. The position of the brand on the rail is immaterial, whether right or left, inside or outside, but
its position must be uniform in the same line of
rails. When new rails are being laid different brands
must not be mixed. 42
161. Rails having pieces of head or base broken out
or those having cracks, splits, pipes and flaws must
be removed from the main track as soon as discovered, as such rails are liable to break. The discovery
and removal of such rails is a most important feature
of track inspection and maintenance. Track walkers,
section foremen and roadmasters must be constantly
vigilant in this respect.
Ij62. All rails for curves of over 2 deg. must be
separately curved, by a rail bender, before being
placed in the track. The sledging or dropping of
rails on ties to curve them is forbidden.
163. Particular care must be given to insure uniform curvature of the rails throughout their length,
in accordance with the following table:—
Length of Rails 30 ft. 33 ft.
For   2 degree curve..   .
M     3
tt 43
Length of Rails.
30 ft.
33 ft.
3% in
3%  |
4%  "
4%   |
4%   |
5y8 "
5y2 |
5%  |
Note. Ordinate at quarters equals three-quarters-
of middle ordinates.
164. To obtain the degree of a curve, when not
given by the Engineer, stretch a 62 ft. cord on the
inside of the outer rail at any curve. The middle
ordinate, in inches, is the degree of curve.
165. Proper allowance must be made for expansion. The expansion space will be determined by
ascertaining the average temperature of the rail by
means of a C.P.R. track thermometer at the time it
is being laid. When the average thermometer reading on 30 ft. or 33 ft. rails is:—
90            Degrees Fai
ir. give
0          ]
70 to 90
50 to 70
30 to 53
8/    _
10 to 30
—10 to 10     1
0 /  //
7 16 44
166. Rails must not be bumped together when being
lbo. Proper expansion must be secured by using
iron shims, according to the above specifications,
except where track is laid on a steep grade, when
sawed wooden shims of proper thickness will be
provided. Wooden expansion shims must be left in
place until track is full spiked, bolted and anchored,
then be removed.
168. In order to prevent rails from creeping on
steep grades and soft embankments, it is essential that each individual rail shall be anchored so
as to insure freedom from contact with the rails
adjoining. Creeping cannot be prevented if a number of consecutive rails are in contact. Unless some
special form of anchorage is provided, an extra pair
of angle bars, fastened to the centre of each
rail by two bolts and carefully slot-spiked, will be
used. If this is not effective put tight-fitting blocks
under the rails between as many adjoining ties as
may be necessary.
169. Switcnes must be put in track in accordance
with the standard plans the point of frog must always be located where directed by the Engineer.
170. When switches are required for yards, use
main track stub switches, and replace them by
standard split or MacPherson switches. If no main
track stub switches are available for yards, use split
171. Split switches will be supplied only in 100
lb., 80 lb. and 56 lb. rail. 45
jl<*. The main track through switches should,
wherever practicable, be tangent.
WM Three-throw switches must not be used in
main tracks nor in yards, except in places where
single or tandem split switches cannot be used.
174. MacPherson's Patent Safety Switch and Frog
is the standard continuous rail switch and frog.
They must be placed in exact conformance to the
standard plan. They should only be used on main
line tangents or curves of less than 3 deg, as recommended by the Gen'l. Supt. and approved of by the
Engineer Maintenance of Way.
175. Split switches and spring .frogs will be
used for all other main line turnouts, except that
rigid frogs will be placed at the entrance to Terminal Yards, Junctions, etc. Special frogs and
switches will be used at Junctions where trains do
not stop.
176. When temporary sidings are put in, the main
line rails must not be cut, but short closure rails
must be provided to fill the space between the frog
and adjoining rail.
177. At all stub switches bridle rods must be confined between two ties, placed six inches apart to
keep the rods in place, and to protect them against
derailed wheels.
178. Lead rails in all turnouts must be curved
separately with the rail bender before being laid.
The narrow spaces between rails at frogs, guard
rails and switches, in which the feet of switchmen
are liable to be caught, must be filled with standard 46
wooden blocks unless iron blocking is provided.
Section Foremen must see that these blocks are kept
in good order.
179. where rail of a heavier pattern is used in
the main track than in side track, the main line
pattern must extend at least as far up the side
track as the switch ties extend, so that compromise
angle bars, connecting rails of different sections,
will not be placed on switch ties.
180. The most careful attention must be given to
the switches by the Foremen and Roadmaster. All
switches must work easily and have no lost motion,
they must not rattle when trains pass over them and
must be kept lined up, and in perfect gauge, surface and adjustment at all times. Foremen must
notify Roadmasters at once when new switches are
ready for use or when old switches are taken out,
when switches are spiked for any cause, and also
when switches that have been spiked are reopened.
181. When an automatic split switch has been run
through, it must be considered defective until re-adjusted.
182. The clutch teeth and the moving parts of
Ramapo Split Switch Stands must be frequently
oiled; the former by raising stand lever to disengage outer sleeve U. 984%, which exposes the four
oil holes of the safety cap U 985. To insure a uniform lubrication, throw switch several times, and
at the same time test for lost motion by putting a
piece of iron one-quarter inch thick between the
point of the point rail and the head of its adjacent
stock rail. 47
183. If with the point thus blocked, the stand
can be thrown and locked (provided the track is to
the specified gauge, with crank connecting and No. 1
rods in adjustment), a new spring shall be put in
the stand, and another test made. If this does not
remedy the defect, the stand shall be sent to shops
for repairs. Paint on stand the word " defective"
and the location from which it was removed, so that
stores can return it to the same section.
184. The use of Salt at Switches and Frogs at
seasons of uniformly low temperature is prohibited:
it must only be used when snow melts during day
and freezes at night.
185. Standard derailing switch, stop-block or
safety switch, provided with switch locks, must be
placed at the clearance point of all sidings whose
grade is such that standing cars by gravity or force
of the wind are liable to obstruct the main track.
186. Tne lead of a split switch is the distance from
the switch point to the frog point, measured along
the straight track.
Split Switch Leads on Tangents.
15 ft. Points, will be approximately:—
No. of Frog 4      5       6      7       8      9       10     11
Length of Lead.. . .42ft, 49ft, 55ft, 61ft, 67ft, 72ft, 77ft, 80ft
Note: When putting in No. 9 frog with 33 ft.
rails the length of lead may be reduced so that one
cut of a rail will give the two short rails for the
leads, for a No. 10 frog the lead may be lengthened
so that full 30 ft. rail, may be used; for a No. 8 frog
the lead may be reduced so that one cut of a 30 ft.
rail will give the two short rails. 48
187. The lead of a stub switch is the distance from
the centre of the switch chair to the point of frog,
measured along the straight track.
Stub Switch Leads on Tangent.
(5 inch throw.)
No. of Frog      4       5        6       7        8       9       10       11
Length of Lead.   25ft. 31ft. 37ft. 44ft. 51ft. 56ft. 60ft. 65ft.
Movable Length
of Throw Rail 10ft. 13ft. 16ft. 18ft. 21ft. 20ft. 20ft. 20ft.
Note:—For switch leads on curves get data from
188. To obtain the number of a frog divide the
distance in inches from heel to true point by the
width or spread of the heel over gauge line in inches.
189. The distance between frog-points in cross-overs
measured along one of the parallel tracks can be
obtained from the following table:—
Distance between Centres op Track.
190. The standard distance between parallel track
centres is 14 ft. Under special conditions they may
be laid closer, but not less than 12 ft. centre to
centre. 49
191. Signal lamps and their attendants are in
: charge of the Bridge and Building Masters.
(a) Switch lamps and their attendants are in
charge of Roadmasters.
(o) All lamps in service must be kept in first class
condition. Defective or leaky lamps shall be sent
to the Storekeeper for repairs, and, defective workmanship or material in lamps shall be reported on
defective material reports by the Bridge and Building Master or Roadmaster.
(c) All lamps must stand firm and plumb in their
(d) All lenses shall have corrugations on the inside. Lamps having chipped red lenses must be replaced at once.
(e) Semaphore spectacle glasses shall be inspected
and cleaned, if necessary, each time lamps are removed for filling and cleaning. Broken spectacles
or lenses wmch give the wrong color must be reported by wire to the despatcher unless they can
be remedied at once.
192. In cleaning lamps remove all dirt from
burners and lenses, particularly that in the corrugations, remove all soot from top or bottom of lamp,
clean all holes for ventilation or air supply, and remove all crust with the fingers from the top of the
(a) Empty and clean with fresh oil, if necessary,
all lamp fonts once a month in summer and twice a
month in winter. Dirty oil must not be used in
lamps. 50
(&) Standard kerosene oil, as supplied by the Company, shall be used for all switch and signal lamps.
Signal oil is to be used in lanterns only.
193. Lamps must not be filled more than to one
.half inch below the top of the font.   All wicks mu3t
be long enough to reach the bottom of the font, and
Ubey must fit burners snugly, but work freely.
(a) All lamps except long-time burners must be
•cleaned and filled daily.   Wicks must be turned down
below the top of the wick tube when not burning.
194. Long-time burner lamps require cleaning,
JQilling and relighting twice a week. They will
usually be attended by the section men on Saturdays
And Wednesdays.
(a) Wicks in long-time burners must be changed
once every 60 days or oftener if they become dirty,
"hard, or if a large amount of crust accumulates.
(&) Long-time burners may be used in all switch
or signal lamps.
(c) New wicks in long-time burners are to be
trimmed evenly with scissors or a sharp knife.
195. After lighting any switch or signal lamp and
putting it in the body and closing the door, it should
be looked at in five or ten minutes to see that it does
not smoke, at which time the flame should be about
% in. above the top of the burner, and at the same
"height as the centre of the lens.
196. Guard rails are used to prevent derailment at
frogs, switches and on sharp curves, and to prevent
derailed cars from wrecking bridges or from leaving
the ties at derailing switches.   " Hold up " rails to
HBBfl 51
prevent blind driving  wheels from  dropping must
be placed on all curves of 16 degrees or over.
197. Curve guard rails should usually be given 2%
inches space, with ends curved away from the track
rail increasing the space to six inches in six feet.
They must be full spiked, and bolted through cast-
iron filling blocks placed from 3 ft. to 6 ft. apart
according to the degree of curve, and have rail braces
on alternate ties. Other guard rails will be laid in
conformance with the standard plans.
198. Frog guard rails will be supplied on requisition, they must be laid parallel to, and 1% inches
distance from the main track rail, except the ends
which must be curved inwards, and be spiked, braced
and bolted to the track rail through cast-iron filling
blocks, as shown on the standard plans.
199. When it is necessary to put frogs on the outside of main line curves, which require extra width
of gauge, it is necessary to increase the distance
between the guard rail and the adjoining main track
rail as much as the extra gauge, that is, if the gauge
is 4 ft. 9 in., the guard rail clearance should be increased to 2^4 inches. When frogs are placed on the
inside of main line curves, the gauge of the main
track must be 4 ft. Sy2 in., exactly through the lead.
Mile Posts ob Boards.
200. Standard Mile Posts or Boards must be placed
at each mile along main lines and branches, posts, 7
ft. from rail exactly where directed by the Engineer,
black letters, balance white. Where boards are
used the telegraph pole must be painted white or
whitewashed from the board to the ground. 52
Station Mile Board.
Standard station Mile Boards, white with black
letters must be placed on Engineers side one mile
from station, 10 ft from rail.
Rail Rack Posts.
201. Standard Rail Rack Posts white, two posts,
18 ft. apart, 7 ft. from rail, must be placed where
most convenient in the vicinity of each mile post.
To be made of old stringers, but on divisions
where old stringers are not available, use 12
in. ties for two rails only. At least one serviceable
full length rail must be kept on each set of these
posts. They must be set so that the rails upon them
are level and parallel with the track, the top to be
2 ft. 8 in. above the surface of the ground.
Whistle Posts.
202. A Standard Whistle Post, white with black
letter, shall be placed each side of, and at a distance
of at least y_ mile from all public highway crossings
at grade, blind curves, and tunnels, 7 ft. from rail,
iind on the Engineer's side when approaching.
Highway-Crossing Signs.
203. Standard Highway-Crossing Signs, white with
black letters, must be placed at all public highway
grade crossings, set facing the highway approach, at
least 15 feet from the track in such place where they
will not interfere with the highway traffic In case of
more than two tracks a sign must be placed on each
side of the tracks, in other cases a single sign only
must be used, set so as to be plainly seen irom the
highway approaches in both directions.
mm 53
Railway Crossings, Junction and  Drawbridge
204. Standard Railway Crossing Junction, and
Drawbridge Posts, white with black letters, must be
set 10 ft. from the rail on the engineer's side when
apiproaching, one mile on each side of all railway
grade crossings, railway junctions and drawbridges.
Stop Posts.
205. Standard Stop Posts face of boards red,
white letters, balance white must be placed on the
engineer's side 8 ft. from rail and four hundred feet
from railway grade crossings, junctions and drawbridges which are not protected by interlocking
signals, where trains must come to a full stop.
Slow Posts.
206. Standard Slow Posts face of board yellow,
black letters balance white must be placed on the
engineer's side, 8 ft. from rail, 2000 feet on each side
of points where trains must be under full control.
Yard Limit Boards.
207. Standard Yard Limit Boards, yellow board,
black letters, balance white, must be placed on the
engineer's side 10 ft. from rail when approaching all
yards at their limits, unless protected by Yard Limit
Semaphore Signals.
Trespass Signs.
208. Standard Trespass Signs, white letters on
black ground, balance black must be placed at such
points along the track or Right-of-Way where
persons are liable to trespass on the Company's
property or tracks. 54
Section Posts.
209. Standard Section Posts, black letters, balance
white must be placed at the limits of all track sections, 7 ft. from rail.
Elevation Posts.
210. Standard Elevation Posts, white with black
letters must be placed at the beginning and end of
all curves and their easements, 6 ft. from outside
rail on 16 ft. roadbed, and 5 ft. on 14 ft roadbed
exactly where directed by the Engineer, on which
will be shown the degree of curve, the amount of
elevation for the outer rail, and the extra width of
gauge for that curve.
Flanger Posts.
211. Standard Flanger Posts, board black, discs
and posts white must be placed 8 ft. from rail on
the engineer's side 150 feet on each side of road-
crossings, switches and all points where it is necessary to raise the flanger blades or points of snow
plows to clear the obstruction, except where obstructions are usually too close to allow the 150 ft.
space, when a single post with discs on both sides
shall be set as nearly opposite each obstruction as
possible. This method, however, must be followed
throughout the entire Section or Branch.
Wing Posts.
212. Standard Wing Posts, black board, discs and
post white must be placed 8 ft. from rail on the
engineer's side 150 feet on each side of points where
it is necessary to close wings and raise points of
snow plows to clear the obstruction, except where 55
obstructions are usually too close to allow the 150 ft
space, when a single post with discs on both sides
shall be set as nearly opposite each obstruction as
possible. This method, however, must be followed
throughout the entire Section or Branch.
Bridge Warning.
213. Standard Bridge Warnings must be placed
over the track 100 feet from all overhead obstructions
less than 22 ft. 6 in. clear height above the base of
the rail.
Bridge and Trestle Number. ,
214. Standard Boards numbered on both sides, will
be placed on the Mile Post side of each bridge about
the centre, except when bridge is over 500 ft. long,
in which case a number board with number on one
side only will be placed at each end. In all cases
where there are through truss spans in a bridge the
number will be painted on the end posts of the outer
truss spans, in lieu of number boards. Number
boards are to be painted white with black letters, in
accordance with standard plan.
Culvert number boards will be used for Masonry
Culvert Numbers.
215. Standard Culvert Number, white with black
letters, placed 6 ft. above ground, facing the track,
and 8 ft. from the rail.
216. Section Foremen are required to see that all
Track Signs and Posts, above enumerated, are in
their proper position in good condition, and standing 56
plumb. Should new ones be required, Section Foremen must make requisition for the same and Roadmasters will instruct Foremen where and how to
erect them.
217. The operations or material of Interlocking and
Block Signal Plants must not be interfered with by
trackmen. Repairs which require the removal of
any signal apparatus must be made under the
direction of the Signal Repairmen.
218. All Track Posts and Signs and all Switch
Stands and Targets must be painted at least once
each year.
219. The necessity for the use of shims is an indication of poor drainage or poor ballast under the
heaved ties, and should be remedied as soon as
possible. In case the action of the frost makes it
necessary to shim the track, it must be done in all
cases on the tops of the ties, and on the top of the
tie plates where these are used. The placing of
Lumber under the ties is forbidden, except in cases
of emergency, and in all such cases it must be removed as soon as possible.
(a) All shimming must be done to give the track
the proper surface, gauge, line and strength. The
shimming must be carried out far enough each side
of the high spots to insure easy grades, and when
one side of the track has heaved more than the other
it must be brought to a proper surface, maintaining
the proper superelevation on curves and their approaches.   Rail braces must be used as per rules 106
BR89 57
and 107, when required to prevent rails from canting,
or tracks from spreading.
(&) The cast iron rail brace can be used on the 24
inch shims by placing the rails between the outside
holes so that the larger portion of the shim extends
outside of the rail, giving a good seat for the rail
brace. When rail braces are needed with the short
shims use old fishplates, or any brace which may be
adopted as standard.
220. Standard shims will be furnished upon requisition, they should be made of the hardest local
lumber, and be bored to suit the width of base of rail
under which they are to be used.
221. When shims are to be used on ties equipped
with tie plates, that are not standard, a cardboard
template of the tie plate, showing the location of
the holes, must accompany the requisition.
222. Standard shims vary in thickness from y_
to 3 inches, they are 7 inches in> width and 12
inches in length for thicknesses yL to 1% inches
inclusive. They are 7 inches in width and 24
inches in length for thicknesses 1% to 2% inches inclusive. Three inch shims are 7 feet in length. 24
inch shims have two extra holes for spiking the shim
to the tie. Short shims may be used on top of 24
inch shims when necessary.
223. Shims must be of the same thickness
throughout and not wedge shaped, and ties must be
adzed to give them an even tearing.
224. Ties which are heaved by the frost at bridges,
trestles, switches or elsewhere must not be cut down,
good surface must be maintained by shimming the
adjacent low ties. 58
225. Standard shimming spikes will be furnished
upon requisition. They must be used with shims of
more than one inch in thickness.
226. Shims must be removed from the track as
soon as the frost leaves the ground in the spring,
when they, together with the long spikes, must be
preserved in the tool or shim-house for future use.
227. Section Foremen must with their gangs devote
a few hours each week to cleaning and putting
things in order around section and tool-houses,
station grounds, yards, sidings and spurs, Highway
and farm crossings. They must remove combustible
material from or around bridges, trestles, culverts,
track posts, stock yards and from around buildings
and under passenger and freight platforms.
228. On Main Lines, ballasted branch lines, and
their yards and sidings, weeds and grass shall be
removed to a true grass line at the edge of the ballast
twice each season or oftener if their growth interfere
with traffic. On unballasted branch lines, their yards
and sidings, weeds and grass shall be cut as often as
may be necessary to secure a clean rail, and an unobstructed view of all track signs.
229. Cut all trees within the right-of-way that are
in danger of falling across the track and those which
obscure the view of enginemen or are liable to touch
telegraph wires.
230. If adjoining land owners obstruct the ditches
or culverts, Section  Foremen should endeavour to 59
prevent them from doing so, and im the event of
failure, they must report the matter to the Roadmaster.
231. Gather up all scrap iron that may be found
along the tracks and pile it neatly in sight at the
section   tool-house,   convenient   for   loading,   from
where  the
Roadmaster   will  arrange for  its   dis-
232. Driveways on the Company's property must be
kept clean and in good repair by the sectionmen.
233. The arrangement of tools and supplies in the
tool-houses should be systematic, have a place for
everything and keep everything in its place.
234. Section Foremen must make requisition on
form M for all necessary material, such as spikes,
bolts, tools, and must send them to the Roadmaster
with their time books.
235. All material, old and new, except scrap, must
as far as possible be kept locked up in tool^iouses.
236. Section Foremen will have care of and be
responsible for all loose property of the Company
on their sections, including wood, ties, lumber and
scrap iron; they will see that it is neatly piled, not
closer than 8 feet from the rail.
237. All spikes that are being removed from the
track must be carefully drawn, so that they may
be used again. Draw all spikes from old ties before   they   are   thrown   aside.     All old spikes and 60
bolts which cannot be used again must be gathered up and taken to scrap pile. In uncoupling rails
tight nuts on bolts must not be knocked off with the
hammer, but must be oiled and taken off with the
wrench  when practicable.
238. All scrap rails must be piled at side tracks
ready for shipment. Serviceable rails not kept at
mile posts shall be neatly piled where designated by
the Roadmaster.
239. Whenever wood, cross-ties, lumber or other
material is delivered along the main track for shipment, Section Foremen must see that it is piled at
least eight feet from the rail. If found nearer, they
must remove it at once to that distance.
240. On sections where dynamite is kept for the
removal of rock slides, Section Foremen must keep
it stored at a safe distance from the Company's
buildings, and where it is not liable to be interfered
241. Fuse and caps should be kept in the section
tool-house, and stored in a box separate from other
242. Dynamite must not be thawed out or used by
any but experienced men.
243. All grass, weeds and brush on the right-of-
way must be cut at least once a year, and preferably 61
twice a year. This should be done in the months
which are most suitable, but must in any case be
done before the seeding time of the plants. After
grubbing, cutting or mowing, the material should be
raked into heaps and burned as soon as it is dry
enough, care being taken that the fire does not extend
to fences, poles, posts or adjoining land.
244. When practicable old ties should be piled
around stumps for burning. Close cut all stumps
on the right-of-way, as time for such work is found,
and gather up and burn old rotten logs and other refuse which may have been left in the construction
of the road, and bury any dead animals that may be
found upon the right-of-way, at least one-half mile
from any city or village.
245. Where noxious weed and Fire by-laws exist
they  must be strictly  observed.
247. Each section must have a full equipment of
good standard tools sufficient to supply every man in
the gang, and several extra tools for the purpose of
replacing any that may be sent to the shop for sharpening and repair.
248. The kind of tools will vary according to the
ballast and other conditions. The following list
will be the minimum required on all sections, anc
Foremen and Roadmasters must see that each section
is fully equipped, and that they are in proper repair: 62
Tool Equipment for Section Gang op Foreman
and Three Men.
Adzes  2
Axes  1
Bars, Claw  2
I     Crow  2
I     Lining  2
"     Tamping  2
Boards, Elevation  1
Brooms  1
Cars, Hand  1
Push  1
Chisel, Rail  5
Cup, Tin  1
Flags, Red  2
Yellow  2
Grindstone  1
Gauge, Track  1
Globes, Red  2
White  2
Yellow  2
Hammers, Maul  2
Nail  1
Sledge  1
Handles, Adze  1
Axe  1
" Maul  2
Pick  2
Jack, Track  1
Lanterns  (complete)  4
Levels, Spirit, Pocket  1
|        Track  1
Oil Can  1 63
Oiler } #s  1
Oil (Signal) pints  4
Padlock and Key and Chain  2
Pail, Water  1
Picks and Handles  4
Platform, Dumping for Push Cars  1
Ratchet and 3 Drills  1
Saws, Hand  1
I       CrossCut  1
Scythe (complete) Grass or Brush  2
Shovels, Track  6
Switch Key  1
Tape, 50 ft  1
Template,   Standard  Roadbed  1
Torpedoes  12
Wrenches,' Monkey  1
|          Track  3
249. Rail benders, fence tools, track drills, expansion shims, track thermometers, wheelbarrows and
tools used by extra gang will be furnished to each
Roadmaster, to be sent out as required and returned
ip Roadmaster's headquarters when work is completed. Tools in need of repair must be shipped
by the Foreman to the Company's repair shops.
Place a tag on each article, showing to whom it is
to be returned, and send a requisition for repairs.
250. Section Foremen will be held strictly responsible for all tools and material left in their
charge, and they must see that none are lost or stolen,
nor must they on their own responsibility lend or
give any away. If, however, tools or material should
be lost or stolen they must report same promptly to
the Roadmaster. 64
251. In case of an accident to a train the nearest
Section Foreman must at once take his whole force,
and go to the assistance of the train, even if it is
not on his own section. If notified of broken rails
or anything requiring immediate attention on an
adjoining section, he must at once take such force as
is necessary to protect the defective point and make
the track safe for the passage of trains.
2o2. When assisting at an accident to a train,
Section Foremen must act under the direction of
the Conductor or Wrecking Foremen until the arrival of the Roadmaster.
253. In case of a wreck, Section Foremen must
when necessary appoint watchmen to prevent freight
or Company's property from being stolen, and such
watchmen must remain on duty until the goods are
removed or until they are relieved.
254. In case of personal injury to men in their
gangs, Foremen must immediately make a report by
wire to the Roadmaster on Form No. 295, and follow
this as soon as possible with a written report on
Form No. 74.    •
255. Time-books must be written up each night for
that day. The time of Foremen and men must be
given and same distributed to each kind of work
performed, under the proper heading. Time-books,
as well as monthly reports of all tools and material
received during the month, must be sent to the
Roadmaster at tne end of each month. 65
256. When an employee is discharged the Foreman must make out and forward to the Roadmaster an application for a time-check, and endorse on the page of the time-book opposite the
name of the employee, " Certificate Given "; he will
give the discharged employee an identification slip
properly filled out.
257. Section Foremen must promptly report to the
Roadmaster in writing, any failure of enginemen to
respect their signals, and to answer the same with
the whistle, giving the date and number of train
and engine.
258. Section Foremen must report promptly to the
Roadmaster, on Form No. 73, all stock killed or injured on their sections.
259. An immediate report on Form No. 1721 must
be made by the Section Foreman to the Roadmaster
of all fences burned or other property and material,
located on or adjacent to the Company's property,
whether belonging to the Company or to private
parties, destroyed by fire originating from passing
locomotives or otherwise. The report must state
the location, the exact damage done, and the name
of the owner of the property.
260. Section Foremen must avoid all unnecessary
use of the Company's telegraph, especially for material. The telegraph is only to be used in cases of
emergency, or when delay would involve a loss to
the Company.
261. Section Foremen must report on Form M.W.S.
15 all defective tools, supplies or material received,
giving nature of defect. 66
262. Hand-cars taken from the tool-house must
always be equipped with the following signals:—2
red flags, 2 yellow flags and 6 torpedoes, and, at least
with the following tools:—Spike maul, claw bar,.,
gauge, track chisel and monkey wrench. Foremen
must always accompany their cars.
263. All push cars must be equipped with dumping
264. Hand or push cars must not be left on or near
public road crossings.
265. Hand or push cars not in actual use must
be lifted off the track and placed clear of passing
trains. When not within sight of the men they must
be locked.
266. Loaded push cars must not be run on main
track, except under protection of proper signals.
(See Rule 39.)
267. Hand or push cars must not be attached to a
268. Rails and Frogs must not be carried on hand
cars, except in cases of emergency.
269. Hand or push cars must not be run at night
or during foggy weather, except in cases of actual
necessity, when a red light must be displayed, nor
be used for personal purposes, except by special permission of the Superintendent Hand cars must be
run with great caution around blind curves, and be
stopped frequently so that approaching trains may be
sa 67
270. Foremen must not ship their hand cars to the
shops for repairs until tne Roadmaster has inspected
them and decided that they need shop work, but no
Foreman, either before or after advising the Roadmaster of the bad condition of a hand car, will use
the same, if to do so involves the risk of accident.
271. Section Foremen must watch the telegraph
line, and unite wires temporarily when broken; report promptly any derangement of the wires to the
nearest telegraph office.
272. Section Foremen shall prevent unauthorized
persons not employees of the Company from stringing wires of any description on highways and elsewhere, over the track or along the right-of-way.
They must also make frequent measurements of the
height of existing wires crossing all tracks, and
report to the Roadmaster any such wires which are
less than 25 it. above the top of the rail.
273. In construction and renewals all telegraph
and telephone poles must be placed thirty feet from
the centre of the track, unless the right-of-way is
too narrow for this distance, in which case the poles
must be placed as far from the track as the right-
of-way will  permit.
Section Foremen must report any variation from
thi9 rule.
274. Road and street crossings must be constructed
according to standard plans. 68
275. Road crossings should, when practicable, be
underdrained by tile or stone drains, laid three feet
deep, parallel to the track at the edge of the ballast.
276. The planks of road crossings must be cut to
the same length, and their ends bevelled and lined
parallel with the centre line of the highway.
277. Section Foremen must provide proper surface
drainage at Road Crossings, remove all mud, snow
and ice and keep the flange ways clear.
278. Foremen must make themselves familiar with
all the boundary lines of the Company's property on
their respective sections, and see that no one encroaches upon them, as the erection of fences and
buildings, and the construction of roads, etc., upon
the Company's property by outside parties is prohibited except upon proper authority. If any attempt
at encroachment is made, same must be reported in
a written statement to the Roadmaster, giving the
name and address of the party and all facts connected
with the matter.
279. Trespass on the Company's property by pedestrians, live stock, teams, etc., should be prevented
by the section Foreman. Erect standard trespass
notices where necessary. Should Foremen be unable
to prevent such trespass they must report same to
the Roadmaster.
280. Section Foremen must prevent any person
from attaching advertising cards or posters to, or
painting signs of any kind upon fences, telegraph
poles  or structures belonging to the Company, un- 69
less provided with proper authority. Any unauthorized signs, posters, cards or similar disfigurements
must be detached or obliterated from the fence or
buildings as soon as discovered.
281. Section Foremen must prevent any person or
persons, unless provided with proper authority, from
stringing wires or constructing road-crossings across
the tracks or from laying drain, sewer or water
pipes under the track, whether in roads, streets, or
282. Roadmasters having charge of snow-plow,
gravel or other work trains on their divisions must
see that all such trains are equipped with proper
apparatus for economic work. They must inspect
boarding and sleeping arrangements for the men,
and see that sufficient wholesome food and comfortable quarters are provided.
283. Cars not needed for handling material must
not be taken in work trains, except for shelter of
men in stormy weather, without authority from the
.284. Insufficient and defective equipment in work
trains must at once be reported to the Superintendent.
285. Work   trains,   or  engines   belonging   thereto,
must not be run except as may be absolutely necessary for the prosecution of the work assigned them.
286. Section Foremen must give attention to water
stations where pumpmen are not employed, keep
tank filled and report to the Roadmaster any defect
that they cannot readily repair. 70
287. They will attend to the heating of such water
stations when required.
288. Section Foremen must see that the fire protection water barrels, at bridges, trestles and buildings
are kept filled during the summer season and that
they are emptied when freezing weather begins.
They are responsible for the proper care of barrels
and pails.
289. Section Foremen must attend to the removal
of snow and ice from station platforms and sidewalks, water stations, road-crossings, track scales,
switches, frogs and railway crossings, and turn-table
pits when necessary.
290. They must, when necessary, see that all portable snow fences are taken down in the spring, and
are put up in their proper places before winter begins.
291. They must keep all snow-fences in repair, and
report all new large drifts at unprotected points; remove all ice from rails and flange-ways, as well as
that in tunnels, snow sheds or rock cuts, which may
interfere with the safe passage of trains.
292. Surface ditches and ends of all culverts must
be cleared of snow where it is liable to interfere with
the free passage of water during the spring thaw.
293. Section Foremen are responsible for the proper
maintenance of the Right-of-Way fences, gates and
cattle-guards on their sections. Extensive renewals
will usually be made by the fence gang. All wing
fences must be whitewashed. 71
294. Right-of-way fences will be of three different
types; woven, field-erected, and stockrange.
2. Woven wire fence in two standard sizes will
usually be used. The first contains five and the
second seven smooth horizontal wires. They are
manufactured ready for erection.
3. Field erected wire fence in the two standard
sizes will be used only when the roughness of the
ground renders impracticable the proper stretching or
economical erection of the woven wire fence. The
first contains five and the second seven smooth coiled
horizontal wires, supplied in coils of single wire, bundles of stays and boxes of locks. It is assembled in
the field.
4. Stock range fence will be used only in wild
cattle grazing districts. It is composed of four horizontal barbed wire with wood stays (droppers), and
is assembled in the field.
5. The five smooth wire 44" fence will be used in
districts  where large stock  only is to be
6. The seven smooth wire 48" fence will be used
at all other places.
7. All posts must have the bark removed, be set
plumb with the large end down at the depths and
distances apart specified by the standard plan and
8. Holes of full depth must be provided for all
end and gate posts, even if blasting has to be resorted
to. For intermediate posts not more than two adjacent posts may be set on sills5 equal to 6" x 6" x 4 72
feet long braced on both sides by 2" x 6" braces 3
feet long, where rock is encountered, holes must be
provided for all other posts.
9. In localities where posts are heaved by frost
the lower end of the post must be pointed, to enable
the section men to drive them down in the spring.
10. All posts must be in perfect line and after
fences are erected their tops shall be sawed off, with
a one quarter pitch level, the high side being next
to the wire.
11. All end and gate posts must be anchored as
shown on standard plan. Intermediate posts set in
depressions of the ground shall be anchored by two
cleats gained into the bottom of the posts, same to
be properly spiked.
12. AH end, gate and corner posts must be braced
as shown on standard plan; in long lines of fence intermediate bracing panels must be set every quarter
13. On tangents, wires must be placed on the outer
side of the posts from the track. On curves, the
fencing shall be placed on the outer side of the posts
from the curve centre.
14. Horizontal wires must be stretched uniformly
tight and be parallel. Stays shall be straight and
vertical and be uniformly spaced.
15. All spacing of both horizontal and vertical,
wires must be according to standard plan.
16. All staples must be set diagonally with the
grain of the wood. In end posts they must be driven
home tight;   in   intermediate posts   they must be 73
driven as tight as possible without preventing the
free expansion or contraction of the horizontal wires.
17. The top wire must be double stapled throughout except in the stays of stock range fence.
18. All splices must be made according to the
method shown on standard plan.
19. The top wire shall be 4'6" above the ground
for all kinds of fence.
.295. Standard farm gates are 14 ft. and 16 ft. in
length. The 16 ft. gate is used where harvesting machinery is liable to pass, and the 14 ft. at all other
points. Gates should always open away from the
track. Their fastenings must be properly and effectively maintained.
296. Standard surface cattle-guards will be used
where necessary.
297. Track section shall be numbered, beginning
with number one at zero mileage of each section or
Branch, and they shall be numbered consecutively
in the direction of the mileage.
Zy8. Section tool-houses shall be located so that
the track in front of them will not be occupied by
standing trains  or cars.
299. Section dwelling houses will usually be located so that they shall be one section length apart,
and, where possible, should be located at or near
telegraph stations. 74
300. Ties may be of Oak, Rock Elm, Cedar,
Tamarack^ Hemlock, Jack Pine or Douglas Fir. They
must be of live straight timber, free from rot, bad
knots, wind shakes, or other imperfections.
2. If made from the round tree they must be sound,
sawn or hewed smooth and free from score hacks,
to uniform and parallel faces on two opposite sides.
Cedar or all thick bark timber must be peeled when
so stipulated in the contract.
3. If sawn square from large timber they must be
cut through the centre of the log. Ties sawn on
three sides will be accepted, of the same dimensions
as squared ties.
4. Ties must be of the following minimum dimensions in cross-section:—
No. 1 Flatted Ties, seven inches thick with seven to
twelve inches face.
No. 1 Squared  Ties,  seven inches  thick  with nine
inches face.
No. 2 Flatted    Ties,   six inches thick   with six  to
twelve inches face.
No. 2 Squared Ties, six inches thick with eight inches
All ties should be exactly eight feet in length", with
ends sawn square, and face measurements shall be
inside the bark at the smallest end.
5. Ties of smaller cross-sections or over twelve inch
face, and .those having defects in manufacture or
quality of material which would  not render them 75
unfit for use in side tracks may be accepted as culls
when required. All others must be rejected. Mill
ties must be exact as to length, but in hewed ties a
variation of one inch under or one inch over will
be allowable for No. 1 and No. 2 ties. Shorter
lengths must be rejected and longer lengths culled.
If ties are very uneven in thickness or are crooked
sideways three inches or over, or are hewed with a
wind of one inch or more in the face, they must
be culled. Cedar ties may be accepted as No. 1 and
No. 2 if they have not more than one inch in diameter of ground rot at one end only, and it does not
appear to extend more than twelve inches into the
tie, and the tie has at least eight or nine inches face,
otherwise they must be culled.
301. Posts shall be made from sound, straight
round cedar, or green tamarack, sawn square at both
ends. When split cedar posts are contracted for,
great care must be taken in the inspection to accept only those which are split true and straight,
and carry the proper size their entire length. Cedar
[posts must be peeled, unless contract provides otherwise.
1. Round fence posts must not be less than five
inches in diameter at small end. Split cedar fence
posts must not be less than six inches on any face
or in cross-section at small end. Round fence posts
from five inches to four inches diameter at
small end may be accepted as culls up to ten per
cent, of the whole. Smaller fence posts must be rejected. Length of standard fence posts to be eight
feet. 76
2. Stock Yard posts must be of round cedar, of
following dimensions:—10 feet long, not less than
eight inches diameter at small end; 12, 14 and 16
feet long, not less than nine inches diameter at small
3. Snow Fence posts must be of round cedar, of
following dimensions:—10 and 12 feet long, not less
than six inches diameter at small end; 5 per cent,
may be accepted as culls, if not less than five and
under six inches at top end. Smaller sizes may be
accepted as fence posts if, when cut to eight feet
in length, they will not be less than five inches
diameter at top.
4. Gate posts, 12 feet long, and not less than nine
inches diameter at small end; 9 feet long, and not
less than seven inches in diameter at small end.
5. All material inspected and accepted for the
Company must be plainly stamped in the manner
6. A No.  1  tie.
7. A No. 1 square sawn tie; may
have one inch of wane on one or both
corners of one side only.
8. Intended for a No. 1 tie, but
culled for being under size in section
only. When sound and well made this
tie shall be entered in Inspection Book
as No. 2 but may be loaded with good
No. 1 tiesh. 77
9. A No.  a tie.
10. A No. 2 square sawn tie;   may
have one inch of wane on one or both
corners of one side only.
11. A cull tie; stamp thus if sound
timber and well made. Smaller ties,
or if any rot is visible, or if badly
made, must be rejected, and will not
be marked in any way.
12. Accepted material will be stamped with No. 1
Hammer mark, and with red kale or paint mark
the length of each pile in figures about three inches
Culled material. With red kale or paint make a
large cross only.   No hammer marks.
13. Accepted posts of standard 8 ft. lengths, tops
five inches and over, will be stamped with the No. 1
Hammer mark.
14. Accepted posts for snow fences, stock yards
and gate posts will be stamped with No. 1 Hammer
15. Cull posts, tops under five and not less than
four inches, stamp with cull hammer. Rejected
posts, tops under four inches will be marked with a
red kale or paint cross only. 78   -
16. Permission to accept material without stamping
may be given by inspectors, with General Tie Agent's
approval, in special cases.
17. The maker or sub-contractor's name should be
marked on the face of a tie or side of a post, etc.,
at each end of the pile of material delivered by him
in order that each man's deliveries may be identified,
if required, in the event of any dispute.
18. Inspectors and their assistants should always
use a tally register when counting ties or other
mn 79
302. Bridge and Building Masters have charge of
renewals and repairs and are responsible for the
proper inspection and safety of all bridges, trestles,
tunnels, snow-sheds, culverts, buildings, wharves,
track scales, platforms, water supply, coal and sand-
handling plants, ash pits, turn-tables, cattle pens,
signals, interlocking plants, crossing alarm bells, and
all buildings on their respective divisions, unless relieved of some of these items by proper authority.
They have charge of all labourers and mechanics
engaged in uiese renewals and repairs, and must see
that they perform their duties properly, and they
may discharge them for neglect, incompetence or
misconduct. They must keep account of and report
tiie time of their men in the manner prescribed.
303. It is the duty of the Bridge and Building Masters to know that the persons under their charge are
supplied with, understand and obey all the rules and
regulations concerning their duties, and that they
understand the use and meaning of signals. To see
that materials are safely kept and economically used.
304. To give necessary assistance in case of
accident in any department.
305. To use standard watches, have correct time
and compare with their foremen as often as possible. 80
306. To supervise any work being done, on or about
structures by contractors or others, which will affect
the safety or regularity of trains, and see that the
track over same is safe for the passage of trains, and
that proper signals are displayed.
307. To make careful and prompt enquiry and report fully, on the prescribed forms, all accidents that
may occur to employees or structures under their
308. To see that each of their gangs are sup-
piled with the necessary tools and appliances to
economically and properly perform the work assigned
to them and to report all defective tools and material
on the proper form.
309. To see that the boarding and tool cars for
their gangs are kept clean, neat in appearance, in
good repair, and that wholesome food is supplied.
310. To be familiar with the instructions issued
for the government of trains and trainmen, and
report to the Superintendent any neglect of duty or
violation of rules that come under their notice.
311. To see that all renewals and extensive repairs
are made in accordance with standard plans, or plans
specially prepared for same.
312. To take personal charge of the more important
repairs to structures when damaged by wrecks,
storms, fire  or slides.
313. Bridge and Building Foremen receive their instructions from and report to the Bridge and^Building
am 81
314. They have charge of all work outlined
herein for the Bridge and Building Master on
their respective districts, unless relieved by the
Bridge and Building Master of some of the items.
315. They shall make requisition through the
Bridge and Building Master for the necessary tools,
material and supplies required.
316. They must see that all tools are in proper
condition; and that their boarding and tool cars are
clean and have a neat appearance.
317. They must personally supervise all work in
their charge and see that their workmen faithfully
perform their duties, suspend anyone for neglect,
incompetence or misconduct, and report same to the
Bridge and Building Master for final action.
318. They must not do work which would interfere with the safe passage of trains at usual speed
without first displaying proper signals. (See Rule
319. Bridge and Building Foremen are expected to
be familiar with all these rules, particularly those
about watching, signals, slow orders, tie plates, spiking, elevation of the outer rail, gauging, standard
plans, shimming, explosives:, accidents, reports, hand
and push cars, and be governed by them in performing their duties.
320. They must carry a reliable watch and when
practicable, compare time each day with the clock
at the nearest telegraph office, with the Bridge and
Building Master, or with the conductor of a train.
They   must carefully  observe  signals   displayed   by 82
trains, and be sure that all trains and sections of
trains that are due have passed, before obstructing
the track.
321. They must have with them the latest timetable for the movement of trains, and must understand its use, and know the time of all regular
trains at any point that they may be working.
322. Bridge and Snow shed Watchmen receive their
instructions from and report to the Bridge and Building Masters.
323. Their special duty is to see that the structures
are safe for the passage of trains and to prevent the
structures under their charge from being damaged by
freshet and fire. They must be familiar with these
rules, particularly those about track walking and inspection, signals and  slow orders.     (See Rule  331.)
324. They must insure that the water barrels on
the structures under their charge are kept filled;
keep the coping of abutments and piers clean, remove combustible matter from near the bridges and
prevent driftwood from accumulating; frequently examine the wood and iron work, report any defect, and
perform such other duties as the Bridge and Building
Masters may direct.
325. When performing work which breaks or obstructs the track or weakens any structure, and
which makes the passage of trains at usual speed
dangerous, Bridges and Building Foremen will be
governed by Rules 38 to 48 inclusive. 83
326. Each Bridge Foreman is authorized to make
immediate repairs to any structure which he may
find to be in a dangerous condition, reporting same
promptly to the Bridge and Building Master.
327. Bridge and Building Masters are authorized
to make immediate repairs to any structure which
they find to be in a dangerous condition, reporting
the same to the Resident Engineer and Superintendent.
328. All material must be carefully checked when
received, and errors in shipment promptly reported.
One piece of work must be completed before going
to another, except in cases of emergency. Any wor?~
left unfinished must always be put in a safe conditio-
329. Worthless material removed from structure*
must be burned, and all fire must be extinguished before leaving the work. Sound timber, together
with all bolts, washers, etc., must be piled convenient
for shipment, or be returned to district headquarters.
330. In case of storms and floods, Bridge Foremen
must be on duty. They must insure as far as possible the safety of all structures in their districts.
331. In case of damage to a structure by storm or
by fire, which may prevent the safe passage of trains,
Bridge Foremen must promptly notify the Bridge
and Building Master and the Train Dispatcher, giving
number and location of the structure and must at
once display the prescribed signals (see Rules 38 to
48) and repair the damage.
332. In case of two or more bridge gangs being
called to repair a damaged structure, in the absence 84
of the Bridge and Building Master the Foreman on
whose district the work is being done will (have
charge of same,  unless otherwise  ordered.
333. The following instructions must be observed
in the location and construction of buildings and
1st. The Standard height of Main Line passenger
platforms above top of rail, is 6 inches, and the
distance between edge of platform and gauge side of
rail 2 ft. 9 in. All new Main Line Passenger Platforms shall be built to these measurements and old
platforms shall be changed when renewals or heavy
repairs are being made.
Before constructing new, or altering old platforms,
the Bridge and Building Master shall ascertain from
Resident Engineer whether or not a change in elevation of track is contemplated.
Branch Line Passenger Platforms shall be 14 inches
above top of rail, and their edge 3 ft. from gauge
side of rail.
2nd. The tops of all freight platforms on side
tracks for general use should be 4 feet above the
top of the rail and follow the grade of the track.
The edge of the platform should be 3 feet 3 inches
from the gauge side of the nearest rail.
3rd. No buildings, except water tanks and coal
chutes, should be located nearer than 10 feet clear
irom the centre of the main track. 85
4th. No building or live stock chute should be
nearer than 7 feet from the centre of any side track,
which is used for meeting and passing trains, or for
general purposes.
5th. On side tracks used for special purposes, such
as elevators and coal chutes, the demand must establish the -distance; but no building or structure
must be placed nearer than 6 feet from the centre
of any track.
334. Bridges, trestles and culverts will be numbered
with respect to the mileage, i.e., the bridges beyond
each mile board in the direction of the mileage will
be the mile board number followed by a short dash
with the decimal of the mile in which the structure
is located, thus "25-3," "25-4," prefixing the word
"bridge" or "culvert," as the case may be, in records
and reports. Where two or more such structures
are located on the same tenth of a mile, the nearest
hundredth will be used thus "25-44", "25-48".
These numbers must be erected according to the
standard plans.
335. Foremen of Painters receive their instructions
from and report to the Bridge and Building Masters;
they have charge of all painting, kalsomining, paper-
hanging and lettering in their respective districts.
336. It shall be the duty of Foremen of Painters to
personally supervise all work in their charge and see
that their workmen faithfully perform their duties,
suspend anyone for neglect,  incompetence or mis- 86
conduct and report same to the Bridge and Building
Master for final action.
337. To have charge of all materials and must see
that they are safely kept and properly and economically used. They must see that all tools are in proper
condition; and that their boarding and tool cars are
clean and have a neat appearance.
338. To make requisition through the Bridge and
Building Master for the necessary tools, material and
supplies required.
339. To see that all work in their charge is done
in standard colors and in accordance with standard
plans and instructions.
340 (a). All exposed structural steel in new
buildings to receive two full even coats of approved
(b) Before receiving the first coat the steel is to be
cleaned of all rust and scale by means of steel
scrapers and steel brushes.
(c) The first coat is to be put on as soon after the
cleaning* process as practicable and in order to carry
this out the work must be done in sections, and not
all cleaned at one time.
(d) The second coat shall not be applied until the
first is quite dry.
(e) At least once every year all the exposed structural steel to be carefully gone over and all signs
of scaling paint and rust -to be removed by steel
brushes and steel scrapers, no matter how small the
affected areas may be. 87
(f) The cleaned portions are then to receive the
same treatment as new work.
(g) If the spots requiring cleaning are found to be
so close together as to make it impracticable to repaint these without repainting the whole exposed
surface, this latter should be done.
(h) In all cases the cleaning process and the placing of the first coat, to be carried on under rigid inspection.
341. Masonry Foremen receive their instructions
from and report to the Bridge and Building Masters unless otherwise directed; they have charge of
all masonry renewals and repairs assigned to them.
342. It shall be the duty of Masonry Foremen to
personally supervise all work in their charge and
see that their workmen faithfully perform their
duties, suspend anyone for neglect, incompetence or
misconduct, and report the fact to the Bridge and
Building Master for final action.
343. To see that all materials are safely kept and
properly and economically used. To see that all tools
are in proper condition; and that their boarding and
tool cars are clean and have a neat appearance.
344. To make requisition through the Bridge and
Building Master for the necessary tools, materials
and supplies.
345. To perform all work in accordance with the
standard plans and specifications, or plans and specifications, specially prepared for extensive repairs or
renewals. 88
346 (a). Pumpmen receive instructions from and
report to the Bridge and Building Master and have
charge of pumping stations as assigned.
(b) They shall be men of experience in firing boilers and operating pumps.
(c) They are responsible for the safe keeping and
economical use of all supplies furnished for their
(d) They must keep a proper supply of water in the
tanks under their charge at all times.
(e) They are responsible for the proper care and
maintenance of boilers, pumps and other machinery,
which they must keep in neat and serviceable condition.
(f) They must be familiar with the use and purpose
of all valves, try cocks, levers, etc., and in no
case operate any such whose object and purpose they
do not thoroughly understand.
(g) They must know the location of all steam and
water pipes, so that in case of leaks or accidents the
valves controlling the same may be properly used.
(h) They must not tamper with safety valves except for inspection purposes, when they shall be
opened by carefully raising the lever and not by
altering the position of the weight.
(j) They must wash out their boilers at regular
intervals as instructed by the Bridge and Building
Master, dates of same to be shown on pumpmen's
monthly report. 89
(k) They must keep a careful record of all water
pumped and of all coal, oil, waste, etc., used, and report the same on the proper form.
(1) New fires must not be started nor banked fires
livened unless the water shows in the gauge glass
and the try cocks indicate that the glass shows the
actual amount of water in the boiler.
(m) In trying these and other cocks, do not let
any more water escape than is necessary. When
boiler is working, the gauge glass should be about
% full, and pumpmen should frequently ensure that
the glass is in communication with the water in the
boiler at both ends, by using the try cocks as above.
(n) When renewing gauge glasses, see that the
sockets are in line and the glands square with the
glass at each end, otherwise when tightening the
glass may break.
(o) A pump working properly should run at nearly
uniform speed throughout the stroke and not start
off quickly and then slow down. This latter action
indicates that the pump is running too fast or is
sucking air.
(p) The Bridge and Building Master will give instructions as to the speed of each pump, which shall
not exceed 100 ft. per minute, as pumps running
faster are wasteful of steam and do not pump as
much water as when running from 60 to 90 ft. per
minute. The speed of the piston is obtained by multiplying the number of double strokes per minute by
twice the stroke in inches and dividing by twelve.
(q) They should keep the outside of the pump
and the foundation fairly dry.   If this cannot be done 90
by ordinary repairs, it should be reported to the
Bridge and Building Master, who will remedy the
(r) Pumpmen will receive special instructions from
the Bridge and Building Master as to the method
of starting and shutting down, also regarding delivery of water to points other than the tank.
(s) They shall report any leaks in tanks or pipes,
also any water that is being wasted carelessly during
the filling of locomotive tenders, giving number of
locomotive, date and hour.
(t) In winter a low fire will sometimes be required
In boilers to prevent freezing of water in pump.
Bridge and Building Masters will instruct pumpmen
when and how to place fire in boilers for this purpose.
(u) k dry boiler subjected to a hot fire will be
ruined, and if water is admitted to a hot dry boiler
an explosion will occur. In case of feed pump or injector not working and water in boiler becoming
dangerously low, pumpmen must draw fire and make
necessary repairs.
(v) Pumpmen shall give the care of boilers precedence over any other duties assigned, as steam
boilers are a menace to public safety if they are
not properly attended.
347. The Division Engineers will make occasional
examinations of the condition of all important
bridges and culverts. In an emergency they will, on
their own authority, give such instructions to Bridge 91
and Building Masters as they consider necessary tor
safety of traffic, and advise General Superintendent
348. Great care must be taken by Division Engineers, Resident Engineers and Bridge and Building
Masters, to whom the security of structures is intrusted, to make their inspections so thorough and
the records thereof so complete as to convey definite
and precise knowledge of the condition of each and
every structure at the time of the last inspection.
349. There shall be two regular inspections each
year, as follows:—
1st. In the month of April by the Resident Engineer and Bridge and Building Master for each division, of all truss and large trestle bridges.
2nd. In the month of September, by the Division
Engineer, Superintendent, Resident Engineer and
Bridge and Building Master, of all bridges, culverts,
trestles  retaining walls, etc.
350. In addition, the Resident Engineer and Bridge
and Building Master shall at all times make such
further inspections as may be necessary to keep
thoroughly posted as to the conditions and safety of
all bridges, trestles and culverts on their divisions.
351. The Bridge and Building Master will forward
his report (Form 921) of these inspections to the
Superintendent, and a copy of the same to the Resident Engineer, who will send it to the Division
352. The Resident Engineer will arrange to obtain
the record of extreme high water at the time of each
flood, or extraordinary freshet, at all bridges, culverts and openings, and they will forward this data 92
to the Division Engineer, who will retain copy and
forward it to the office of the Chief Engineer for
353. The Bridge and Building Master will furnish 1
monthly   reports   (Form   923) of   all   repairs   and   renewals of bridges, culverts, etc., executed during the ;
month,   to  the Superintendent, and a  copy   of the
same to the Resident Engineer, who will send it to
the Division Engineer.   The Division Engineer will
check the same against the inspection requirements J
as contained in Form 921 for the purpose of insuring compliance with such requirements.
354. At the completion of the work, the Bridge and
Building Master will forward a report to the Resident
Engineer (Form 924) showing all changes in the
class of structure. This report will be forwarded to
the Division Engineer, who, after recording same,
will send it to the office of the Chief Engineer for
final record.
355. The September inspection must be made with
special reference to obtaining data for estimating the
cost of renewals and repairs and for the material
required for the ensuing year.
356. Following the September inspection, estimates
of the cost of repairs, renewals and replacements
recommended for the ensuing year will be prepared
on form 926 by the Resident Engineer with the assistance of the Bridge and Building Master, passed
on to the Division Engineer, who, after checking will
forward to the General Superintendent for approval
and be sent by him to the Chief Engineer.
357. The character and extent of renewals and im-j
provements   will   be  determined   from  this   report j
bh 93
Descriptions and estimates will be given for permanent structures, wherever same appear desirable
or economical.
358. Note books of inspection (Form 920) must
be filled out at the structure after careful examination has been made of each of the points itemized in
the blanks, using, in cases where there are a number
of spans in which defects are observed, a properly
noted column for each span. When the spans are all
in good condition, one column only need be used, but
the number of spans should be noted.
359. Designate the separate spans of a bridge by
numbering them in the direction of the bridge numbers on the division, and the separate bents or piers
in same manner, commencing with abutment, bank-
bent or sill as number one. Designate the truss as
the right or left, locating points on it by numbering
the panels in the same direction as the spans are
360. When any members of wooden structures, on
account of their age, appearance or position, are liable to be decayed, they shall be tested by boring,
the holes to be plugged as soon as the inspection is
361. When making the regular inspections, the Inspectors will take a statement of the results of the
last examination relative to such structures as required attention at that time, and in reporting on
these structures, special notes shall be made as to
whether the repairs and recommendations of the
previous examinations have been fully carried out or
not, and whether the work is in accordance with the
standard plans.
ran 94
362. 1. Note if the waterway requires straightening,
cleaning out or enlarging above or below structure.
Does structure afford* ample waterway? Is riprap
needed to maintain channel or protect roadway?
2. Note line and surface, also condition of rails,
joints and fastenings on bridges and approaches. See
that rails are braced or tie plates used on curves
when necessary, and that track on approaches is
firmly bedded, avoiding shock or jolt to train as it
passes on to bridge.
3. Note any rotten, split or otherwise defective
bridge ties, giving number, size and kind.
4. See if guard rails are in line and bolted or spiked
down tight.
5. Note condition of cap9 and stringers, particularly at points where they bear against other members.
6. Note if plumb and batter posts are crooked,
split or decayed, and if bents stand plumb.
7. See if trestle towers or bents are properly sway-
braced, and all braces longitudinal and transverse are
drawn up tight and have sufficient bolts or spikes to
hold them properly.
8. Note particularly the condition of piles where
they enter the ground or water. See that they stand
9. Examine each pier and abutment as to joints,
settlement, imperfect stones, cracks or other defects; 95
note if work needs pointing up or if cracks have
opened since last pointed; make such measurements
as will locate position of cracks, and note on sketch
on back of report blanks:—Condition of riprap, if
any. Is riprap needed to prevent undermining? How
much? Condition of pedestal stones, and whether
bridge seat is clean and water drained off.
10. Note condition of culvert and retaining walls.
See if they are yielding by settlement or bulging
from the pressure of the embankment.
11. Note condition of ring or covering stone, of box
or arch culverts.
fZ. Note condition of paving and riprap, and that
same is so placed that it cannot be undermined by
13. Does pipe drain need head or tail wall to protect embankment from washing? And does it clean
itself of water?
14. Does timber box need to be replaced with
masonry or culvert pipe? If so, give dimensions
required to give ample water-way, and give height
from bottom of stream to rail.
15. See if bed plates and rollers are clean, and if
the latter stand so as to move squarely back and
forth with the truss. See if pedestal takes an even
bearing on rollers.   Examine anchor bolts.
16. Observe particularly the condition of wall
plates where bolster rests upon them. Note any appearance of crushing or decay.
17. Note condition of bolsters and corbels. See if
holes are bored through them where they cover the
spaces between chord sticks, to prevent the collection 96
of water, and if there is any indication of decay
where they are in contact with chord.
18. Angle blocks and all cast iron members, such
as chord boxes, post shoes, etc., must be examined
for cracks and for any indication of displacement by
reason of daps splitting or timber crushing. A hole
of one-fourth inch in diameter, if drilled at the end
of a crack, will frequently stop its extending farther.
19. Note particularly any appearance of opening of
bottom chord joints. Wooden bridges over four
years old should have gauge blocks at all joints in
the middle half of the span, made by fastening two
planed and squared blocks, two inches by one iu,ch,
six inches long, to the chord sticks with screws, and
scribing a fine line across both. Any movement of
joints should be noted, giving location and amount,
scribing a new line from the old one on the outside
block across the inside block. See if clamp daps are
20. See that all chord and packing bolts are tight.
Nuts on all bolts through guard rails, ties, stringers,
and floor beams must be secured in place by burring
the thread of the bolt at two or three places with a
centre punch or chisel.
21. Note any signs of decay or crushing in packing
blocks and see that clamps and keys are in proper
22. See if gib plates are distorted, or crushing into
the chords; if they are, give their location and dimensions, number, size and spacing of rods passing
through them.   Give size of rods over threads.
23. Note condition of sides and roof of covered
bridges, or of chord and end post covering. 97
24. Notice particularly the connection between
(stringers and floor beams, see that connecting angles
tare not split, neither in the angle nor through in the
lline of the rivet holes. For wooden stringers, note
i condition as to soundness and bearing.
26. Notice particularly the connections between
I floor beams and trusses for evidence of imperfect
bearing, or splitting of connecting angles. If suspended, notice if they are up tight against the post
feet, or free to move.
26. Test equality of tension in tie bars by springing
them. Look for any signs of distortion or crookedness in bars of end panels of bottom chords. Howe
truss rods, counter lateral and vibration rods must
never be allowed to hang loose. They must not be
adjusted while a load is on the bridge. They should
be tightened enough to give close and even bearings,
but must not be overstrained, as unnecessary strains
are put on compression members if too much power
is used in adjusting tension members. See that the
centre line of all tension members is the same as the
line of strain.
27. Examine all tension members carefully, especially at the joints.
28. See if posts, lateral struts and top chords are
straight and free from twists. On wooden bridges,
see if braces are up in place, taking a square bearing
at ends, and note if any warping is evident. Note
their condition as to soundness.
29. Examine all lateral connections, and see that
lateral tension members are straight. Examine bracing in iron trestles. 98
30. Make   particular  examination   of all  hanger;
testing each nut to see that it is tight.   A streak o. ]
white paint drawn across nut and bearing will indicate any movement.   These nuts should be screwed
up tight and secured by burring the thread of the!
bolt and nut at two or three points with a centre \
punch or chisel.
31. Note any pins which indicate the movement of 1
any of the members coupling on them, or that have
loose nuts.   All pins and nuts should have a streak 3
of white paint across nut and pin end.
32. All field driven rivets in floor beams and stringer connections should be lightly sounded to see that!
they are tight. Also lateral connection rivets in]
riveted trusses, and any intersection or other rivets j
which indicate by rust streaks or otherwise, that]
there is movement at that point.
33. Note if there are any members, such as closed j
columns, pedestals, etc., which catch and retain water j
by reason of not having proper drain holeb.
34. Note carefully the line of each truss by the top I
chord and by points on the floor beams equidistant!
from the centre of the posts.   Also note the camber 1
in the top and bottom chords, whether it is true ana
uniform or irregular.
35. Look for loose rods, hangers, loose braces, un- j
equal sized timbers and other defects which require!
adjusting in order that each of the different parts]
may have proper bearings and carry its proper parti
of the load.
36. Note any undue vibration of the structure under j
live load. 99
37. Note excessive deflection of the structure under
live load, seeing if the two trusses have the same
38. See if any rust spots are apparent under the
paint. Note if structure needs repainting. Iron
bridge work should be scraped and repainted, as
often as necessary to preserve from rusting.
39. Note such wooden structures as require barrels
to add to their safety against fire, giving number required. State condition of such barrels as may be in
position. Oa all bridges of such magnitude as to require a watchman, there should be a foot plank between the rails securely fastened to the ties to facilitate crossing the bridge quickly in emergencies,
such as fire or danger to trains. Note if ladders;
either fixed or portable, are required for the safety of
the structure or to facilitate inspection.
40. See if material, driftwood, weeds, grass or other
rubbish is properly removed and burned, or otherwise disposed of.
363. Water barrels shall be placed at all wooden
bridges, and all steel bridges with wood decks, 10 ft.
long or over. At bridges with a length of from 10 to
50 ft. one barrel shall be provided; for longer bridges
a barrel shall be placed at each end, and also on
the deck of wooden bridges at intervals of 150 feet,
and on steel bridges at intervals of 200 feet.
364. Barrels shall also be placed in the ground at
the bottom of wooden trestles 20 ft. high or over,
wnere there is no stream or other body of water
adjacent, spaced at intervals of 150 ft. 100
365. Barrels placed at ends of bridges shall be set
in tne ground to within 6 inches of the top, about
12 ft. from end of structure, and those placed on
bridge decks shall be secured to platforms outside
of outer guard rail. Inside of each barrel shall be
placed a four gallon bucket, the bottom of which
shall have two small holes punched in it, to prevent
its use for other purposes. All barrels shall be
provided with a cover.
366. Barrels placed on bridge decks shall be
painted on the outside with C. P. R. black Graphite
paint. The Bridge and Building Master shall be
responsible for the placing and maintenance of barrels, and Section Foremen shall be responsible for
keeping them filled with water at all times, except
in severe winter weather when the freezing of water
would be likely to burst barrels. At such times
they shall be emptied, removed from bridge decks,
and stored.
Inteblocking.—An arrangement of switch, lock,
and signal appliances, so interconnected that their
movements must succeed each other in a pre-deter-
mined order.
Interlocking Plant.—An assemblage of switch,
lock, and signal appliances, interlocked.
Interlocking Station.—A place from which an
interlocking plant is operated.
Inteblocking Signals.—The fixed signals of an
interlocking plant. 101
Home Signal.—A fixed signal at the point at which
trains are required to stop when the route is not
Distant Signal.—A fixed signal used in connection
with a home signal, to regulate the approach thereto.
Dwarf Signal.—A low fixed signal.
Signal Mast.—The upright to which the signals
are directly attached.
367 (a). The style of signal used is the semaphore
(b) The arm of a home signal has a square end,
the front is painted red with a white band, the back
is painted white with a black band. It is placed on
a signal mast at least twenty feet above the track.
(c) The arm of a dwarf signal has a square end,
the front is painted red with a white band, the back
is painted white with a black band. It is placed on
a signal mast about three feet above the track.
(d) The arm of a distant signal has a forked end,
the front is painted yellow with a black " V " shaped
band the back is painted white with a black "V"
shaped band across the blade. It is placed on a
signal mast at least twenty feet above the track.
(e) The governing arms shall be displayed to the
right of the signal mast, as seen from an approaching
(f) The back view of an interlocking signal does
not govern the movements of trains.
(g) The indications are given by not more than
two positions of an arm; and, in addition, at night
by lights of the prescribed color. 102
(h) The normal indication, of a home signal or a
dwarf signal is " STOP "; and of a distant signal is
(j) The apparatus is so constructed that the failure of any part directly controlling a signal will
cause it to give the normal indication.
(k) The apparatus is so constructed that the
failure of any part directly controlling a switch or
lock will prevent the display of a clear signal.
(1) The signals, if practicable, are either over
upon the right or the outside of and adjoining the
track which they govern.
(m) When main running tracks are so situated
that sufficient space cannot be obtained to admit of
the signal masts being located adjoining the track
which they govern, the masts may be located either
on a signal bridge directly over the centre of the
track they govern or on a bracket post.
(n) When parallel tracks are to be governed the
masts carrying the signals governing them should
stand in the same relative positions as the tracks
governed. On bracket posts, signals on the right
hand must refer to the main running track farthest
to the right, the signals on the next mast to the left
refer to the main running track to left of the first
mentioned track, and so on for each main running
track operated in the same established direction.
(o) The indication governing a main running
track movement in the established direction will be
given by a Home Sign-aL
(p)   The indication for a main running track di- 103
verging movement in the established direction at a
junction will be given by one of two Home Signals
located one above the other on the same mast, the
topmost signal will govern the superior route and the
lower signal that of the secondary or inferior route.
(q) The indication for a diverging movement from
the main track in the established direction to a
secondary or side track will be given by a Dwarf
signal located to the right of and adjoining the track
to which it refers and either at the foot of or opposite
the Home Signal. The light on the Dwarf Signal
corresponding to the Stop indication will be shielded
off, the Home Signal alone giving the Stop indication
and the Dwarf Signal the clear indication, for the diverging movement.
(r) The indication for a reverse movement from
the established direction on or from a main running
track, or for a movement in either direction on a
side track, or from a side track to the main running
track, will be given by a Dwarf Signal.
(s) Distant Signals will give advance information in regard to one Home Signal only. When there
is more than one signal on the Home Signal mast the
Distant Signal will work in connection with the topmost signal.
368. Interlocking signals, unless otherwise provided, do not affect the movements of trains under the
time table or train rules; nor do they dispense with
the use or the observance of other signals whenever
tod wherever they may be required. 104
369. The normal indication of home signals is Stop.
369  (tt). A back white light indicates that the clear
signal   is   displayed.     A   back   blue   light on the I
home signal indicates that the stop signal, and on
the distant signal that the caution signal is displayed.
370. Levers, or other operating appliances, must be
used only by those charged with the duty and as
directed by the rules.
371. Signal levers rnusf be kept in the position
giving the normal indication, except when signals are
to be cleared for an immediate train or engine move-<
372. When the route is clear, the signals must be
cleared sufficiently in advance of approaching trains
and engines to avoid delay.
373. Signals must be restored so as to give the
normal indication as soon as the train or engine for
which they were cleared has passed them.
374. If necessary to change any route for which the "j
signals have been cleared for an approaching train or
engine, switches must not be changed or signals
cleared for any conflicting route until the train or
engine, for which the signals were first cleared, has
375. A switch or facing point lock must not be
moved when any portion of a train or an engine is
standing on, or closely approaching, the switch or
detector bar.
376. Levers must be operated carefully and with a
uniform movement.     If any irregularity, indicating
am 105
disarranged connections, is detected in their working, the signals must be restored so as to give the
normal indication, and the connections be examined.
377. During cold weather, the levers must be moved
as often as may be necessary to keep connections
from freezing.
378. If a signal fails to work properly, its operation
must be discontinued and the signal secured so as to
give the normal indication until repaired.
379. Signalmen must observe, as far as practicable,
whether the indication of the signals corresponds
with the position of the levers.
380 Signalmen must not make or permit any unauthorized alterations or additions to the plant.
381. If there is a derailment or if a switch is run through/
or if any damage occurs to the track or interlocking
plant, the signals must be restored so as to give the nor-*
mal indication, and no train or switching movement permitted until all parts of the interlocking plant and track
liable to consequent injury have been examined and are
known to be in a safe condition.
382. If necessary to disconnect a switch from the interlocking apparatus, the switch must be securely fastened.
383. During storms or drifting snow, special care must
be used in operating switches. If the force whose.duty it
is to keep the switches clear is not on hand promptly?
when required, the fact must be reported to the Superintendent.
384. If any electrical or mechanical appliance fails to
work properly, the Superintendent must be notified and
only duly authorized persons permitted to make repairs. 106
385. When switches or signals are undergoing repairs
signals must not be given for f any movements which
may be affected by such repairs, until it has been ascertained from the repairmen that the switches are properly
set for such movements.
386. Signalmen must observe all passing trains and
note whether they are complete and in order; should
there be any indication of conditions endangering the
train, or any other train, the signalman must take such
measures for the protection of trains as may be practicable.
387. If a signalman has information that an approaching train has parted, he must, if possible, stop trains or
engines on conflicting routes, clear the route for the
parted train, and give the Train-parted signal to the
388. Signalmen must have the proper appliances for
hand signalling ready for immediate use. Hand signals
must not be used when the proper indication can be
displayed by the fixed signals. When hand signals are
necessary they must be given from such a point and in
such a way that there can be no misunderstanding on
the part of enginemen or trainmen as to the signals, or
as to the train or engine for which they are given.
389. If necessary to discontinue the use of any fixed
signal, hand signals must be used and the Superintendent
390. Signalmen will be held responsible for the care of
the interlocking station, lamps and supplies; and of the
interlocking plant, unless provided for otherwise.
391. Lights in interlocking stations must be so placed
that they cannot be seen from approaching trains.
BUSH 107
392. Lights must be used upon all fixed signals from
sunset to sunrise, and whenever the signal indications
cannot be clearly seen without them.
393. If a train or engine over runs a stop-signal, the
fact, with the number of train or engine, must be reported to the Superintendent.
394. Only those whose duties require it shall be permitted in the interlocking station.
395. A signal imperfectly displayed, or the absence of a
•signal at a place where a signal is usually shown, must
be regarded as a stop signal and the fact reported to the
3^6. Trains or engines must be run to, but not beyond
a signal indicating stop.
397. If a clear signal, after being accepted, is changed
to a stop signal   before it is reached, the stop must be
[made at once.    Such occurrence must be reported to the
398. Hand signalling includes the use of lamp, flag,
torpedo and fusee signals.
399. Enginemen and trainmen must not accept clear
hand signals as against fixed signals until they are fully
informed of the situation, and know that they are protected. Where fixed signals are in operation, trainmen
must not give clear hand signals against them.
400. The engineer of a train which has parted must
sound the whistle signal for Train-parted on approaching
an interlocking station.
401. An engineer receiving a Train-parted signal from
a signalman, must answer by the whistle signal for Train-
parted. 108
402. When a parted train has been re-coupled, the
signalman must be notified.
403. Sandvinust not be used over movable parts of an
interlocking plant.
404. Conductors must report to the Superintendent
any unusual detention at interlocking plants.
405. Trains or engines stopped in making a movement
through an interlocking plant, must not move in either
direction until they have received the proper signal from
the signalman.
406. Passenger trains must not exceed a speed of 12
miles, and other trains a speed of 8 miles per hour over
interlocked railway crossings, junctions, and draw bridges.
407. Repairmen are responsible for the inspection,
adjustments and proper maintenance of all the interlocking plants, highway crossing bells, &c, assigned to their
408.' Where the condition of switches or track does not
admit of the proper operation or maintenance of the
interlocking plant, the fact must be reported to the
409. When any part of an interlocking plant is to be
repaired, a thorough understanding must be had with the
signalman, in order to secure the safe movement of
trains and engines during repairs. The signalman must
be notified when the repairs are completed.
410. Alterations or additions to an interlocking plant
must not be made unless authorized by the Superintendent.
411. Repairmen when on duty, or subject to call, must
keep the proper officer advised as to where they can be
found, and respond promptly when called.
sn .09
412. I Portable forge 30" x 30" fire box,  10" fan
blower, no  hood.
1 150 lbs. anvil.
1 Pipe cutter to cut %" to 1" pipe.
2 Dies for 1" Pipe.
1 Die for %" pipe.
1 Pipe stock for above dies.
2 1-%" Adjustable pipe tongs.
1 12 lbs. sledge and handle.
1 Canvas tool bag.
1 No. 5 Champion drill press three geared 20" swing
with %" straight hole for drill in shaft.
1 No. 2 Westcott's Little Giant Drill chuck with %"
shank jaws to hold up to 1".
500 ft. %" manilla rope.
1 double block for %" rope.
1 single block for %" rope.
1 Stillson wrench 14".
1 Reamer %".
2 14" flat files.
1 %" round file.
1 % "round file.
1 Ratchet drill.
1 Combination pipe vise to hold up to 2" pipe, jaw
to be 4" wide. 110
2 y_" Ttfist drills %" straight shank.
2 %" Twist drills %" straight shank.
2 %" Twist drills %" straight  shank.
2 11-16" Twist drills %" straight shank.
2 13-16" Twist drills %" straight shank.
2 %" Twist drills %"  straight shank.
2 1-1-16" Twist drills %" straight shank.
2 1^4" Twist drills %" straight shank.
2 11-16" Twist drills for ratchet square shank.
2 13-16" Twist drills for ratchet square shank.
1   pr. \-y_" round nose Blacksmiths tongs*
1 pr. %" round nose Blacksmiths tongs.
2 pr. 1*4" flat nose Blacksmiths tongs.
1 1%" top swage.
1 1^4" bottom swage.
1 Hot chisel and handle.
1 Cold chisel and handle.
413. The type of yard limit signal shall be C.P.R.
standard semaphore.
414. Two light back spectacle semaphore shall be
used as follows:—
(a) At all divisional points.
(b) At all stations where regular switching engines are engaged. Ill
(c) At stations where the first switch cannot be
seen from an approaching train for a distance greater
than 1,000 ft
(d) The use of distant semaphore is restricted to
such points as are approved by the General Superintendent and Engineer Maintenance of Way.
415. Standard semaphore with one back light casting will be used as follows:
(a) At junctions, railway crossings and drawbridges not protected by interlocked plants.
416. In
the  erection   of  semaphores  observe  the
1. Semaphores shall be placed on the engineer's
side of an approaching train 8 feet from the
nearest rail and as far out as the General Superintendent approves.
2. The arm to extend to the right as seen from
an approaching  train.
For double track operating to the left, semaphores
shall be placed on the left side and the arm shall
extend to the left, as seen from an approaching train.
'3. Posts supporting wires shall be of an even
height of 4 ft. above base of rail, parallel thereto, 40
ft. apart, and not less than 8 ft. from nearest rail.
4. Railway, highway or farm crossings not
more than 20 ft. in width shall be crossed by underground wires passing through 4 inch cast iron pipe
or a wooden box with an opening of 3% inches square
placed as near the surface of the ground as practicable. 112
5. Where wires cross highways more than 20
ft. in width or a number of tracks, such as in yards,
they must run in y2 inch galvanized iron pipe provided with a stuffing box at each end, pipe to be filled
with black oil.
Maintenance and Inspection.
417. Keep the track battery strong and in good
order, inspecting same semi-monthly.
(a) A gravity cell deteriorates through the action ]
of the blue vitriol solution upon the zinc element,
forming a whitish solution of zinc sulphate. When
the line of demarkation is central, the cell Is prime,
lf the white solution gets too near the vitriol, draw ;
off some of the zinc sulphate by means of a battery
syringe and add soft water and vitriol. If the copper sulphate gets too high, draw off some of the b^ue
solution and replace by water, care being taken to
wash the zincs and scrape all connections in every
(b) Watch the track and keep the insulation good.
If gravel, cinder, or dirt ballast is used, do not allow
it .to lay up oves the base of the rails, which will
cause leakage. Test the insulated joints to insure
the^r good condition. Look after the bondwires and
taps where insulated wires lead off from track..
These often are broken or corroded off when it is
apparent only upon trying the wire by a slight puIV
HSKfl 113
(c) If bondwires are put between the splice bars
and the rail, be especially watchful along damp or
wet track. A broken bond behind a splice may
open up, in the hot hours of the day and close again
in the cool of the night, thereby making an intermittent failure sometimes hard to find.
(d) Allow slack wire in bends, in trunking.
(e) Do not use soldering salts, to corrode the joint
Use non-acid soldering compound that will not injure the wire.
(f) Do not use gas pliers or other heavy instrument on the thumb screws or binding post of relays,
bells, lightning arresters, etc. They are not constructed to stand rough treatment.
(g) In fastening lightning arresters to support, be
sure to get a good even bearing, or the porcelain
core will break.
(h) Keep all the apparatus well painted to preserve it from rust and decay.
(i) In case of trouble, localize the fault and then
|test out.     Do not hunt at random.     If the track
[relay is working, the fault is beyond the track and
its connections.
(j) Sweep your hand lightly over your battery
connections to pick out the weak ones, usually due
to corrosion on account of creeping salts.
418. Set up the Copper and Zinc elements in the
cell, put in about two lbs. of copper sulphate (blue 114
stone) and fill up with clean water until the zinc
is covered;   let the cell stand about 24 hours.
(a) By the action of the zinc on the copper sulphate solution, zinc sulphate is soon formed around
the zinc, and the cell is ready for use. The maintenance of this cell is simple, it being only necessary to renew the supply of copper sulphate when
the solution becomes weak, which is indicated by
the fall of the blue colored liquid below the top cf
the copper element.
(b) If the cell is desired for immediate use, a solution of zinc sulphate may be prepared and poured
into the jar with the copper sulphate solution; in
this case the zinc should not be placed in position
until the two liquids have separated, which will be
indicated by the upper part of the liquid becoming
nearly colorless, while the lower part is of a deep
blue color.
■m 115
1. By-standers should not be permitted to crowd about
an injured person.
2. A written dispatch or telegram should be sent at
once to the nearest surgeon, giving such particulars as
will enable him to bring the necessary remedies and
3. The injured person should not be moved until it is
known what part is injured, and anything pressing
upon or holding it is removed.
4. In moving the injured person a stretcher should be
used, if obtainable; but in any event the body should be
very gently raised and moved, any injured limb being
carefully supported.
5. In all cases the use of stimulants should be avoided,
except under medical advice.
6. It should be ascertained at once where the blood is
coming from, and if found to be spurting out and of a
bright red color, stop it by at once applying finger or
thumb over the bleeding point, and press until the blood
flow is stopped, and keep pressure on until some other
means can be obtained of stopping the flow.
To stop flow of blood by pressing on the main arteries,
look at diagrams opposite, where it is shown at what points
the principal arteries may be arrested by pressure either
with fingers or thumb; the vessels can be felt pulsating at
these points and compressed against the bones. 116
Main artery of arm can be compressed thus—
by bandage with knot and tightened by stick,
or by a firm pad held  in place by a tight
am  118
Or by fingers and thumb, as shown below.  120
7. Trainmen should note these points in the diagrams,
and practice the stopping of the flow of blood by pressure
at these points on their own or friends' limbs; a life may be j
saved by being ready when needed.
Procure surgical gauze or lint or clean linen; relay pressure on main artery and be prepared to plug the bleeding
wound firmly with strips of gauze, lint or linen. Fold the
pillow or blanket up each side of the leg and support it
with strips of wood, and tie with strips of bandage around
pillow or blanket.
8. In case of crushing injuries to arms or legs, the
sudden loss of blood and the shock bring about weakened
force in the action of the heart, and the blood tends to
clot in the wound, and the bleeding stops as a rule. Rough
handling or moving, or the giving of stimulants, would
often disturb the clots and cause bleeding to recur.
9. If there be bleeding through the clothes, rip them up
and expose the injured part so as to see where the blood
comes from, and apply pressure above the wound at one of
the points indicated in diagram.
If necessary, procure a board and straighten the limb
thereon, or place a pillow or a folder blanket under, and
raise the limb to lessen the blood going into it, and move
patient to a convenient warm place.
10. In case of bleeding within the body, the patient
will become very pale and have fainting, dizzy, or blind
spells. In such cases we can hope that faintness, etc., may.
lead to decreased flow and to clotting of the blood in the
vessels. Any movement is dangerous, and the giving
stimulants particularly so. 121
No attempt to clean a serious wound with water, until a
surgeon arrives, should be made, as dirt is liable to be
gashed into the depths of the wound from the outside.
11. In case there is any bleeding, it should be stopped
by pressure from a linen pad, placed over the wound and
held there securely by a bandage, unless the bleeding comes
from the eyes, nose or ears, in which event, the head should
be placed on one side, so as to allow the blood to run out
of the mouth. The feet should be kept warm, if possible,
by the application of hot bricks, which should be wrapped
in cloths, so as not to burn the skin.
12. Injuries to the head are usually accompanied by
vomiting, followed by sleeping; and the injured person
should in all such cases be kept absolutely at rest.
13. As the'skull may be broken and depressed, causing
pressure on the brain, care should be exercised not to
press it hard with the points of the fingers or otherwise;
and the head should be kept slightly raised, and wet cloths
be applied to it.
14. A broad bandage should be applied around the
ehest or ribs, to prevent movement as far as possible,
and the injured person be kept on his or her back.
15. This^is usually accompanied by paralysis and loss
of sensation in the limbs below the injury, and the injured
person should be kept at rest in the most comfortable
position. 122
16. If the bones are pushed through the skin, they
should be gently replaced after being carefully washed,
with, if possible, clear running or boiled water, and the
injured limb be placed in as nearly the same position
as the uninjured one, and kept there by a splint-on either
side, held in place by bandaging. In the case of a broken
arm, the hand should be put in a sling. A patient should
never be lifted by an injured limb, nor the limb be allowed
to remain unsupported.
17. In order to keep a restless or delirious person who is
badly injured about legs, feet,or arms quiet, long stockings,
bags, or pillow cases should be filled with dry sand or
earth and placed beside and bandaged to the injured limbs.
This will tend to prevent the parts jerking, and is especially
useful in moving person a long distance by train or otherwise.
18. A small pad should be put in the arm pit, the elbow
raised by a bandage placed beneath it, and the whole arm
bound to the body by bandaging.
19. The clothes should be cut off, and sweet oil,castor oil,
linseed oil, vaseline or flour, covered with cotton batting or
linen so as to exclude the air, be applied.
20. The frozen parts should, on no account, be rubbed,
but should be kept in cold water until the frost is out of
them. The temperature of the water should then be
very gradually raised to 99 degrees. 123
21. A small box of surgical appliances is carried in
every sleeping car, which may be given to any surgeon who
happens to be on the train for use on any injured person.
If no surgeon be on the train, the conductor or any St.
John's Ambulance certificated man should be asked to do
what he can till the surgeon arrives. Instructions are in
the box. 124
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Montreal  12^ April 1906-
/■,'*     ***<c<iccc^£
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80 lbs Kail Standard length
/      /   /• Special Joint
Side Elevation.
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Montreal  12^? April 1906.
Asst Chief fngineen
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Side Elevation. 128
C. P. R.
Approved: '       f/E%*±StJ-'***s
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Asst. Chief Engineer
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C. P. B.
Montreal   30$ March 1906
Asst. Civet Engineer
Cast Iron Car Stop
Frame Car Stop   132 133
mm 134 135
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Montreal   9$ September 190
ml  \m
Three Tie •Joint 137
Cross Section
Cross   Section
Montreal. 14* February 1906
C. P. R.
Asst Chief Engineer
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Montreal 22*0cfober 1906.
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Montreal; IS* february 1935
Asst Chief Engineer 144 145
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Montreal. 16 * March 1906,
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Approved.. &'?... QZf^h&f&E^L
Asst. Chief Engineer 149
Montreal. 19* MarcK 1906.    Appny^.P^x^^^c^.
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© £
o 150
C. P. R,
Montreal Z- October 1305
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