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Banff in the Canadian Rockies and the glaciers of the Selkirks Canadian Pacific Railway Company 1890

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 Banff
/
\ IN THE
CANADIAN ROCKIES
AND THE
GLACIERS 5Fthe SELKIRKS
REACHED   BY  THE
Canadian  Pacific Railway.
1900. - f   ■ ;
Banff the Beautiful.
IN the Canadian National Park, a large reservation chosen
by the Dominion government for its beauty and sublimity
and  healthfulness as the  great  breathing   place   of   the
nation,   Banff  is   charmingly  situated.     It  is   in   the   very
heart   of the   Rocky  Mountains.     Few  places  have  found
such speedy recognition of their attractive novelties, and none
have better deserved the encomiums of enthusiastic tourists,
for of all the lovely spots that gem the American continent, it
stands alone without a rival.    Its surroundings are the mountain steeps, beside whose immense, jagged heights the crags
and peaks of the Alps sink into insignificance.    It is not a
question of one mountain or of two, but more than can be
counted, for they stretch far away as the eye can follow them,
and roll upon one another in chaotic disorder.  The very acme
of sublimity and grandeur is reached, and in its natural beauty
Banff finds no counterpart in other lands.    In the centre of
this magnificent panorama are the Banff hot springs — some
natural  wells   of  mineral  water  having  peculiar   medicinal
qualities — and here the Canadian Pacific Railway Company,
whose transcontinental lines traverse the park, has erected a
large and well appointed hotel, perched on a lofty promontory, commanding not only an uninterrupted view of the Bow
Valley, but of peaks and stretches of the Rockies in other
directions.    In the surrounding country, for many miles, science has availed itself of nature's lavish gifts to create, out of
the wilderness, a mountain park, twenty-six miles long by ten
wide — a public pleasure ground without an equal.    Streams
have been bridged, roads laid out and trails cut, penetrating
for miles into the solitudes, so that in many directions the
visitors may drive, ride, wheel, or wander afoot, inhaling the
health-giving mountain   air, or   seeking  the  most favorable
spots for brush, pencil, kodak, rod or gun.    There is fairly
good trout fishing in the bright and rapid Bow in the valley
beneath the hotel, and good trolling on Devil's Lake, a pleasant drive  of  nine  miles  from  the   hotel.    Steam  launches,
besides boats and canoes, have been placed on the Bow River
for the use of visitors, enabling them  to make excursions on
the river and to Vermillion Lake.    It is of the Bow River
that an eminent English author writes :    " A marvelous river
is this Bow, as turquoise as the Limmatt, where it leaves the
Zurichsee, on the Lake of Zug — a deep, willful river, leaping
in one place through ridges of rock with a mighty cataract,
which approaches a waterfall in altitude, and, just below/rolling floods  of  fabulous depth, .like the mighty Fraser."    In
the immediate  vicinity there are numerous   lakes at   which
in  season, good duck  shooting  is   obtainable, and;  for  the
more    adventurous,  the   mountain    sheep   (big   horn)   and
BANFF HOTEL FROM  OVER  THE BOW RIVER mountain goat, at some distance, offer a temptation to
which men who have gained other laurels in the sporting
world are glad to yield. An excellent museum, containing
innumerable specimens of the flora, fauna, etc., of the park,
has been established by the Dominion government, and in its
pleasant rooms the student of nature will find many objects of
peculiar interest to him. Of this institution, Lord Lister,
physician extraordinary to the Queen, and ex-President of
the British Scientific Association wrote, on the occasion
of visiting it: " We have been much interested in the
museum, which has supplied us with valuable information
regarding the birds and animals which we have observed in
the districts of the Rocky Mountains." In a large enclosure
near the railway station are a herd of buffalo, being among
the last of the pitifully few remaining bison that once roamed
the great western plains in countless thousands, and a band
of elk.
The Medicinal Hot Springs*
Though Banff is chiefly a resort of tourists and pleasure seekers, its waters have properties that are commended strongly
by medical men. Dr. Danter, a former president of the American Health Resort Association, says : " The springs are natural hot sulphur water, combining other chemical ingredients,
and while the air is a restorer to the pulmonary diseased, the
springs are particularly beneficial to rheumatic patients and to
those afflicted in some other ways." Mr. McGill, assistant
analyst of the Canadian government, who recently made a full
analysis of the Banff water supplies, reports : " The water is
very free from organic impurities and gives no albuminoid
nitrogen. * * * Each gallon contains dissolved sulphuretted
hydrogen to the amount of 0.3 grains (equivalent to 0.8 cubic
inch).
" The dissolved solids are as follows : ■—
1
Chlorine (in chlorides)
0.42 grains.
Sulphuric Acid (S Os)
.        •        •      38.50      "
Silica (Si O2)     .        .        .        .   _    .
2.31      "
Lime (Ca O)
.      24.85      "
Magnesia (MgO)         .
.        .        .       4.87      "
Alkalies (as Soda, Na20)   .
0.62      "
Lithium      .        .        .        .        .        .
A decided trace.
Analyst McGill reports that the quantity of lithium present is at
least one hundred times as much in the Banff water as in some of the
so-called lithia waters placed on the market. The temperature of this
spring is 114.3 degrees Fahrenheit.
Patients are sent here to bathe in the hot sulphur baths; and these
are none the less appreciated from the circumstance of their being an
annex of a hotel which, though situated in the wildest part of the continent, is, in its appointments and luxurious accessories, as if in the
midst of eastern civilization. There are many hotels, indeed, in the
leading cities of this continent, which, pluming themselves upon being
distinguished houses, are excelled by Banff in many things that make
the reputation of a hotel.
The Climate*
The climate of Banff during the summer months is delightful, and
while, as in all high altitudes, the nights are chilly, the days are warm
and pleasant, with plenty of genial sunshine and very little wind or rain.
The following table is taken from the official records of the local meteorological station: —
THE   BASIN
MONTHLY AND ANNUAL SUMMARIES.
Banft, Alberta, N. W. T., Lat. 510 10"; Long. W 115° 35'.
Height above sea level, 4,542 feet.
Months.
January ....
February . . .
March    .    .    .    .
April	
May	
June	
July	
August ....
September. . .
October . . .
November . . .
December  .    .    .
Year
Pressure.
Temperature.
rain.
SNOW.
2 c
EXTREMES.
EXTREMES.
*_5 rt
Mean.
25.22
Max.
Min.
Max.
Min.
In.
In.
25 91
24.90
16.4
30.2
-8.9
______
________
25.I9
25-73
24.63
19.3
44.2
-23.2
—
24.65
25.25
25-63
24 89
17.9
41.8
-27.3
—
9 95
25.32
25-71
24.80
36.6
65.1
7.8
0.81
—
25.3I
25.67
24.96
44.9
72.4
20.8
3.08
—
25.35
25.87
25.09
5i.i
80.1
30.2
2.15
—
2538
2563
24.96
56.2
85.3
30-5
4-54
—
25-39
25.59
25.12
59 9
85:2
32.0
2.37
—
25.32
25-79
24.94
48.0
73 3
24.8
i-73
—
25-39
25 79
24.89
35.o
49.6
15.8
1.09
—
25.20
25-63
24.76
20.9
41.8
-15.8
0.07
8.65
2536
2585
24.76
19.2
4J.0
-25-5
0.09
1.08
25-3°
25-71
24.89
35-5
85.3
-27-3
T5 93
44-3
precipitation.
Total.
2 47
0.99
o 81
3.08
2.15
4-54
2 37
i-73
1.09
o.93
0.20
20.36
Note.— Barometer not reduced to sea level.
The Banff Hotel.
In his book entitled " The Land of Contrasts — A Briton's View of
His American Kin," Mr. James Fullerton Muirhead writes of Banff and
its hotel:    " The only hotel that, to my mind,  contests with the Del
5 Monte, the position of the best hotel on the North American continent,
is the Canadian Pacific Hotel at Banff, in the National Rocky Mountain
Park of Canada. Here also magnificent scenery, splendid weather and
moderate charges combined to bias my judgment, but the residuum,
after all due allowance made for these factors, still after five years
assures me of most unusual excellence. Two things in particular I
remember in connection with this hotel — one is the almost absolute
perfection of the waiting, carried on by gentlemanly youth of about 18
or 20, who must, I think, have formed the " corps d'elite " of the thousands of waiters in the service of the C. P. R. Co. The marvelous
speed and dexterity with which they ministered to my wants, the absolutely neat and dainty manner in which everything was done by them,
and their modest readiness to make suggestions and help one's choice
(always to the point) make one of the pleasantest pictures of hotel life
lurking in my memory."
Around About Banff*
Nine miles from the Banff hotel is Lake Minnewanka, or the
Devil's Lake, a drive to which, over an excellent road, affords a pleasant outing. The lake is deeply set in a mountain fastness, the bare
rocks rising sheer from the water's edge to great heights. There is a
capacious launch, under the charge of experienced boatmen, and there
are boats and canoes on the lake. The sail on the lake is a most
delightful outing, and the fishing is particularly good. The natural
cave and basin in which are sulphur springs; the Bow Falls at the
confluence    of   two  mountain   streams   in   the   valley   beneath     the
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,M^m^»t%
■:■  ■■   :
A   GROUP  OF  SWISS   GUIDES   IN
THE   ROCKIES.
hotel; the hot springs on Sulphur Mountain; the Loop,
a beautiful drive around the Bow Valley; the Spray
ride up the Spray Valley and through the virgin forest
to the Spray Canon at the foot of Goat Mountain; the
Sun Dance Canon, a remarkable cleft in the mountain;
and the crest of Tunnel Mountain, reached by a spiral
drive, are some of the more noted points that attract
the tourist who rests awhile at Banff.
Those who like making little scenic discoveries for
themselves, or fishermen who love to work in solitude
without fear of companionship, can find numerous
spots where they may indulge in unbroken reveries, and
by a little exercise of fancy imagine themselves discoverers of the wilds before and around them, and
monarchs of all they survey, and this within a short
distance of the hotel. For the more adventurous there
are still more pretentious trips — to Mount Assiniboine, which is called the Matterhorn of the Rockies,
an unsealed height twenty miles south of Banff, and
reached by Simpson's or the White Man's Pass ; or up
to the Bow Lakes and past the ice-fields due west of
Laggan and through the Howe Pass to the culminating
heights of the range.
Guests at Banff, in addition to riding, driving,
wheeling, fishing, boating, bathing and mountain climbing, also find amusement in lawn tennis, golf, billiards, bowling, etc., and an orchestra from the Boston
Conservatory of Music plays during the evening.
Connected   with   the   hotel   are   new   and    elegantly
7 MAP   OF   LAKES   INlTHE   CLOUDS.
appointed bathing houses and a large plunge bath supplied with water
direct from the sulphur springs, and in the hotel a dark room is provided
for the use of photographers who desire to finish their pictures before
returning home. Alpenstocks for mountain climbers can be purchased at
Banff, Lake Louise, and Glacier, at each of which places there are facilities
for branding upon them the names of the different peaks in their neighborhood, thus converting the staffs into interesting souvenirs. Guides and the
necessary outfit for parties exploring the mountains or shooting in the Selkirks and foothills of the northern Rockies are procurable at Banff. The
hotel opens on May 15th and closes October ist, and the rates are from $3.00
per day and upwards (with a reduction for those stopping a week or longer),
a moderate charge for such a hotel in such a locality.
Swiss Guides*
Experienced Swiss guides are stationed at the hotel during the tourist
season, and under their personal guidance systematically planned excursions
8
will be made daily to several of these or other points of interest, so that in a
comparatively short stay the visitor is enabled to explore the region hereabouts under the most favorable auspices. Each day's programme will be
posted in the rotunda of the hotel on the evening previous, and will be so
arranged that the greatest number of interesting places will be visited with
the least amount of travel. No charge is made for their services except when
specially employed to accompany parties on difficult ascents or to distant
points, when the fee is $5.00 per day for each guide. The same rule prevails at the other places where they are located in the mountains.
The Lakes in the Clouds*
Not  far  from  the  Banff  are  the   Lakes in the Clouds.    So  near and
yet so dissimilar   are   these   two   charming   spots that,   one   having   been
1 seen, there is naturally a desire to visit the  other.    If Banff is beautiful,
9 KEF£RENC£
HailtrayLine. sAomi thus. mmmmmmm
Water Route _....„ „ _.».—......
Park Jjrires „. „ -
Tot* Road* „ „ v«a,„»ik«»„-i,aw1ssM
Park Trails „	
1 .
•■•"  .'    • LAKE   LOUISE  AND   CHALET.
these lakes are enchanting. There is nothing like them on the face of the
earth elsewhere than here in the Rockies, where they lie like a string of
jewels in the clefts. The trip from Banff is through one of the grandest
parts of the whole mountain region — up the forested valley of the Bow,
skirting the Vermillion Lakes and passing out of the National Park past
Castle Mountain, a sheer precipice of 5,000 feet, with views of the Saw-
back range on the right and the Bow range on the left, and Lefroy lifting its whitened head above the surrounding heights. The station on
the Canadian Pacific line for the Lakes in the Clouds is Laggan (thirty-
four miles west of Banff—about an hour's ride), where choice can be
made of driving, riding or walking up to Lake Louise (altitude 5,645
feet), the first to be reached of the three sheets of water hidden high up
above the valley.
Lake Louise*
The drive is two and one-half miles through a pine forest, in which
a good carriage road has been cut, following up Louise Creek, which
carries off the water of the Cloudland Lakes to the Bow. Although the
most graphic word-painting does not adequately convey the effect of the
approach to Lake Louise and its sudden burst on the sight of the traveler, for mental pictures involve themselves with actual sights, it may
be worth while quoting one writer : —
" Nestling at the foot of two great mountains, which seem to guard
against the encroachments of the vast glaciers resting on the sides of a
third, canopied by a sky like the petal of a soft blush rose, its great
depths reproducing, with mirror-like  fidelity,  the  green  forests,  bare
14
peaks and motionless seas of snow-mantled ice — Lake Louise is a dream
of loveliness. The delicate colorings of its waters are an irresistible charm.
The lake is about one and one-half miles in length, with a width of half a
mile, and is between 500 and 600 feet deep. To the right is a vast amphitheatre of spruce, whose tall heads rise up in a terraced evenness to the
foot of the Beehive, and through whose intricacies are passes to the
upper lakes. Between the two great mountains is Mount Victoria, a backsetting of gray and white — the ice-fields, the one at the base being covered
with the drift of centuries. These glaciers are of enormous thickness and
of great area, and with the coursing of the sun or the passing of clouds,
present new shapes and fantastic forms, and, as the rays of old Sol pour
down, the stillness of the air is broken by the crunching and grinding of
the ice beds. The base of Goat Mountain, on the left, is clad with spruce
on one side, and beautiful fresh foliage embellishes another, which, in the
fall of the year, is rich with the autumnal tints peculiar to American
woods, while above there are huge precipices of bare rock, which come
sheer down for thousands of feet. These walls are vari-colored, resembling marble in places, whose tinted hues are in pleasing contrast with the
dull dun and gray rock and the dark slate."
" The row out on the lake in the early morning," adds another
visitor,   "is   a   never-to-be-forgotten   experience.     The boat  seems
poised  in mid-air,   surrounded  above and below by the mountains
and sky.    Away from it, stretching out on all sides, is the wonderfully clear, silvery, blue-green water.    The oars touch its sheen, the
boat moves gently forward, and grounds at length on a tiny sandy
beach, at the opposite end of the lake from that on which the chalet
is situated.    On the  shore  just beyond the beach  and  below the
glacier is a flower garden of blue  forget-me-nots.    As we  gather
them we are frequently startled by peals like those of heavy thunder, though we are under clear skies; but we soon discover that the
sounds are caused by the falling masses of the hanging glaciers plunging over the
distant cliffs of Mount Victoria."    Still another visitor, a prominent physician of
New York City, says : — " Lake Louise and its environments is the most beautiful
bit of natural scenery I ever saw."
On the margin of the lake the railway company has built a chalet, which^is
under the same management as the Banff Springs Hotel, for those who desire to
remain either to explore the mountains or to fish or hunt—the region abounding
in mountain goat, which require all the skill and perseverance of the Swiss
chamois hunter, and numerous coveys of ptarmigan grouse, duck, and other feathered game — and at Lake Agnes and the Saddleback sheltering resting-places
have been erected for the accommodation of visitors. Streams have been
bridged, and over twelve miles of trails have been constructed, which render many
points of vantage easily accessible. One leads around the west side of the lake to
the base of Victoria Glacier, three and one-quarter miles, from which the entrance
to Abbott's Pass can be reached by way of the glacier; another to Saddleback
Mountain, overlooking Paradise Valley, and to Annette Lake in the Valley itself
giving magnificent views of groups of rugged peaks and clusters of smaller glaciers ; others lead to the upper lakes — Mirror and Agnes. Ponies are available
for these ascents for those not desiring the walk; but the delights of mountain
climbing, which are here lavishly offered, prompt many to indulge in that pleasurable experience which, except to the feeble, is unattended with difficulty. The
charge for ponies is $1.00 per day. Experienced Swiss guides can be engaged
by persons who desire to visit the more inaccessible points. The chalet is open
from about June 15th to Sept 15th, the rate being $2.50 per day. Conveyances meet all trains at Laggan, and by pre-arrangement the round trip
can be made from Banff at single fare, tickets being issued on presentation
of certificates  from  the  managers  of   the   Banff Springs Hotel or  Sanitarium.
/ 15
: In the chalet is a dark room for the use of photographers, and there is telephonic connection with the station at Laggan, by which communication with
Banff is had.
Miiror Lake*
The ascent to Lake Mirror (altitude 6,550 feet) and Agnes (altitude 6,820
feet), the one on the breast and the other on the shoulder of the mountain that
confines Lake Louise on the southern side, is usually on Indian ponies, but
with sturdy climbing powers one can scramble up the steep ascent without
any great waste of time or exertion. A trail which brings Mirror Lake
within two miles of the chalet and Lake Agnes two and one-quarter miles,
leads on to the summit of the Beehive, and by this trail the summit of Mt. St.
Piron is scaled; another branches off near Mirror to the right to the Lesser
■llli;
VICTORIA  GLACIER  AND   HAZEL   PEAK.
Beehive and the base of St. Piron, from which its summit can be reached.
Four hours are occupied from the chalet to the crest of St. Piron and return,
and two hours to Lake Agnes and return on ponies, or by walking in two and
one-half hours. Mirror Lake, which is one-third of a mile long by a quarter
of a mile wide, has no visible outlet, its shallow waters escaping through an
underground channel into Lake Louise. They rise and fall as the inflowing
streams pour their floods more rapidly than they are carried off. Its still and
clear surface, differing in color from that of Lake Louise and of Lake Agnes,
reflects in a peculiarly effective way its encircling walls, and suggested the
appropriate name of Mirror Lake. Anxious to reach the highest point, the
visitor shortens his stay at the intermediate water, and, remounting his pony
or grasping his alpenstock, continues his ascent to Lake Agnes, there being
16
two trails, one which is usually taken being a ten minutes' climb, and the
other rounds the sloping side of the mountain, which, while not at all dangerous, is at times attended with all the pleasurable sensations of excitement.
Lake Agnes*
Rare is the beauty of the crystal pool known as Lake Agnes, although its
surroundings do not possess   that loveliness  which  characterizes  its  sister
lakes.    It is about a third of a mile in length, with half that breadth, and its
great depths have not yet been ascertained.    It is fed by several waterfalls,
dropping  from   the heights above,   and  from numerous  springs  and great
banks of snow which line the mountains that enclose it.    Near its outlet,
where its waters pour in a pretty cascade  over the rocks and fall into the
gorge which leads to Mirror Lake, is a clump of  trees, in  whose  shade is
Table Rock, affording a splendid dining-table for picnickers.    Like
sentinels, on the other  side, stand grim Mounts Whyte and  Niblock, and irregular peaks, running back, tell of the succession of violent eruptions in that awful day of the great upheaval, far back in
the  dim, misty ages of antiquity.    The peaks rise up in terraces,
reaching far above the timber line, and at the base are huge heaps
of moraine.     Further on is a vast  amphitheatre-shaped  basin,  in
which lie the accumulations of the snows of ages past.   Here,
even in the warmest weather, it is always cool and pleasant,
and by a few further steps (for you are nearing the verge of
vegetation),   the   pastime  of  a  snowballing  match   can  be
indulged in — not  five minutes after revelling  amongst the
mosses, the forget-me-nots and the gentians which, with the
heather of pink and white, dot the mountain side.    Beyond
the snow basin again the  spruce, mixed with the tamarack,
which here first  shows its head, clothes the hillside at this
height; the wood anemone, the sweet little blue bells of the
Scottish highlands, the fern, the Alpine edelweiss — the bridal
flower of the Swiss mountaineer — and the heather that reminds  the sons  and  daughters of bonnie Scotland of their
native land, and other brilliant-hued flowers, add beauty to
the scene.    The shortest and not least pointed description of
these lakes was given by the lady who called them " a necklet
of gems on the bosom of the mountain."
The return to Laggan is of course made in comparatively
short time, and the east-bound Imperial Limited transcontinental train is either taken for Banff, to which the tourist returns charmed
with his excursion, and thoroughly appreciative of the comfortable home that
awaits him, or the west-bound Imperial Limited, if one purposes exploring
the other splendors of the mountains, which can be best done from Field, the
Great Glacier of the Selkirks, Revelstoke on the Columbia, and North Bend
on the Fraser, where the Canadian Pacific Railway company has erected
capacious chalet hotels, as they are called, at any of which a tourist will find
such comfort as is not generally dreamed of in the mountains.
Field.
From Laggan, the railway leaves the Bow and climbs up the summit of
the Rockies, crosses "The Great Divide," and ten miles down the western
slope reaches the first of these chalets—the Mount Stephen House at Field.
It is a delightful spot. The loftiest mountains of the Rockies are grouped all
about, many of them bearing glaciers of great size, and they tower on every
hand as far as the eye can see. These steeps are the haunts of mountain
sheep, bear and other large game. In the background of the hotel is Mount
Stephen, the highest point of the Rockies along the line (8,000 feet), which
17 has been ascended and the return home been made in fourteen hours,
and around here artists, amateur and professional, find ample choice
for the exercise of their brush. Near the base of this giant, and easily
reached by a good trail, is an extensive fossil bed from which rare specimens can be obtained. Another walk takes one to the Crystal Cave, a
place worth visiting, and to the silver mines perched 1,500 feet up on
the side of the mountain; and to the west is a curious natural bridge,
Other outings give grand views of the Ottertail range. Emerald Lake,
a few miles away, which is reached by a foot-bridge over the Illecillewaet River, is a scenic gem of rarest beauty, not only attractive to
the lover of nature but to the angler, for its waters and those of its
tributaries are filled with lake and mountain trout. The Wapta Falls,
flowing out of the Bow glaciers, which have a sheer drop from stupendous heights, are reached by trail. Swiss guides are also stationed
at Field.
The rates at the chalet at Field, and those at the Great Glacier,
Revelstoke and North Bend, all of which are open throughout the year,
are $3.00 per day; special arrangements, however, being made with
those remaining a week or longer.
The Great Glacier.
In the heart of the Selkirks, the second great range of mountains,
is the Great Glacier, one of the grandest marvels of nature, eighty-six
miles beyond Mount Stephen.    Within thirty minutes' walk of this won-
'"I       •:
LOOKING   OVER   MIRROR   LAKE  AND   LAKE   LOUISE  TOWARD   BOW   RIVER.
18
MOUNT   STEPHEN   AND   MOUNT   STEPHEN   HOUSE   AT  FIELD.
derful sea of ice is the Glacier House, the popularity of which is
such that the railway company has found it necessary to enlarge
the original hotel, erect new buildings and increase the capacity
of the annex, until now over one hundred guests can be comfortably accommodated.
One distinguished visitor — a Surgeon-General in the Royal
Army Medical Corps — writes in the guests' book at the hotel:
"My wife and I have traveled for nearly forty years all over the
world, and are both agreed that the scenery at Glacier House is
the finest we have seen in Europe, Asia, Africa or America. We
have been most comfortable here and only wish we could
make a longer stay."
The many attractions of the Great Glacier will doubtless puzzle the traveler who for the first time visits this
most charming of spots. Visitors come year after year,
so delighted are they with the splendour of the scenery,
and one of them, Mr. George Vaux, Jr., of Philadelphia,
furnishes a description which is of such general interest and
usefulness, that the following excerpts are made from it:
The Great Glacier naturally claims attention first.
The distance to the forefront of this frozen river is one
and one-half miles, there being a good trail crossing the
Asulkan River, and following the Illecillewaet River, to
which birth is given by the glacier, till the moraine is
reached. One can here see how slowly but surely the icefield has receded in the last ten years. A trip over the ice
itself, under the protecting care of one of the Swiss guides,
is not only novel, but reveals much that is interesting and
beautiful.
Another trail leads to Lake Marion, where a shelter is
erected, and thence to Mount Abbott.   The lake is about
1,750 feet above the hotel, and the distance by the trail, which is
good, though steep in some places, is less than two miles.    On the
way up, exquisite  views of Eagle Peak  and Sir Donald  are  had
19 through the trees, while a trail, skirting the  north end of
the lake, leads to Observation Point, whence superb views
of Rogers Pass and the Loop Valley are obtained, with
the silver thread of the Illecillewaet, flanked by the railroad, winding through the latter.    The ascent from  the
lake  to the summit  of Mt.  Abbott should be made by
everyone at  all equal   to the  exertion of a day's climb.
With the improved condition of the trail  and  an early
start the ascent may be made in a single day with ease.
Another excellent trail is that to the top of the Cascade,
and thence to the grassy slopes which culminate in the
fine twin peak of Mt. Avalanche.    The view is a superb
one when the points outlined against the sky just above
the snowsheds are reached, and in many respects rivals
that from Abbott.    The most striking  object is, perhaps,
Mt.  Sir Donald, which rises as a square pyramid.    Two
sides are visible, and it thus presents an entirely different
aspect  from that  seen from any other   point.    From an
elbow about half way  up  the   Cascade, where  the  trail
reaches its most southern point, a fine view of the Great
Glacier  and  its  rough  ice  fall  is had,  and  throughout,
where  it  can  be  seen  through  the  trees,  the  Asulkan
Valley  is  most  exquisitely  beautiful.    This  trip  should
have a day devoted to it if possible, and the visitor is
strongly  urged on this, as   on the other more extended
trips, to make an early start.    The morning light discloses
beauties not dreamed of, and should the weather be warm,
as it sometimes is, one gets the advantage of doing the
hardest part of the work in the cool of the day.    An early
breakfast  and a substantial lunch are always obtainable
without difficulty.    The ascent of Mount Avalanche itself
affords all the delights of a true Alpine climb, and whilst
not   difficult  from  the   standpoint   of   the  mountaineer,
THE  GREAT  GLACIER   OF  THE  SELKIRKS.
20
MARION   LAKE,   NEAR THE  GREAT GLACIER.
s,hould  not be attempted without a guide except by experts.    From the summit
laterally hundreds of snowy peaks are visible, all sinking into insignificance below
he towering height of Sir Donald.    The trip is an exhilarating one,  is varied
with rock and ice work,  and on the descent a glissade can be enjoyed over
the steep neve of the Mt. Avalanche Glacier.    Possibly the most charming of
any of the excursions is that up the Asulkan Valley, a gem of Alpine beauty
which was first explored in 1888.    The name " Asulkan " given to this valley
with the glacier and pass at its southern end, is Indian for the mountain goat,
which  is   at  times   found here   in large  numbers.    The  Asulkan  Valley  is
hemmed in on its eastern side by Glacier Crest and the ridges running from
it to the southward, which form the western side of the great Illecillewaet
Neve, or snowfield.    On its western side the valley is bounded by the long
range which is comprised in order, beginning at the north, of Mount Abbott,
Afton, the Rampart, the  Dome, Castor and Pollux.    A series of glaciers
sweeps down from all of these except Abbott, and the streams flowing from
them form a number of most graceful and beautiful waterfalls.    The Seven
Falls, so far unnamed in detail, at other places would be considered worthy
of special attention.    The rich meadows would prove tempting pastures for
herds of cattle or flocks of goats.    At the distance of two and one-half or
three miles the river is contracted between narrow  rocky  walls,   and the
canon sides here show no striking signs of glacial action.    Emerging from
21
s the gorge, the path leads over an old moraine, across the stream flowing in from the east, and thence up a very steep, grassy slope to the shelter
erected for the accommodation of tourists. This point is about 2,000 feet
above Glacier House, and about five miles distant from it. From about
this level superb views of the Asulkan Glacier are had, while the glaciers
covering the sides of the Dome, Castor and Pollux are exceedingly striking.
The ice-towers, pinnacles, obelisks, minarets and turrets are of surpassing grandeur and beauty, and the sight of them is an ample recompense to
anyone who takes this trip, which, in fact, includes more variety than
any of the others now easily accessible. Looking from near the shelter to
the north, the Hermit Range is most beautifully set out, while nearer at
hand and passing eastward come in order the summits of Mt. Avalanche, Eagle Peak and Sir Donald, the latter manifesting quite a
different aspect from that seen from other positions. From the
shelter the ridge may be followed upward for a mile or more, till
sufficient elevation is obtained to observe the peaks of the Dawson
Range. The total distance of the round trip is some twelve or fourteen miles, and the time occupied about the same number of hours.
A variation of this trip is to follow upward along the crest of the
great moraine just east of the Glacier, instead of climbing the grassy
slopes to the shack. Later the neve is crossed to the Asulkan Pass
proper. The trip to Glacier Crest is not so often taken, but the
view from the summit is well worth the excursion. At an elevation
of about 300 feet above the last bridge on this trail there is a very
beautiful mossy waterfall. It lies to the right and may be heard
plashing over its velvety bed. A faintly marked path leads to it,
and rejoins the Glacier Crest trail a little higher up.
mMSS^ms
il
LLECILLEWAET  VALLEY   AND   HERMIT  RANGE.
22
LOOKING UP THE ASULKAN VALLEY FROM  MT. ABBOTT.
Other obvious walks are those along the Loop and to the
snowsheds, whence the changing panoramas of peaks are ever
new and ever attractive. The view of Mt. Bonney, which lies
to the south of Ross Peak, as seen from the top of the Loop,
is very beautiful. The visitor who spends a week or more
will have his time pretty fully occupied if he includes all of
the foregoing, and he will then find other and newer fields for
his investigations.
During the tourist season a corps of Swiss guides is stationed here, who, as at Banff, Field and the Lakes in the Clouds,
will personally conduct mountain climbers who desire to
make expeditions to places difficult of access. Ponies, which
are generally used here as pack animals, are obtainable at
reasonable rates. At the hotel are many sources of amusement for guests— a tennis court, croquet lawn, billiard hall,
bowling alley, and swings for children. An observatory has
been erected, and a large telescope been placed at the hotel.
There is a dark room here for photographers. The rates are
$3.00 per day, but rooms can be had en suite up to $5.00 per
day. Special arrangements are made with those remaining a
week or longer.
4 Hotel Revelstoke.
;t§ Revelstoke is a newly-created city at the second crossing
"^A of the Columbia River, where the railway company has erected
the fine new Hotel Revelstoke, which occupies a high bench
immediately in the rear of the railway station. It is a delightful stopping place for those making the tour of the great
West Kootenay mining region to the south, whose principal
23 i
points aie reached by the branch railways of the Canadian Pacific
Railway Co. and its splendid fleet of modernly equipped steamers on
the Columbia River and the Arrow, Slocan and Kootenay Lakes. The
site of the Hotel Revelstoke commands splendid views of the Columbian Valley, of massive Mount Begbie and the Selkirk and Gold ranges.
The Fraser Canon House*
At North Bend, on the Fraser River, is the last of these mountain
hotels—the Fraser Canon House — and it is in all respects similar to
the others. Here the incomparable wild flowers for which British
Columbia is famed reach the highest perfection, and grow in wonderful
profusion, making the spot one of unparalleled loveliness.    The gar
dens and lawns of the hotel are perhaps the finest in Canada, and are a
great attraction to the tourist. The hotel is in the immediate neighborhood of some of the most remarkable and furious reaches of the Fraser
River, which for over 50 miles rushes through narrow and picturesque
canons, before reaching the fertile country of its delta below Yale, and
makes a convenient base from which these wonders can be explored.
There is a pretty series of cascades a short fifteen minutes' walk back of
the hotel, and one mile west is a favorite spot for salmon spearing, it
being an interesting sight to witness the Indians engaged in this occupation, and even more interesting for the tourist to participate in it himself, as he is, in the season, easily enabled to do. At Scuzzie, four and
one-half miles west, and Salmon River, four miles east, there is capital
trout fishing, and a trip to Hope by rail, for a day's fishing, is a popular
outing.
Hotel Vancouver.
At Vancouver, a short distance from the harbor, and commanding
a series of views of the bay and the surrounding country is the Canadian
Pacific Company's Hotel Vancouver, the principal hotel of the city, and
one unsurpassed in its appointments and general comfort by any on the
Pacific Coast. It is at all times well patronized, summer and winter,
but on the arrival and departure of the Japan and China or Australian
steamers, is more than usually bright and busy. Almost adjoining it is
the Opera House, one of the most charming theatres outside of New
York, and this, with other attractions, has served to make the hotel so
popular that it was found absolutely necessary to increase the size of
the building.
This series of hotels, with the Chateau Frontenac, on the famed
Dufferin Terrace at Quebec, and the new Place Viger, facing Viger
Square, at Montreal, two of the finest hotels in America, enables the
tourist to cross from the Atlantic to the Pacific through Canada, and
to spend whatever leisure time he chooses in fishing, shooting or wandering amidst the magnificent scenery of the Rocky Mountains, wdth all
the comfort that capital and enterprise have provided for the tourist by
this route. The rates at the Vancouver are from $3.00 per day and
upwards, with special terms for a week or longer, on application to the
manager.
Further information as to accommodation, rates, etc., can be secured by writing the managers of the different hotels, or J. A. Sheffield,
Superintendent and Manager of the Company's hotels, Montreal.
The Route.
Banff, Field, the Great Glacier, and the other resorts in the mountains, and the Pacific Coast, are reached from New York, Boston, and
other Atlantic Coast points by way of Montreal, and thence by the Canadian Pacific Railway, or by Niagara Falls, Hamilton and Toronto, and
thence to North Bay on Lake Nipissing, where connection is made with
transcontinental trains, an alternate route being offered during the
season of navigation by the company's magnificent steamships through
Lakes Huron and Superior from Owen Sound, on Georgian Bay, and
connecting with the Canadian Pacific at Fort William, at the head of
Lake Superior. From the middle-western states the route is by the
Soo-Pacific Railway, from St. Paul and Minneapolis, connecting with
the Canadian Pacific trains at Moose Jaw, in the Canadian Northwest. THE   GLACIER   HOUSE,   GLACIER.
The return trip can be made through the Kootenay gold region
and by the Crow's Nest Pass Railway to the Plains of the Canadian
Northwest, and by the main line of the Canadian Pacific, the Soo-Pacific
Road and the Great Lakes.
For further   particulars   or   information,   apply   to   any  agent  oj   the
Canadian Pacific Railway, or to
E. V. SKINNER, General Eastern Agent, 353 Broadway, New York.
H. J. COLVIN, District Passenger Agent, 197 Washington St., Boston.
A. J. HEATH, District Pass'r Agent, St. John, N. B.
A. E. EDMONDS, City Passenger Agent, n Fort St., W., Detroit.
J. F. LEE, Gen'l Agent Pass'r Department, 228 S. Clark St., Chicago.
M.  M. STERN, Dist. Pass'r Agent, San Francisco.
W. R. CALLAWAY, Gen'l Pass'r Agent, Soo Line, Minneapolis, Minn.
W. S. THORN, Ass't Gen'l Pass'r Agent, Soo Line, St. Paul.
G. W. HIBBARD, Gen'l Pass'r Agent, D. & S. S. Line, Marquette, Mich.
C. G. OSBURN, 129 E. Baltimore St., Baltimore.
H. McMURTIE, 629-631 Chestnut St., Philadelphia.
W. MERKLE, 1229 Pennsylvania Ave., Washington.
A. H. NOTMAN, Ass't Gen'l Pass'r Agent, 1 King St., E., Toronto, Ont.
E. J. COYLE, Ass't Gen'l Pass'r Agent, Vancouver, B.C.
WM. T. PAYNE, Gen'l Traffic Ag't for Japan, 14 Bund, Yokohama. Japan.
THEO. H. DAVIES & CO., Honolulu, H. I.
BURNS, PHILP & CO., Sydney, Australia.
ARCHER  BAKER,  European Traffic Manager, 67 and 68 King William St.,
E.C, and 30 Cockspur St., S. W., London, Eng.; 9 James St., Liverpool,
Eng. ; 67 St. Vincent St., Glasgow, Scotland.
C. E. E. USSHER,
Gen'l Pass'r Agent Lines East
of Lake Superior,
MONTREAL.
c. e. Mcpherson,
Gen'l Pass'r Agent Lines West
of Lake Superior,
WINNIPEG.
ROB'T   KERR,
Passenger Traffic Manager,
MONTREAL.
26 IN THE
CANADIAN ROCKIES
AND THE
i~* A   OTT?r\P    iiiiiiiiiiii.muni „„■„,
(jLACIERS of the SELKIRKS
REACHED   BY  THE
Canadian Pacific Railway
1900.

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