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Across Canada : east bound Canadian Pacific Railway Company 1915

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Annotated Guide
via Canadian Pacific
Railway—the greatest
transportation System
in  the   world,     &    &
me safe i i
The Dominion op Canada
Victoria and Vancouver to Montreal
Vancouver to Field
Field to Swift Current
Swift Current to Broadview
Broadview to Fort William
Fort William to Chalk River
Chalk River to Montreal
British Columbia Coast Service
Kootenay Central Branch
Calgary to Edmonton
Calgary to Lethbridge
Edmonton to Winnipeg
Great Lakes Route
New Lake Ontario Shore Line
Winnipeg to Toronto
Montreal to New York
Montreal to Boston
Montreal to Portland
Montreal to Halifax
The Land of Evangeline
Montreal to Quebec	
Winnipeg to Minneapolis and St. Paul
Kootenay Landing to Dunmore ....
Crow's Nest
Arrow Lakes    ]Pass Route
Kettle Valley Railway
103 Across   Canada
i I
I '
CANADA comprises the northern half of North America.
Its southern boundary is the United States, on the east is
the Atlantic, on the west the Pacific, and on the north the
Arctic Ocean. Its area is 3,729,665 square miles, larger
than that of the United States, and nearly equal to that of
Europe. The population was, according to the last census,
which was taken in the year 1911, 7,206,643, or less than that of Pennsylvania, the population of which, according to the census of 1910, was
7,665,111. The census also showed that of the population 3,896,985 were
British by race or origin, 2,054,890 were of French descent, 393,320
Germans, 105,492 Indian and half-breeds, 36,795 Chinese and Japanese,
while almost every European race was represented in the remainder.
During recent years a large number of farmers from the United
States have settled in the Western Prairie provinces. Population to
square mile, Canada, 1.93; Great Britain, 471; U.S.A., 25.
From Vancouver on the Pacific to Halifax on the Atlantic is 3,740
miles by rail. From Dawson on the Yukon River to Victoria on the
Pacific is 1,550 miles by ocean and river steamer and rail. Its most
southerly portion is in the latitude of Northern Spain and Italy, and
the most northerly portion of the mainland is in the latitude of Northern Norway.
The following table gives the areas and population of the various
Yukon, etc	
Northwest Territories
British Columbia
Prince Edward Island
New Brunswick
Nova Seotia  	
Area in
Square Miles
In a country of such a vast extent, a wide variety of climate is
naturally to be found. Except on and near the ocean coast, the general characteristic of the climate of Canada comprises a warm dry
summer and a dry cold winter. It is bracing and healthful, and in all
respects is a white man's country.
On the Pacific coast, owing to the Japanese current, the climate is
identical in temperature with that of the British Isles, which lie in the
same latitude. |||
The Dominion is governed, under a Governor-General appointed by
the British Crown, by a Legislature or Parliament, which makes the
laws. Parliament is composed of two Houses, the Commons, eleeted
by the people, and the Senate, appointed by the Government.
The Cabinet or Government, which adniinisters the laws passed by
Parliament, is composed of members oi Parliament, who must have
the support of a majority of the Commons or elective branch in order
to hold power. Annotated   Guide
A change of policy, by reason of a change of Government, may
occur at any time, and an election to decide as to the views of the
people on the change may be held at any time.
13ie Dominion Parliament controls the criminal law, the militia, the
post office, railways, indirect taxation by the tariff and excise, trade
relations with other countries, and, speaking generally, all matters of
national concern.
The Dominion owns and controls the administration of the public
lands in the three Central Provinces and throughout Northern Canada.
These provinces contain many millions of acres of unoccupied agricultural government land, and the responsibility for their development rests upon the Dominion Government.
The provinces are governed by legislatures elected by the people,
and have responsible government on the same principles as the Dominion. They are charged with providing the civil law and administering
both civil and criminal laws.
They provide for education and for municipal government, and for
direct taxation in their support, and generally all matters of a purely
provincial or local nature.
Primary education in Canada is amply provided for in all the provinces, and in nearly all it is free. The figures for 1913 show that
there were then 24,871 public and high schools, with 36,019 teachers
and 1,218,308 pupils. Canada spent on education in 1913, $49,246,370.
Of the population of five years and over in 1911, 88.98 per cent, can
read and write, and .052 per cent, able to read only, and 10.50 per
cent, cannot read or write. The system of education is mainly compulsory (except in Manitoba) and unsectarian.
There is no State Church in Canada, but there are numerous places
of worship belonging to the different denominations. According to
the census returns of 1911 the adherents of the principal religious
bodies were as follows:
Roman Catholics . 2,833.041
Presbyterians    ... 1,115,324
Methodists      1,079,892
Anglicans      1,043,017
Baptists     382,666
Lutherans     229,864
Greeks      88,507
Jews     74,564
Mennonites      44,611
Congregationalists . 34,054
Salvation Array   ... 18,834
Christians  16,773
Evangelical     10,595
Buddhists       10,012
Brethren    9,278
Respect for law and maintenance of order are very prominent
features of life in Canada, as distinguished from most other new
countries. The criminal statistics show a slight increase, but there is
very little serious crime in Canada. In 1914 there were 21,438 convictions in all for indictable offences, of which 18,315 were first convictions. Only 241 of these offences called for sentences of five years
and over, and only in 27 instances was sentence of death passed. In
5,518 cases the offender was allowed the option of a fine.
Each Province supports its own police force. The Canadian Pacific
Railway has its own police system.
The Canadian Pacific Railway has been well called one of the wonders of the world, and is the longest continuous track railway under
one management in the world. It was constructed from coast to
coast in five years instead of ten, as per contract, and its total mileage
is over 18,000. It possesses, or controls through a subsidiary company, 76 steamships, 2,255 locomotives, 2,781 passenger and sleeping
cars, and 95,395 freight cars. During the year ending June 30, 1916,
it carried 13,833,978 passengers and 29,276,872 tons of freight.
Canada has 1,284 Post Office and Government Savings Banks.
There are 22 chartered banks in the Dominion with branches all
over the country. In ten years their assets have almost doubled, their
capital has increased 25 per cent., and their note circulation has Across   C an a d a
increased almost 48 per cent.   The public deposits in Canada amount
to $1,098,103,494.
The total savings of the people amount to about $150 per head—
the highest record of any country in the world.
The clearing house returns of the principal Canadian cities are as
follows, and give some idea of the amount of business done:
Clearing House.
Year 1915.
First half year 1916.
Canada buys $100 per annum per head of the population.
The census of the manufacturers of Canada taken in 1911 for the
calendar year 1910 gives the following comparative statistics, compared with those of the census of 1901 for the calendar year 1900,
Employees .
Salaries, Wages
The capital employed in manufactures increased during the decade
by 179.15 per cent., and the value of products by 142.38 per cent.
The number of establishments employing five hands and over last
year was 19,218, being an increase of 4,568 in the decade.
The progress of Canada as an agricultural country may be seen in
the following figures for the crops for the years 1900, 1910 and 1915
Wheat   ...
Barley   ...
Potatoes   .
55,572,000 bush.
132,078,000 bush.
376,304,000 bush.
37,063,455 acres were under cultivation in 1915, value of products
being $797,669,000. Exports of annual agricultural produce in 1915
totalled $209,136,793.
Canada has also a large and increasing fruit production, consisting principally of apples, but including also peaches, plums, grapes,
and small fruits.
The figures of the live stock for the same period show a similar
rate of progress:—
Live Stock
Horses   ....
Milch Cows.
Other Cattle
1    3,610,428
3,434,261 1
J. D. McGregor, of Brandon, Manitoba, won the prize for the best
animals out of 10,000 shown at the International Live Stock Exhibition,  Chicago, December, 1913. Annotated   Guide
Canada has the most extensive fisheries in the world, including
12,780 miles of sea coast and innumerable lakes and streams amounting to 220,000 square miles of fresh water. The number of vessels and
boats engaged in the industry is 41,036, and the number of fishermen
94,513. The principal fish caught are salmon, lobsters, cod, herring,
mackerel, trout, halibut, and haddock. The value of the fish caught
in 1915-16 was $35,860,708. Exports in fish in 1915-16 totalled $22,-
There are 64 fish-breeding hatcheries, and over 1,643,725,000 fry
are annually distributed. Canada's lobster plant is valued at $4,506,-
155, with nearly 696 lobster canneries, the output of which in 1915
was 86,824 cwt. live lobsters and 160,903 cases preserved lobsters.
Canada is rich in minerals, particularly in metals, and has the largest nickel, corundum, and asbestos deposits in the world. Mineral
production, 1915, $138,513,750. The Yukon goldfleld is 125,000 square
miles in area. Canada has 1,234,269,310,000 metric tons of coal in coal
areas estimated at 109,168 square miles. The famous Cobalt mines
yielded in 1915 23,568,147 ounces of silver. Ontario has now become
the largest gold-producing province in Canada, the production in
1915 from fifteen properties being reported as $8,386,956, or 44 per
cent, of the production of Canada.
Canada's forest resources are almost illimitable. According to official
estimates, there are 1,248,798 square miles of forest area in Canada.
Such estimates do not include the great northern belt of forest, as to
which all is more or less conjecture.
Ontario contains the largest area of forest lands, estimated at
102,000 square miles. North of the Canadian Pacific Railway are
about 60,000,000 arces covered by spruce, jackpine, and poplar. Red
and white pine are found in large quantities in many parts of the
Within the Provinces of the Dominion of Canada, and excluding the
Northwest Territories, practically all of the Yukon, and the northern
and eastern portion of Quebec, it is estimated that 17,764,000 horsepower is available, this amount being inclusive, in the case of Niagara
Falls, Fort Francis, and the St. Mary's River at Sault Ste. Marie, of
only the development permitted by international treaties, and further,
does not contemplate the full possibilities of storage for the improvement of capacities. The developed powers which are inclusive of all
water-powers, whether for electrical production, pulp grinders, for
milling or for the great many other uses, aggregate 1,712,193 horsepower, as developed by turbines, and tins amount is distributed over
the Provinces as shown in the following table:
Province Horse-power developed        Province Horse-power developed
Nova Scotia .  21,412 Manitoba      56,730
New Brunswick  13,390 Saskatchewan     45
Prince Edward Island 500 Alberta     33,305
Quebec      520,000 British Columbia  265,345
Ontario     789,466 Yukon     12,000
Total     1,712,193
There were 1,452,360 miles of telephone wire in Canada at the end
of 1915, and 533,090 telephones in use.    This is one telephone for
every fifteen of the population.
There are 195,000 miles of telegraph wire of which 105,780 miles
are owned and operated by the Canadian Pacific Railway.
There are 59 wireless telegraph stations.
Canada has six great National Parks in the Rocky Mountains: (1)
Rocky Mountain Park, with an area of 1,800 square miles; (2) Yoho
Park, area 560 square miles; (3) Glacier Park, area 468 square miles;
(4) Jasper Park, 4,400 square miles; (5) Waterloo Lakes Park, 423
square miles; (6) Revelstoke Park, 95 square miles. Both the Canadian Government and the Canadian Pacific Railway are spending
large sums in developing these parks and making them accessible to
the tourist, so that they are rapidly becoming the Playgrounds of
North America. C. P. R. Empress Hotel, Victoria, B.C.
f I
Annotated Guide
f I
via the Canadian Pacific Railway I j
11 ! f
**%*> hi 1jib      ex.  u«iii..ji~™ii» i»      an—-an »im~.-i"iaii » ...w ■ in—.« »—n—rtm»—iX
Victoria and Vancouver to Montreal, 2,891 Miles
Victoria—Alt. 20 ft. Pop. about SOjOOO. Capital of British Columbia,
charmingly situated at the southern extremity of Vancouver Island, overlooking the Straits of Fuca to the Pacific, and beyond the Gulf of Georgia, the mainland. Across the strait are the
beautiful Olympic Mountains, and far away at the east the white cone
of Mount Baker is conspicuous. The climate resembles that of the
south of England. Besides the magnificent Government buildings,
which rank amongst the finest in America, the city has many fine public and private structures, including the Canadian Pacific Railway's
palatial Empress Hotel, one of the finest hostelries on the Pacific
coast. Beacon Hill Park affords a fine view of the waters and mountains on every side. The city has an extensive trade, and many large
commercial houses, which do a very large outfitting trade for the
Yukon. The Chinese quarter is always interesting to visitors. The
Esquimalt and Nanaimo Railway extends northeasterly through a
heavily timbered country of great natural beauty and many prosperous settlements, to the fertile Courtenay district with a branch to Port
Alberni. A splendid Canadian Pacific steamship service connects with
Vancouver—a ferriage of four hours through a beautiful archipelago.
The "Princess" steamships are the most popular boats on the Pacific
coast. Steamboats also afford regular connections with Puget Sound
ports, and depart about every five days for San Francisco, connecting
there for Southern California, Mexico and South American west-coast
ports. Steamers from and to Vancouver for Japan, China, Philippines, Hawaii, Fiji and Australia stop at Victoria for passengers, and
there are regular sailings for Alaskan points both for tourists visiting
the wonderful fjords of the north coast, and those intending to explore
the great gold-belt of the Yukon. Esquimalt Harbor, two miles from
Victoria, was formerly the British naval station on the North Pacific,
with naval storehouses, workshops, graving docks, etc.
Vancouver—Alt. 14 ft. Pop. 156,000. The Pacific terminus of the
railway and the nearest ocean port to the great wheat
lands. Until May, 1886, its site was covered with a dense forest. From
May to July its growth was most rapid, but in July a fire, spreading
from the surrounding forest, swept away every house but one in the
place, and, with this one exception, every building now seen has been
erected since that time. The situation is most perfect as regards pic-
turesqueness, natural drainage, harbor facilities and commercial advantages.   It has extensive wharves and warehouses, churches, schools,
L Annotated   Guide
etc., all of the most substantial character, and many first-class hotels,
among them the Vancouver Hotel, recently very much enlarged, operated by the Canadian Pacific Railway. It has many miles of asphalt
streets, and cement sidewalks, has an electric street railway, and is lighted both by gas and by electricity. An ample supply of pure water is provided by means of pipes laid under the Inlet from mountain streams,
while the city's sewage system is second to none. Besides its magnificent
hotel, the Canadian Pacific Railway has a large station and offices in
the city, and it is a remarkable tribute to the growth of both railway
and city that big additions have just been made to these edifices.
There is a regular steamship service to Victoria, Seattle, Nanaimo and
San Francisco, to Philippines, Japan and China, to Sydney, Australia,
via Honolulu, H.I., Suva, Fiji, and to Puget Sound and Alaskan ports,
it being one of the principal points of departure on the coast for the
Yukon and other northern goldfields, and an outfitting headquarters
for miners and prospectors. The Canadian Pacific Ocean Services
White Empress Steamships take the shortest, safest and most pleasant
route to Yokohama, Kobe, Nagasaki, Manila, Shanghai and Hong
Kong, making the quickest passage by from five to ten days across the
North Pacific, departing every two or three weeks. The two magnificent steamers, the "Empress of Asia" and "Empress of Russia,"
are the fastest and most luxurious boats on the Pacific. With their
luxurious cabins, and splendid public rooms, with a gymnasium,
verandah, cafe and laundry; with a gay Filipino band and the perfect
service of the China boys, these vessels make the voyage to the Orient
one of the most delightful in the world. The Far East is now brought
near, and Vancouver touches the finger tips of dainty little Japan.
A large proportion of the silk trade passes through Vancouver, and
the Canadian Pacific Railway "Silk Train" is perhaps the most famous
freight train in the world.
The country south, towards the Fraser, has fine farms, and is especially adapted to fruit growing. The electric railway running from
Vancouver to Steveston intersects this district and gives access to the
salmon canneries at the foot of the Fraser River. The coal supply
comes from Nanaimo, directly across the Straits of Georgia, and almost within sight. The scenery all about is magnificent—the Cascade
Mountains near at hand at the north; the mountains of Vancouver Island across the water at the west; the Olympics at the southwest; and
Mount Baker looming up at the southeast. Stanley Park is a magnificent public pleasure resort, and a visit to Capilano Canyon, a remarkable mountain cleft across the Inlet, is a delightful outing. Opportunities for sport are unlimited at no great distance—mountain
goats, bear and deer in the hills along the Inlet and trout-fishing in
endless variety.  A stay of a week at Vancouver will be well rewarded.
Vancouver and Victoria are closely connected with the
An extensive steamship coast service is provided in connection with
the Canadian Pacific Railway.   From p
Victoria and  Nanaimo  steamers ply
daily to Vancouver.  Also at regular intervals from Northern British Columbia ports, west coast of
Vancouver Island, and
from Skagway, Alaska,
where    connection    is
made with the White
Pass and Yukon Route
during the summer season from Dawson, Atlin
and other Yukon points.
From Seattle, steamers de-    BSllllill
part daily for Victoria and Van-E=p=s||s
Parliament Building's, Victoria, B.C. 10
Across   Canada
Canadian Pacific Steamer "Princess Charlotte"
British Columbia Coast Service
»M'    ■■ i   ■■     ■■—m^—n     m     Mn i mi i n»m—»■■      im      m      «■     m      ■■      Mi    ■■     mm     ■<
.«||ii—»»     ii y —.11—»M—»»«■«—»M M—M M—»1»—~°UB Mi"       Mil I M—»UH—»»»—»M    I     M »■
From June to November the Canadian Pacific Railway operates
a weekly service of modern steel steamers from Skagway to Vancouver, Victoria and Seattle, and a slightly less frequent service during the remaining part of the year.
Leaving Skagway in the evening, after the arrival of the White Pass
& Yukon Railway train from interior points, we get a glimpse of the
now deserted village of Dyea, and shortly pass on the right the United
States Army post at Fort Seward and the adjoining town of Haines.
Snowcapped mountains hem us in on every side, and waterfall,
mountain torrent and glacier succeed each other until we turn into
Gastineau Channel which is reached after eight hours steaming from
Skagway, and very soon we are at our first stop, Juneau. Across the
channel from Juneau is Douglas Island, on which are located the
famous Treadwell Mines and the adjoining town of Douglas. Treadwell has the largest gold quartz mills in the world, over 1,000 stamps
being in operation day and night. Juneau is the capital of Alaska
and the seat of Government. It is a very prosperous and thriving city,
backed by an enormous mining development in the district surrounding, and is at present attracting the large mining capitalists. Mount
Juneau rises sheer up from behind the town.
Leaving Juneau, we proceed back through Gastineau Channel and
into Stephens Passage where in the summer time, if the steamer has
not already called there northbound, a call is made at Taku Glacier.
This is one of the world's finest sights. The glacier extends over 100
miles back to Atlin Lake in the extreme interior of British Columbia.
It is a sight that never will be forgotten. The steamer is within
sight of ice floes and bergs of all sizes and shapes, giving out the
most wonderful colors.
Huge masses are continually breaking off the glacier, crashing
into the water with the noise of thunder, and floating away to be
melted by a warmer clime.
Juneau, Alaska szsss   Indicates Double Track
Across   Canada
Thence southbound we go leaving Admiralty Island on our right,
on through Frederick Sound, passing glaciers, waterfalls, and snowcapped peaks, until we arrive at Wrangell Narrows. Here half speed
is the order, and for two hours we glide through a narrow and tortuous channel, passing jutting rocks and wonderful shadows and
reflections on every side, and very shortly arrive at the very interesting oil port of Wrangell.
Wrangell is the port of disembarkation for those destined into the
Cariboo Country. Stern wheel steamers operate from Wrangell during
season of navigation up the Stikine River to Telegraph Creek in
Northern British Columbia, and the world's greatest hunters go
through here regularly en route to the Cariboo, where some of the
finest big game hunting in the world is found and first-class guides
can be obtained.
From Wrangell we proceed past Lincoln Rock lighthouse through
Clarence Strait to Ketchikan and get our last glimpse of Alaskan
Ketchikan is the first and last American port of entry in Alaska.
It is a prosperous and thriving town in the centre of a big fishing
One of the most remarkable characteristics of the Alaska salmon
can be seen at Ketchikan. Millions of these salmon can be seen
ascending the waterfalls and shallow streams at certain seasons of
the year, on the way to deposit their eggs in a safe and quiet place,
frequently leaping more than their own length clear of the water in
making the ascent.
Leaving Ketchikan, we cross the Alaskan boundary into Canadian
territory, proceeding through the almost landlocked Tongas Narrows
and through the Revilla Gigedo Channel to Port Simpson—about
four hours steam from Ketchikan.
Port Simpson was one of the first Northern posts established by
the Hudson's Bay Company, and the old fort and part of the stockade
in which it was enclosed can still be seen. This is a historic spot of
much interest.
Leaving Port Simpson, we proceed through Chatham Sound and in
about four hours arrive at Prince Rupert, considered by many
destined to be the Vancouver of the North. Sufficient time is allowed
passengers here, as at other ports, to take in the points of interest.
From Prince Rupert, the steamer goes south through the beautiful
Granville Channel, where thickly wooded mountains rise on either side
and waterfalls are frequent, and on through Graham's Reach out into
Millbank Sound and the broad Pacific Ocean. After about an hour's
steaming on open water, we enter Fitzhugh Sound and so on out into
Queen Charlotte Sound, the largest stretch of open water on the
whole trip.
Three hours steaming takes us across, and the steamer hugs the
Vancouver Island Shore until Alert Bay is reached.
This is one of the prettiest spots on the coast and has a fine, sandy
beach.  Here is a white mission settlement and Indian village.
There is a hospital and cannery, and the Indian village that lines the
shore has one of the most interesting collection of totem poles to be
found on the Pacific Coast.   Several are over fifty feet high.
From Alert Bay we steam in between Vancouver Island and the
Mainland of British Columbia for about fourteen hours to Vancouver.
There we are loathe to leave the steamer after four days of the
utmost enjoyment.
Seattle and Victoria passengers transfer to one of the local
"Princess" steamers at Vancouver for those points, and Eastbound
passengers to the trains which are almost alongside.
•3 Annotated   Guide
Canadian  Pacific Hotel at  Vancouver
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I i
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Starting on our journey across the continent from Vancouver, the
Canadian Pacific Railway follows the south shore of Burrard Inlet,
and the outlook is most delightful. Snow-tipped mountains, beautiful
in form and color, rise opposite, and are vividly reflected in the mirror-like waters of the deep-set Inlet. At intervals along the heavily
wooded shores are mills with villages around them, and with ocean
steamships and sailing craft loading with sawn timber for all parts of
the world; on the other hand, and towering high above, are gigantic
trees with trunks of twenty, thirty and even forty feet circumference.
At the eighth mile the north arm of Burrard
Inlet is seen extending at right angles to the
railway about fifteen miles into tne mountains which, black and sombre, descend about
5,000 feet sheer into the water, which is
almost fathomless. Shortly after passing Port Moody, which for a
time was the terminus of the railway, at the head of the Inlet, the
railway leaves salt water, and crossing over a low-lying ridge descends.
into the valley of the Fraser. At West-
Westm In step June. | 38 minster Junction a sub-division strikes
New Westminster Alt. li.     in   from   New   Westminster   on  the
Fraser River. This city is the headquarters for the salmon canning industry, which is represented by a
dozen of the more extensive establishments. It has also large sawmills
—the product of which is shipped largely to China, South America,
Africa, Europe and Australia—and the Provincial Asylum and Penitentiary are located here.
Port Nloody
Alt. 33
"   25
t rt*
*      SSIif^S^st^  . 1   • _'     -• i ■ . ._^j-4^--__1 ' JeecIJv—4-f„l.. •-•.,,.   o      i gfX,' '>7if»V5C\
ae Water Front 14
Across   Canada
Soon after leaving the Junction the line
crosses Pitt River by a bridge one-quarter
of a mile in length—from which a magnificent view is to be had up Pitt
Lake,    embracing    water    and
woods and mountains of great
height, and  at various distances,  and meadows  alive
with cattle.   On either side of
the river extensive alluvial flats have been
dyked, thus rendering
about 20,000 acres
of the most fertile
lands fit for cultivation.
At Hammond
the bank of the
Fraser River is
reached and followed by the railway for about 130
miles. It is here
a smooth and mighty river. Immense trees are frequent, their size
being indicated by the enormous stumps near the roadway. Many
beautiful glimpses are had of Mount Baker, a magnificent isolated
cone, fn the State of Washington, rising 14,000 feet above the railway
level, the favorite view being that from the crossing of Stave River
about two miles east of Whonnock.
Harrison Hot Springs
Alt. 28 From Mission a sub-division crosses the Fraser
" 26 River and runs to the international boundary
% 23 line where rail connection is made with the
" 31 Northern Pacific Railway from Seattle, Ta-
" 26 coma, Portland, and all Oregon and California
" 26 points. This line gives through connection for
all the prominent points on Puget Sound, and
for Portland and San Francisco (via the Shasta Valley).
Harrison Mills
AU.32 Near Harrison Mills the Harrison River is
| 29 crossed just above its confluence with the
| SO Fraser. The steamer **Vedder" operates
47 between Harrison Mills Station and Chilliwack Wharf. Chilliwack Valley is situated
on the south side of the Fraser River opposite Harrison Mills Station,
and comprises over 55,000 acres of rich agricultural land and is famed
for dairying, mixed farming and fruit growing. Two of the finest
equipped creameries in the Dominion are operating at Chilliwack,
producing over one-half million pounds of butter annually, also the
largest fruit canning company in the province is now in operation
there. The city of Chilliwack has a population of 2,500 inhabitants
anl has the advantage of city water, telephones and electric light.
Agassiz       Alt. 59
Ruby Creek " ioi
At Agassiz, overlooked by Mount Cheam is a
Government Experimental Farm where fruit
and grain are grown in great variety. Agassiz
is the station for Harrison Springs (hot sulphur), on Harrison Lake,
five miles north.    These
springs are famed for their
curative  properties,   and
are  visited   by   invalids
from everywhere  on the
Pacific   Coast.    The  St.
Alice hotel affords accommodation,  and  the
country   about   is
most   interesting.
Ruby     Creek     is
named    from    the
garnets   found   in
the vicinity.
Uttte Indicates Double Track
Across   Canada
Haig Alt. 214    Across the river from Haig is the village of
Petain "  168   Hope — a   mining   town   and   trading   post,
whence trails lead over the mountains in different directions. To the
southwest may be seen Hope Peaks, where great bodies of silver ore
are exposed, and only await suitable fuel to be worked profitably.
The Kettle Valley Railway, which runs through Southern British
Columbia, joins the main line at Petain as well as at Spence's Bridge,
and provides an attractive alternative route, passing tne picturesque
lower end of the Okanagan Valley and linking up with the Crow's
Nest route, to the east.
Yale—Alt. 220 ft. Yale is the head of navigation and from it a wagon
road was built in 1863-4 to the then famous Cariboo Mines, but the first 100 miles of it have been abandoned since the
construction of the railway, and become in many places impassable
even for a foot passenger. Yale was formerly an outfitting point for
miners and ranchmen northward. It occupies a bench above the river
in a deep cul-de-sac in the mountains, which rise abruptly and to a
great height on all sides. Indian huts are seen on the opposite bank,
and in the village a conspicuous Joss-house indicates the presence of
Chinamen. Leaving Yale the valley turns to the right and then to the
left and the railway, passing through a succession of tunnels, enters
the canyon of the Fraser—where the cliffs are enormous, and apparently bar the way. The wagon road crosses and recrosses the railway
many times in the next 12 miles, till we reach Spussum, and runs
thence to Boston Bar (about 12 miles) through
Spuzzum—Alt. 399 one continuous canyon. The scenery is startling. The great river is forced between vertical walls of black rock where, repeatedly thrown back upon
itself by opposing cliffs, or broken by ponderous masses of fallen
rock, it madly foams and roars. The railway is cut into the cliffs 200
feet or more above and the jutting spurs or rock are pierced by tunnels in close succession. Ten miles above Spuzzum is Hell Gate, the
narrowest point in the canyon. Th« river is neld back by the projecting rocks, and in time of freshets rises 120 feet above its normal level,
and those Who pass through the canyon in the month of August often
see the eddies packed with salmon, their back fins out of the water as
they rest preparatory to making a rush round the next point. There
can also be seen in a few places the remains of the old Indian trail for
foot passengers only, the first for pack animals, and the old wagon
road, all of which have been abandoned for the railway.
Hell Gate, Fraser Canyon Annotate
Fraser    .g|p^gfeg= . glL^
Canyon  §&v5^j§gi/?:'
North Bend — Alt.
493 ft.
North Bend (a sub-
divisional point) is a desirable stopping-place for tourists who wish to see more of
the Fraser Canyon than is
possible   from   the   trains.
There are some pretty falls
a  short distance  from the  station, and  in the
vicinity capital fishing is to be had.
Keefers    Alt.561 From North Bend the line
Kanaka       |  613 follows the west side of the
canyon, with the river surging and swirling far below. The old Government road, built
m the early '60's, and abandoned since the opening of the
railway, attracts attention all along the Fraser and Thompson valleys. Three miles above Keefers, where it follows the cliffs
opposite to the railway, it is forced to the height of a thousand feet
above the river, and is pinned by seemingly slender sticks to the face
of a gigantic precipice. The canyon alternately widens and narrows.
Indians are seen on projecting rocks down at the water's edge, spearing salmon or scooping them out with dip-nets, and in sunny spots
the salmon are drying on poles. Chinamen are seen on the occasional
sand or gravel bars washing for gold; and irregular Indian farms or
villages, with their quaint and barbarously decorated graveyards,
alternate with the groups of huts of the Chinese.
Near Kanaka the railway passes through a tunnel directly on to a
cantilever bridge, and crosses to the east side of the Fraser River,
which it follows for about six miles to Lytton,
Lytton—A It. 693 ft. a small trading town.
Here the railway leaves the valley of the
Fraser, and enters the canyon of the Thompson River. The mountains now draw together and the railway winds along their face
hundreds of feet above the struggling river. The gorge rapidly narrows and deepens, and the scenery becomes wild beyond description.
The frowning cliffs opposite are mottled and streaked in many striking colors, and now and then, through breaks in the high escarpment, 18
Across   Canada
White's Creek Bridge and Fraser Canyon, near Spuzzum, B.C.
snowy peaks are seen glistening above the clouds. Ten miles above
Lytton, Nicomen, a little mining village, is passed, on the river bank
opposite which the first discovery of gold in British Columbia was
made in 1857. Above this point the scenery becomes very striking and'
peculiar. The train runs upon a sinuous ledge
Alt. 758     cut out of the bare hills on the irregular
"  67S     south side of the stream, the ravines span-
I   755    ned by lofty bridges, and the Thompson, in
the purity of a trout brook, whirls down its
winding torrent path as green as an emerald. Sometimes the banks
are rounded, cream-white slopes; next, cliffs of richest yellow, streaked and dashed with maroon, jut out; then masses of solid rust-red
earth, suddenly followed by an olive-green grass slope, or some white
exposure. With this fantastic coloration, to which the brilliant emerald
river opposes a striking contrast, and over which bends a sky of deepest violet, there is the additional interest of great height and breadth
of prospect, and a constantly changing grotesqueness of form caused
by the wearing down of rocks of unequal hardness, by water and
wind, into towers, monuments, goblins and griffins. The strange forms
and gaudy hues of the rocks and terraces, scanty of herbage, impress
themselves most strongly on the memory.
Spence's Bridge—Alt. 774 ft-   At Spence's Bridge the old wagon
road up this valley to the Cariboo
gold country crosses the river; and the railway crosses here the mouth
of the Nicola River, whose valley to the south is an important grazing and ranching region through which a line has been built to the
village of Coldwater, where connection is made with the Kettle Valley Ry. Two miles beyond Basque the hills press close upon the
c     ♦ ai* oan     Thompson River, which cuts its way through
spaisum—Alt. sw.    a ^a^g gorge of almost terrifying gloom
and desolation, fitly named the Black Canyon. Emerging, the train
follows the river as it flows swiftly among the round-topped, treeless
and water-cut hills. Ashcroft has developed into a busy town, being
* ■. »x ah. -mn, the point of departure for Cariboo, and other
Ashcroft—Alt. 1004.   gold fields jjj the northern interior of British
Columbia. There are extensive cattle ranches in the vicinity, and
some farming is done. ^^^^^^^ Indicates Double Track
Across   Canada
After leaving Ashcroft
the   valley   oegins   to
_ widen out, and passing Walhachin, where
there is a large flourishing orchard visible
from the main line, the
line soon reaches Savona   at   the   foot   of
Kamloops Lake. From
Port   Moody   to   this
point the railway was
built by the Dominion
Government and transferred   to   the   Company  in   1886.    From
Walhachin   Alt. 1259 the   line
Savona " H6S follows
the south
shore of Kamloops Lake for about twenty miles. It is a beautiful hill-
girt sheet of water. Quicksilver mines, which it is hoped will prove
of great value, can be seen on the opposite shore of the lake.
Cherry Creek—Alt. 1J41 ft. Near Cherry Creek a series of mountain spurs project into the lake and are pierced by
numerous tunnels, one following the other in quick succession. On
one of these spurs a deposit of magnetic iron ore was discovered, from
which large quantities have been, and still are being, shipped.
Kamloops—Alt. 1,159 ft. Pop. 5J500. Sub-divisional point and
principal town in the Thompson River Valley, operating
its own water and electric light plants and at present developing
hydro-electric power, begun many years ago around a Hudson's Bay
post. The north fork of the Thompson comes down from the mountains 200 miles northward, and here joins the main river. It is a
beautiful spot, whose dry invigorating climate makes it a pre-eminently desirable resort for sufferers from pulmonary troubles. The broad
valleys intersect at right angles. There is a background of bordering
hills, and streams. Steamboats are on the river, and sawmills briskly
at work, Chinese labor being largely employed. The triangular space
between the rivers opposite Kamloops is an Indian reservation, overlooked by Mount St. Paul. The principal industries around Kamloops
are cattle and horse raising and fruit growing by irrigation. The latter industry is progressing very rapidly, as this district is well adapted for all kinds of fruit culture. This is the supply point for a large
ranching and mineral region southward, especially in the Nicola valleys, reached by stage lines, and for the mines being operated in the
immediate vicinity of the town, ores of which are largely similar to
those of Trail Creek, principally gold and copper.
Thence the railway follows up the valley of
Ducks Alt. 1154 the South Thompson River and the eye is
Shuswap    1   1153     gladdened by the sight of grass, fenced fields,
growing crops, hay stacks, and good farm
houses on the level surface, while herds of cattle, sheep and horses
roam over the valley and bordering hills in large
numbers. This ranching country is one
of the garden spots of British Columbia. The people
are comparatively
old settlers,
having come
in from the
Tunx*   '
Hotel Incola, Penticton, Okanagan Val BBS  Indicates Double Track
Across   Canada
About two miles east of Shuswap station the great Shuswap lakes,
the centre of one of the best sporting regions on the line, are reached.
Northward within a day caribou are abundant; the deer shooting
southward within 80 miles is very good, and on the lakes there is
famous sport in deep trolling for trout.
For 50 miles the line winds in and out the bending shores,
while geese and ducks fly over the waters and light and
shadow play upon the opposite banks. This lake with its
bordering slopes gives a fine reminder of Scottish scenery.
The railway in getting around it leads, at different and
many times, towards every one of the thirty-two points of
the compass.
Chase Alt. 1183
Squilax " 1288
Notch Hill    " 1691
To avoid following the
shore in all its windings, the line crosses
over   an   intervening
ridge at Notch Hill—ascending about 600 feet along the
mountain side and giving a magnificent view across the lake,'Its winding shores on both sides of the long and narrow sheet of water stretching
far on either hand, with high mountain ridges for the opposite background. The line then gradually runs down hill
until it reaches the level of the water, at Salmon Arm, which it runs entirely round, and
then goes for a long distance along the southern shore of the lake. This is a most remarkable body of wa-
Salmon Arm—Alt. 1157    ter.   It lies among
the   mountain
ridges, and consequently extends its long narrow arms along tne intervening valleys like a
huge octopus in half-a-dozen directions.   These
arms are many miles long, and vary from a few
hundred yards to two or three miles in breadth, and
their high, bold shores, fringed by the little narrow beach
of sand and pebbles, with alternating bays and capes, give
beautiful views. The railway crosses one of these arms by a
drawbridge at Sicamous Narrows. Sicamous is the station for mining
and agricultural districts to the south where
Sicamous—AU.115S     there is a large settlement.    An   excellent
Canadian Pacific Railway hotel at Sicamous
forms splendid headquarters for those wishing to remain over and
shoot, fish or make a daylight trip through the mountains. On Shuswap Lake small craft are always obtainable. There is excellent trout
fishing during the proper seasons, within a few minutes' paddle of the
Hotel Annotated   Guide
hotel—also at Annsty Lake near the head of Seymour Arm, and White
Lake near Copper Island. Both places can easily be reached by boat,
and by a short trail which the railway company nas cut. Grouse shooting in the fall is plentiful and there is deer shooting within a reasonable distance over the hills directly across the lake from the hotel.  A
subdivision of the railway runs to Vernon and Okanagan at the head
of Lake Okanagan, a magnificent sheet of water on which the Canadian
Pacific have steamer service to Kelowna and to Penticton, at the foot
of the lake.    Kelowna is a growing town of over 3,200 population.
Tributary to the town are some fifty thousand acres of first-
class fruit land, much of which is unaer cultivation. Four thousand more acres are being converted into fruit
orchards in Okanagan Centre.   As showing the
adaptability of the soil it may be stated that a
very  good  tobacco  has   been  grown  in  the
neighborhood of Kelowna.   There is an excellent hotel named the Incola at Penticton.  The
new Kettle Valley Line passes through Pentic- ^XaJFT
ton. The Hotel Incola is an ideal resort for any time^* p§fl
of year owing to the sunny dry climate of the valley. Wapiti or Elk
In the vicinity of Penticton a strong land company
has purchased a tract of land which it is rapidly irrigating and cultivating until to-day it has over 3,000 acres of the finest fruit lands
producing rich returns each season. A short distance east of Vernon,
a charming spot is the Coldstream estate, lately the property of Lord
Aberdeen, formerly Governor-General of Canada. It contains some
13,000 acres of first-class fruit lands, a large part of which is in a
high state of cultivation. Further down the lake are Peachland, Naramata and Summerland, which are becoming favorite resorts. This is
a land of vineyards and orchards, as well as a Mecca for keen sportsmen, for there is an abundance and variety of large and small game,
including caribou, bear, deer, bighorn and mountain goat.
From Sicamous the transcontinental line ascends the valley of Eagle
River, which cuts through the Gold Range and is filled throughout
with a dense growth of immense trees—spruce, Douglas fir, hemlock,
cedar, balsam and many other varieties—giants all of them.    At
Craigellachie the last spike was driven in
Malakwa Alt. 1215    the  Canadian Pacific Railway on  Nov.
Craigellachie    "   1225    7, 1885—the rails from the east and the
west meeting here.
Following up the valley, four beautiful lakes occur in close succession,
Griffin, Three Valley, Victor and Summit, each
occupying the entire width of the valley and
forcing the railway into the mountain sides.
Three Valley Alt. 1636   The high
Eagle Pass is at
Summit   Lake,
where the  valley
is so deep cut and
direct   that  it
' seems    to    have
been   purposely
provided for the railway.     The   line   descends 525 feet in the next
eight miles to the Columbia
River. The two peaks southeast, seen from the main line of the
railway, are Mackenzie and Tilley,
and the most prominent one towards the southwest is Mount Beg
bie,   imposing   and   glacier-studded.     ||ffl
Soon   after   crossing  the   river   we     IP
reach   Revelstoke,   from   which   a
branch line runs to Arrowhead, connecting with  steamers,  which   run
The late Donald Smith (Lord Strathcona)   driving  the last spike,  at
Craigellachie, Nov. 7, 1885. 24
AcrobS   Canada
down the Arrow Lakes and Columbia River to
the Kootenays, and the trip may be continued
over the Crow's Nest Pass Route to Dunmore
on the plains east of the Rockies, where connection is again made with the main line.
Revelstoke—Alt. 1494 ft. Pop. 8J500. On
the Columbia River—a railway divisional point and a gateway to the
great Wrest Kootenay mining camps. The
Hotel Revelstoke facing the station is a comfortable building with all conveniences. A
fine tourist resort'—fishing, hunting, boating
and mountain climbing can be enjoyed here.
On Mount Revelstoke, immediately north of
the city, the Provincial and Dominion Governments decided to build an automobile
road, 18 miles in length, from which a magnificent view of glaciers, mountain peaks,
valleys and rivers can be obtained. On
the summit of this mountain is one of
the most beautiful Alpine Parks to be
found anywhere. A comfortable cabin
has been provided for the accommodation
of tourists. Fish and game are abundant
in the vicinity. The Columbia, which
makes a great detour from the east around the
northern extremity of the Selkirks, while the
railway cuts directly across, is here much larger
A Fair Alpine Climber than at Donald, from which it has fallen 1,071
feet, and 28 miles below Revelstoke expands into the Arrow lakes, along
which there is much beautiful country, and where the opportunities for
sport are unlimited. A steamer makes bi-weekly trips of some forty
miles up the river. To reach the mining regions by this route, involves
a most delightful trip on the branch line to Arrowhead and steamer
down Arrow Lake to Nakusp, past the famous Halcyon Hot Springs,
a well-known resort, where there is an excellent hotel with villas. Opposite Halcyon is Halcyon Peak (10,400 ft.), and there are pretty
waterfalls back of the hotel. There are trails to different points on the
lake and to the mountain's crest. Game is plentiful, and there is excellent boating and fishing. From Nakusp there is rail communication
with the Slocan and to West Robson, whence different subdivisions
lead through the Boundary District to Midway, to Trail and Rossland and to Nelson. Nelson has steamer connection with Kootenay
Landing, the present western terminus of the Crow's Nest Pass Route,
which runs through East Kootenay and Southern Alberta and connects with the main transcontinental line at Dunmore on the plains
of Western Canada. (For descriptive notes of this route see pages
92 to 101.)
Leaving Revelstoke, the line soon enters the
Selkirk  Range  by  the valley  of the
lllecillewaet River—the first portion of
which is  a  gorge  in  which  the
railway and river appear
pute the passage through
with vertical rocky walls
ing but ten yards apart.
Twin    Butte — Alt.
1£77 ft.  This
station takes  its  name
from  the   huge  double
summit   near   by,   now
called   Mounts Mackenzie   and   Tilley.    After
passing   the   station,   there
looms up at the left the conspicuous and beautiful peak
named Clachnacoodin.
C.P.R.   Stean
on B. C. Lake Se| SHLiTTjaS!   Indicates Double Track
Albert Canyon—Alt. 2,224 ft. Just east of the station the train runs
suddenly along the very brink of several remarkably
deep fissures in the solid rock, whose walls rise straight up, hundreds
of feet on both sides, to wooded crags, above which sharp, distant
peaks cut the sky. The most striking of these canyons is the Albert,
where the river is seen nearly 150 feet below the railway, compressed
into a boiling flume scarcely 20 feet wide. An observation platform at
which all trains stop gives the traveller the opportunity of better
viewing this wonder of nature.
Ross Peak
The lllecillewaet River is here of no great
Alt. 2711 size, but of course turbulent. Its water
" 8434 is at first pea-green with glacial mud, but
rapidly clarifies. The gorge is sometimes
of considerable width, filled with a remarkable forest of those gigantic
trees for which British Columbia is famous, and there are exceedingly
grand outlooks all along. About Ross Peak station are many silver
mines penetrating the crest of one of the lofty hills north of the railway.
Passing Ross Peak Siding the line skirts along the base of Cougar
Mountain, and looking forward up the valley one of the finest and
most magnificent views on the line may be had of the peaks near the
East portal, Connaught Tunnel
summit of the Selkirks, with Sir Donald, the highest of them all, near
the centre of the picture. Continuing up the valley, the lllecillewaet is
crossed for the 12th and last time, as the train draws up to the platform at Glacier.
Glacier—Alt. 8,780 ft. Glacier is the station for Glacier House (Alt.
4,094 ft-)i which is reached by way of an excellent carriage
road a mile and a quarter long. The hotel is within thirty minutes'
walk of the lllecillewaet Glacier, from which at the left, Sir Donald
(10,808 ft.) rises a naked and abrupt pyramid, to a height of a
mile and a quarter above the railway. This stately monolith
was named after the late Sir Donald Smith (who was afterwards
known as Lord Strathcona), one of the original promoters of the Canadian Pacific Railway. Farther to the left, looking from the hotel, are
two or three sharp peaks (Uto, Eagle, Avalanche and MacDonald),
second only to Sir Donald. Rogers' Pass and the snowy mountain beyond (a member of the Hermit range, which is called Grizzly, from the
frequency with which bears are met upon its berry-bearing slopes)
are in full view. Again to the left, at the west end of Hermit Range,
on the south side of Bear Creek, comes Cheops, and in the foreground,
far down among the trees, the lllecillewaet glistens across the valley.
Somewhat at the left of Cheops the shoulders of Ross Peak are visible
over the wooded slope of the mountain behind the hotel, which is called
Abbott. Between Ross and Abbott in the background is an enormous
wall of snow. This is the Mount Bonney Glacier. To the right of Ross,
IL Annotated   Guide
^i 837 J
8ft60v        ^
_C&ves of
W  N&Kimu
5caJe of Miles
, 9643
• 1.113   S^
, 9T7JL^ 10,808 *
V V*
u Creek
Glacier and vicinity
between Ross and Cheops, a glimpse is caught of the Cougar Valley,
where are the wonderful caves of Nakimu (Indian for "Grumbling
Caves"). These caves, whose recesses have been largely explored,
contain many chambers, some of which are of surprising beauty. Roads
have been constructed by which they have been made easy of access,
and the discoverer is always ready to act as guide through their wonderful interior. There is snow around the entrance to the caves even
in July. There is a breath of all Greenland pouring through the twisted passage with its slippery steps and cold hand-rail. The steaming
world beyond the mountains is as though it never had been, as you
descend into the clammy dark.
You pass through a series of small round rooms, each like the inside
of a marble, pitted with water-marks, which you see by the aid of your
bull's-eye lantern, till you reach a narrow ledge—hand-railed—below
which the cave floor drops into seeming infinity. Suddenly the guide's
magnesium flare cuts the darkness, out of which a great waterfall to
the left leaps at you with the roaring of its namesake mountain lion,
foams down under your feet and so away into blackness, all the blacker for the brief illumination.
In the Mill Bridge caves there are so many descents from the level
of one pot-hole to the slippery pool-floored next that you wonder how
the first explorer ever managed it. Even to-day, with wooden steps,
convenient railings, floating bridges, lanterns, and a guide who knows
the caves as he knows his own dining-room, the descent is awesome
enough to scare some back to earth.
The Gorge series is the biggest, wildest and most nerve-testing, with
its weird dropping Cave," its "Witches' Ballroom," walled with dark
blue limestone and ribboned with white calcite, its "Pit," eeriest of all,
with floor one hundred and twenty feet below stone-
throwing level, toward which it rises like a huge funnel, dead black, with white calcite markings like
strange hieroglyphs of a vanished race, |||]
gp$l IPS   I
Glacier Hotel—Canadian Pacific Railway 28
Across   Canada
The "Art Gallery" is ornamented with florescent tracery where carbonate of lime spreads itself like cream seaweed against the black,
tinting to pale pink, in little close-flowered delicate patterns. The
"Judgment Hall," largest of all the caverns, more than two hundred
feet long, is also frescoed with fairy fancywork.
Turning again to face the Great lllecillewaet Glacier, a "V"-shaped
valley is seen on the right. This is the valley of the Asulkan Brook, a
gem of mountain beauty, where a series of white cascades foam through
vistas of dark spruce and fir, where falls leap from ledges above in
clouds of flying spray, and shining open meadows lead the traveller to
listen for the tinkle of the Alpine herd. The peaks going from right to
left are—Afton, the sharp apex; the Rampart, an oblong wall; the
Dome, a rounded rock; Castor and Pollux, two sharp spires farthest
south. To the left of the Asulkan Glacier comes a forested dome,
Glacier Crest, the western boundary of the Great lllecillewaet Glacier,
which is banked on the other side by the lower slopes of Sir Donald,
The Great Glacier
from whose summit an immense number of glaciers can be seen. The
hotel affords a most delightful stopping place for tourists who wish to
hunt or explore the surrounding mountains or glaciers. Here in the
heart of the Selkirks every comfort and luxury are found, and here
many gather annually to spend the summer amidst the wonders of
nature. The Company has greatly enlarged the hotel to accommodate
the increasing number of tourists who are not satisfied with the short
stop made by the train. The lllecillewaet Glacier is exactly two miles
away, and its slowly receding forefoot with immense crevasses, abysmal
depths cutting across the crystal surface, is only a few hundred feet
above the level of the hotel. Several good trails have been made to it,
and its exploration is practicable. A splendid view can be obtained of
the great Glacier from Glacier Crest. To the left of the Great Glacier,
and 3,000 feet above the hotel, another view is from the trail at the
foot of Sir Donald. Easy trails also lead to Marion Lake on Mount
Abbott, 1,500 feet above Glacier House. On Mount Avalanche is the
Cascade summer house.   Good routes have been mapped by the guides Annotated   Guide
up Eagle and Sir Donald; the former being an easy climb. This peak
is so named on account of a large rock figure exactly resembling an
eagle perched upon the knife-sharp edge of the mountain. It is seen
to best advantage from the trail leading to Mount Avalanche. The
Asulkan Valley trail branches off from the main glacier trail about a
quarter of a mile from the hotel and crossing the Asulkan brook climbs
up the east side of the valley to the forefoot of the Asulkan Glacier,
distant four miles from the hotel. The summit of the Selkirk range, as
formerly crossed by the railway, is reached from Glacier by another
fine pony trail, and from here the trail to Rogers' Amphitheatre may
be taken, where is located a hut that may be used as a base for exploring and climbing the neighboring peaks and glaciers. Rogers' Pass
was named after Major A. B. Rogers, by whose adventurous energy it
was discovered in 1881, previous to which no human foot had penetrated to the summit of this great central range. The pass lies between
two lines of huge snow-clad peaks, and before the construction of the
Connaught Tunnel was the summit of the railway line over the Selkirks. That on the north forms a prodigious amphitheatre, under
whose parapet, five or six thousand feet above the valley, half a
dozen glaciers may be seen at once, and so near that their shining
green fissures are distinctly visible. In this direction, at the
head of the largest glacier, may be seen a group of sharp serrated
peaks, clear cut against the sky. The tallest is Swiss Peak, so called
in honor of the members of the Swiss Alpine Club who first stood upon
its highest pinnacle. The changing effects of light and shadow on this
brotherhood of peaks, of which
Tupper and Macdonald are
are among the chief, can never
be forgotten by the fortunate traveller who has seen
the sunset or sunrise tinting f
their battlements, or has looked up from the green valley
at a snowstorm trailing its
curtain along their crests with
perchance a white peak or two
standing serene above the
harmless cloud. The cowled
figure of a man, with his dog,
on the edge of one of the
crags shapes itself out of the
rocks, and gives the name of
Hermit to the sub-range. Mt.
Macdonald, through which the
new 5-mile-long Connaught
Tunnel has been bored, towers
above the old railway a mile
in almost vertical height. Its
base is but a stone's throw
distant, and it is so sheer, so
bare and stupendous, and yet
so near, that one is overawed
by a sense of immensity and
From   Rogers'   Pass   there
is another trail that  follows
along  Bear   Creek  to  Baloo
Pass.    From here is reached
the famous Nakimu Caves, a
series    of    natural    caverns,
situated   on   the
lower   slopes   of
Mt.    Cheops   in
the Cougar Valley.   The return
journey from the
caves to the hotel
The lllecillewaet
River Mount Sir Donald
may be made via a trail and
carriage road that follows
Cougar Brook and the lllecillewaet River.
A glacial stream has been
caught and furnishes fountains about the hotel. Game
is very abundant throughout
these lofty ranges. Their
summits are the home of the
mountain goat, which are
seldom found south of Canada. Bears also are seen frequently in this vicinity.
At Glacier is the double
track tunnel through the
Selkirk Range. It has been
named the Connaught Tunnel in honor of H. R. H.
the Duke of Connaught, ex-Governor-General of Canada. The driving
of this tunnel made for itself a prominent place in the annals of notable engineering achievements. From portal to portal its centre line
measures 26,400 feet, thereby exceeding by three-fourths of a mile the
longest existing tunnel in America. The method by which it was
driven involved the tunnelling of a pioneer bore paralleling the centre
line of the main tunneL The feature is new and the interest of tunnel
engineers was aroused the world over. The expenditure of 5%
millions is another indication of the efforts being made by the railway
to eliminate grades and snow troubles. The tunnel lowers the elevation
of the former route of the railway at the summit by 552 ft. It dispenses with 4% miles of snow sheds and reduces the length of the line
4% miles, eliminating curvature to the extent of 7 complete circles.
Connaught Alt. 8504    On emerging from the East Portal of the
Cutbank |  8818    tunnel the line enters the densely forested
valley of the Beaver River-, first crossing,
however, Bear Creek, a turbulent mountain stream that has its source
but a short distance from Rogers' Pass, the former route of the railway. Looking backward, this route may be seen high up on the hillside and disappears in a narrow defile between the tremendous precipices of Mts. Macdonald and Tupper, the crests of which tower a full
mile above the railway. The principal difficulty in constructing this part
of the line was occasioned by the torrents, which come down in splendid
cascades, through narrow gorges cut deeply into the steep slopes Annotated   Guide
im    Rocky Mountain
Wt Sheep
along which the railway creeps.   The greatest of all these
bridges crosses Stony Creek—a noisy rill, flowing in the bottom of a narrow, V-shaped channel, 300 feet below the rails
—one of the loftiest railway bridges in the world.   A little
further on is a very high bridge, spanning a foaming  cascade, whence  one of  the  most beautiful
prospects of the whole journey is to be had.   So
impressed were the builders with the charm of this
magnificent picture of mountains, that they named
the  spot  The   Surprise.    From  Mountain   Creek
bridge, a few miles beyond, where a powerful torrent comes down from high mountains northward
behind, one sees up the Beaver valley a long line
of the higher peaks of the Selkirks, en echelon,
culminating  in   Mount   Sir   Donald,   with   which
acquaintance was made at Glacier House.   Opposite
is a line of huge tree-clad hills, occasionally showing  snow-covered  heads   above  the  timber  line.
Nature has worked here on so gigantic a scale that
many travellers fail to notice the extraordinary
height of the spruce, Douglas fir and cedar trees, which seem to be
[ engaged   in   a   vain   competition   with   the   mountains   themselves.
From Anzac the line follows the left bank
Sturdee Alt. 3170 for a little way, then crosses to the right
Anzao "  2597    bank and passes through the Gate of the
Beaver River—a passage so narrow that a
felled tree serves as a footbridge over it—just where the river makes
its final and mad plunge down to the level of the Columbia.
Beavermouth—Alt. 2^83 ft.   This is the most northerly station on
the transcontinental route. The line soon turns
abruptly to the right, and ascends the valley of the Columbia River,
clinging to the sides of the hill, where the Selkirks and the Rockies
crowding together, force the river through a deep and narrow gorge.
As the train emerges from the canyon, a magnificent view is to be
had of the Rockies, rising
range upon range, and extending from northwest to
southeast. The line crosses
the right bank of the river
at Donald.
Donald—Alt. 2,579 ft. From
Donald to Golden
the railway runs up the Columbia  on the   face  of  the
lower bench  of  the
Rockies   with   the
Selkirks in full view
Moberly—Alt. 2,553
ft.  Moberly is the site of the
oldest  cabin  in  the
mountains,    where
the winter of 1871-2
was   passed   by  the
government engineering party under Mr.
Walter "Moberly,   C.E.,
engaged in the preliminary   surveys   of   the
transcontinental route.
Just east of Moberly, the Swiss
village of Edelweiss is passed
where the C. P. R. quarters its
Swiss Mountain Guides.
at Edelweiss,
Swiss  Guides
Village 32
Across   Canada
C.P.R. Station at Golden
Golden—Alt. 2J588 ft. Golden is a prosperous mining town on the
Columbia, at the mouth of the Kicking Horse. About
Golden and at various places above, especially at the base of the
Spillimacheen Mountains, silver and lead mines are being developed,
which have recently received a new lease of life through the opening
up of the Kootenay Central Railway.
yi—■»«—an——»»—— ■«—m*      Mm »«—at ■■ ■ ■■      ■■      n»      n   i ■■      ■■-—»■      m      ■»      «n      »■      m i    mft
In order to facilitate the development of agriculture, fruit growing
and mining in this valley, and to encourage tourists to visit the beautiful district round Lake Windermere, the Canadian Pacific Railway
Company has just completed the construction of the Kootenay Central branch connecting Golden, on the main line, with Fort Steele
and Colvalli, on the Crow's Nest Pass line, a distance of 167 miles.
An automobile stage runs on the Government road from Golden to
Fort Steele and Cranbrook, and from the railway itself one can see
evidences of recent clearing and prosperous new settlements, which
demonstrate the agricultural possibilities of this newly opened
district. The automobile road which is being constructed by
the Canadian Pacific Railway in conjunction with the Federal and
Provincial Governments through the Vermillion Pass from Banff will
join this Government road at Sinclair, over sixty miles up the valley
from Golden. At Sinclair there are hot springs, in connection with
which an up-to-date health resort is being projected. With the slope
of the Rocldes on the left and the wonderful panorama of the Purcell
Range on the right, this newly opened valley offers to the tourist
and the sportsman a virgin route of marvellous beauty. At various
points irrigation companies are supplying the water for mixed farming and the cultivation of small fruits and the hardier varieties of
apples, and there is already considerable settlement near the Windermere Lake. Excellent sport may be had in the canyons and creeks
which run up on either side of the valley—this being one of the most
convenient ways of reaching the great ice-fields which cap the Purcells.
On Toby Creek, Earl Grey, when Governor-General of Canada, erected a hunting lodge. There is a comfortable tourist hotel at Invermere,
not far from Athalmer Station, which provides an excellent centre
for those who desire to explore the valley. A highly picturesque trail
leads up Horse Thief and Macdonald Creeks to Iron Cap -Mountain,
a ridge about 10,000 feet above the sea, from which magnificent views
may be had within a radius of 100 miles over the peaks of the Rockies
ancl Selkirk Mountains. V'ROCITtY
. \vsr
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IK   ■'% ,^i
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pte ^slfV1^ 1   6 L A C I E R^%£^f%J
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Albert Canyoii^ ^M$&M§m-
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-^THHotel RevelStpVeVjj
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indicates Double Track
P 34
Across   Canada
_mm mm mm mm uu      m      m      nn      tt      "tt      "i — ■*      —      "      * " -"'      "      "'     "A
(Continued from Golden) j
Glenogle Alt. 8008    Just beyond Golden the railway enters the
Palliser      "  3288     Kicking Horse Canyon. Into this vast chasm
goes the railway, crossing the river from side
to side on ledges cut out of the solid rock, and twisting and turning in,
every direction, and every minute or two plunging through projecting
angles of rock which seem to close the way. With the towering cliffs
almost shutting out the sunlight, the roar of river and train being
increased a hundred-fold by the echoing walls, the passage of this
gorge will never be forgotten.
An abrupt turn of the river reveals Mount Hunter which pushes its
huge mass forward like a wedge between the Ottertail and Beaverfoot
ranges. At the right the highest peaks of the Ottertail Mountains rise
abruptly to an immense height and looking south the Beaverfoot
range extends in orderly array as far as the eye can reach. Just before reaching Leanchoil, the Canadian National Park, in which are
embraced the Yoho Valley, the Great Divide, Lakes in the Clouds,
and the Bow Valley to the eastern foothills of the Rockies, is entered.
This magnificent domain of about 6,000 square miles is a public
pleasure ground that is without a rival.
Alt. 8682 At Leanchoil the Beaverfoot River comes in
% 8702 from the south and joins the Kicking Horse
River, which stream is followed to the summit of the Rockies. Mount Goodsir (11,663 ft.), the highest of the
Ottertail group, is seen from Ottertail Creek. The Ottertail range to
the right appears sheer and pinnacled, with no amphitheatre among
the craggy heights, while the Van Home
to the right are ochre-colored in their
slopes and show an undulating succes- ri£ '/£
sion of trough and crest among their sum- n--f'\ HfA
mits. The railway, which runs due
north to Ottertail, gradually curves
in a northeasterly direction, ascending the valley of the Wapta, lying
between the Ottertail and Van
Home ranges, and enters the
flats of the Kicking Horse just^
before reaching Field. The
scenery is grand and very
large glacier bearing
heights are seen
at the north.
Mount Stephen Housj^ Canadian Pacific Hotel at Field Annotated   Guide
■it—»M ■■ i ii a*—>« «
j itn      \m     nn      nn      -i    ---- -■-    -n ••■■       Tit'    mr      tr—m- tt	
i (Alberta Division)
■•Yf „__J1..—   ||H.        KK II,       -*T" "" *** «■»..—»»-—».: >s •"■ " fill llv —• ""■ -" »■—j»—all
Field—Alt. 4J072 ft. At
Field is a charming
hotel managed by the
railway company — the
i Mount Stephen House—
not far from the base of
j Mount Stephen, which rises
10,450 feet above the sea
level and facing Mount
Field. This is a favorite
stopping place for tourists,
and has been recently enlarged to meet the wants
of increased travel. Field
combines all possible attractions for the mountain
tourist. From this point is
reached a great glacier field,
and the track only a short
distance from all the
mysteries and wonders of
an upper ice world. Trails
lead along the mountains'
side and through the
valley, and the Canadian
Pacific maintains summer
camps for the convenience
of visitors to the Yoho
Valley. Here are some of
the highest peaks and finest scenery in the Rockies.
Emerald   Lake,    7    miles
Emerald Lake Chalet
from Field, is one of the most charming of mountain waters. A curious
natural bridge is passed en route. Here a comfortable chalet has
been erected by the railway company. On the shoulder of Mount
Stephen is a fossil bed, rich in rare specimens of trilobite. During
the summer Swiss guides are stationed here to accompany tourists
and mountain climbers. Looking down the valley from the hotel, the
Van Home range is seen on the right.
Coming from the west the road first enters the new spiral tunnel of
2,910 feet, under Mount Ogden. Emerging from the tunnel the track
i runs back west across the Kicking Horse River, and then enters the
| cork-screw tunnel of 3,200 feet under Cathedral Mountain, and after
| describing an elliptic curve emerges to again run along the Kicking
Horse Valley. The whole thing is a perfect maze, the railway doubling
back upon itself twice, tunnelling under mountains and crossing the
river twice in order to cut down the grade.
Put in brief, the work which has now been completed is as follows—
Length of two tunnels, 1% miles; length of cutting outside of tunnels,
>&£% C. P. R.
The line falls from HECWR
Old line:—      distance 4-1 miles, grade  *•£%
New line.  82     . 2-2%
On aid line 4 engines   could  haul 770 tons
On -/en line 2      »        can        •    980 tons
Then are three nen tunnels 170 ft 2890 ft 4 3200ft ion$,
/ftp rno longer bernd aoirm{ with a radius ot STS ft.
tecfor 36
Across   Canada
Chateau Lake Louij
7 miles; increase in length of track, 4% miles; reduction in grade,
from 4.5 to 2.2; approximate cost of work, $1,500,000; number of men
employed, about 1,000, with complete outfit of steam equipment. Time
of work, twenty months, from October, 1907, to July, 1909; 75 carloads of dynamite were used, or upwards of 1,500,000 pounds of the
explosive.  The cost of explosives alone came to over $250,000.
This is not merely a great piece of tunnelling, but the first introduction of this spiral system of tunnels on this continent.
The railway rounds the base of Mount Stephen, on whose side can
be seen a silver lead mine at an altitude of 2,500 feet, and climbs the
last of the great ranges. The scenery is sublime and overwhelming in
its grandeur. The line ascends rapidly, crossing the deep gorge of
the Kicking Horse and skirting the beautiful Wapta Lake at Hector.
Hector Alt. 5213    At the "Great Divide," where a sparkling
Stephen |   5326     stream separates into two waters, one flow
ing to the Pacific and the other to Hudson
Bay, the backbone of the continent is reached. The station at the
summit of the Rocky Mountains, like the stupendous mountain some
miles behind, one of the chief peaks in the Rockies in this latitude, is
named in honor of the first President of the Canadian Pacific Railway. Here a tablet has been erected to the memory of Sir James
Hector. In descending a tributary of the Bow River, the huge peak
of Mount Daly can be seen with its crescent-shaped glacier a dozen
miles away and 1,300 feet above you. The first stop is at Lake Louise,
the station for the Lakes in the Clouds.
ll m ll
Canadian Pacific Hotel System
Lake Louise—Alt. 5,044 ft.    At  Lake   Louise  sure-footed  ponies
may be taken to the Lakes in the Clouds, famed the
world over for their unsurpassable beauty.  Perched on the mountain
sides, these lakes, hidden from general view amidst the most romantic
environments, are rare gems whose loveliness and charm surpass all
description. Lake Louise, which is the first, is three miles from the station by motor car line which ascends the side of the  mountain.    On the
shore of this beautiful lake there is a comfortable hotel, the Chateau
Lake Louise and cottages, where excellent accommodation is provided.
There is a bridle path to Mirror Lake higher up the mountain, and a
still further ascent to Lake Agnes, during which a magnificent view of
the. Bow Valley and the surrounding mountains is obtained.   Trails
also lead to Paradise Valley, to the Valley of the Ten Peaks, and to
other sequestered spots.   No more delightful place is imaginable than
these lovely stretches of water in cloudland.   Shelters have recently
been constructed for the
accommodation   of   tourists. They are within easy
distance    of    the    hotel,
and are of especial benefit to amateur photographers  who  delight in
Across   Canada
Buffalo at Banff
catching the lights and shadows of the superb
views of the locality. Trails lead across the
stream draining Lake Louise to Fairview
Mountain on the left side and to the Saddleback still farther eastward, from which one
can look across the abysmal gorge 2,000 ft.
deep to the avalanches of Mount Temple, the
forested vale called Paradise Valley, the
scarred battlements of Mount Sheol and the
pinnacled heights of Castle Crags behind
Fairview Mountain. A good carriage road
leads to Moraine Lake and the Valley of the
Ten Peaks. Other trails lead round to the
right of Lake Louise directly on to the Glacier bed of Mount Victoria, the great palisade of snow, 11,355 ft. high,
that shuts off all view to the south. This trail also connects with the
route to Abbot Pass, a deep canyon between Victoria and Lefroy,
11,220 ft. A stiff climb over this pass and down to the rear of Lefroy
and Victoria leads by a chain of oeautiful mountain tarns to O'Hara
Lake and Cataract Creek, which flows directly down to Wapta Lake,
on the main line at Hector Station. O'Hara Lake, recently opened to
the public by a well-made pony trail from Hector, is a worthy rival
of Lake Louise and presents features of wild Alpine grandeur in its
surroundings that cannot be surpassed. It may be reached also from
Lake Louise and Field, and by a continuation of the trail Lake McArthur may be visited. To enable visitors to climb and explore in
safety, the Canadian Pacific Railway offers the services of Alpine
fuides of the very highest class. One of these is always stationed at
,ake Louise. The others will be found at Field, Emerald Lake and
Glacier. The railway runs down the forested Bow Valley, which is
sentinelled by mountains exceedingly grand and prominent. Those on
the left (northeasts form the bare, rugged and sharply serrated Sawback sub-range, with a spur, called the Slate Mountains, in the foreground. On the right the lofty Bow range fronts the valley in a series
of magnificent snow-laden promontories. The gap of Vermilion Pass
opens tin ough the range, permitting a view of many a lofty spire and
icy crest along the continental watershed, from whose glaciers and
snowfields the Vermilion River flows westward into the Kootenay.
Most prominent on the east side are the precipitous face of Storm
Mountain (10,809 ft.), and the snow dome of Mount Ball (10,825 ft.).
To the right, standing supreme over this part of the range, the prodigious, isolated, helmet-snaped mountain named Temple (11,626 ft.),
the loftiest and grandest in this whole panorama. This great mountain
becomes visible almost from the "Divide," and is the most conspicuous
and admirable feature of this wonderful valley, which has been referred to by one writer as an "amphitheatre of scenic glory." The
great Castle Mountain on the left, resembling a huge giant's keep,
stretches its great length for several miles, with turrets, bastions
and battlements, and at one spot a remarkable reproduction of a
Swimming Pool,  Banff Hot Springs Hotel Annotated   Guide
Mount Assiniboine
drawbridge with portcullis. Opposite is Copper Mountain, in which
are said to be "large deposits of ore, and beyond is Pilot Mountain,
9,650 feet, whose pyramidal peak is the only one that can be seen
from both sides of the Bow Valley.
Castle is the station at the base of the great
Castle Alt. 4657 eminence known as Castle Mountain. The
Sawback     ff   J^87     views forward and to the rear are delightfully
surprising. The Vermilion Lakes are skirted,
and an excellent view is had of Mount Bourgeau and the snow-peaks
far to the west, enclosing Simpson's Pass. Hole-in-the-Wall Mountain
is passed on the left. This mountain has a remarkable cave which can
be entered for 160 feet, where a chimney-like aperture gives a glimpse
of the sky. The cave is 1,500 feet above the valley.
Banff—Alt. 4>584 ft. Station for Canadian National Park and Hot
Springs. This park is a National Reservation of 5,732 square
miles, embracing parts of the valleys of the Bow, Spray and Cascade
rivers, Lake Minnewanka and several noble mountain ranges, and beyond the "Divide," the Yoho Valley and the country to the west and
south of it. The Park is the largest in the world, being nearly half as
large again as the famous Yellowstone Park in the States. No part of
the Rockies exhibits a greater variety of sublime and pleasing scenery,
and nowhere are good points of view and features of special interest so
accessible, since many good roads and bridle-paths have been made.
The railway station at Banff is in the midst of impressive mountains.
The huge mass northward is Cascade Mountain (9,825 ft.); eastward 40
Across   Canada
is Mount Inglismaldie, and the heights of the Fairholme sub-range,
behind which lies Lake Minnewanka. South-eastward from Inglismaldie, in the same range of the Fairholmes, the sharp cone of Peechee
(called after an Indian chief), closes the view in that direction; this is
one of the highest mountains visible. To the left of Cascade Mountain,
and just north of the track, rises the wooded ridge of Stoney Squaw
Mountain, beneath which lie the Vermilion Lakes, seen just before
reaching the station. Up the Bow, westward, tower the distant snowy
central heights of the Main range about Simpson's Pass, most prominently the square, wall-like crest of Mount Bourgeau. A little nearer,
at the left, is seen the northern end of the Bourgeau range, and still
nearer, the razor-like back of Sulphur Mountain, along the side of
which are the Hot Springs, and on whose summit, at 7,484 ft., an
observatory has been egtablished. The isolated bluff southward is Tunnel Mountain, while just behind the station, Mount Rundle, 9,665 ft.,
rises sharply, so near at hand as to cut off all the view in that direction. Near the station is a large corral of 800 acres in which are about
100 buffalo. In well-constructed cages are specimens of the various
wild animals found in the Rocky Mountains. The village of Banff is a
short distance southwest of the station, on the hither side of the Bow,
and the Canadian Pacific Railway Banff Hotel about a mile further
on. A steel bridge takes the carriage-road across to the magnificent
hotel, built by the Railway Company, on an eminence between the
foaming falls in the Bow and the mouth of the rapid Spray River.
This hotel has just been reconstructed on a truly magnificent scale,
having a kitchen capable of supplying 600 meals at one time. It is
most favorably placed for health, picturesque views, canoeing, driving,
walking and mountain-climbing. In direct connection with the hotel
there has been opened what is probably the finest bathing establishment on the continent. It is built in the form of three terraces, the
outer and lower one of which forms the great semi-circular cold water
swimming pool, which is one hundred and twenty feet in diameter and
varies from three to seven feet in depth. The second terrace contains
the sheltered warm sulphur-water pool which is supplied by piping the
water direct from the Hot Springs on Sulphur Mountain at the rate
of 1,165 gallons per hour. This pool measures 28 feet by 80 feet and
varies from four to seven feet in depth. The water in the pool is
maintained at a temperature of 110 degrees Fahrenheit—about five
degrees lower than at the source of supply—by the continuous flow of
water. The bathing space is enclosed by a screen of plate glass between concrete posts, to protect the bathers  against the  breezes.
Adjoining the sulphur plunge, there are ten
J     ~^^-.^_^ shower baths, and complete
/ *-v.      ^"-\   Turkish and  Russian baths
finished in marble
and fitted with all
the latest plumbing
Banff Hot Springs Hotel,  Owned and Operated by the C. P. Annotated   Guide
devices. One
hundred dressing rooms are
provided at this
level, and on
the third terrace there are the cooling
rooms, private sulphur
baths, and rooms for the Swedish
masseur and his attendants who were
brought from Europe to take charge
§s< of the bathing establishment. The roof of the third
^V terrace forms a wide promenade upon which chairs
are placed to enable guests to obtain both a view
of the bathers below and of the whole magnificent panprama of the
mountains. The entire structure is of reinforced concrete and the
pools are lined throughout with white glazed tile, and lighted by electricity so that they may be used at night as well as by day. Still another attraction at Banff is the new golf course. Golf enthusiasts who
have played the game on the ordinary country golf links will find the
sport at Banff even more fascinating. Nestling among the mountains,
completely surrounded by gigantic peaks, and with the glacier-fed
Bow River flowing throughout its length, the course is superbly
located, Nature making it not only one of the highest courses on the
American continent, but also one of surpassing beauty. The links are
reached from the Banff Springs hotel by either carriage road or footpath leading directly to the club-house. The house is nicely furnished
and provided with all conveniences. There is a good tennis court in
connection with the hotel. In Banff there are a sanitarium and hospital and a museum of more than local interest has been established
by the Government. Nine miles from Banff is Lake Minnewanka, on
which launches are operated. There is capital fishing, the trout being
of extraordinary size. Wild sheep (the big horn) and mountain goats
are occasionally to be seen on the neighboring heights. Some extraordinary fossil remains and markings of mammoth pre-historic creatures are found on the mountain slopes surrounding this lake, as well
as on Cascade Mountain. At the upper end of the lake is the valley
of Ghost River, a strange region where the mountain rivulets gurgle
off into subterranean reservoirs and the granite walls are pitted with
caves. Between Banff and the lake is Bankhead, where are located the
anthracite mines, operated by the Canadian Pacific Railway, whose
output will shortly provide the country as far east as Winnipeg with
fuel. The hot springs are at different elevations upon the eastern slope
of Sulphur Mountain, the highest being 900 ft. above the Bow. All are
reached by fine roads, commanding glorious landscapes. The more
important springs have been improved by the Government, and picturesque bathing houses have been erected and placed under the care
of attendants. In one locality is a pool inside a dome-roofed cave,
entered by an artificial tunnel; and adjacent, another spring forms
an open basin of warm sulphurous water. Since the opening of the
railway, these springs have been largely visited, and testimony to
- Iilii    liT
IndicatesJgouble Track
FIELD TO CALGARY Annotated   Guide
their wonderful curative properties is plentiful. These springs are
reached by a delightful drive of about a mile along a winding, pine-
bordered road, up the valley of the Bow River to the base of Sulphur
Among the other pretty drives radiating from Banff is *the Loop,"
a beautiful roadway around the Bow Valley, in full view of the
superb Bow Falls; skirting the base of Mount Rundle, to the banks of
the Bow River; another interesting drive is that along the north side
of the Vermilion lakes to Edith Pass; another favorite outing is that
to Tunnel Mountain, by way of its spiral, tree-lined roadway. Of the
longer trails that have been opened probably the most important is
that up Brewster Creek, at the head of which is a huge glacier. West
from Lake Minnewanka there is another trail through Aylmer Pass
and dpwn the Ghost River, returning to the lake by way of the
Devil's Gap. There is also another magnificent trail from the Spray
Lakes to Kananaskis Lake. From one to two weeks can be profitably
spent on these last two trips.
Of interest to motor-car enthusiasts is the new automobile road on
which Banff will be an important stop-over point. This road is now
being built by the Dominion Government, the British Columbia Government and the Canadian Pacific Railway. It starts at Calgary and
runs through the mountains to Banff. At Castle Mountain it branches
off through the beautiful Vermilion Pass to connect with a road
already in existence running from Golden to Cranbrook on the Crow's
Nest Pass line of the C. P. R. From here there is a road to Macleod
and from that point there is connection with Calgary, making a five
hundred mile automobile road, which when completed will be the
grandest highway in the world. About twenty miles south of Banff
is Mount Assiniboine, the Matterhorn of the new world, the ascent of
which, after several unsuccessful attempts, was made in the autumn
of 1901 by the Rev. James Outram and a party of
Swiss guides. The way to it leads through beautiful valleys studded with transparent blue lakes and
park-like prairie openings.
Bankhead—Alt. 4J>81 ft. Just after leaving the
station, the train passes along a large
corral of 800 acres already described. The
railway skirts the base of Cascade Mountain
and follows Cascade Creek until after Anthracite is passed, when it rejoins the Bow.
Halfway between Anthracite and Canmore,
the park is left.
The Gap—Entrance to the Prairies from the Canadian Rockies 44 Across   Canada	
Canmore—Alt. 4Y295 ft. Near Canmore are large coal mines. A
striking profile of the Three Sisters is obtained, with
Wind and Pigeon Mountains looming up beyond. On a hill behind the
station stands a group of isolated and curiously weathered conglomerate monuments, called "hoodoos."
Passing through the Gap—a narrow pas-
The Gap Alt. 4284 sage between two vertical walls—the gate-
Exshaw 1   4261     way by which the Bow River issues from
Kananaskis    %   4218     the hills, the Kananaskis River is crossed
by a high iron bridge, a little below where
it joins the Bow, and the roar of the great falls of the Bow (called
Kananaskis Falls) may be heard from the railway. Near it the track
turns and descends the long valley between the Fairholme range on the
left andvthe Kananaskis range opposite. The prominent peak on the
right is Pigeon Mountain, and in leaving the station called The Gap, a
magnificent view is obtained of Wind Mountain and the Three Sisters
also on the right. At Exshaw is one of the largest cement works in
Canada. There is a remarkable contrast between the ranges in view
behind. On the left are fantastically broken and castellated heights;
on the right massive snow-laden promontories, rising thousands of feet,
penetrated by enormous alcoves in which haze and shadow of gorgeous
coloring lie engulfed. The jaggedness of profile observed is now explained. These mountains are tremendous uplifts oi stratified rocks,
of the Devonion and carboniferous ages, which have ueen broken out
of the crust of the earth and slowly heaved aloft. Some sections,
miles and miles in breadth and thousands of feet thick, have been
pushed straight up, so that their strata remains almost as level as before; others are tilted more or less on edge (always on tins slope
towards the east) and lie in a steeply slanting position; still otner sections are bent and crumpled under prodigious side-pressure, while all
have been broken down and worn away until now they are only colossal fragments of the original upheavals. This disturbed stratification
is plainly marked upon the faces of the cliffs, by the ledges that hold
the snow after it has disappeared elsewhere, or by long lines of trees,
which there alone can maintain a foothold, and this peculiarity is
one of the most striking and admirable features of the scenery.
Morley      Alt. 4078     *Y .the lTe.S.?chI^ne is peached, the travel-
Cochrane   "   3750 1S w     W1thm the rounded grassy foothills
Glenbow     "  8688     an<^ r*ver  "benches" or terraces.    Extensive
Keith I   3563     ranches  come into  view  and  are passed  in
rapid succession as the train speeds eastward
towards the fertile prairies of Western Canada. Great herds of horses
are seen in the lower valleys, thousands of cattle on the terraces, while
the hilltops provide grazing for flocks of sheep, making a picture restful, novel and interesting to one who has but a moment before passed
from the Rocky ranges lying eastward hundreds of miles from the
Pacific. After leaving Cochrane and again crossing the Bow, the railway descends from the top of the last terrace, whence a magnificent
view of the receding mountains is obtained, and where the foothills fall
in successive tiers of sculptured heights from the snowy range behind.
Calgary—Alt. 3439 ft.   The largest city in Alberta, it has 81,161
population, with upwards of 425 retail stores, 150 wholesalers, 75 manufacturers, 25 banks.
General offices of the Canadian Pacific Railway are located here;
including the head offices of the Department of Natural Resources,
under whose jurisdiction comes the great Bassano Irrigation project.
The extensive Western car shops of the C. P. R. are at Ogden, near
Calgary. The New Canadian Pacific Hotel Palliser ranks among the
finest in North America. Pleasant motor trips may be made in the
The city owns, operates and controls its public utilities, including
municipal street railway, gravity waterworks system, light and power
plant and street paving plant. All these are profitable enterprises, and
yield a big revenue. Forty miles of street railway are in operation.
This city is supplied with natural gas from Bow Island, which is sold
at low rates, both to manufacturers and for domestic use. Annotated   Guide
The most imposing building in Calgary is undoubtedly the Palliser,
the C. P. R. hotel. Externally the building is French Renaissance.
Buff pressed brick, Roman size, is used for the facing of the walls,
while Indiana limestone is used for trimmings. Its ground measurements are 227 feet by 145 feet and it rises to a height of 120 feet
above the sidewalk. From the roof a magnificent view of the snowcapped peaks of the Rockies is to be had.
It comprises ten floors—basement, ground, mezzanine and seven service floors, with a roof garden and sun parlor on the roof. The structure is built of steel and reinforced concrete throughout. In shape, it
is rectangular as far as the first floor; above that it is "E" shape,
contained in one long wing of 46 feet wide by 227 feet long on the
north* side, with three projecting wings at right angles on the street
side—these wings being 99 feet long, 46 feet wide for the two end
ones, and 54 feet wide for the centre one. The advantage of this
design is, of course, that sufficient lighting for all rooms is secured.
There are no "inside rooms." The spaces between the wings also
afford provision for skylights for the lighting of the lower floor.
Entering from Ninth Avenue, one passes through the vestibule into
the entrance hall (46x32 feet), with the Palm Room (42x50 feet)
on the left, and the Drawing Room on the right. Beyond is the
Rotunda, 147 feet long by 40 feet wide. The floors of the Rotunda,
vestibule, entrance hall and elevator hall are of grey Tennessee marble,
and the columns that support the roof are finished in Botticino
marble, with Sylvian marble for the bases. On the right of the
Rotunda is the main Dining Room, 38 feet wide and 142 feet long,
running the whole depth of the ground floor from north to south and
finishing in a semi-circular bay at the south end. On the left of the
Rotunda are the flower stand, bar, and cafe, the floors of which are
large heather-brown tiles. To the north of the Rotunda are the elevator hall and the spacious kitchen.
The first floor contains a beautiful ball-room, 48 x 50 feet, situated
at the north end of the centre wing. At either side of the ball-room, in
courts, are pergolas, extending to the side wings. The remainder of
this floor, and the whole of the floors above, is occupied by bedrooms,
with an average of about 50 per floor.
The bedrooms range in size from 12 x 15 feet to 20 x 14 feet, and are
usually in pairs, with connecting doors between, and bathrooms on
either side. Inside each wing is a broad corridor running down the
centre. Every bedroom is finished with mahogany doors, with a full
length heavy plate glass mirror on the bedroom side of the door. The
furniture of the bedroom is all fumed oak, with dull brass fittings.
There is hot and cold running water, ice water service, telephone, and
portable reading lamp in every bedroom.
3*331 '!i,i,t
VfBl ll
-? f im ■" pi
fr r ipr 1 '
F U5 01
ill !|?lSiWWiB''Jil!
C. P. R. Hotel Palliser, at Calgary 46
Across   Canada
C. P. R. Bridge over the Saskatchewan River at Edmonton
*$»■-—m—»»»      »«      »««—w~— a«—mi      mi» ..»ii--—»n—.ng—«n—~-u«.—■«—-m    . m——1»      ?n—~uw——»««»ii«fe
From Calgary an important branch line connects with Edmonton,
the capital of the Province of Alberta (see p. 54), and another south
to Lethbridge and Macleod.
The Canadian Pacific Calgary to Edmonton branch line passes
through and serves an exceptionally rich region, well suited for mixed
farming and especially for dairying, which is,Indeed, the staple industry of the inhabitants. For a distance of 30 miles after leaving Calgary
the line skirts the extreme western boundary of the C.P.R. Irrigation
Block, as far as Crossfield. The undulating prairies continue all the
way, but after leaving Crossfield the character of the countryside
gradually changes. Unlike Southern Alberta—i.e., the lands along the
main transcontinental line of the C.P.R.—Central Alberta is wooded.
Bush will be seen everywhere and clumps of trees, until presently,
when nearing Edmonton, the woods are in some parts continuous.
Olds—(58 miles) where one of the three Agricultural Schools recently
established by the Alberta Provincial Government is located.
Red Deer—(95 miles), pop. 8,500, is an important town, and the
centre of a splendid mixed farming and dairying district.
It is situated on the Red Deer River, and has in the neighborhood
valuable coal, clay, sanl and gravel deposits. It is also the sub-
divisional point of the new C.P.R. branch westward to Rocky Mountain House (between 50 and 60 miles).
Lacombe—(113 miles), pop. 1J800, is also in the heart of a mixed
farming district, and is the location of a Dominion Government Experimental Farm. A branch line runs from here eastward
via Coronation to Monitor, connecting with the C.P.R. Moose Jaw to
Macklin branch at Kerrobert. Near Lacombe is Gull Lake, a summer
and bathing resort that is quickly becoming popular amongst the
people of southern and Central Alberta.
Wetaskiwin—(152 miles), pop. 2,500, is the junction point for the
main line to Winnipeg^
Edmonton—(194 miles).  See page 54.
The line south from Calgary to Macleod and Lethbridge also passes
through a good farming country. Aldersyde (where a cut-off line
branches direct to Lethbridge), High River, Cayley, Nanton, Claresholm are some of the more important stations—all yielding substantial grain and cattle traffic. Near High River is a ranch famed for
its breed of Percherons. At Lethbridge is the headquarters of an
irrigation district now operated by the Natural Resources Department of the Canadian Pacific Railway, formerly by the Alberta Railway and Irrigation Company. Near here is Coaldale, a prosperous
Ready Made Farm Colony settled with Old Country fanners. Annotated   Guide
■Mn      turn in■■»    ■■■ ■■ mi    II iM"" •»» i ii ill"■»■■■   ■-»»-
Alt. 8389
"   8877
|   3800
" 3244
"   8190
"   3052
"  2961
.fr,—..—..—.. - - n—vt—MM—
J,f.n      m.i   m    i ,>—»,»   ii ■■■— i—■■■■   m—.,«      i»      ,»~i— nn.—a«—m   ..mi—»i~—«« — m. ■—m      iiy
Leaving Calgary one sees the great Ogden shops, at which the equipment of the railway on this section of the
line is repaired and renovated. Approaching Shepard, the foothills are left behind,
and at Langdon there are some large cattle ranches. Here the railway leaves the
valley of the Bow River. A new cut-off
has just been completed between Shepard
and Gleichen over which
certain transcontinental trains pass. From Shepard
to Gleichen also the main line traverses
the western section of the Canadian
Pacific Company's 3,000,000 acres irrigation project and the canal and ditches
are crossed at several points. The Irrigation Block is traversed by the main
line of the railway and extends a distance of 145 miles. This is the largest
irrigation project on the continent and
is divided into three sections. Work has
been completed on the Western section -«*a*»«^
and a great part of the land marketed.
The Eastern  section,   extending   from A Fairy of the Prairies
Alderson to Bassano, is now also ready
for settlement. About three miles south of Bassano is located the
great Horse-Shoe Bend dam, which has made the waters of the Bow
River available for irrigation on this Eastern section.
By means of the dam the ordinary water level at the site is raised 45
feet, resulting in the waters flowing from the far distant eastern slope
of the Rocky Mountains being diverted through a total length of 2,500
miles of canals and distributing ditches over about 1,800 square miles
©f fertile prairie country, irrigating approximately one-third of that
area. The farms which will be cultivated by this method of irrigation
are seen on each side of the track, and at Gleichen and Strathmore the
Experimental Irrigation Farms are located close to the line, and the
results from the application of water in growing crops and trees may
6e noted. Near Strathmore are located a great number of the Canadian Pacific's "Ready-Made" Farms. Under this policy the Company
improves farms in advance of their sale, so that the arriving settler
finds awaiting him a farm with a comfortable house, fine barn, a drilled well and about fifty acres in crop. The whole farm is fenced. The
price of these improvements is added to the price of the land, the
whole sum being payable in a space of twenty years. This policy has
been extended to three Prairie Provinces, and has been of great
assistance in the settlement of farmers coming both from Great Britain and the United States. At Langdon the railway falls to the
valley of the Bow River. From Langdon branch lines run northward
to Acme. At Gleichen (AU. 2£50 ft.) pop. 800, a last receding view
of the Rockies may be had by the traveller as he is carried toward the
rising sun. At Namaka is another farm of the Canadian Land and
Ranch Company. The Company hag 1,600 acres under crop here and
excellent harvests arereapeg.
> mm ^3^ p—-^ *® 'h
C. P. R. Supply Farm, Strathmore 48
Across   Canada
Irrigation Dam
Near Crowfoot
station and south
of the railway is a
large reservation
occupied by t h
Blackfoot Indians,
some of whom arev
seen about the sta-^1
tion. FromBassan
a line has just been
constructed that,
opens up a rich
farming district. It
through Empress and rejoins
the main line at Swift Current. From Tilley station, on a very clear day, the higher peaks of the
Rocky Mountains may be seen 150 miles away to the westward. The
sunset over these peaks is a never-to-be-forgotten sight, the snowy
caps of the jagged line of the horizon adding
to the splendor of the view. The entire country is underlaid with two or more beds of
good coal, and natural gas is frequently
found in boring deep wells. This gas is utilized at Langevin in pumping water for the
supply of the railway, and both there and at
Tilley it can be seen burning brightly. Eastward and to the north and south of the railway, the entire prairie is seen to advantage,
and before August it is a billowy ocean of
grass. Cattle ranches are spread over it, and
farms appear at intervals. The grade is up
and down past Suffield and Bowell, and as
Redcliff is approached some of the finest
ranching land in America and also the largest herds of Galloway
cattle in the world are to be seen. A branch joins the main line at
Suffield from Retlaw. The railway descends gradually from the higher
plateaus, and crosses the south branch of that river, on whose eastern
bank is the town of Medicine Hat.
Medicine Hat—Alt. 2J.81 ft. Pop. 15#28. On account of the immense flow of natural gas, and many other advantages,
Rudyard Kipling christened it "The town that was born lucky." It is
situated in the valley of the South Saskatchewan, and is the centre of a
magnificent mixed farming district. Apples, plums and small fruits are
quite at home here, and a demonstration farm has been inaugurated
by the Provincial Government. A sub-divisional point, with large railway shops, all operated by natural gas. An important station of the
Royal Northwest Mounted Police. There is an abundance of coal all
through the district, but the light, heat and power in the city is derived
entirely from natural gas, which is sold to manufacturers at 5 cents per
thousand cubic feet, and for domestic purposes at 13% cents. The
snowfall here is lighter, and the winter shorter than anywhere else in
An Up-to-date Plough Annotated   Guide
Canada east of the Rocky Mountains. There are three large brick
plants, abattoir, flour mills and extensive greenhouses. The river is
navigable for steamboats for some distance above and for 800 miles
below to Lake Winnipeg. From Dunmore, the Crow's Nest Section
leads off westerly past Lethbridge, one of the chief sources
of the coal supply for the country, east to Winnipeg
and through the Crowsnest Pass to the Rocky Mountains to Kootenay Lake and to the mines
of West Kootenay, in whose greater
development it is proving a powerful
factor by supplying cheap fuel for^
smelting purposes. ^(For descriptive
notes of the Crowsnest Pass Route,
see pages 92 to 101.)
Dunmore Alt. 2411
Pashley | 2417
Irvine " 2503
Walsh I 2448
Cummings " 2899
Hatton       " 2474
At Dunmore,
what may be
taken as a typical mixed farming country may
be seen, for not \y
only are capital    (£[/
Royal Northewest Mounted
crops raised here, but a number of valuable horses and cattle are bred and pastured here. Eastward from Medicine
Hat to Swift Current the line skirts the
northern base of the Cypress Hills, which
reach an altitude of 3,800 feet, and in many places are covered with
valuable timber. It is impossible to conceive of a better stock country
than that lying between the Cypress Hills and the railway. Rich in
the grasses that possess peculiar attractions for horses and cattle,
the valleys and groves of timber give ample shelter all seasons of
the year, and the numerous streams flowing out of the Cypress Hills afford an
unfailing supply of water. The handsome profits realized by the stockmen
testify better than words to the value
of this district for cattle raising.
Lakes   and  ponds,   some   fresh,   some
alkaline, occur at intervals.    At Maple
Creek, a few miles south of which Sitting
Bull, the Sioux Chief, was captured by
a Canadian Mounted Police officer after
the massacre of Custer and his American
cavalrymen, are extensive yards for the
shipment of cattle. The town is supported by trade with the cattle ranches, and farming is successfully carried on in the vicinity. Near the town is a Northwest Mounted Police
station. At Crane Creek there are several large farms, irrigated, and
some of which are entirely devoted to stock raising, as many as 7,000
cattle and 500 horses being usually on a single range. The satisfactory
esutoLobtained from working farms at various points on the line
*rV^   at. proved the value of these lands for farming,
=^=s?~ and  result  in  attracting  the  attention   of
"IJ^t^s* settlers and capitalists to this section of the
fc^rHrrc- country.
Gull Lake, pop. 1,000, is a rising town and
has two good hotels and several grain elevators. In the outlying district are many
farms which are entirely devoted to sheep,
large numbers being usually wintered there.
An irrigated meadow on the north side of
the lake is worth seeing.
Alt. 2548
Maple Creek
Crane Lake
Gull Lake
5sr-       Swift Current
-Alt. 2,482.    Terminus of
the Alberta Division. 50
Across   Canada
• «w«mit J'xMfi
*f*H   MH—|||MI.mH.^—UK*
245 Miies      § ]
j (Saskatchewan Division) !
Swift Current—Alt. 2432 ft. Pop. 5,765. A railway divisional point
on a pretty stream of the same name. Swift Current
is in the centre of a very large agricultural district extending from the
Cypress Hills on the south to the Saskatchewan River on the north.
The soil is particularly adapted for grain farming, and the country is
being rapidly filled up with settlers. There are now many grain elevators
and a large flour mill here. A branch line goes southeast to Vanguard,
and another northwest to Empress, thence rejoining the main line at
The Government has erected a Meteorological Observing Station.
From Swift Current to Moose Jaw the line steadily falls on the eastern
slope of the Coteau, and Winds through an irregular depression to the
basin of the Chaplin Lakes—formerly known as the Old Wives Lakes-—
extensive bodies of alkaline water having
no outlet. The northernmost of these lakes
is reached at Rush Lake, a large area of
fresh  water  and   a   favorite   resort   of
waterfowl—swans, geese, ducks and pelicans—which at times congregate here in
myriads.   Chaplin is on a comparatively
large body of water, Lake Chaplin, south
of which is Lake Johnson. The country is
treeless from Cypress Hills to the eastern
border of the Regina plain, 200 miles, but
the  soil is excellent nearly everywhere.
The prairies about and beyond the Chaplin Lakes are marked in all directions by
old buffalo trails and scarred and pitted by their "wallows."  Antelope may be sometimes seen, and coyotes and prairie dogs.
Moose Jaw—Alt. 1,779 ft. Pop. 25,000.  A railway divisional point
and the junction with the Soo Line, the most direct line
to St. Paul.    The name is an abridgment    of    the    Indian    name,    which,
Rush  Lake
C. P. R. Station at Moose Jaw Annotated   Guide
Harvesting  on   the  Western   Prairies
literally translated, is "The-creek-where-the-white-man-mended-the-
cart-with-a-moose-jaw-bone." The Moose Jaw-Macklin sub-division
of the Canadian Pacific Ry. runs from Moose Jaw to Outlook, and
thence via Kerrobert to Macklin, where it joins the Winnipeg-Edmonton line of the Canadian Pacific. There is also a branch in a southerly
direction to Vantage, a distance of 52 miles. The finest stockyards on
the line from the Rockies to Winnipeg are located here. The city is
pleasantly situated in a dip in the prairie, at the junction of the Moose
Jaw and Thunder Creeks, and to the south are shortly seen the Dirt
Hills, the northwest extension of the great Missouri Coteau. It is a
distributing centre for the ranches to the south anl west, as well as
for theTich grain-growing district to the north, and west to the Elbow
of the Saskatchewan. The city owns its own waterworks and electric
plant; has fine public schools, churches, banks and city hall. Flour
mills and elevators indicate the wheat producing qualities of the district.
At Outlook there is one of the largest bridges in Canada. It is 300
feet long, has eight 240-ft. truss spans, supported by concrete piers
with approaches, consisting of three 80-ft., seven 60-ft. and nine 45-ft.
plate girder spans on steel towers. The height of the bridge from tail
level to water line is about 140 feet. The completion of this bridge
has opened up a sixth route between Winnipeg and Edmonton and
provides the most direct connection between St. Paul, Minneapolis
and Edmonton.
Pasqua—Alt. 1,880 ft. From Pasqua a subdivision extends southeast
through Estevan to the International boundary line at Portal, where
connection is made with the Soo Line from St. Paul and Minneapolis,
and it is by this route that passengers from the Pacific Coast travel
to the Middle States. Trains run through between St. Paul, Minneapolis, Moose Jaw and Pacific Coast.
Regina—Pop. 47,000.  The capital of the
Province of Saskatchewan and
the  distributing  point  for  the  country
far north and south.
This  territory  is  a very  fertile  one,
known as the park country, in which large
numbers of settlers have already become prosperous. The Moose
Mountain sub-division extends southward from Regina to Arcola, connecting with the Arcola sub-division, thus giving an alternative route
between Brandon and Regina. New branch lines have just been opened from Regina to Bulyea and Colonsay, making connection with
Winnipeg-Saskatoon-Edmonton line. Regina was for many years
the headquarters of the Royal Northwest Mounted Police.. Many a
romance is centred around the endurance of these red-coated keepers
of the law, while on the trail. The tradition that a "Mounted Policeman" never gave up the chase until the fugitive was caught was
faithfully kept. On the south bank of Wascana Lake the new Provincial Government Buildings for Saskatchewan are being erected at
a cost of $1,500,000. Nearer the city are the Lieutenant-Governor's
residence and the exhibition buildings.
Belle Plaine Alt. 1915
Grand Coulee
Regina I 1896
"   1892
1   1868 52
Across   Canada
Passing Regina, Pilot Butte, an unimportant hill near by, is seen.
Within a mile of Balgonie station is the last or most easterly farm of
the Canadian Land and Ranch Company, a farm chiefly devoted to
grain growing, there being 4,000 acres in
crop. All along the line the work of
double-tracking the transcontinental main
line across the prairie may be seen from
the train.
Pilot Butte
Alt. 2022
" 2192
" 2286
Grain Elevators by Night
At McLean (which stands
154    feet    higher    than
Qu'Appelle and 390 feet
higher than Regina)  the
great Regina plain is left at its
easterly border.    Passing through
a short stretch of wooded country,
the train reaches Qu'Appelle.
Qu'Appelle—Alt. 2J32 ft. A good
road extends northward to Fort Qu'Appelle and beyond. Fort
Qu'Appelle, 20 miles distant, is an old post of the Hudson's Bay Company, beautifully situated on the Fishing Lakes in the deep valley
of the Qu'Appelle River. There are several Indian reservations in
its vicinity, and an important Indian mission and school.
At Indian Head—pop. 1,651—is located a
fine experimental farm conducted under
Government auspices. It is situated on
the north side of the railway, and in this
locality are numerous farms on which
great yields of wheat are obtained. The
town of Indian Head is making rapid
growth, consequent upon the successful
farming of the district around it, and owns an up-to-date municipal
water supply and electric light plant. From Indian Head eastward
the line follows a gradually lowering prairie. Sintaluta, Wolseley and
Grenfell have already become imp'ortant local markets. From Wolseley a branch goes to Reston, on the Winnipeg-Arcola Line.
Broadview—Alt. 1,968 ft. Pop. 1,750. Terminus of the Saskatchewan Division. A railway divisional point, prettily
situated at the head of Lake Ecapo in the midst of an excellent mixed
farming district. A reservation occupied by Cree Indians is not far
away.   The Standard time changes here to Central, one hour faster.
Indian Head  Alt. 1927
Sintaluta " 1986
Wolseley " 1955
Summerberry   ! 1945
Grenfell " 1964
Oakshela I 1959
Wh i tewood
Red Jacket
Oak Lake
From Broadview to Brandon the frequent
Alt. 204S ponds  and  lakes afford  excellent oppor-
'f:  1973 tunities for sport—waterfowl being abun-
"   1955 dant.    Percival stands upon a ridge 100
1  1939 feet higher than the general level.    From
"   1923 Whitewood the country northward is ac-
|   1892 cessible by a bridge over the Qu'Appelle
1799 River. Moosomin, the most important town
1696 in the eastern portion of Saskatchewan, is
I64O the station for Fort Ellice at the north and
1587 the Moose Mountain district at the south.
1451 From Kirkella the Saskatoon line of the
1422 C. P. R. diverges northwest through a new
I42S and wonderful farming country.    A mile
1428 east of Fleming the Province of Manitoba
Harvest on the Canadian Prairies Annotated   Guide
Alexander     Alt. 1415     is entered. Virden and Eikhorn are market
Kemnay "  1870    towns of particularly attractive districts,
and further east the undulating prairie is
well occupied by prosperous farmers, as the progressive villages at
intervals testify. The railway draws near to the Assiniboine and
drops into its valley just before reaching Brandon.
Brandon—Alt. 1#04 ft. Pop. 18,000. A divisional point; one of the
largest grain markets in Manitoba, and the distributing
market for an extensive and well settled country. It has grain elevators, flour mills, large planing mills, banks, and a number of manufactories. The city is beautifully situated on high ground, and has
well-made streets and many substantial buildings. A Dominion Experimental Farm and a Provincial Asylum are established within the
city limits. The Arcola sub-division line runs from here to Regina,
240 miles, via Arcola, through the Moose Mountain country. At
Schwitzer it connects with the Souris sub-division, which runs 133
miles southwest to Estevan, located on the Soo-Pacific line connecting
Western Canada with the middle and Northwestern States of the
Union. Sub-divisions also run north to Minnedosa, Yorkton, Sheho,
Lanigan; south to Deloraine, Lyleton, etc.
Just east of Brandon the Assiniboine river
is crossed by an iron bridge, and the
Brandon hills are left towards the southwest. From Chater the Miniota subdivision of the Canadian Pacific Ry. running
northwestward towards the Saskatchewan
country is operated to Miniota, a distance
of 71 miles. From MacGregor a subdivision extends 55 miles to Varcoe on the
Miniota subdivision. Between Brandon
and Portage la Prairie stations succeed
one another at intervals of five or eight
miles, and many of them are surrounded by bright and busy towns;
and at nearly all are tall and massive elevators, with now and then
a flour mill. Principal among these is Carberry (pop. 1,050), an important grain market. After passing through a bushy district, with
frequent ponds and small streams, containing many stock farms, for
which it is particularly adapted, the railway crosses part of the
famed Portage Plains and reaches Portage la Prairie.
«|M ■■ M W Ml ■■"'     W H» »«—" »" "« «,—M—M—WI—M—1«—US—«« " ««—•
Via Portage la Prairie on the Great West Express
Chater            Alt. 1219
Camp Hughes
Generally speaking, the main line of the Canadian Pacific Railway
means the transcontinental line between Vancouver and Montreal.
But there is really another main line, which is that portion of the
system over which the through trains between Edmonton and Winnipeg are operated.
All trains on this line start from Edmonton and follow the northwest branch to Portage la Prairie, where it joins the main transcontinental line and runs over that line for a distance of 56 miles into Winnipeg. From Edmonton the line runs in a southeasterly direction as
far as Portage la Prairie, from whence it goes due east to Winnipeg.
This entire Winnipeg-Edmonton main line passes through some of =
Across   Canada
the most productive country in all the prairie provinces and has on
its line some of the most progressive towns and cities. It is a gently
rolling prairie most of the entire 849 miles.
Edmonton—Pop. 7 6£48, is the capital of the Province of Alberta,
and is situated on both banks of the north Saskatchewan
River. That part to the south was originally known as the city of
Strathcona, but was amalgamated with Edmonton four years ago. The
C.P.R. leaves Edmonton now by means of a magnificent steel high-
level bridge, 2,550 feet long, 152 feet above water level, which carries
also street car tracks and traffic roads. Edmonton was established as
a trading post of the Hudson's Bay Company in 1795, and the remans of the old fort are still standing on the some bluff overlooking
the river as the splendid Parliament Buildings. The University of
Alberta, the Robertson Presbyterian College, and many other educational institutions are situated here. The city owns and operates all
its own public utilities, It is the distributing centre for the Peace
River country to the north and northwest, and is also the centre of an
important coal industry, the production being over 300 tons per day.
For a line passing through a prairie country the Winnipeg-Edmonton line has more of scenery than generally falls to purely agricultural country. At Macklin connection is made with the Outlook
Branch for Moose Jaw, thence via through express to the twin cities
of Minneapolis and St. Paul. At Wilkie short branches run northwest and southwest into a rich wheat country.
Saskatoon—Pop. 21,050. Located on the South Saskatchewan River,
in the centre of the Province of Saskatchewan, and therefore in the very middle of the West. Neither to the north nor south
has she any adjacent competitive city. This strategic geographical
location gives her a wholesale distributing territory of over 47,000
square miles of exceelingly fertile, well-settled, agricultural country,
extending far into Alberta, and embracing some two hundred thriving
towns and villages on over 2,500 miles of operating railways. Since
1911 Saskatoon district has won the world's "Best Wheat Championship" no fewer than five times. Being the seat of the University of
Saskatchewan and the Saskatchewan Agricultural College, Saskatoon
is therefore the educational centre of the Province. Over $2,000,000
already expended upon buildings. There are five bridges over the
South Saskatchwan River at Saskatoon. One of these, opened last
fall, cost over $600,000, and has arch spans of 150 feet—the longest
in Canada. The city is highly modern and progressive. It is also very
picturesque, and among many outstanding advantages, enjoys the
blessing of an unfailing, inexhaustible supply of the finest water.
Further east at Colonsay and Lanigan branches join the
line for Regina via Valeport and Bulyea and for Kirkella
on the main transcontinental line.
At Wynyard there is a beautiful body of water, Quill
Lake, 40 miles in length, the railway passing close to its
shore for many miles, and in the valley of the North Saskatchewan River there is an ever-pleasing change to the
rise and fall of the land on either side.
Yorkton is one city making substantial progress. At Minnedosa a branch line from Brandon is passed. At Portage la Prairie connection is made with the main line running into
Saskatoon University Annotated   Guide
High Bluff Alt. 832
Portage la Praire—Alt. 858 ft. Pop. 6,982. On the Assiniboine River.
The market town of one of the best grain districts,
and one of the principal markets in the Province. It has large flour
mills and many grain elevators, an oatmeal mill, fence wire factory, a
biscuit factory and several other industries.       The    W i n n i p e g-Edmonton
Line of the Canadian   Pacific   Ry.
branches off here.
The  town   is   an
educational   and
residential centre.
There is a descent
of 100  feet from
Portage la Prairie
to Winnipeg, although the land is apparently level. East of Portage la Prairie the
country is thickly settled to Poplar Point,
between which place and Rosser there
is a quantity of land held by speculators.
The line of trees not far to the south
marks the course of the Assiniboine River, Fort  Garry
which the railway follows from near Brandon to Winnipeg. Long
Lake is a favorite resort for sportsmen, and Reaburn is the halfway station between Vancouver and Montreal.^
Poplar Point
m—-n»—.-mm . i,i»«-
»«»—BB.     ii M MH-
-mi—hm—an      mi<—.hu—=—mk
Winnipeg—Alt. 772 ft. Pop. 265,000. Capital of the Province of
Manitoba, formerly known as Ft. Garry (pop. in 1871,
100). Situated at the confluence of the Red and Assiniboine rivers,
both navigable by steamboats, it has been, for many years, the chief
post of the Hudson's Bay Company, which has here very extensive
establishments. Winnipeg commands the trade of the vast region to
the north, east and west. The city is handsomely built, superior brick
and stone being available, and has sixty miles of electric railway in the
city and forty-four miles of suburban track, parks, hospital, great flour
mills,' grain elevators, huge abattoirs, many notable public buildings,
including Provincial and Dominion offices, and is the greatest grain
market in the British Empire. The Royal Alexandra, owned and operated by the Canadian Pacific Railway, ranks amongst the finest hotels
in the world. It was erected at a cost of $1,250,000, has been extended to
twice its original size, and is most handsomely decorated and furnished. The hotel is adjacent to the Company's Railway Station, which is
also a magnificent building. Immense workshops of the Canadian
Pacific Railway are here, and the railway has also in this city the two
largest train yards in the world. One yard, which has been completed
for several years, has 110 miles of track. The second is even larger, as
it includes 70 tracks of a total mileage of 183 miles. In connection with
this yard development the Canadian Pacific has a transfer elevator of
a million bushels capacity. Land offices of the railway are located in
the city, and here also are the chief Western Immigration offices of the
Government, and the immigration sheds. The C.P.R. owns large areas
of good agricultural land, and has a comprehensive colonization policy
for facilitating the settlement of practical farmers. A number of ready-
made farms are prepared each year, and loans of live stock are made
to experienced farmers settling on C.P.R. lands between Winnipeg and
the Rocky Mountains. Sectional maps and pamphlets giving valuable
Information as to the nature and character of the lands traversed by
the road are supplied to those who desire them free of cost by the Land
Branch of the Department of Natural Resources. Agents at all points
along the line can give full information and prices of the Company's
lands in the vicinity of the respective stations. The Canadian Pacific 56
Across   Canada
Railway has two subdivisions leading southward on either side of the
Red River to Emerson and Gretna, on the U. S. boundary, connecting
at the former point with the train service of the Soo Line for St. Paul
and Minneapolis. Two subdivision lines of the Canadian Pacific Railway go southwest, the first to Arcola in Saskatchewan, thence to Regina through the Moose Mountain country, a section now being rapidly
settled, and the second to Napinka
in Southern Manitoba, connecting
at Souris  and Napinka with the
Connecting    line    from    Brandon
through to Estevan, tjie junction
with the Soo-Pacific line, and two
rther subdivisions run north and
korthwest; one to Selkirk, Winnipeg Beach and Riverton, and the
[pther to  Stony Mountain,  Stone-
Xvall, Teulon and Arborg, 76 miles
north of the city.
Leaving Winnipeg the Red River
|is crossed at St. Boniface (pop.
\12J500)9 a distinctively French
Msuburb of Winnipeg, though much
r/older than the latter, and immortalized by the poet Whittier by his
reference to the "Bells of the
Roman Mission," and as suggestive
of devotion to the hardy voyageur
is **The Angelus" to the peasant.
^Thence the line runs eastward via
uakbank, Hazeiridge and Norquay
Molson. Between the latter point
and Whitemouth the country has prairie
characteristics. Sawmills appear in the
vicinity of and beyond Whitemouth.
Numerous pretty lakes are seen until the
Lake of the Woods district is reached,
Manitoba having been left after passing
Ingolf. Near Keewatin are the works of
the Keewatin Power Co., creating one
of the greatest water powers in the world,
making of the Lake of the Woods a
gigantic mill-pond with an area of 3,000
square miles, and affording most convenient sites for pulp-mills, sawmills, flour-
mills, and other establishments for supplying the needs of the Great Canadian
West and for manufacturing its products on their way to Eastern
markets. At Keewatin (pop. 1,800) is a mammoth flouring mill,
owned and operated by the Lake of the Woods Milling Co., and built
of granite quarried on the spot.
Main Street, Winnipeg:
N. Transcona Alt. 766
Kenora—Alt. 1,091 ft. Pop. 5^00. At the principal outlet of the
Lake of the Woods, is an important mining centre with
several large sawmills, the product of which is shipped westward to
the prairies. It is the key to the great goldfields now being developed
in its immediate vicinity and in the Rainy Lake and Seine River districts to the south, which are reached by steamer, the route lying
through one of the most picturesque regions on the continent. The
Lake of the Woods is the largest body of water touched by the railway between the Pacific and Lake Superior. Its fisheries are very
valuable, the annual shipments being large. The lake is studded with
islands and is a favorite resort for sportsmen and pleasure seekers.
Its waters break through a narrow rocky rim at Kenora and Keewatin, and fall into the Winnipeg River. The tourist will find good
up-to-date hotel accommodation in Kenora. From here the country is
excessively broken and the railway passes through numerous rocky
uplifts. The scenery is of the wildest description, and deep, rock-
bound lakes are always in sight. In fact, from Winnipeg to Fort
William the railway traverses a wild, broken region, with rapid riven Annotated   Guide
and many lakes, but containing valuable forests and mineral deposits.
At Eagle River two beautiful falls are seen, one above and the other
below the railway.
At Dryden the Ontario Government
has established an experimental farm.
There being large areas of good land
specially suited for mixed farming and
dairying, settlement is progressing
rapidly, the chief advantages of the
district, besides the facility with which
the land is cleared, being the proximity
of good markets, the illimitable supply
of timber and water, abundance of
fish and game, winter employment for
settlers m the lumber camps, and
healthfulness of the climate. Wabigoon is the point of departure for the
new Manitou mining region, and the
Lower Seine and Rainy Lake country
can be reached by this route. Steamers
operate on these waters during navigation, and in winter there is a good
sleigh road. Further east the SawbiU
mining country is reached from Bonheur Station by government wagon road.
Hawk Lake
Alt. 1292
Vermilion  Bay
Eagle River
Entrance to Rotunda, Royal Alexandra Hotel, Winnipeg 58
Across   Canada
Ralth Alt. 1584
Buda " 1477
Finmark " 1188
Kaministikwia   " 1017
Murillo I    948
Westfort "    626
Following the Wabigoon and Matta-
wan Rivers to Kaministikwia, the railway then follows the Kaministikwia river
for some distance. Murillo is the railway station for the Rabbit Mount silver district, and four miles from the
station are the Kakabeka Falls, where
the Kaministikwia leaps from a height rivalling that of Niagara. The
falls can be reached from Fort William by railway or automobile.
Fort William—AU. 617. Pop. 28,771. A short distance from the mouth of the Kaministikwia River, a broad deep stream with firm banks,
affording extraordinary advantages for lake traffic with a waterfront
of 26 miles. From the beauty of its situation, its accessibility and the
opportunities for sport in the neighborhood, it has become a favorite
residential city, and is rapidly becoming an important commercial
centre. A long promontory of basaltic rock on the opposite side of
Thunder Bay, called the "Sleeping Giant," whose Indian legend takes
one back to aboriginal days, terminates in Thunder Cape, behind
which lies the once famous Silver Islet, which yielded almost fabulous
wealth before becoming flooded. Pie Island, another mountain of
columnar basalt, divides the entrance to the bay, which is flanked on
the west by Mackay Mountain, overlooking Fort William. Looking
west, between Pie Island and Thunder Cape, Isle Royale (now become
a popular summer resort) may be seen in the distance. Fort William
was formerly a very important Hudson's Bay Company's post, and
was the great rendezvous of the hunters, voyageurs and chief factors
of the Company. The fur house of the old fort is now used as an
engine house for the great coal docks, and some of the largest grain
elevators in the world overshadow all. The twin cities of Fort William and Port Arthur have elevator capacity of 48,000,000 bushels.
There are railway workshops and the usual buildings and sidings
incident to a divisional point. Fort William is the Western Terminus
of the Canadian Pacific Railway Lake Steamship Line. These fine
steel steamships ply between here and Port McNicoll. (See pages
60 to 64.)
Eastbound passengers should here set their watches forward one
hour in conformity with "Eastern" standard time.
Port Arthur—Alt. 615—Like Fort William, is a city of elevators
and of beautiful homes.    It has many active industries and a fine harbor.   (See also page 65.)
Grain Elevator at Fort William Indicates Double Track
Across- Canada
Fort William and Port McNicoll, 550 Miles
Port McNicoll and Toronto, 108 Miles (Rail)
Toronto and IVlontreal, 338 Miles (Rail)
il -«««.HK-~-»? — i:!l-*-=™R7 —~>Hli =*=»lll!=™>-»!IK -■»"-SII —""-ill
—»».-■—»» mi——ac—>—b»   i m ■ ~ni!«—«u- "■»'  '"Mj«
The splendid steamships of the Canadian
Fort William Alt. 617 Pacific Railway start from Fort William
Port Arthur      "  615    on the eastbound trip.   They are more
like ocean liners than the ordinary lake
steamship, and the meals and accommodation are up to the usual high
standard of the Company.
The steamers sail down the Kaministikwia,
calling at Port Arthur, on Thunder Bay—
^thence across the Bay and rounding Thunder
Cape, directly across Lake Superior to
Sault Ste. Marie, Mich.   (Pop. 13,000.)
Sault Ste. Marie—Alt. 632.
Pop. 13,006.
Prosperous towns on both the
United States and
Canadian sides, where
e Soo rapids carry off
e waters of Lake
$r—Superior to the St.
— - Mary's River and Lake
Huron. The rapids,
which drop about 18 leet, are avoided by four canals, three being m
Michigan and one in Ontario, the locks of which rank amongst the
largest in the world. Passengers may go ashore while the vessel passes
through the locks. Sault Ste. Marie has within the last ten years
sprung from what lacked little of being a wilderness, to its present
size and importance on the industrial and commercial map. The city
is surrounded with a halo of interest from the early time of the Hudson's Bay Fur Company to the present, when the material results of
the greatest feats of engineering to be seen on the Continent attract
the eyes of the thousands of visitors who come annually in search of
recreation and health. Hour after hour it is possible for one to see
the great passenger and freight boats pass through the locks.
The Canadian Government lock is nine hundred feet long and sixty
feet wide. It is one of the longest in the world, and was built in 1888-
1895 at a cost of about $4,000,000. Of equal interest to both citizens
and visitors are the great industries of the Lake Superior Corporation. Fort Brady is a military post on the American side. Connection
is here made with the Soo line, which leaves the main line of the Cana-
Elevators and Harbor, Port McNicoll
KH^n^Hilx   ii IW     '    Bll mi«—HH"—M-~»«K——UK—H<—-Ml—Ml—iMil—=— Hi"—-«■«—'li      '  **<    '   M »«8l     I
(Summer Months Only) Annotated   Guide
Port McNicoll Alt.580
Tay " 662
Fesserton " 632
Coldwater " 594
dian Pacific Railway at Moose Jaw,
in Western Canada, passes through
North Dakota and Minnesota to
Minneapolis and St. Paul, and
thence continues on through Minnesota, Wisconsin and North Michigan to Sault Ste. Marie and through
Ontario to Sudbury, where it again
connects with the main line of the Canadian Pacific Railway. The
Duluth, South Shore & Atlantic Railway also runs here from Duluth,
and connection is made with steamers for Lake Superior (South
Shore), Michigan, Huron and Erie. From the "Soo" enjoyable side
trips may be made to the Desbarats Islands on the north shore of
Lake Huron, Mackinac, etc., and the Michipicoten gold fields on Lake
Superior. At Soo the largest double leaf Bascule Bridge in the world
has just been completed by the Canadian Pacific Railway.
The route followed by the Canadian Pacific Railway steamers is
down the St. Mary's River, through the new channel of Hay Lake and
across Lake Huron and through the famous Georgian Bay with its
thousands of islands to Port McNicoll, the new terminal port of the
Canadian Pacific Railway Great Lakes Steamships.
The large new wharves, elevators, railway buildings, etc., show the visitor that
this is a newly created port. The up-to-
date equipment allows the handling of
traffic most expeditiously, and no money
has been spared by the Company in making this new port one of the best on the Great Lakes. Train connection for Toronto is made at steamship side and leaves as soon as
passengers and baggage have been transferred.
At Coldwater Junction the Sudbury-
Toronto line is reached and followed
through an old settled agricultural part
of the counties of Peel and York. Fertile fields and fruitful orchards are seen
on every hand. Alliston, Tottenham
and Bolton are industrious towns of
growing importance. Parkdale and
West Toronto are growing suburbs of
Toronto. From Toronto an interesting
side trip may be made, either by rail or
across Lake Ontario, to the now world-
famed Niagara Falls. The Falls are
divided by Goat Island, those on the
U. S. being called the American Falls
and those on the Canadian Jside the
Horse Shoe, from their shape. Trips
may be made either behind these mighty
walls of water or in front of them by
steamer. Those with the opportunity
should not miss the chance of visiting
this wonder of nature.
Coldwater Junc.
•  • •
Cedar Mills
West Toronto 62
Across   Canada
Toronto (Union Station)—Alt. 254. Pop. 470^44. The capital and
chief city of Ontario, and the next city to Montreal in the
Dominion. It is situated on Lake Ontario and has a most complete
railway system, reaching out to every important place and district in
the province. It has immense manufacturing establishments, and some
of the largest commercial houses in the country. The new Canadian
Pacific Office Building at the corner of King and Yonge Streets is one
of the landmarks of the city. Its educational institutions are widely
known. Its people are nearly all of English, Irish or Scotch extraction, and while the city has strongly marked English characteristics,
it is distinctively western in the intensity of its activity
and energy. The growth of the city in recent years has
been such that the Canadian Pacific Railway has just completed a fine new station at North Toronto, from which
express trains run to Montreal and the East, in addition
to those from the Union Station.
Canadian Pacific trains run via
Hamilton and Welland to Niagara
Falls and Buffalo, making close
connections for Rochester, Syracuse, Troy, Albany and NewYork.
At West Toronto the London and
Muskoka sections of the Canadian
Pacific Railway diverge, the former extending to London and Detroit, connecting at the latter
point with the Wabash Road for
St. Louis, Chicago and other western United States points. The
Muskoka section runs northward
to the Great Lakes Ports and via
the Muskoka Lakes and Georgian
Bay route to Sudbury, where it
unites with the Vancouver-Montreal line.
Leaside Junction—Alt. 429 Ex
press   train
run through by way of Toronto
(Union Station)  to Leaside June-,
tion—where connection is made by
the line from North Toronto.
C. P. R. Office Building, Toronto
♦|*»-~-»»——IMI~—nil—»«—.«»»—«».—IH tt,     Mn       Mi       Hi      .11 ■«■■   ill—■ ■■ »M'        ■■■       ■■-
Al—»«—.nn~-^im—^m——i:i "■ ■ »»—n»—»mi—iu—-nn       «»■     n     ■■«—»■«
■H *MW
Port Hope
• •
At Agincourt the new Lake Ontario
Shore line from Montreal to Toronto
leaves the Peterboro line, passing through
a picturesque and fertile agricultural district. The most important towns passed
are: Oshawa, pop. 9,000; Bowmanville,
pop. SJ500, the centre for a rich farming
country: Port Hope, a very pretty town
of 5,092 inhabitants, possessing one of the
best harbors on the lake; Cobourg, pop.
5,074) a popular summer resort also a busy
grain exporting town; Trenton, pop. 5,000,
seat of an extensive lumber and milling
industry; Belleville, pop. 12,000, a thriv- Annotated   Guide
Wilkinson        Alt
Tichborne          %
Crow Lake          "
Bol ing broke
Christie Lake    |
Glen Tay
ing manufacturing   town   situ- £%>
ated  in   the
Bay of Quinte.
At Tichborne   IObJl.
the    subdivision JB& p^H^^\
leading to Kings- |fe^v^^^^aJ^^s<
ton   is   crossed. 'SS^ajWv
From  Belleville to Glen Tay many pros- j iggi,
perous   farms   are   passed.    At Glen Tay
the   Peterboro   line   is   rejoined,   where   a
double-track line  continues into  Montreal.
«|m      ■■      an—»»■■    na—««      wi—■»■ ■■      »
j I
i|« a——on      m       mi      m      m«—na——w  '   >
Alt. 563
Locust Hill
"   667
"   886
Glen Major
"   845
"   888
" 1057
"  968
Bethany Jct.
• • •
"   645
iiiiii wgr
'• ****nr
Market stations for a fine
a gricult ural
Wheat, rye,
oats,    barley,
butter, cheese and fruit are largely produced and much attention is given to
cattle breeding. From Burketon
a subdivision of the Canadian Pacific Railway extends to Lindsay and
Bobcaygeon and the beautiful Kawartha Lakes, which are annually
becoming better known as a summer resort. At Bethany, near Peterboro, a branch line of the railway from Port McNicoll on Georgian
Bay connects with the main line.
Peterboro'—Alt. 633 ft. Pop. 20,653. On the Otonabee River, which
here falls 150 feet within a few miles, affording an immense water-power, which is utilized by many large mills and manufactories. The city is well built, and has a large trade. The surrounding country has extraordinary attractions for sportsmen and pleasure
seekers. Beautiful lakes, rivers and waterfalls occur in all directions
and the fishing is especially good. The Peterboro or Rice Lake canoe,
so well known to all sportsmen, is made here, and with one of them a
great extent of territory may be reached from this city. Steamship
and railway lines radiate in all directions.
A structure worthy of note at Peterboro is the "lift lock," which
can be seen from the train. By this contrivance progress of the
vessel from a lower to a higher level is made by bodily lifting lock
and vessel by means of powerful hydraulic machinery.
Indian  River      Alt. 709 Passing through a fine farming country,
Central Ontario
Mountain Grove
Sharbot Lake
Glen Tay
671 of which Norwood is the market town,
700 Havelock, a railway divisional point, is
643 reached.      The  next  station is  Central
598 Ontario Junction, where the line crosses
60S the Central Ontario Railway, extending
AjQ from    Picton    and    Trenton,    on    the
gfiA Bay  of  Quinte,  northward  to   a  num-
702 J>er of
617 lar£?
681 and
sively worked iron mines.
Tweed, on the Moira River,
a logging stream emptying
Locks at Peterboro 64
Across   Canada
the Bay of Quinte at Belleville, is a busy town in the centre
a rich farming and dairying district.  Connection is here made
with the Bay of Quinte  Railway for Tamworth,  Napanee and
Deseronto.     The country through
here from Havelock east for nearly
one hundred miles is more or less
broken   by   rocky  uplifts   and
One of a Thousand Waterways
largely   covered   with   timber.
Iron, phosphate, asbestos,  and
other valuable
miner als
abound. The
Kingston subdivision, from
King ston on
the St. Lawrence to Renfrew on the
main line of the Canadian Pacific Railway, is crossed at Sharbot
Lake, a favorite resort of sportsmen, and especially noted for the
good fishing it affords. Along this line are many picturesque spots.
At Glen Tay the new Lake Ontario Shore Line is joined.
Perth—AU. 483 ft. Pop. 4:000. A prosperous town with a number of
mills. Quarries of fine building stone and deposits of mineral
phosphates are worked in the vicinity. The town has modern lighting
and water systems.
Smith's Falls—Alt. 423 ft.   Pop. 6J55J.  Junction with Ottawa and
Brockville subdivision of the Canadian Pacific Railway; and at Carleton Place, 13 miles northward, with the main line of
the Canadian Pacific Railway (see page 72). The town has a number of important manufactories, for which falls in the Rideau River
afford ample water-power. Superior brick is made here and good
building stone abounds.   Excellent refreshment rooms at the station.
At Merrickville, a considerable
manufacturing town, a fine iron bridge
carries the line over the Rideau River.
At Kempton, the Prescott subdivision
of the Canadian Pacific Railway
extends northward to Ottawa and
southward to Prescott, where connection is made during summer
months with the River St. Lawrence steamers, and during summer and winter by ferry with the
New York Central Railroad for all
important points in New York State,
and at St. Polycarpe Junction the
Grand Trunk Railway is crossed.
From St. Polycarpe also a newly constructed line extends southwesterly to
Cornwall on the St. Lawrence.
At Ste. Anne de Bellevue are the splendid buildings of the Mac-
Vaudreuil Alt 87 Donald Agricultural College. Directly under
^tA Innl'c «' 11V *ke bridge are the locks by means of which
ore. Mnne s j.j.o     steamships going up the Ottawa are lifted
over the rapids. It was at Ste. Anne's that the poet Moore wrote his
memorable Canadian boat-song. There is almost continuous settlement back of Ste. Anne's in a land of orchards, and a number of
Beaconsfield        Alt. 108     summer resorts on the shore of Lake
St. Louis. The old village of Lachine is
seen at the right; and beyond it the
Canadian Pacific Railway bridge across
the river just above the famed Lachine
Rapids. Passing Westmount, Montreal's western suburb, the run is made
on the brow of an embankment, and then on a high stone viaduct to
Windsor Street Station.
Apple Hill
Green Valley
Glen Norman
Dalhousie Mills
St. Telesphore
St. Polycarpe Jct,
St. Clet
St. Lazare
Montreal West
109 Annotated   Guide
C. P. R.  Station at Port Arthur
itu      in      n      m      nn—--■            —      * "" "" * ** ** * " " "" "" "" "*f*
Main Transcontinental Line—Continued ;
1 (Lake Superior Division) !
I !
N—■« Nil—HII ——Nil—IIH——»■—"IM——ill —•mts—»«$«
Port Arthur-
-Pop. 17,000—On the west shore of Thunder Bay, an
arm of Lake Superior. It has substantial buildings
and hotels, is the judicial centre for district of Thunder Bay, owns its
own electric railways, light, telephone and waterworks, and is an important business centre, with modern lumber, smelting and grain industries. It is connected with Fort William by electric railway. Port
Arthur is a favorite resort for tourists during the summer months, not
only the natural beauty of the surroundings being very attractive, but
the fund of amusement unfailing, and the air clear, dry and healthful.
Leaving Port Arthur and skirting the rocky and picturesque line
which follows the ever-changing north shore of Lake Superior, the
greatest inland body of fresh water in the world, the passenger is
carried by and around promontories of so startling a character that
he is thoroughly engrossed in interest. Rocky ledges, fishing grounds
and arable land-stretches alternate for hundreds of miles.
Eastward to Nipigon Bay are many fine fishing streams, much praised by the devotees of
Izaak   Walton.    The   constantly   changing
views on Nipigon Bay are charming.  From
Nipigon trip can be made to Lake Nipigon,
the trout fishing in which has been said to be
the finest in the world.  The Lake with land
for twenty miles  around it has  been set
apart by the Ontario Government as a Forest Reserve. All of the streams emptying into Lake Superior contain
speckled trout in plenty, and in some of the streams, Nipigon River
! especially, they are noted for their large size—six-pounders oeing not
iuncommon.   Nipigon River, which is crossed by a fine iron bridge
i shortly after leaving the station, is a beautiful stream,
well known to  sportsmen.      Everywhere   on   Lake
I Superior, white-fish and the large lake trout are com-
mon.       Between    Gravel    and
I Rossport some  of the heaviest
work on the entire line of rail-
jway  occurs,   and   approaching
j Schreiber    (a   divisional   point
and refreshment station) a chain
of islands separates Lake Superior from Nipigon Bay. Travellers   should  keep  in   view   the
[great sweep around Jack Fish
(Bay, which is particularly fine
from a scenic point of view. Jack
Fish is the great coaling station
for the railroad on the northeast
angle of Lake Superior.    Until
Heron Bay is reached the line is
On the North Shore
of Lake Superior 66
Across   Canada
Around Jack Fish Bay
North Shore of Lake
Kama Alt. 642
Gravel | 629
Rossport I 646
Schreiber " 996
level tract is found.
carried for sixty
miles through and
around the bold
and harsh promontories of the north
shore of Lake Superior, with deep
rock cuttings, viaducts and tunnels
constantly occurring, and at frequent intervals, where the railway is cut out of
the face of the cliffs, the lake comes into full
view. No part of this wonderful scenery should
be missed by the traveller. A mile from Heron
Bay the Big Pie River is crossed by a high iron
bridge, and from occasional rocky uplifts a
From Round Lake the railway follows the WTiite
River to the station of the same name. At White River, in addition
to buildings common to all subdivisional points, are yards for resting
cattle en route from the ranches of Western Canada to Eastern and
British markets.
Near Missanabie, where Dog Lake is crossed, a short portage connects the waters
flowing southward into Lake Superior with
those flowing northward into Hudson Bay.
Furs are brought here from the far north
for shipment. At Big Stony Portage, twelve
miles south of Missanabie is excellent trout
fishing. Several mines are being operated
about Michipicoten, near Lake Superior.
The large, clear, rock-bound lakes are in
places so numerous that, with their connecting arms, they form a labyrinth of waters
covering great areas and offering matchless
opportunities to sportsmen and canoeists.
Bear, moose and deer abound throughout
this region and the fishing in the many lakes
and rivers is capital.
Jack Fish
Heron Bay
White River
Way land
Woman River
Alt. 1155
Chapleau — Pop. 2#00—
is another subdivisional
point, with railway workshops and is a bright railway town. Farming operations on a small scale
have recently been commenced here.* It is charmingly situated on Lake
Kabequashesing, the
waters of which flow into
James Bay.
Bisco is situated on an
extensive and irregular
lake called Biscotasing,
and has a considerable
trade in furs and lumber.
Cartier   is   a   subdivi- .
Annotated   Guide
sional point with the usual collection of sidings and railway structures.
East of here there are wide intervals of good agricultural land, but
timber cutting is as yet the principal industry. The lands belong to
the Province of Ontario and are open to settlers.
Leaving Phelan, a good view of the high falls of the Vermilion
River is to be had for a moment, the scenery from Bisco to this point
being particularly fine. From Sudbury (pop. 7,061) the next place of
importance, the "Soo" subdivision leads off to Lake Huron and thence
along its shore and the Ste. Marie River to Sault Ste. Marie, 179
miles, at the outlet of Lake Superior, where a new immense iron
bridge affords connection with two American railway lines, one extending to Duluth and the other to St. Paul and Minneapolis, and
thence on through Minnesota and North Dakota to Moose Jaw, on
the Main Transcontinental Line of the Canadian Pacific Railway.
Sudbury—Alt. 857.   Sudbury is the point where the main lines of
the Canadian Pacific Railway Company diverge for Toronto and Montreal.
tfll    i     W ■■ Wi   hiH ill IIII MI ITtl NN—NN— NN—I.N—NN—NN—NN——NN— ••.—— NN—NN—UN—N«|«
• ■
^■-. ■■■■ W NN—« W NN—NN „,—„,—„.—,,—,»—N W        ■ —NN—M ■■   ■     N«{*
Fort William
Port Arthur
(See page 55 for description of Winnipeg.)
Alt. 772     The    Winnipeg-Toronto    service,    via    the
I    1091     Toronto-Sudbury   subdivision  furnishes   an
excellent  service  between the  "Gate  City"
and "Queen City" as they are called.   The Transcontinental line is
followed from Winnipeg through eastern Manitoba and New Ontario
and around the north shore of Lake Superior to  Romford, seven
miles east of Sudbury, in the great nickel
Alt. 617     mining country.   (For full description of
I   615     transcontinental line, see pages 55 to 66.) ■
I   857 From Romford the    line    runs south-
1   846     easterly   to   Toronto   through the park
region    of   the    Parry   Sound and
Muskoka districts, which  are becoming the  summer homes of
many, and the favorite resort for anglers and hunters.   Passing
through a land of rock, which bears the unmistakable
marks  of  glacial
French AU.629     action, the French
Pickerel Landing "624    and   Pickerel
Rivers, which
carry the outflow from Lake Nipissing
to Georgian Bay, are crossed on huge
structures. Both French and Pickerel
are excellent fishing resorts—bass and
maskinonge being plentiful.
Byng Inlet—Alt. 623 ft., pop. 1,700—
which is located in an arm
of the Georgian Bay, possesses a magnificent harbor.
This is one of the
centres of timbering o p e r a t ions,
which are here, as
elsewhere along
this new line, carried on extensively. The scenic
delights of the
region are almost
continuous, but
at Point au Baril
nature   seems  to
.» **l A ......
On Lake Muskoka 68
Across   Canada
have donned her prettiest costume. From
Point au Baril AU. 642 ere views of the great Georgian Bay archi-
pelago—island after island to the number of
80,000, and varying in size from a mere speck to those of many acres—
are to be seen from the car window, and nearing Parry Sound the
archipelago again bursts into view. The road skirts the shores of this
wonderful water for several miles.
Parry Sound—Alt. 686—is a thriving town of 4,000 population, and
is the centre of lumbering activity. The railway does
not enter the town, but clinging to the highlands crosses over it on a
steel viaduct 1,700 feet long and 120 feet above the Seguin Valley.
Beyond Parry Sound there is a region of rock and water and trees
which make a delightful combination, and at Muskoka, a divisional
point,  the   gateway  to  Lake  Joseph,  one   of
MacTier Ait. 790    the  largest of the famed Muskoka Lakes, is
reached.   Gordon  Creek   is   another pleasant
piece of summer land.   •
On island-dotted Bala Bay is the southern
Bala (Falls) AU.755 gateway of the Muskoka district, and one
(Muskoka Lakes)        of the famous beauty spots of this portion
of Canada. The falls near the railway track
make a pretty water scene. From Bala all parts of the region, which
is the summer home of many thousands of Americans and Canadians, are easily accessible by the splendid steamers of the Muskoka
Lakes Navigation and Hotel Company. The
Severn Falls Alt. 688   Severn River is the southern boundary of
this great summer land, and after crossing it
the agricultural part of Old Ontario is entered.  At Coldwater Junction   the   line   crosses   the   road   built
by the C. P. Ry. from Port McNicoll to
Peterboro, east of  Toronto, and which
is destined to become one of the great
grain  carrying routes  from the  West.
At Ypres a branch leads off to Camp Borden, one of Canada's largest
military training camps.
Bolton—Alt. 848.  At Bolton the line joins the road running from
Owen Sound and which forms part of the Upper Lake
route.   From here the run is through an old settled farming section,
and along the line are a number of pleasantly placed towns and
manufacturing centres, like Woodbridge,
Weston, West  Toronto   and   Parkdale,
the latter two of which are practically
part of the City of Toronto.
Toronto (see page 62.)
Coldwater Jct. Alt. 632
Ypres I   ...
Alliston 1 727
West Toronto Alt. 394
Parkdale " 805
Toronto " 254
«y|.^WHW—HI—»M      1   mi   1 1   NN NN  ■» 1    iNN NN—— NN——»q m       NN—»«—JM-nk-^^nii—•»»•   ''NN'   ■  NN »*{*
Al—Mini  ■■—nn—..m—«»—.ti—— nn—.ia       «.——m—nn——an—hn—»u—m—b>    . i nh—— nn—nn       ■■       »>y
Within a few miles of Sudbury,
and reached by two
short lines of railway
are the most exten-
s i v e copper and
nickel deposits
known in the world,
and the vicinity has
also, in the Moose
Mountain range, the
largest iron range in
Canada. Large
quantities of the ores have been shipped from the
mines, and a number of smelting furnaces are in
operation near Sudbury, reducing the ores on the
Cache Bay
Sturgeon Falls
668  70
Across   Canada
On the Shores of Lady "Evelyn Lake
North Bay—Alt.
Pop. 10,400. The
capital town of
Nipissing District,
situated on Lake
Nipissing, a n extensive and beautiful sheet of water,
90 miles long and
20 wide, with forest-
clad snores and
islands. Small
steamers ply on the
lake, and the district is much frequented by sportsmen. North Bay
is a railway divisional point, with
repair shops, etc.
The Ontario Government    Railway,
known as the Timiskaming and Northern Ontario Railway, runs from
here to Cobalt, Cochrane, etc., in the Timiskaming country. This railway has been materially assisted in its traffic by some famous mineral
discoveries made along this line, the chief being the Cobalt silver
mines. From Lake Nipissing the railway traverses a somewhat wild
and broken country with frequent lakes and rapid streams. Fishing
and shooting are excellent. Little villages surrounding sawmills continue to occur and newly-made farms are not infrequent. There is
plenty of good land near by, but the railway here, as in other places,
follows the streams and the "breaks" in the country, and the best is
not seen from the car windows.
Nearing Sturgeon Falls the railway crosses directly over the falls
of the Sturgeon River. Sturgeon Falls is a thriving village with a
sawmill and several churches.
Bonfield, formerly called Callander, was originally intended as the
eastern terminus of the Canadian Pacific Railway, to which connecting
roads would run, but with the change of control from Government to
Company> the transcontinental line was extended to Montreal.
At Mattawa the line strikes the Ottawa River, which for many miles
is the dividing line between the Provinces of Ontario and Quebec
Mattawa (pop. 1,678) is an old fur-trading
post of the Hudson's Bay Company, but at
present of most importance as a distributing point for the lumbering districts and
agricultural country about Lake Timiskaming. From this point a subdivision runs up
to Timiskaming and Kipawa, from each of
which famous fishing and hunting grounds
may easily be reached. At Timiskaming
there is steamer connection from Haiieybury, from which place canoes
and guides can be procured, and an endless series of trips, unsurpassed anywhere, can be made, including those to the peerless Tima-
:garni district. From Kipawa, exploration to the beautiful lake of the
same name furnishes
an ideal holiday.
Those who love the
wild   will   find   their
every   desire   satisfied WMi   |N1 SL/       \jjf)y >W  "^
in   this   part   of   the UaJk ffi-pcnis
country, game and
fish being in plenty,
and the comforts of
civilization not too far
Cliffe            Alt
Nosbonsing   "
Rutherglen    §
Eau Claire    "
Mattawa        1
Return from the Moose Hunt
 Mill" I  Till Annotated   Guide
Alt. 529
Deux Rivieres
Chalk River
off. It is also a favorite eentre for moose
hunters, and with good reason. Guides
and supplies may always be obtained
here. An attractive point for tourists
is Lake Timiskaming, and no more enjoyable canoeing can be imagined than in
exploration of these waters, which abound
in fish, as the country does in game. To-
the south of the railway is Algonquin
Park, established by the Ontario Government as a forest and game preserve.
{ (Eastern Division) {
*§"*■  ■-—■■       »«—«■.—.■—NJ—..r—.—..—mi—... -. — m        m        m        m        M        lM        M|I
Chalk River—Alt. 523—is a divisional point, with an engine house
and the usual railway buildings and appurtenances.
From Mattawa to Pembroke the railway continues along the west
bank of the Ottawa, whose valley narrows and the Ottawa flows
deeply between the increasing hills. Little towns are growing up
around the sawmills, which occur wherever waterpower is to be had.
Pembroke (pop. 5,624) is the most important town on this section of
the line, having many substantial industries and commanding a large
part of the trade of the lumbering districts towards the north.  The
Ottawa river is again navigable for a considerable distance above and below, and steamboats
are frequently seen. From Renfrew (pop. 4£48)
a subdivision runs to Egan ville, and it is
also the junction of the Kingston subdivision, extending southward through a district
abounding in iron, to Kingston, on the St. Lawrence. Arnprior (pop.
4)700) and Pakenham  (pop. 411) are also important manufacturing
points, lumber milling being a large industry.
Proceeding to Carleton Place the line follows
the beautiful Ottawa Valley, which, from
Pembroke southeasterly, is well cultivated
by farmers of British and European descent.
Large clear streams come rushing down to
the Ottawa from the hills at the west, and
these and the Ottawa as well, afford fine fish-
Thlstle AH. 608
Petewawa " 467
Stafford " 474
Pembroke " 880
Snake River
Alt. 416
SSI mpjj
11 feW
Lumbering on  the Ottawa River 72
Across   Canada
Sand Point Alt. 265
ing—maskinonge, trout and bass being common. There are frequent bright and busy
manufacturing towns, and sawmills occur
at favorable places all along the river. At
Almonte (pop. 2J>00), are large woollen
mills and other manufactories.
Carleton Place (Junction)—Alt. 449. Pop. s,900. Junction of a
subdivision running south to Brockville on the St. Lawrence River, crossing the Montreal and Toronto
Line at Smith's Falls. At Carleton Place
are large sawmills, railway and other workshops. Nearing Ottawa the railway follows
the south bank of the Ottawa River for a
distance, and on its wide stretches may be
seen enormous quantities of sawlogs held in
"booms" for the use of the mills below.
Ashton AU.449
Stittville " 899
Bells Corners 224
Britannia      " 181
Ottawa   (Broad Street)—A It, 214-—Pop.  101,795.    Capital of the
Dominion.   Picturesquely situated at the junction of the
Rideau River with the Ottawa.   The Chaudiere Falls, which here in-
Parliament Buildings, Ottawa
terrupt the navigation of the Ottawa River, afford water power for a
host of sawmills and other manufactories. Vast quantities of lumber
are made here from logs floated down from the Ottawa River and its
tributaries. The city stands on high ground overlooking a wide valley,
and contains many fine residences, the Royal Mint, the Victoria Museum, large hotels, etc. The stately Government buildings overshadow
all. Rideau Hall, the residence or the Governor-General, is within the
city limits. Many improvements have been made in Ottawa at the cost
of the Federal Government, and the city, with its handsome buildings
and beautiful parks, is one of which every Canadian has good reason to
be proud. The driveways in and about Ottawa are unexcelled. Indeed
it has been said to be the most picturesque Capital in the world. Ottawa
possesses charms of situation and surroundings which, coupled with the
foresight which has characterized the laying out of the city, have made
it one of which not only every citizen, but also every Canadian, may
well be proud. A subdivision of the Canadian Pacific Railway extends
southward to Prescott on the St. Lawrence, where ferry connection is
made with Ogdensburg, N.Y., and rail lines to New York.
Leaving Ottawa the main line crosses a long iron bridge, from which
a fine view o£ the Chaudiere Falls is obtained, and enters Hull (pop.
K Annotated   Guide
20J500) in the Province of Quebec, and then recrosses the Ottawa
River by the Alexandra bridge to the Sparks St. Station in the heart
of Ottawa. From the line of railway may be seen the matchless lumber
plants of this busy annex to the Capital of the Dominion, comprising
sawmills, and match and box factories of considerable magnitude,
whose products find their way to foreign as well as domestic markets.
Subdivisions of the Canadian Pacific Railway extend in a westward
direction to Waltham, and up the Gatineau Valley to Miniwaki. These
two subdivisions bring the great sporting facilities of the Gatineau
within easy reach of the city dweller. Many delightful trips by automobile may be made in the vicinity of Ottawa.
Ottawa    Alt. 214    From the Sparks Street Station the line follows
(Sparks St.) the banks of the Rideau Canal which, with the
Navan "   240    Rideau River and Lakes, connects the Capital
Leonard     "   272    with the City of Kingston at the foot of Lake
Hammond Ontario, and crossing the Rideau River runs
Bourget     "   215    southeasterly past a number of small but thriving towns which have been created by the construction of the Short Line between Ottawa and Montreal. Caledonia
Springs is a health resort, on account of the medicinal properties of
its waters. Vankleek is the first important town on the line, and nine
miles beyond it is the flourishing
French-Canadian town of St. Eugene.
Shortly after leaving St. Eugene, the
Province of Quebec—which here extends beyond the Ottawa River—is
entered. To the right of Rigaud is the
Rigaud Mountain, an eminence near whose summit is a curious deposit
of small rounded boulders, covering an acre or two—a bare, desolate
spot surrounded by luxurious vegetation—to which legend gives the
name of the Devil's Playground. The Lake of the Two Mountains—an
expansion of the Ottawa River—is reached shortly after leaving
Rigaud, and its margin skirted for over ten miles. The pretty watering-places of Hudson Heights, Hudson and Como, where many Mont-
realers spend the summer months, are passed.
Caledonia Springs
St. Eugene
Hudson     Alt. 92
Como 1 100
Vaudreuil    1    86
Ste. Annes " 118
On the opposite shore of the Lake is the Trap-
pist Monastery, whose silent inmates divide
their time between their religious duties and
the cultivation of the soil. Vaudreuil is a picturesquely placed village at the most westerly
of the five mouths of the Ottawa River which
empty into the St. Lawrence.   Ste. Anne de Bellevue (pop. 2^200)
occupied a prominent place in the early history of Canada, and at one
time there were efforts put forth to give it greater commercial importance than the Montreal of that day. Here are the splendid buildings
of the Macdonald Agricultural College. The village is prettily situated!
and the scenery is beautiful. Ste. Anne was once the home of the poet:
Moore, and is the scene of his memorable boat song.  There is almost
continuous settlement back of Ste. Anne in a land of orchards, and a*
number of summer resorts on Lake St. Louis, a widening of the St..
Lawrence River, are
passed in rapid succession. Just before
reaching Montreal
ggffW est (five miles
from Montreal) the
Old village of Lachine
is seen to the right;
and above the trees
further to the right
a view is had of the
great steel bridge
built by the Canadian Pacific Railway
Company across
the St. Lawrence.
War Canoe, St. Johns, Que. 74 AcrossiCanada
Beaconsfield Alt. 107     Lachine was for a long time the point of
Valois "     98     departure  of  the  early  trading  military
Dorval |    89     expeditions;  and  it  was  from here  that
Duquesne set out in 1754* to seize the Ohio
Valley—an expedition that culminated in the defeat of Braddock.
Montreal West—Alt. 157.—This is the point of junction for trains
from and to the Maritime Provinces, New York,
Boston, Portland, and all trains to the West. The neighborhood is
remarkable for. its apple orchards, the world-renowned Fameuse being
grown here to perfection, and the line from this point to Montreal
crosses all streets and residential parts on overhead bridges.
Westmount—Alt. 162.—Montreal's fashionable suburb on its western limits.
Montreal—(Windsor St. Station). Alt. 110 ft. Pop. (withsuburbs)
672,717. The chief city and commercial capital of Canada
is situated on an island formed by the St. Lawrence and Ottawa
Rivers, and on the site of the ancient Indian village of Hochelaga,
visited by Jacques Cartier in 1535. A trading-post was established
here by the French 250 years ago; and this was the last place yielded
by the French to the British in 1760. For many years it was the chief
centre of the fur trade. Atlantic steamships of the Canadian Pacific
Ocean Services, Donaldson, Cunard, White Star-Dominion, and other
Well-known lines run here. The St. Lawrence River and canals bring
this way much of the trade of the Great Lakes. Recently the city
gained prominence by being the location of the largest floating dry-
dock in the world. Numerous railway lines, mostly controlled by the
Canadian Pacific and Grand Trunk Companies, radiate from here in
all directions. Both these companies have their principal offices and
workshops here, and both have great bridges over the St. Lawrence
River. The city has a far-reaching trade, and great manufacturing
establishments; has seven miles of fine wharves of masonry, vast
warehouses and grain elevators; imposing public buildings, handsome
residences and superior hotels, one of the best of which is the Place
Viger Hotel, which is connected with the C. P. R.'s new Place Viger
Station, and is operated by the Company. The Canadian Pacific's
other station, the Windsor, is the largest building of its kind in
Canada. It is a huge grey stone structure, built on the most modern
lines and equipped with every facility for the operation of the railway
and the comfort of the public. Here are located the head offices of the
Company. From the Windsor Street Station trains leave for Toronto,
Detroit, Chicago, St. John, N.B., Halifax, New York, Boston, Portland, Sault Ste. Marie, Duluth, St. Paul, Minneapolis, Winnipeg and
Vancouver; and for Ottawa by the Short Line. From the Place Viger
Station trains run to Ottawa by the North Shore Line, to Quebec,
Mont Laurier in the Laurentian Mountains, and local points. In Montreal are the Angus Shops of the Canadian Pacific, where the Company
builds and maintains a great proportion of its rolling stock. These
shops cover an area of 200 acres and are claimed to be the largest and
most modernly equipped shops on the continent. Connected with them
are a free school for apprentices, a library, lunch rooms, where good
meals can be obtained at reasonable prices, a fire brigade, police force,
ambulance corps, an athletic association and many other features of a
similar nature, all fostered by the railway for the purpose of furthering the welfare of its employees. These shops employ over six thousand men and turn out a complete new train every working day.
Visitors with time to spare should make a point of visiting the historic
old Chateau de Ramezay, which was for a great many years the residence of the former Governor-Generals of Canada. The place is full
of tradition, and many interesting old relics can be seen of days gone
by. It was here that Franklin set up his first printing press. The
Montreal Art Gallery, The McGill College, and Mount Royal Park,
from which a view of the entire city can be had, are other points of
interest. Ik
Indicates Double Traok
SUDBURY TO MONTREAL Concourse, Windsor Street Station, Montreal
I 1
!    _ H_B__08??^X!^^!!r-.a-.«	
Montreal is but a day's or a night's ride to the principal cities of
the United States on the North Atlantic seaboard—New York, Boston
and Portland, Me.—and there is a choice of several routes to the
first-named place.
Adirondack Route, via N. Y. Central
Route I.—Is by the New York Central from the Windsor Street
Station, crossing the St. Lawrence River on the Canadian Pacific
Bridge above the Lachine Rapids, and thence through the Adiron-
dacks, passing attractive summer resorts (Loon Lake, Paul Smith's*
Saranac Lake, etc.), to Utiea and Albany, and thence down the east
bank of the Hudson River to New York. This trip may be pleasantly
varied in summer by taking the steamer in the morning from Albany
down the Hudson to New York.
Rutland Route, via Troy and Rutland
Route II.—Is by the Rutland Railroad from the Windsor Street
Station over the lines of the Canadian Pacific Railway to Iberville
Junction, thence across the islands and along the eastern shore of
Lake Champlain, finally running into New York over the tracks of
the New York Central Railroad from Troy.
D. & H. Route, via Troy and Saratoga
Route III.—Is by the Delaware & Hudson Rd., via the west shore
of Lake Champlain to Troy, and thence New York Central. This
route can be varied in summer via steamer through Lakes Champlain
and George at an expenditure of about 12 hours' time, and slight
additional cost in price of ticket. Annotated   Guide
Via Montreal & Boston Air Line
There is a through service by Canadian Pacific trains.
The route traverses the most fertile section of the
English settled part of Southern Quebec, crosses the
international boundary at Newport, Vt., touches Lake
Memphremagog, runs through the picturesque valley
of Northern Vermont, with the Green Mountains in
view, and skirting the White Mountains of New Hampshire, passes
through the most interesting parts of New England.
Via White Mountains
St. Johnsbury
The same route as above is followed to St. Johnsbury, Vt., where connection is made with Maine
Central trains to Portland. From St. Johnsbury,
the line penetrates the White Mountains, passing
Lunenburg, Fabyan, the Crawford Notch and
North Conway, thence through Southern Maine
to Portland.
During the summer months through sleeping and parlor
Portland      cars are run between Montreal, Portland, Old Orchard
Beach and Kennebunkport.
^ m
C. P. R. Headquarters, Windsor street Station, Montreal
I 78
Across   Canada
-MM—Ml        ■■       iMl        ——«»        Wi i      ■«
Via Short Line
The Haunt
of Big Fish
Montreal West
Adirondack Junc
St. Constant
St. Philippe
St. Johns
Iberville Junction
Ste. Brigide
• • •
West Shefford
South Stukely
Orford Lake
Montreal — (Windsor St.)
—From Montreal
the train runs on an elevated
embankment to Montreal
West, the point of divergence for lines north, west
and south, and crossing the
Lachine Canal, reaches the
south bank of the St. Lawrence just above the Lachine
Rapids, by a wonderful steel
bridge. This bridge, which is
one of the largest in America,
was considered at the time of
building to be of sufficient
size and strength to carry the
Company's traffic for some
years to come. Recently,
however, so rapidly has the
traffic over this part of the
line increased that the Canadian Pacific has found it
necessary to double-track the
structure. These operations,
costing over two million
dollars, were carried on
without interfering in the
slightest degree with the
passing of trains. The old
structure has been removed
and replaced with one twice
as wide and over four times
as heavy. To the right of the
bridge is the Indian village
of Caughnawaga. St. Johns
(pop. 8,000) is a prettily located prosperous town, and
across the Richelieu River is Iberville, and a little further on, Iberville Junction, from which a railway
runs to St. Hyacinthe and Sorel on
the St. Lawrence. The Stanbridge
and St. Guillaume subdivision of the
Canadian Pacific Railway is crossed
at Farnham (pop. SJ)27), which is
a railway subdivisional point with
the usual collection of buildings
common to such places. At Brookport the Montreal and Boston Air
Line diverges for the White Mountains and Boston. At Eastray the
Orford subdivision diverges northward to Mansonville. At Foster the
Drummondville subdivision of the
Canadian Pacific Railway is crossed. Annotated   Guide
Magog AU.689
Rock Forest   " 701
Magog (pop. 8,000) is situated
upon the shore of Lake Memphremagog — a    magnificent
sheet  of water  dotted   with
many    islands    and
surrounded    by
rugged,     heavily
wooded hills.     This
lake is a justly popular resort for summer
tourists   who   never
weary  of  its  lovely
scenery. Its two famous mountain s—
Orford    and   Owl's
Head—are  the  most
Staton and   Hotel, McAdam. N.B.
imposing  of  the  neighboring heights.    From
Magog Station a steamer makes a circuit of the lake daily during the
summer season, touching at all important points, including the fashionable resort of Newport, Vt., at the southern extremity.
Sherbrooke is the metropolis of the
English-speaking district of the Eastern Townships. It is an exceedingly
pretty place, with a population of
19,243, and possessing many important factories and business establishments. Here connection is again made
with the Quebec Central to Levis,
opposite Ouebec. The rapid Magog
and St. Francis rivers unite their
currents here, and the falls of the
Magog are well worth seeing. At
Lennoxville, distant three miles east
from Sherbrooke, connections are
made with Boston & Maine Railroad,
running south to the summer resort of Newport, Vt., situated at the
southern end  of Lake Memphremagog, where it connects with the
Montreal & Boston Air Line of the Canadian
Pacific Railway.   Megantic is a rare spot for
sportsmen.   There is fairly good accommodation at the hotels here, and guides for a fishing
and shooting trip can be secured. Lake Megantic is twelve miles long bv from one to four
wide.    Near   Lake   Megantic   is   Spider
Lake, the "Geneva of Canada," where the
club  house   of  the   Megantic   Fish   and
Game Club is located.   At Boundary the
mountains   which   divide   Quebec   from
Maine   are   passed,   and   the
route lies for 200 miles through
the most picturesque part of
Pine Tree State.
Spring Hill,
Que. I
Long Pond
Somerset Jct.
Greenville Jct,
From Jackman the
Moose River and its
chain of lakes are
easily   reached,
Market and Church at Fredericton, N.B. 80
Across   Canada
where game and fish are abundant. Long Lake is a water of this
chain. Near Tarratine station the Kennebec River leaves Moosehead
Lake, a magnificent water stretch, forty miles long and from one to
fifteen miles broad. The scenery along the lake is charming. Moosehead is a small station on the lake shore, and Greenville Junction (pop.
1,700) is a busy little town also on the lake, and is a very popular
point with those who love the rod and rifle, as within easy reach are
any number of trout waters and rare good shooting grounds, moose,
caribou, deer, grouse, etc., being found within short distance. There
are several hotels that offer excellent accommodation, and guides,
canoes, etc., can be obtained on the spot. From Greenville station
steamers run to all the points of interest, including Mount Kineo and
the popular hotel at its base, the Kineo House. Near Wilson Stream
the road runs close to the base of the Boarstone Mountains.   At
Brownville Junction the line of the
Alt. 687 Katahdin Iron Works Railway is cross-
389 ed. The scenery along this section of the
460 line is considered to rank amongst the
196 finest in Maine, Lake Onawa being per-
223 haps as pretty as any of the numerous
waters. The Penobscot River is crossed
at Mattawamkeag, and many canoeists make this station their objective point, descending the river from Moosehead Lake, a trip that
offers great inducements in the way of fishing and scenery.
Brownville Jct.
Lake View
M attawam keag
These are comparatively new and very
prosperous villages. The country is wild
and rugged, and intersected by streams
and lakes—a good territory for the
sportsman. Guides are usually obtainable, and if the time can be found a stopover is made worth while by those in
search of sport. Arrangements for guides
should be made in advance through the General Tourist Agent of
the C. P. R. at Montreal.
Alt. 325
"   884
1   S80
1  400
"  485
"  417
Vanceboro—Alt. 887.—The last station before crossing the boundary
between the State of Maine and New Brunswick. It lies
close to the beautiful St. Croix River, the outlet of the boundary chain
of lakes, and is an excellent point for the angler and hunter.
Entering New Brunswick, the first stop is made at McAdam,
where connections are made for Woodstock, N.B., Houlton, Me., and
Presque Isle, Me., Edmundston to the north, and for St. Stephen,
N.B., and the beautiful watering place, St. Andrews, N.B., to the
Reversing Falls,  St. John,  N.B. r
Annotated   Guide
south. St. Andrews is situated on Passamaquoddy Bay, and for beauty
of environment is not surpassed by any point on that portion of the
Atlantic coast. The Algonquin, a
AU. 44$ splendid Canadian Pacific Railway
Hotel, is situated here. At Fredericton
Junction connection is made for the
city of Fredericton (pop. 7 £08),
sometimes called "the Celestial City,"
the capital of New Brunswick., The
line soon strikes the St. John River,
28 and follows it for some miles, crossing
it near St. John, where the Reversible
Falls present to the traveller a remarkable tidal phenomenon. The
Bay of Fundy is skirted to St. John, the loyalist city.
Harvey |
Fredericton Junc. "
Westfield Beach
St. John, N.B.,—AU. 15.—
Pop, 60,000.
The   city  of  St.  John   was
destroyed  by  fire   in  June,
1877, causing a loss of b£^
tween $20,000,000
and     $80,000,000.
From    its    ashes
has    arisen   a
bright progressive
feity,   with   nothing   to-day   to
indicate the awful
calamity      which
then befell it.  Old
St, John, with all
her   romantic
Acadian  Simplicity
tokens of French rule and Acadian simplicity, is lost, but new St. John
fills her place admirably, and is now a busy modern centre. St. John is
a maritime city—the winter port for the Atlantic steamers. An inspection of "the docks and different craft is always of special interest to a
visitor. At present the Dominion Government is making large extensions to the harbor, there being under construction new deep water
docks which will provide berths for twenty-four ocean liners of the
largest type. An immense new dry-dock, which will be the largest in
the world, is also being built, and altogether the outlay will amount to
about $25,000,000. In the new harbor twenty-three wharves are to be
built, from 900 feet in length upwards. The Canadian Pacific has just
completed a million dollar grain elevator, and many important manufacturers have recently established large plants and warehouses in this
progressive city. The St. John River, "the Rhine of America," with
its wonderful "reversing cataract," should be seen by every visitor;
also the fine traffic bridge and railway cantilever bridge near the falls.
Close to the city, on the Kennebecasis River, is one oi" the finest rowing courses in the world. A trip up the St. John River to Fredericton
by steamer will reveal all the changing beauties of that stream.
Steamers ply every week day between §t. John and Digby, where
connection is made with the Dominion Atlantic Railway for Halifax
and Yarmouth, this being a favorite route between the chief cities
of the two provinces, the railway traversing the land of national
and romantic associations, the matchless Annapolis Valley, the scene
of many a stirring incident in olden days, and famed the world over
as the home of Longfellow's Evangeline. The Eastern Steamship
Co.'s Line gives connection with Eastport, Me., Portland and Boston.
Good trout fishing and shooting can be had near the city.
ing hills and
To the east
Alt.   27     The train traverses the lovely Kennebecasis
I     69     Valley, in which are some of the finest New
I   100     Brunswick farms.   In the immediate vicinity
1  102     of St. John are attractive watering places.
The scenery is soft and pleasing—the round-
abrupt heights forming pictures that delight the eye.
and south are many small lakes in which trout  are 82
Across   Canada
abundant. Sussex and Hampton are pretty little towns. The Petitcodiac River is followed for some distance to Moncton. ' An interesting feature of the river is the "Bore" of the incoming tide, when
the water rushes up with great force in a huge wave, often several
feet high, that fills the empty riverbed.
Moncton—Alt. 60. Pop. 11Y329—situated on a bend of the Petitcodiac River. It is the headquarters of the Intercolonial
Railway System, the chief offices and workshops of which are located
here. It has many important industries, including a cotton mill,
foundry and wood-working and clothing factories.
Painsec Jot.        Alt.
• * •
Amherst                  "
Spring Hill Jct.
Oxford Junction    "
Londonderry           "
a fine college and Methodist
Hunting grounds abound within a
radius of a few miles and sportsmen
usually outfit here for an expedition
into the wilds of northern New Brunswick. From Painsec Junction a branch
line extends to Point Du Chene, connecting with steamers for Summerside,
Prince Edward Island. Sackville has
academies, and is situated in a choice
The Haunts of the Moose
grazing country. Railway connection is made with Cape Tormentine,
from which Prince Edward Island is reached. Just beyond Sackville
the Province of Nova Scotia is entered. The remains of Fort Cumberland are of historic interest as the scene of hard-fought battles in the
early days between the English and French. Amherst (pop. lOfiOO)
is a manufacturing town with several good hotels. Shooting and fishing are both fair, the game comprising moose, geese and duck, and
salmon trout are plentiful in the lakes. Near Spring Hill are important coal mines, and from here a branch line extends to the
watering place of Parrsboro on Minas basin. From Oxford Junction
a branch runs to Pugwash and to Pictou, and Oxford has extensive
factories, a profitable industry being the manufacture of the celebrated Oxford cloths. The Acadian Iron Works are three miles from
Londonderry, a branch line extending to them. T&
Annotated   Guide
Annapolis Royal
Jm      ■»      «»— »■      mb—»»■    bh—-bh—»■—mi—-bh—«■—»m>—»»      bb—bb«—i.*«— an— bh-mi——mi     h«|*
]- I
The pretty college-town of Wolfville, embowered in orchards, and
reached after a seventy-mile rail journey through that wonderful
"Apple Empire" of Canada, the Annapolis Valley, is the headquarters of visitors to the Land of Evangeline. It occupies the western slope of the fertile ridge dividing the valley of the Gaspereau
from the valley of the Cornwallis. As Charles G. D. Roberts graphically pictures it: "Before the windows of Wolfville unrolls a superb
view—marshes of pale green, reclaimed from the sea by spades of
old-time Acadian farmers; sharp strips of red or orange-tawny flats,
where the retreating tide has left the beach uncovered; to the left
front a well-grouped cluster of white cottages, spires and masts about
a bridge—the shipping village of Port Williams; the long low lines of
green upland outstretching from either side to almost the centre of
the picture—the delicious summer retreats of Starr's Point and Long
Island; between them and beyond, away to the far blue barrier of the
Parrsboro shore, the restless waters of Minas Basin, yellow in the
foreground, but in the distance purple, sapphire, green, or silver, as
changing hour and changing sky may decree; and in the middle distance, dominating all the scene with its mass of sombre indigo, the
majestic bastion of Blomidon out-thrust against the tides. These are
effects of full daylight; but by the aerial magic of sunrise (too seldom
seen!) and the voluptuous sorcery of sunset such transformations are
wrought as make the scene an ever-changing realm of faery."
Three miles distant, to the east, is Grand Pr6 itself, now a rich but
scattered farming settlement. It is on the line of the Dominion
Atlantic, and travellers who are passing through obtain from the car
windows a good view of the scene of the Great Banishment. There
are the storied meadows, and there, close to the station, are willows
planted by Acadian hands. On the slope behind the station are
gnarled French apple trees and stiff French poplars, and a short way
further on is the Gaspereau mouth, where the exiles embarked.
:   ; i
VQiiiii'UgifaimiiH lUU Uuh mirAfA r£f«ntrr lyiniiiii^ittLia ioiUtf*»«««*-
\±.K.IU (tjj I * ***SW*A W
■ i'sst\_jj>.* ssv.
Halifax 84
Across   Canada
|||M        w
HM" -H«in    BB—BB—-HB-
-MB-KM"—■»— HH—-BH-
TO HALIFAX (Continued)
Windsor Jct.
j»M—-BB i       n HH—— BB—.MB—-BB—.MB—MB-.Mil—— MM—BH—-MB—-MM—-MM——BB—— MM——»M.^MI—■»—MM   i     H»j»
Truro—Alt. 60 ft. Pop. 6,107. A pretty and thriving town in the
midst of most picturesque scenery and having one of the
finest natural parks in North America, within half a mile of the railway
station. Within easy driving distance of Truro are a number of streams
and lakes in which there is good trout fishing. Moose are found in the
Stewiacke Mountains, and caribou about Pembroke; grouse are plentiful, and geese, brant, duck, curlew and snipe are common in the spring
and fall. From Truro a branch line runs to Pictou, where steamers
depart for Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, and another branch
runs to New Glasgow and Mulgrave, on the Straits of Canso, connecting with steamers from Cape Breton Island, and with the extension
of the railway through the Island to the Sydneys, which have become
great industrial centres and give promise of further future development. From them, historic Loulsbourg is easily reached by rail. A
capital service has been inaugurated between North Sydney and Porl
aux Basques, Newfoundland—the sea voyage only occupying six hours
—there connecting with the Reid-Newfoundland Co.'s Ry., which traverses the island to St. John's on the eastern coast, and by these delightful excursions can be made. The Reid-Newfoundland Co. also
controls the steamer service to the Labrador Coast.
The little towns of Stewiacke and Shubenacadie are passed, and at Windsor Junction the trains of the Dominion Atlantic
Railway branch off through the Land of
Evangeline to Digby and Yarmouth,
where steamer connection is made with Boston. At Bedford the railway reaches Bedford Basin, a magnificent sheet of water, along
which it runs for several miles, amidst pretty scenery, to Halifax.
Halifax—Alt. 57. Pop. 65,000. The capital of Nova Seotia, and from
its long association with the military and navy of the
mother country, the most thoroughly English city on the continent.
The fame of its magnificent harbor is known in every land, it ranking
amongst the four finest in the world. Halifax is a winter port for the
Atlantic steamships carrying the Royal Mail, including those operated
in connection with the Canadian Pacific Railway. It is a military and
naval station, and it is a strongly fortified city, chief of the
fortifications being the citadel, elevated 265 feet
above sea-level, and commanding the city and harbor.
McNab's and George's Islands in the harbor are also
strongly fortified, the former said to be impregnable.
*The fortifications, the Arm, Bedford Basin, the
Dockyard, the magnificent Dry Dock; Point Pleasant, a public resort owned by the Imperial authorities and leased to the city of Halifax; the public
buildings, gardens, etc., etc., are all worth a visit, and
its open market is interesting to strangers.  Halifax
has    communication    with    all
parts of the world by steameT
I ; and sailing vessel, and enjoys a
very    important    trade    with
Europe, the United     States,    the
i   £,West Tndes, etc.,
Nova Scotia Farm Scene Incjjcates Double Track
Across   Canada
Place Viger Hotel,  Montreal
|||B MM MM—BB MM-in—HB——MM—BH—BH——MM—MB MM HH—Hfl—MC—>H—3B-BH—>HH MM— B«{*
(Eastern Division)
«y« i    tm ■ n«i—m    i o      un      mi—»mii      <w     mi      >■■■■'sm i m—w    nw      «■      h      m      m    im      m n   gift
Mile End ^W.flae
Bordeaux "    75
St. Martin Jct. "  no
St. Vincent de Paul   "   75
Alt. 69 ft. Start is made from the Place Viger passenger
station  and  hotel,  a handsome  structure  erected  and
operated by the Canadian Pacific Railway Company.
The line runs around the eastern part
of Montreal, crosses the Back River
at Bordeaux, and at St. Martin
Junction branches off to the right.
St. Vincent de Paul is the site of the
Quebec provincial penitentiary. The
route now lies across the lowlands stretching between the northern
bank of the St. Lawrence and the hills which lie at a constantly increasing distance from the river. This is for the most part a perfectly
level and closely cultivated plain, cut up into the narrow fields that
characterize French farming districts throughout the
older parts of Quebec, and result from
the continual subdivision of bequeathed
estates. The compact villages are very
prosperous, and much resorted to in
summer by city people.   In each one
In a Lumber Camp
_ Annotated   Guide
Terrebonne    Alt
Cabane Ronde
Berthier Jct.
St. Cuthbert
St. Barthelemy
Pointe du Lac
the churches and educational or charitable institutions of the Roman Catholic faith are the most
conspicuous buildings.
A t Terrebonne the
north branch of the
Ottawa is crossed. Here
are the limestone quarries which furnish most
of the stone used in the
neighboring cities, and
in railway bridge-building, and other heavy
masonry. From Lanoraie diverges a subdivision northward to
Joliette (pop. 8#00),
St. Felix and St. Gabriel de Brandon (pop.
SjSOO). Lanoraie and
Berthier are the stations for populous river-
landings of the same names, the latter reached
by a short branch line from Berthier Junction* A. familiar sight in Quebec
Three Rivers—Pop. 19,000.—At the mouth of the St. Maurice and
at the head of tide-water in the St. Lawrence. It
was founded in 1618, and played an important part in the early history of Canada. It is eminent for its Roman Catholic institutions,
and is one of the prettiest towns in the province. The chief industry
is the shipment of lumber, and over $1,000,000 has been invested in
mills and booms above the city, where logs are accumulated. Large
pulp and cotton mills also furnish employment to the townspeople.
There are large iron works and machine shops here, making stoves and
car wheels in great numbers from the bog iron ore of the vicinity.
Steamers ply daily to adjacent river villages.
From Piles Junction a subdivision extends to the farming district of Grandes
Piles, 27 miles northward, near the St.
Maurice, a stream affording fine fishing.
Shawinigan Falls is reached by another
subdivision direct from Three Rivers. The
water-power has been harnessed by an enterprising company. Eight miles below
the falls is the prosperous village of Grand
Mere, at which are the extensive works
of the Laurentides Pulp% Company.
Many of the towns passed are ancient
settlements, originally seigniories, fronting upon the St. Lawrence.     Powerful
rivers come down from the hills at frequent intervals, giving water-power to almost every village. The fishing is excellent in all of these streams and one of them (the
Jacques Cartier) is a noted salmon
river. All the villages are quaint and
picturesque in the highest degree, and
French is almost universally spoken.
Portneuf (pop. 1J800) is a thriving factory town devoted principally to shoe-
making and wood-pulp. Lorette is
mainly a settlement of Christianized
Huron Indians, founded 250 years ago.
Piles Junction Alt. 127
Red Mill
La Perade
m  •
St. Basile
Pont Rouge
Quebec—AU. 19 ft. Pop. 87,000.—
This old city occupies the
base and summit of a lofty crag projecting into the St. Lawrence. Jacques Car-
tier, the first European who sailed into
the river, spent the winter of 1635 at
the base of the cliffs, and French fur
companies soon after established here
Montmorency Falls 88
Across   Canada
their trading headquarters. As the settlement grew, and the fortifications were enlarged, Quebec became the stronghold of Canada,
remaining so until captured by the English under Wolfe, in 1759. No
other city in America is so grandly situated, or offers views from its
higher points so diversified and lovely. In Upper Town, on the highlands, are the public buildings, churches, convents, schools, business
blocks and hotels, chief among which is the Chateau Frontenac, on
Dufferin Terrace, a magnificent fireproof structure. Lower Town is
the commercial quarter, and abounds in irregular, narrow streets and
quaint old houses. Enormous transactions in lumber go on here annually. The lower valley of the St. Lawrence, and the northern lumbering regions draw their merchandise from this centre. The surrounding country is remarkably interesting in scenery, history, and
opportunities for sport, and the city is not only a favorite summer
resort, but its attractions in winter are yearly becoming more popular
and Quebec has become the winter sport capital of North America.
The railways reaching the city are the Canadian Pacific and Quebec
& Lake St. John, the latter extending to Lake St. John, Chicoutimi
and the head waters of the Saguenay. To Levis, on the opposite bank
of the St. Lawrence, come the Grand Trunk, the Intercolonial, and the
Quebec Central. Transatlantic steamers of the Canadian Pacific,
Allan, Dominion and several other lines call here in summer, and local,
steamers depart for the Lower St. Lawrence and Saguenay Rivers.
The Chateau Frontenac occupies an enviable place amongst the
famous hotels of the continent. Its furnishings are rich and ornate
without being too elaborate, its cuisine is unexcelled, and its situation
makes it a most convenient headquarters for both the sight-seer and
those who have business to transact in the city. The whole building is
ventilated by a specially designed system that keeps the rooms cool
and comfortable in the hottest days of summer, and warm and snug
when the mercury threatens to break the bottom out of the thermometer. Dufferin Terrace under the Chateau's windows is the promenade of the city, and surely no other city has one that can vie with it
in the beauty of its view, and in the exhilarating freshness of its air.
By day or night, in winter, spring or summer, the view from the
Chateau Turret Rooms looking away down the St. Lawrence from
Beauport round over the Isle of Orleans to Levis never fails to impress itself on the beholder, as much on the last day of visit as on the
first, as a picture simply perfect, incomparable, that never palls. As
the night falls Levis becomes a hillside of twinkling lights while big
liners and perhaps a man-of-war blaze like gigantic glowworms on
the water. The Chateau Frontenac is built on the site of Frontenac's
Chateau St. Louis, a fortress which withstood many a fierce attack
from besiegers in days gone by. Annotated   Guide
Trainload of Farm Tractors in Winnipeg Yard
«§M—»■»—' i M MM       'MM Ml MM MM M MM MM Mm   W ■■ MB——MB-MM MM—BB—MM^—MM—■ Jt
I Winnipeg to Minneapolis and St. Paul
Winnipeg to St. Paul: 461 Miles
Winnipeg Alt. 761
Dominion City   I 787
Emerson " 761
The shortest, quickest and most convenient connection between Winnipeg and
the Twin Cities, Minneapolis and St.
Paul, is afforded by the Through Canadian Pacific Railway Soo Line route, by
way of Emerson and Glenwood. After leaving Winnipeg the line runs
up the fertile valley of the Red River of the North. On either side
are seen great stretches of prairie land that are now mostly under
the plough. Thriving settlements are passed every few miles, and
the country has an air of great, almost unrivalled, prosperity.
In olden days Fort Garry and the Red River settlement were
reached by following the current, firstly, in voyageurs' bateaux and
later in shallow-draught steamboats, and settlers took up land along
the river many years before the back country was opened, consequently
some of the farms have been under cultivation for several generations. Fifty-five miles after leaving Winnipeg, Dominion City (pop.
400) is reached.
Sjxty-five miles from Winnipeg the boundary is crossed at Emerson
(pop. 1y250)9 the most southerly town of the Province of Manitoba.
Emerson has grown rapidly during the past few years and promises
to attain to a much more prominent position in the near future, being
now an important station on the new through Canadian Pacific line
between Winnipeg and the south. When Emerson is reached the train
leaves the wheat belt of Manitoba, a part of what is rapidly becoming
the greatest wheat producing country in the world. Here the train
commences its journey over the Soo Line to Minneapolis and St. Paul
without change. The line passes just northwest of the Red Lake Indian Reservation, and then through the western part of the White
Earth Indian Reservation. From this Reservation southward to Alexandria the scenery in its nature varies but little, being a succession of
well-tilled farms, of beautiful groves of magnificent timber and of picturesque sheets of sparkling spring water. The towns are in close
proximity to each other, the country being rich enough to support
many busy business centres without having long distances intervene.
Between Emerson and Detroit the country is far less well developed,
and although farmed to some extent is as yet almost virgin territory.
But for fishing and shooting it stands without a peer.   The fish pre- MINNEAPOLI
dominating is, of course, the black bass, although pike, pickerel,
crappies and perch are plentiful. Throughout the country north of
Detroit and through the reservations the lakes, and there are many,
are virgin. Game is plentiful; prairie chicken are found everywhere,
and duck of a dozen varieties flock to the immense feeding grounds of
wild rice and celery. Partridge and quail are plentiful, and the
grouse shooting is also good in the season. The reserves with their
great tracts of standing pine are a refuge for all kinds of game.
Detroit is an old established town of this section of the country, the
last census giving it the credit of about three thousand people. It is
far-famed as a summer resort, being finely located in the midst of
numerous lakes, and having within a small radius a great number of
summer hotels and cottages. It is a business centre of importance, and
is recognized as one of the coming cities of the State. Altona, Dent
and Richville are located all advantageously in splendid farming
country and are towns of great promise. Ottertail is located on the
shores of the great Ottertail Lake, and already has a population of
several hundred.
Of Alexandria, which is quite an important town, it may be said, as
of the farming country north and south, that it has seen years enough
to remove many of the necessary marks of early rawness. In the
city are well-made streets with symmetrical trees, lawns well kept,
and a type of residences that tells of prosperous content after
strenuous years. It is completely surrounded by lakes. Lakes Victoria and Geneva lie about a mile east of the town and extend five
miles north and south. Between these is Geneva Beach, where are
situated, among other summer hostelries, the Geneva Beach Hotel and
its colony of pretty cottages. At Glenwood the new line, the shortest
and quickest route from Winnipeg, the metropolis of the Canadian
West, to the Twin Cities, leaves the heart of the greater lake region
directly south through which it has been passing, past the white
Earth Indian Reservation, from the Canadian Boundary, and joins
the main line, which strikes in here from the prairie country. The
route is now by main line on to the Twin Cities.
Thief River Falls Alt. 1137
The lakey way in the firmament of Minnesota lakes much resembles
in outline a gigantic fish-hook, with the eye at the Twin Cities, the
shaft running northwest, as though
in ages past some titanic bass had
struggled with it. This belt is not
comparatively wide through the first
hundred miles of its length out from
the Twin Cities, but broadens as it
turns northward, a territory at once
the beauty spot and the black bass
preserve of the great West. West of
this region the country smooths
down and sobers off into the famous
prairies of the Red River Valley,
every foot of which is capable of
furnishing its quota of wheat, corn
and other cultivated crops. East, the
land varies from prairie to pinery, but the Park Region itself is a
territory with slightly rolling surface, where wood-rimmed lakes are
divided by wooded prairies and where prosperous farming has not
harmed but heightened the charm of the scenery.
Ver gas
Parker's Prairie
St. Paul
Union Station \
Across   Canada
Smelter at Trail,  B.C.
An—BH—BM—MM—BB—UB—HH—H«—MB——MM Ml MM MM MM—MM—MM MM BH.'.    MM     - M MM H«|»
Through Arrow and Kootenay Lakes and
Crow's Nest Pass
Revelstoke—Alt. 1,492 ft. The shortest and quickest route to the
mining regions of West and East Kootenay from the
Pacific coast is provided by the combined water and rail service furnished by the Canadian Pacific Railway Co., winch also gives an alternate way through the mountains of southeastern British Columbia to
the Canadian West, where close connection is made with the transcontinental trains which run on the main line.
Arrowhead—From Revelstoke the Arrow Lake subdivision of the
Canadian Pacific Railway follows the eastern bank of
the Columbia River, 28 miles to Arrowhead, at the head of Upper
Arrow Lake—an expansion of the Columbia—where one of the fine
Steamers of the Company is boarded. It is a most delightful sail
through the lakes and river, the scenery having that pictures queness
and charm characteristic of mountain waters. On either side crag and
cliff alternate with wooded ravine, their beauty accentuated by many
little rills and cascades dropping over the overhanging banks.
The first port of call is Halcyon Hot Springs,
Halcyon Hot 8p8. whose waters possess those qualities which make
Nakusp the place a popular health resort.  A fine hotel
is erected here, and there are several cottages
for the use of visitors. Twenty-three miles further down the lake is
Nakusp, the starting point by rail over the Nakusp-Slocan subdivision of the Canadian Pacific Railway to Rosebery and Sandon, the
latter being the centre of the silver-
lead mining district, one of the richest
on the continent.
Rosebery—Nakusp is 89 miles from
West Robson, just
below which the  Columbia River
is bridged.   Trains run in one
direction   to   Trail,   the   great
smelter   centre,  and   Rossland
the progressive mining
town of the Trail Creek
district,   where   are
located   Le   Roy   an<2Pp
other wealth-producing mines, and through the Boundary District to
Midway (Alt. 1,700 ft.), on the international boundary,
Slocan City   passing en route the mining towns of Grand Forks
(Alt. 1£88 ft.) and Greenwood (Alt. 2$98 ft.), where
immense smelters are in active operation. The wealth of the Boundary
District is yearly becoming more apparent, and the construction by
the railway company of short spurs to different camps is materially
aiding in the work of development.
From West Robson, the Columbia and Kootenay subdivision of the
Canadian Pacific parallels on the north bank the Lower Kootenay,
which flows in turbulent rapids from Kootenay Lake to the Columbia,
which it enters just below Robson.  The Kootenay is a magnificent
trout stream, and yearly attracts large numbers of
South Slocan   anglers.  Bonnington Falls, near South Slocan, is a
grand waterfall, whose power has been harnessed
by an electric company which supplies both light and power to the
mines of Rossland and elsewhere. Thirteen miles east of South Slocan
is the picturesque and prosperous city of
Nelson, AU. 1,769 ft.     Nelson, one of the best residential towns of
British Columbia, and the judicial centre of
the district. Nelson (pop, 8J000) has an electric street car system,
fine hotels, churches, schools and several public buildings, and is
rapidly progressing. Its commerce is steadily expanding. The Hall
Mines' Smelter is here, and the company's mines are on Toad Mountain, four miles away, and connected by aerial tramway for carriage
of ore. Nelson is situated on an arm of Kootenay Lake, and in the
locality excellent shooting and fishing are to be had.
From Nelson all parts of the lake are reached by the splendid
steamers of the Canadian Pacific Railway—Pilot Bay, Ainsworth,
Kaslo, Lardo, Argenta, Koo-
Kootenay Landing, Alt. 1,768 ft.     tenay Landing, etc., Kootenay
Landing is the western terminus
of the Crow's Nest Pass Route, the intervening distance between
Nelson and this place affording a most enjoyable water trip.
Nelson, B.C., the Queen of the Kootenays Annotated   Guide
M^M—MM     '   ■■ "       M> ■■ MM   mi MM-
.M—.»—B—«— .. ■■„       u f f -
Via Crow's Nest Pass Route
Kootenay Landing to Dunmore: 392 Miles
«|»H—MM *■ •*     '■  MH—HM MM MM—-M M——MM—MM—MM—MM— MM—— MM—MM—MM—MM—MM—MM—»HH—|A
The present western terminus of
Kootenay Landing AU. 1768 the Crow's Nest Pass Route, whose
Sirdar " 1802    construction is one of the record-
breakers in the annals of railroading. The transfer from steamer to train is easily made on the
mammoth slips erected at Kootenay Landing. The railway line rises
from the Kootenay Flats to Sirdar, then skirting Duck Lake, which
swarms with wildfowl, follows the western slope of the Purcell range
of the Selkirks, and rounding the southern
Alt. 1983 slope of Goat Mountain, passes Creston and
I 2124 crosses the famed Goat River Canyon four
I 2435 miles east of that station. The canyon is a
I 2940 remarkable rock crevice, through whose narrow width the angry waters of the Goat rush
and roar with terrific speed. The valley of
the Goat River is followed to Kitchener, near which are immense
deposits of hematite iron now being developed. The ascent of the
Selkirks continues beyond Goatfell, and the summit is reached at an
altitude of 2,857 feet.
Portland, Ore.—Alt. 16 ft. On the Williamette River at its confluence with the Columbia (pop. 250,000). Many large
factories and fine public buildings. Chief distributing point for State
of Oregon and several adjoining States. Here are departments of
the Universities of Oregon and Williamette. Portland is now known
as "The Rose City," owing to the wonderful wealth of roses to be
seen everywhere. The climate is unsurpassed and the death rate is
only 9.5 per thousand.
Spokane, Wash.—Alt. 1,950 ft. Pop. 100,000. A rising commercial centre. Has many fine buildings, parks and
pleasant driveways. The Spokane River Falls, which within half-a-
mile fall 150 feet, give the city a valuable water power. Gold,
silver and lead are mined and granite quarried in the vicinity. Direct
rail connection is made from Portland and all important points on
Pacific Coast.
Leaving Spokane by the Spokane In-
Sand Point Alt. 2102     ternational Railway, the traveller is
Bonner's Ferry    |  1778     taken   through  the   famous   Sentinel
Valley via Sand Point and Bonner's
Ferry. The climate in this district is even and pleasant, and the
scenery is unequalled for novelty, interest and picturesque outlook.
Kingsgate (Eastport)—Alt. 2,688 ft.   Arriving at Kingsgate the
Canadian Boundary has been crossed and
connection made with the Canadian Pacific Railway via Shore Line to
Yahk, the junction point of the Spokane and Kootenay Lines.
Following down Summit Creek, the valley
of the Moyie is entered just west of Yahk
station, and from here and along the route
to Tochty splendid views of the Yahk Mountains on the south are obtainable. The
Moyie River is followed through a heavily
timbered country, and at the southern extremity of Lower Moyie Lake, a pretty water stretch, is Moyie, near
Alt. 2817
Watts burg
8230 96
Across   Canada
Crow's Nest Mountain
which mining operations are extensively carried on, this being the site
of the Ste. Eugene Consolidated, one of the largest silver-lead properties in the world. Game is abundant in the locality—both large
and small—and there is capital fishing. The line closely follows the
winding shores of Moyie Lake, the waters of which, occupying the
whole valley, force the railway into the mountain's sides. Leaving
Swansea, a park-like country is entered, through which flow several
streams, from some of which gold has been extracted. A northerly
course is followed to Cranbrook, one of the most prettily located
towns in British Columbia.
Cranbrook—A It. 3,018 ft. Pop. 2,600. The broad valley between
the Selkirks and the Rockies in which Cranbrook lies is
a fertile stretch, in which are ranches, small farms, and budding
orchards. The town itself shows every indication of prosperity and
progress, being the supply point for the mines and ranches in the
vicinity. Col. Baker has here a ranch of several thousand acres. Cranbrook has already become a centre of great importance. It is the chief
divisional point on the Crow's Nest Pass Route, and has, besides the
shops of the railway, a number of well-stocked stores, chartered bank,
hotels, churches, schools, etc. It is the. principal lumbering point in
East Kootenay, having four sawmills operating within its limits. The
town is lighted by electricity, and as a residential town it has no
superior in British Columbia. A subdivision of railway runs to the
North Star and Sullivan Mines and Kimberly (18 miles) and Marysville.   From Cranbrook, the grade gradually rises to Isidor Canyon,
whose brink is skirted. A branch line turns
Wardner AU.2484 off at Colvalli for Fort Steele and the beauti-
JaflPray "  2699     ful   Windermere   county,   connecting  in   the
main line at Golden. The grandeur of the
mountains is not lost,, and the giants of both the ranges can be viewed
from the train with scarcely any obstruction. After penetrating
natural park lands perfectly clear of undergrowth, the valley of the
Kootenay is reached. The course has been in a southeasterly direction,
and follows the Kootenay River, which is crossed at Wardner, on a
magnificent Howe truss bridge. The Kootenay flows to the south, and
deflecting in Idaho, returns to Canadian territory near Kootenay
Landing, where its waters pour into Kootenay Lake. Lofty peaks and
frowning precipices confront one—those of the last great range, the
Rockies, the backbone of the continent.  The three isolated peaks are
called the "Steeples." The next station is
Elko, which Is destined to be the market
town for the Tobacco Plains and the farming settlements to the south. The utilization
of the water-power of the Elko at this point
should make this town one of great importance. Beyond Elko, the Elk
River is crossed, and about a mile below is the Elk River Canyon,
which extends for several miles. The water drops 600 feet in that distance, and being compressed between narrow vertical walls, turbul-
ently rushes through the canyon. The scenery here rivals that of the
Elko AU.S082
Morrissey     " 8132 Indicates Double Track
Across   Canada
Prairie Scene in Southern Alberta
Fraser and Thompson Canyons. The railway turns northeasterly, following the Elk for over 40 miles. Along the Elk thick seams of coal
crop out, for here are the great coalfields of East Kootenay, which
are said to be the largest undeveloped coal measures in the world.
Coal exists to the summit of the Rockies, and beyond the pass it is
again found underlying vast areas. An analysis and test of these
coals have been made, and the results as shown in the Government
reports prove that they compare favorably with the best coals of the
same variety in Pennsylvania. Of coking coal there is an abundance*
which is proving of great importance to the smelters of British Columbia.    Passing through a thickly timbered country and crossing
Morrissey and  other  creeks, the  railway
runs  into  Fernie,  the present  centre  of
development  of the  coal  industry.   This
town (pop. 4*500), which is at the mouthy
of Coal Creek, only sprang into existence
in 1898, and is making wonderful progress.
It has fine hotels, good stores and a large
number   of   comfortable  residences.    Already a large number of coke ovens are in
operation, and as the supply of coal is inexhaustible, these will be
increased as the demand for coke by the smelters of the province becomes greater.   The coal mines are five miles to the south and are
connected with the town by a branch railway.  The railway continues
up along the Elk to Michel, at its junction with Michel Creek, where
coal mining operations are in progress. Thence it follows the Michel
and climbs up the mountain sides, making some amazing turns and
twists to gain higher ground.  By the "Loop" nearly three miles are
travelled to make a height of less than 200 feet—the road doubling
back on itself to within a stone's throw of its course directly below.
Summit Lake and Crow's Nest are reached at an altitude of 4,410
feet. A short distance east the summit of the Rockies is crossed at an
altitude of 4,427 feet.  Here is the dividing line between British Columbia and Alberta, and a mountain stream separating its waters flows
both to the east and to the west, one emptying finally in Hudson Bay
and one in the Pacific Ocean. Shortly after the descent is commenced
Island Lake, a placid hill-girt stretch, is skirted at an altitude of 4,409
feet, and beyond is Crow's Nest Lake (alt. 4,890 ft.), whose western
bank is followed for several miles. This lake is credited with being the
birthplace of the zephyrs that blow across the plains, and it is known
that on occasions, while the western part of the lake is still and calm,
*Svhite  caps" predominate on the eastern part.   The railway runs
directly past ''the cave"—a hole in the side of Sentinel Mountain—
from which pours out a great flood. This is the source of the Middle
Fork of the Old Man River, which is believed to be the outflow of a
subterranean stream.  Five miles to the north is a remarkable phenomenon in the shape of a natural tunnel which pierces a mountain.
Directly to the left is Crow's Nest Mountain, a magnificent hoary-
headed giant, which rises to a height of 7,800 feet, at whose rear is a
cluster of pinnacles known as the Seven Sisters. On this great isolated
mountain the attention of the traveller is naturally concentrated, its
splendor and beauty being one of the chief glories of this region of Annotated   Guide
Coleman Alt. 4805
Blairmore " 4228
Frank | 4205
Hillcrest    S 4*1*
the Rockies.  When first seen from Crow's Nest Lake it has the appearance of a mastiff's head.
Blairmore, to the east of which are cold sulphur springs whose waters are sought by
many, is reached and beyond is a narrow
defile—"The Gap"—through which the train
finds its way to the foothills and the plains.
To the right Turtle Mountain looms to great
height, its base forming one of the walls of the Gap, and here a last
view of the grand Crow's Nest Mountain is obtained. From Crow's
Nest Lake the line has followed the middle fork of the Crow's Nest or
Old Man Rivera with which it keeps company as a rule as far east as
MacLeod. East of Blairmore, the thriving town of Frank, of recent
birth, is another centre of coal mining operations. At the crossing of
the Middle Fork, near Burmis, is a pretty little crescent-shaped fall.
To the left is Massacre Butte, the scene of a horrible tragedy about
thirty-five years ago, when a party of German prospectors were butchered by the Indians. The mountains to the left are the Livingston
range of the Rockies, between whose base and the Porcupine Hills is
a wide tract of grass country on which large herds of cattle and horses
feed. In this region there has been a large influx of settlers in recent
years, and agriculture as well as stock raising is carried on.
Cowley is situated about two miles west of
the crossing of the south branch of the Old
Man River, and six miles east is Pincher
(pop. 1^250), the station for the thriving
town of Pincher Creek, situated in the fertile valley to the south. Four miles east of
Pincher, and snugly ensconced in a valley, is
the Indian Industrial School, which is civilizing and educating the
youthful "brethren in red." There is a round descent, and the line
curves gradually to the south of the Porcupines, crosses many streams
that seam the earth, and in which there is capital fishing, and reaches
the broad Albertan plain—the home of the cowboy and the cattle king.
The Rockies are paralleled for a short distance, affording magnificent
views of their marvellous proportions. Victoria Creek (9,860 ft.) and
Castle Mountain are prominent in the distance, and Turtle Mountain,
shaping itself into a huge tortoise, is silhouetted against the sky. There
is a glorious panorama spread before one—on one side the vast plains
which stretch far away until earth and sky seem to meet; on the other
the serrated Rockies, standing forth in all their sublimity and grandeur, piercing the. very clouds. On the plains a long line of large
boulders marks the existence of an ice age in prehistoric times, and
directly ahead on the left is the town of Macleod.
Macleod—A It. SJ.09 ft. Pop. 2,000. On the Old Man River, one of
the most typical of western railway towns, and the headquarters of the ranching industry of Southern Alberta. Throughout
this region are many stock ranches, and farming operations are now
being largely carried on, large yields of winter wheat of good quality
being produced. There is plenty of feed, shelter, and water, and the
climatic conditions are most favorable for stock raising, the mean
Lundbreck AU.S910
Cowley | 8834
Pineher I 3764
Brocket " 8505
Pelgan 1 8314 100
Across   Canada
Lethbridge Viaduct
temperature being higher than in Central Ontario, owing to the prevalence of the Chinook winds, whose moderating influences are felt
nearly as far east as Medicine Hat. From Macleod a subdivision runs
northwards to Calgary (108 miles) and to Edmonton on the banks of
the North Saskatchewan (300 miles), a district which, like Southern
Alberta, is attracting a great deal of settlement.
From Macleol the railway continues due east through a level plain,
passing several unimportant stations, one of which—Kipp, junction
point for the new Acme subdivision—was a trading post in the early
days, and the scene of many an Indian battle,
Alt. 3093 and reaches the valley of the St. Mary's River.
3097 West of Lethbridge there has been completed
3053 by the Canadian Pacific Railway one of the
most gigantic engineering works in Canada,
the bridging of the Belly River and the Old Man River, replacing
twenty wooden bridges by two immense steel viaducts, one 5,330 feet
in length with a maximum height of 314 feet above the river and the
other 1,900 feet in length with a height of 146 feet above the bed of
the river. The cost of this work exceedel two million dollars. The
former is one of the notable steel structures of the world. It required
6*45 cars to transport the steel used in the construction of these viaducts, and nearly one thousand cars of material were used in the
building of these mammoth permanent structures.
This and other important improvements prove the policy of this
Company is to spare no expense to make its line the best in the world.
The lands under irrigation in this region and near Lethbridge are
being transformed from a range country to a farmer's paradise.
Reaching the eastern bank of the St. Mary's, a short run brings the
train to Lethbridge (pop. 11,070).
Is a prosperous coal mining town, owning its own electric light and power
plant and waterworks. The output of
the mines finds a ready market in Montana, in British Columbia, and as far
east as Winnipeg, in Canada. The C.
P.R. Coutts branch connects Lethbridge
with Great Falls, Montana. This district is now known as the home of
the celebrated Alberta Red wheat,
although not a few years ago it was
one vast cattle range. From Lethbridge the railway runs due east
through a flat country, broken in
places by gulches, for 107 miles, and
at Dunmore connects with the main
line of the Canadian Pacific Railway,
which is followed until Moose Jaw is
Purple Springs
Grassy Lake
Bow Island
Winn if red
Seven Persons
Bull's Head
Medicine Hat
Alt. 2976
I 2821
tt Annotated   Guide
Maple Creek
Moose Jaw—The junction point with the Soo Line, where connection
is made for Minneapolis, St. Paul and Chicago. Portal,
Minot, Hankinson and Glenwood are flourishing towns passed en
route, and constantly changing panoramic views of lakes, forests,
rivers, farms and cosy villages are brought before the traveller as he
passes through the lakey way to the twin cities of the Middle States.
The social and commercial centres of the Middle
Minneapolis States. Politically two municipal corporations, but
St. Paul m substance one large community of nearly half-a-
million population. St. Paul is the capital of the
State of Minnesota. Around the city are numerous natural lakes and
parks. It is the terminus of nearly all the principal railways of the
Western States and a great tourist centre.
The Chicago Line of the Soo Line has many things to commend it
to the traveller to Chicago, Milwaukee or to any of the many beautiful summering places to be found east of the Twin Cities along the
line.   The way is through the beautiful Minnesota country to the
Wisconsin line, where the St. Croix River is span-
New Richmond ned by a mighty bridge. Through Wisconsin the
Chippewa Falls line runs through an agricultural country that is
Abbotsford fas* becoming known as some of the best farming
Marshfield lands in the entire western country.   The heavy
Stevens Point      timber which for so many centuries has covered
the land is fast disappearing, and in its place the
landscape is becoming dotted with splendid up-
to-date farms and fine buildings, for the Wisconsin farmer always
There are thousands of beautiful lakes along the right of way
through the entire state, and many are well known as ideal summering places because of the fine summer homes, and well-appointed summer hotels which are built along their shores. The clear crystal waters
of these lakes are wonderfully stocked with game fish of all descriptions, the large and small-mouthed black bass, however, being the most popular with the average
sportsman, although the mighty muskalonge, which
often grows to a weight of over forty pounds, is
also a prime favorite. Waupaca, Wis., is one of
the most noted of the vacation spots within easy
reach of either Chicago, Milwaukee or the Twin
Cities. The lakes at Waupaca are over twenty in
number and form a chain several miles in length. The irregular shores
with their hard sandy beaches, tempt the lover of bathing, while the
launch or canoe owner finds the place ideal for cruising. There are
many other beauty spots including Stevens Point, Fremont, Fond du
Lac, Oshkosh, Cedar Lake, etc. Waukesha, Wis., is famous for its
wonderful water, which is shipped all over the country. Waukesha is
a city of beautiful drives and handsome residences, and the hotel
accommodations are of a high order. There are several lakes nearby,
and the Fox River flows near the city.   Resthaven, at Waukesha, is
open for business. This model fireproof structure
is built upon an elevation which commands a
splendid view of the surrounding country. A competent staff of medical specialists, representing the
best talent in Milwaukee and Chicago, will be available. The line to Milwaukee branches off from the
main line at Rugby o unction, but through sleepers
are operated daily between Milwaukee and the
Twin Cities. Chicago, the second city in size and importance in the
United States, is reached in the morning, after a fast, comfortable,
enjoyable run on a perfect train.
Fond du Lac
Silver Lake
Camp Lake
Lake Villa
Chicago jskPRocrEir
Laraeau/ JSA&EO.UR
&   fW
^75^i^«^    QI^HDFORKSJ
it rt i-     "^ TPVirilt
'k Ai'-Plio%enix
—r—     XfjP iilCOl
^_l      m ^/^?aSXder^ _| -yy
«Ov Kamloops
€   F
Thirsk      »..# /&^wnf^U'
Miffibrd   %<5     X^STpS*
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-Jura   jf?
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%  ¥ II     fc
^jj^vvxc?1 «wrtJBrtff$£
^KaMrJ&^S J$rBrookmefe
% ^Jessica
lope ^ e /''Of
Ser   ""^
Haig 'Ik      «.   ^ I •s
. ^"^iKJlB^    •« _      ."   J^'.       ^sA^assj^
Harrison; MilM
'^fiantfiogdoa «<4iv
5991 8-27^17
ES  Indicates Double Track
^^ Annotated   Guide
.   ■. , —.  ..  ..  .«  ..  «-  ..  —  -r  -7  ni  nil   M   M  w    »t
Petain is the junction for the Kettle Valley Railway, a new branch
line to the orchards of the southern Okanagan Valley and the Koo-
tenays, the mining districts of southern British Columbia, and the
prairies of southern Alberta, thus providing an interesting alternative
route to the main line.
After leaving the first station, Hope, the railway twines through
the most spectacular series of tunnels in North America. The track
has been cut through precipitous cliffs, and through the occasional
openings of the tunnels one looks down upon the steep canyon at the
foot of which rages the Coquihalla River. From Hope to the
summit there is excellent trout fishing in this beautiful stream.
Jessica is the third station within about two miles or so of Ladner
Creek, in a district of great natural beauty. At Portia the
railway reaches an elevation of about 2,000 feet above sea level. The
country has a very rocky, mountainous aspect at the next station,
which is called Iago, to keep up the Shakespearean tradition. Near
Romeo there is a charming view looking up towards a bald, rocky
Track near Penticton, B.C.
mountain from Slide Creek bridge. Coquihalla Summit is opposite
two delightful lakes. From this point the track falls both ways, the
average gradient going west being about 2.2 per cent., whilst that
going east being much lighter, about 1 per cent. The elevation of
Coquihalla Summit is about 3,300 ^feet above sea level. The lakes are
full of trout and are most interesting from a geological point of view
on account of the many crater holes in the formation, caused, it is
supposed, from gaseous emanations in ages past. Juliet, the next
station, is eternally separated from Romeo by the summit. At Slide
Creek there are some picture rocks, rude. representations of a horse,
supposed to have been painted by the Indians at some remote date.
Penticton, at the lower end of Okanagan Lake, is half way house
to Nelson, and as such has an excellent hotel, the Incola. The balmy,
equable climate of the lower Okanagan Valley, the excellent motoring,
the delightful bathing, the opportunities for motor-boating, sailing,
fishing, and, at the proper seasons, for hunting, combine to make this 104
Across   Canada
an ideal holiday resort. Penticton is in the centre of one of the most
fertile orchard districts in British Columbia and as such has a well-
settled community to take part in any social activities. Penticton is
also the southern terminus of the Canadian Pacific steamers plying
on the Okanagan Lake, the northern terminus being Okanagan Landing, which has excellent train service through Vernon to Sicamous,
on the main line of the Canadian Pacific Railway. From Penticton
the railway climbs up through the benches to a height which com-
Coquihalla Canyon
mands a magnificent view of Okanagan Lake, then descends through
forest-clad ranges by romantic canyons till the farms and settlements
of the lower Kettle Valley are reached. After the junction is made
with the Canadian Pacific Railway at Midway, the train passes by
lake and mountain till the beautiful defile of the Columbia River is
reached. Out of the windows one looks down upon the sapphire
waters of that noble stream, flanked by tall trees and overtowering
heights. The train reaches Nelson in the evening and though the boat
for Balfour and the East does not leave till next morning, one can
go straight on board to one's comfortable berth. Annotated   Guide
Canadian Pacific Ocean
Services, Limited
Montreal   Quebec
St. John, N.B.
Shortest Route
The Trans-Atlantic Steamers of the Canadian Pacific Ocean Services, Limited, ply on the Montreal-Quebec-L<iverpool Route in
Summer, and St. John, N.B.-Liverpool Route in Winter. The
"Missanabie" and "Metagama," sister ships, 12,600 tons, entered
the service in 1915 and are the last word in passenger ship construction. They carry but one class of cabin passengers and at
moderate rates, also third-class. Capacity 520 cabin and 1,200
third-class. Empress of Britain, length 570 feet, breadth 65 feet,
14,500 tons register, 18,000 horsepower, makes the passage between Liverpool and Quebec in less than a week. Accommodation for 350 1st Cabin, 350 2nd Cabin, 1,000 3rd Class Cabin passengers.
All Canadian Pacific Steamships are equipped with Marconi
Wireless Telegraphy and a submarine signal system, thus
ensuring perfect safety in navigation. The submarine signal
acts in foggy weather in the same capacity as a lighthouse does
to clear weather.
Complete information, relative to trip to or from Europe,
will be cheerfully given on application to any
Canadian Pacific Agent.
General Passenger Agent,
Dominion Express Building'. MONTREAL, Que. 106
Across   Canada
Canadian Pacific
Ocean Services, Limited
Empress of Russia and Empress of Asia
Gross register 16,850 tons, displacement 30.625 tons.    Quadruple
Screws, Turbine Engines; Sea speed, 20 knots.
15 Days—VANCOUVER to PEKING (Via Yokohama)
Complete information relative to trip to the Orient or Around the World
will be cheerfully given by any Canadian Pacific Agent.
General Passenger Agent,
Windsor Street Station Montreal, Que,
U* Annotated   Guide
Royal Mail Steamship Line
Vancouver -Victoria
Honolulu, H.I. Suva, Fiji,
cAuckland, New Zealand,
Sydney, Australia
Fine Twin-Screw Steamships
Clyde built and fitted with bilge keels; also all modern
appliances for speed, safety and comfort.
The smooth, short and enjoyable  route  to  the Antipodes
For rates and sailings ask or write any Canadian Pacific
Bailway agent. 108
Across   Canada
Coast Service
Modern Steel Steamers
Vancouver, Victoria, Seattle,
Vancouver,   Prince   Rupert,   Anyox
and Skagway, Alaska.
Vancouver,   Nanaimo.
Vancouver, Victoria, Comox.
Vancouver, Powell River.
Victoria,    West    Coast   Vancouver
Reflecting as they do, the care in construction
and operation so characteristic of the Canadian
Pacific in all its undertakings, the B.C. Coast
steamers, from one and all of which the passenger sees unrivalled beauties daily in the
course of his passage through the magnificent
fjords of the north, are a delight to all who
travel on them.
U Annotated   Guide
Popular Resorts
in Ontario
reached    by    the
Georgian Bay and Thirty
Thousand Islands, French
River, Point au Baril, Muskoka Lakes, Kawartha
Lakes, Rideau Lakes, Lake
of the Woods, Nipigon,
Lake Ontario Shore Line
^ Good accommodation is obtainable
and stop-overs are made worth while
by the enjoyment and benefits derived.
giving f full information, can be had
from any Canadian Pacific Agent. & & 110
Across   Canada
Popular Resorts
in Quebec
reached    by    the
The Laurentians,
Eastern Townships,
The Gatineau Valley,
Lower St. Lawrence,
Quebec, Montreal
In summer the numerous lakes
and waterways, with their wooded shores
and many islands, make this an ideal
country for summer recreation, and
in winter when all is covered by the
white mantle of " My Lady of the
Snows," winter sports furnish the
amusement which makes Quebec such
a delightful all-season province.
Pamphlet on request from any C. P. R. Agent.
__ Annotated   Guide
Land in Western
The Canadian Pacific Railway has
for sale large areas of choice farm
lands in the provinces of Manitoba,
Saskatchewan and Alberta, adjacent
to its main line and branches. These
lands, which include two irrigation
districts in Alberta, are suitable for
grain-growing, stock-raising, dairying and general mixed farming.
Prices are reasonable, and the terms
of sale spread payments over a long
period of years. Settlers in irrigation districts with approved farming
experience can avail themselves of
a loan up to $2,000 in improvements,
with land as sole security. Taxes
are low, and improvements are exempted from taxation.
The Company has also for sale a
number of improved farms on which
are suitable houses and barns, with
fencing, well, and in many cases,
cultivation. Town lots for sale in
growing towns.
For literature, maps and information, apply to DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES, CANADIAN
Across   Canada
Name of Hotel, Plan, Distance from Station and
Transfer Charge
St. Andrews, N.B.
The Algonquin A
1 mile—25 cents
McAdam, N.B.
McAdam Station Hotel A
At Station
Quebec, Que.
Chateau Frontenac E
1 mile—SO cents
Montreal, Que.
Place Viger Hotel A
At Place Viger Station.
\2%, miles from Windsor
Station—50 cents E
Winnipeg, Man.
The Royal Alexandra... E
At Station
Calgary, Alta.
Palliser E
At Station
banff, Alta.
Banff Springs Hotel....E
X% miles—25 cents
Lake Louise, Alta.
chateau Lake Louise. .E
2J£ miles 50 cents
Narrow Gauge Railway
Field, B.C.
Mt. Stephen House... .A
At Station
Field—11 miles	
Emerald Lake   (near
Field, B.C.)
Emerald Lake Chalet.. .1
7 miles—81.00
Glacier, B.C.
Glacier House A
1 % miles carriage road
Sicamous, B.C.
Hotel Sicamous A
At Station
Penticton  B.C
Hotel Incola A
Near Steamer Wharf
Cameron Lake, B.C.
Cameron Lake Chalet. .A
Vancouver Island
Vancouver, B.C.
Hotel Vancouver . .E
% mile- -25 cents
Victoria. ^.0.
Empress Hotel . . E
100 yards—25 cents
June 20-
Sept. 30
All Year
All Year
All Year
All Year
All Year
May 15-
Oct. 15
June 1-
Oct. 15
All Year
Sept. 15
June 15-
Sept. 30
June 1-
All year
All Year
May j
Sept. 35
All year
All year
Per Day
$5.00 up
3.00 up
2.00 up
3.50 up
1.50 up
2.00 up
2.00 up
2.00 up
2.00 up
4.00 up
4.00 up
B. $1.00
L. 1.25
D.  1.50
B. .75
L. .75
D.    .75
90    4.00 up
a la carte
fB. 1.00
{ L. 1.00
I.D.   1.50
\ a la carte
a la carte
a la carte
a la carte
a la carte
3.50 up
3.00 up
B.     .75
L.     .75
D.   1.00
2.00 up
a la carte
2-°° uPla la carte
A—American.   E—European.   Rates subject to aleration.


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