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Westward : seeing Canada from Canadian Pacific scenic domes Canadian Pacific Railway Company 1930

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I I I I I
SCE/WiC
t)C/M£S ESTWARD
Across Canada by{
The World's Longest "Dome" Route
TORONTO
PARKDALE
WEST TORONTO
WESTON
WOODBRIDGE
KLEINBURG
BOLTON
HUMBER
PALGRAVE
TOTTENHAM
BEETON
ALLISTON
BAXTER
YPRES
ESSA
MIDHURST
CRAIGHURST
CARLEY
EADY
MEDONTE
LOVERING
SEVERN FALLS
BALA
RODERICK
MACTIER
LAKE JOSEPH
GORDON BAY
BRIGNALL
ROSSEAU ROAD
BLACK ROAD
OTTER LAKE
DOCKMURE
PARRY SOUND
NOBEL
CARLING
SHAWANAGA
PTE.AU BARIL
MANBERT
NAISCOOT
BYNG INLET
BRITT
BEKANON
PAKESLEY
PICKEREL
WANIKEWIN
FRENCH RIVER
BIGWOOD
RUTTER
DELAMERE
PAGET
BURWASH
WANUP
DILL
ROMFORD
windsorJstation
"montreal
westmount
montreal west
grovehill
summerlea
DORVAL
PINE BEACH
STRATHMORE
VALOIS
LAKESIDE
CEDAR PARK
POINTE CLAIRE
BEACONSFIELD
BEAUREPAIRE
BAIE D'URFE
STE. ANNES
(Ste. Anne de
Bellevue}
| ILE PERROT
(Terrace)
VAUDREUIL
(Dorion)
ISLE CADIEUX
COMO
|HUDSON
HUDSON* HEIGHTS
ALSTONVALE
CHOISY
DRAGON
RIGAUD
ST. EUGENE
STARDALE
VANKLEEK HILL
McALPIN
CALEDONIA SPGS.
ALFRED
PLANTAGENET
PENDLETON
BOURGET
HAMMOND
LEONARD
NAVAN
BLACKBURN
OTTAWA
HULL
HULL WEST
OTTAWA WEST
WESTBORO
STITTVILLE
ASHTON
CARLETON PLACE
ALMONTE
SNEDDEN
PAKENHAM
ARNPRIOR
BRAESIDE
SAND POINT
CASTLEFORD
MAYHEW
RENFREW
PAYNE
HALEY'S
COBDEN
SNAKE RIVER
MEATH
PEMBROKE
PETAWAWA
CHALK RIVER
WYLIE
BASS LAKE
MOOR LAKE
STONECLIFFE
BISSETT
DEUX RIVIERES
KLOCK
MATTAWA
EAU CLAIRE
RUTHERGLEN
BONFIELD
NOSBONSING
CORBEIL
NORTH BAY
BEAUCAGE
MEADOWSIDE
STURGEON FALLS
CACHE BAY
VERNER
WARREN
HAGAR
MARKSTAY
WANAPITEI
CONISTON
ROMFORD
SUDBURY
AZILDA
CHELMSFORD
LARCHWOOD
LEVACK
WINDY LAKE
CARTIER
GENEVA
POGAMASING
METAGAMA
BISCOTASING
Geographically and historically the Canadian Pacific
main transcontinental line is unique. From tidewater
to tidewater, the world's longest — and Canada's only
—"dome" ride is packed with thrills. Between the east
and the Great Plains and between the Rockies and the
Pacific you follow the trail of the famous explorers
who opened the great North American continent three
and a half centuries ago and from the luxurious
comfort of your all-stainless-steel train trace the
course of the rushing rivers, mighty lakes and dangerous rapids they conquered.
Across the prairies, penetrated first by the French,
your view encompasses the very trails marked by early
expeditions and hardened by the creaking wheels of
covered waggons. The scenic grandeur of the Canadian
Rockies first burst upon Scots whose names live in the
mighty rivers that parallel your ultra-modern journey.
These great men of the past lead you, in the air-
conditioned comfort of a high-level "Scenic Dome",
through forests and lake-lands; the rich Pre-Cambrian
Shield; gentle farm-lands, by inland seas, between
great wheatfields, beside roaring streams through the
mountain passes. In the wake of the explorers you see,
through the pictvire windows on four sides of you,
mines, mills, factories, great cities; Ottawa, North
Bay, Sudbury, Port Arthur-Fort William, Winnipeg,
Brandon, Regina, Moose Jaw, Swift Current, Medicine
Hat, Calgary, Vancouver; the pleasure-lands of the
Gatineau, Muskoka, French River, the North Shore of
Lake Superior, Lake of the Woods, Banff, Lake
Louise and the British Columbia coast.
Your swift journey across a continent will be filled
with memories you will want to treasure. This brief
guide has been prepared to help you remember.
For operating reasons each sub-division through which the only "Dome" route in Canada passes, numbers
its mileage afresh from east to west. Mileage boards on telegraph poles mark each mile. From your comfortable
seat in one of the Scenic-Domes of "The Canadian" or "The Dominion", diesel-drawn from the start to the
finish, you will be able to identify each point of interest by noting the nearest mileage board quoted in the
context below.
RAMSAY
OLD
-HUftONIA
The description "Old Huronia" applies
only to part of the route travelled from
Toronto to Sudbury. The establishment of
the first white settlement west of Montreal
at Sainte Marie, three miles from Port
McNicoll, in 1639, makes this territory significant. Until the opening of a road from
Toronto to Georgian Bay in the early 19th
century, the major route to the east was by
way of the French River, Mattawa-Ottawa
River route.
In general, the Canadian Pacific main line
parallels this first road for much of the way.
Through busy western Toronto suburbs and
fine rolling country marked by prosperous
farms, your "Scenic Dome" view includes the
tobacco country around Alliston — birth
place of Sir Frederick Banting, co-discoverer
of insulin. Near Ypres Junction, Camp
Borden, Canada's largest military establishment occupies 50 square miles.
A huge re-forestation project is keyed by
the Ontario Provincial Forestry Station at
Midhurst. A fine view of historic Huronia is
gained from the high bridge at mileage 68,
but the real entrance is at Medonte, junction
for Port McNicoll, eastern terminal of the
Canadian Pacific Great Lakes Steamships
that ply west to Sault Ste. Marie and Fort
William — the route used by the canoes of
the first explorers.
Travellers who break their rail journeys
embark within three miles of the recently
excavated and partly re-constructed settlement at Sainte Marie. Nearby, the Martyrs'
Shrine commemorates Fathers Brebeuf, Daniel, Jogues and Gabriel Lalemant who were
killed in the area. At its height the settlement housed 60 white religious and lay
workers who served almost 3000 square
miles of savage country.
North from Medonte the line heads into a
vacationland of lakes and rivers. At mileage
111.5 a long finger lake points north. Bala
Falls to the left, the Miskosh and Moon
rivers, and Lake Muskoka on the right mark
Bala — entrance to the Muskoka Lakes. At
MacTier, the Ontario and Algoma Districts
of the Canadian Pacific join.
Occasional rocky outcrops mark the advance of the Canadian Shield. Lake Stewart
and Lake Joseph, on the right, are seen
between mileages 1.2 and 3.5. Otter Lake
Narrows is bridged at mileage 17, the Boyne
and Seguin Rivers at 20 and 22.6. The noted
fishing and hunting centre, Parry Sound,
population 5,000, is marked by Seguin Falls,
seen right from the railway bridge. Georgian
Bay is sighted to the left at mileage 26. Lakes
seen both sides of the track should be scanned
for deer and other small game. Pointe au
Baril, popular summer resort, at mileage 49,
heads a needle-like inlet of the big bay.
On the right, the Pickerel River joins us at
mileage 80.5 for a half mile then passes
under us en route to the bay. And the French
River, link for east and west 350 years ago,
races westward through rocky banks that
failed to daunt the heroic bands who explored this great country. Occasional elk may
be seen. Kakakiwaganda Lake, near mileage
103, and the Wanapitei River (112.9), emphasize boundaries of the Sudbury Game
Preserve. To the right at mileage 117.5, the
Coniston smelter can be seen, a sign of the
mineral-bearing country ahead. At Romford,
the line, skirting Ramsay Lake, merges with
the Montreal-Vancouver line and enters the
city of Sudbury.
THE HISTORIC <*
OTTttW* VALL€Y
The Ottawa Valley, traversed by the
Canadian Pacific from Vaudreuil-Dorion to
Mattawa, has three related distinctions —
geographic, historic, economic.
From its source in the Laurentian Upland
to its confluence with the St. Lawrence River
at Vaudreuil-Dorion and Ste. Anne de Bellevue, some 20 miles west of Montreal, the
Ottawa drains the wooded countryside that
was the hunting and fishing preserve of
Canada's aboriginal inhabitants.
A natural highway for canoe travel, the
mighty river was the main trade artery for
Huron, Algonquin and Iroquois Indians and
it was by this route that the early explorers,
Recollet and Jesuit missionaries and traders
made their way to the west with the help of
Indian guides.
Vast forests bordering the river and its
tributaries felt the lumberman's axe as Canada's population increased, rivermen rafted
the timber to mill sites and the valley's
economic phase began in the 19th century.
With the advent of electricity its waters were
harnessed and diversified manufacturing
lends an urban balance to the prosperous
farming that has followed the clearance of
the forest areas.
Between Montreal — seaport 1000 miles
from an ocean — and the mouth of the
Ottawa, the Canadian Pacific main transcontinental line passes Laehine, home of
Lasalle, explorer of the Ohio River, Lake
Michigan and Upper Illinois in search of
China. To the right and north of Laehine,
is the international airport at Dorval.
Soon after the line swings north at
Vaudreuil-Dorion, the Ottawa — widened
into The Lake of Two Mountains — is visible
to the right. At Rigaud, site of religious
institutions, the Rigaud River joins the Ottawa. The Ontario boundary is crossed between
mileage boards 21 and 22.
Pleasant farm-lands and prosperous country trading centres lead to Ottawa, capital of
Canada. The line crosses near mileage 50, the
South Nation, and in the city limits, the
Ridea^u, named by Samuel de Champlain,
when with Brule and de Vigneau in 1613,
the first white men penetrated westward.
Ottawa, in Ontario, and Hull, Quebec, have
an area population of 249,345. The Rideau
Canal locks, Parliament Buildings, Chau-
diere Falls and many great industries are in
full view as your train makes two crossings
of the big river.
Carleton Place, a railway and manufacturing town of 4,700; Almonte, 2,617; Arnprior,
4,500 and Renfrew, 7,609, are passed in the
next miles. Geographical factors include the
Mississippi River, crossed at mileages 17.6
and 32.4, the Madawaska River, crossed at
mileage 40 and, at Braeside, a view of the
Ottawa again at the right. The West Bonne-
chere, mileage 74, and the Muskrat (84.4)
rivers enclose an area noted for migrating
Canada geese in season. To the right, at
mileage 91, part of 23-mile Allumette Island
can be seen. This probably was a stopover
point for Pere Marquette and trader Louis
Joliet, co-explorers of the Mississippi, Ohio,
Arkansas, Illinois and Chicago Rivers.
Pembroke, 13,000, the county town of
Renfrew, turns out lumber products, furniture and electrical appliances.
Wilder country betokens good hunting and
fishing. Lumbering is in evidence along the
line, and, evidence of hydroelectric development of the upper Ottawa, track diversion
was carried out to permit damming of the
river to generate 480,000 H.P. at Des Joachims. To the right, between mileages 26.5
and 32, the former track is visible at low
water.  Another diversion is visible  at  50.5.
BESIDE LAKE ^<**«X^
NI PISSING   ^^*,
The Canadian Pacific line, following the
route of the explorers, leaves the Ottawa
Valley at Mattawa, a trading post since 1784,
and heads towards Lake Nipissing.
Three hundred and fifty years ago Champlain, Radisson, Brebeuf, Lallemant, Nicolet,
Joliet, Brule, Duluth, LaSalle, La Verendrye,
Marquette, and their un-remembered companions turned due west at Mattawa, paddled
laboriously up the Mattawan River, and made
their way to Lake Nipissing, the French River
and Georgian Bay by lake-chains and portages. Some went west via Lake Huron and
Lake Superior, others south by Lakes Huron
and Michigan.
Their route, in general, is yours — a few
miles south of the lake and river chain.
Today's scenery in this game-filled country
is little changed. In Earl's Lake, mileage
74.5, and the lakes at mileages 77 and 79,
beaver dams and lodges attest to the availability of food. Trout are caught in the
Amable du Fond River, mileage 83. Between
Rutherglen and Bonfield, a glimpse can be
caught — at mileage 94 — of Lake Talon,
part of the early canoe route.
To the right, mileage 98, Bonfield Falls
are visible. Half a mile farther on, at left,
Lake Nosbonsing is fished for bass, pickerel
and maskinonge.
Near Corbeil, noted for the birth of the
Dionne Quintuplets, an arm of Lake Nipissing, known as South Bay, leads by inference
to the naming of the city of North Bay,
population 19,900, a stopping place for
Champlain in 1615. Market for 120,000
acres of general farming land, this busy
manufacturing and trading centre is headquarters of the Algoma District of the
Canadian Pacific Railway, and the provincial-
ly-owned Ontario Northland Railway — connection for Hudson's Bay.
Due south, across Lake Nipissing, the
French River forms a natural water gateway
to Georgian Bay and today, many holiday-
makers are as familiar with the rapids and
portages as were the early traders, missionaries and explorers. From "dome" cars,
the lake is visible as far west as Beaucage.
Lumber, pulp and fishing are mainstays of
the economy of this part of Ontario. Sturgeon
Falls, named for the rapids on the Big
Sturgeon River just west of the station, is
favoured by sports fishermen. Bear Creek is
crossed at mileage 39, and Stag Creek at
41.5. Other fishing waters in the area are
found in the North Veuve River, crossed five
times between mileages 57.4 and 58.6. The
Wanapitei River is bridged at 67.3. Coniston,
gives a clue to the mineral wealth of the
surrounding country. Here a matte smelter,
four blast-type furnaces, a concentrator and
sintering plant support a population of 2,425.
yJi*r TH€ GREAT LAKES
The mineral basis for Sudbury's population of 60,239 is evident in the surrounding
country. Copper ore was discovered whert the
Canadian Pacific line was built in 1883 and
Sudbury's prosperity began. Today, nickel
leads the diversified industrial activities.
At mileage 81.5 both sides of the track
show evidence of mining and smelting. Windy
Lake is seen to the left at mileage 104.5. At
Cartier, the Cartier and Nemegos sub-divisions join. The eastern edge of the Great
Lakes Forest Region is roughly defined hereabouts. You will see many evidences of
lumbering in such waters as Spanish River,
mileage 17.5, and Pogamasing River, crossed
at mileage 25. Metagama is noted for hunting
and fishing; Biscotasing, for tourist camps
and a flying base of the Ontario Forestry
Service.
WOMAN RIVER
SULTAN
RIDOUT
K0RMAK
KINOGAMA
NEMEGOS
CHAPLEAU
NICHOLSON
BOLKOW
DALTON
MISSANABIE
AMY0T
WHITE RIVER
REGAN
MOBERT
HEML0
HERON BAY
MARATHON
ANGLER
C0LDWELL
NEYS
JACK FISH
TERRACE BAY
SCHREIBER
ROSSPORT
NIPIGON
RED ROCK
HURKETT
DORION
0UIMET
PEARL
LOON
MACKENZIE
PORT ARTHUR
FORT WILLIAM
WEST FT. WILLIAM
MURILL0
KAMINISTIQUIA
FINMARK
BUDA
RAITH
SAVANNE
UPSALA
NIBLOCK
ENGLISH RIVER
MARTIN
BONHEUR
IGNACE
0SAQUAN
RALEIGH
TACHE
DYMENT
DINORWIC
WABIG00N
BARCLAY
DRYDEN
0XDRIFT
MINNITAKI
EAGLE RIVER
GUNNE
VERMILION BAY
EDISON
PINE
HAWK LAKE
SC0VIL
MARGACH
KENORA
KEEWATIN
LACLU
BUSTEED
LOWTHER
INGOLF
TELFORD
RENNIE
DARWIN
WHITEMOUTH
SHELLEY
JULIUS
MOLSON
LYDIATT
CLOVERLEAF
HAZELRIDGE
OAKBANK
N. TRANSCONA
WINNIPEG
BERGEN
ROSSER
MEADOWS
MARQUETTE
REABURN
POPLAR POINT
HIGH   BLUFF
PORTAGE
LA PRAIRIE
BURNSIDE
BAGOT
MACGREGOR
AUSTIN
SIDNEY
MELBOURNE
CARBERRY
HUGHES
DOUGLAS
CHATER
BRANDON
KEMNAY
ALEXANDER
GRISWOLD
OAK LAKE
ROUTLEDGE
VIRDEN
HARGRAVE
KIRKELLA
FLEMING
MOOSOMIN
RED JACKET
WAPELLA
BURROWS
WHITEW00D
PERCIVAL
BROADVIEW
OAKSHELA
GRENFELL
SUMMERBERRY
WOLSELEY
SINTALUTA
INDIAN HEAD
QU'APPELLE
McLEAN
BALG0NIE
PILOT BUTTE
REGINA
Rivers and lakes too numerous for naming
feed the stands of jack pine, tamarack, hemlock, balsam, fir, spruce, maple, oak, birch,
elm, ash and hazel that abound. Between
mileages 99 and 120, the track crosses the
Ridout, Kinogama, Apiskanagama and Neme-
gosanda rivers. North of Nemegos, claims
have been staked for titanium and iron.
Chapleau, population 3,936, is district
headquarters of the Ontario Departments of
Lands and Forests and Game and Fisheries
as well as the junction of the Nemegos and
White River Sub-divisions.
Missanabie, Indian name for "big water"
links us with North America's early history
again. This point was a stop on the water
route from James Bay to Lake Superior.
Another crossing, this time of a modern
route, occurs at Franz, junction of the Canadian Pacific with the Algoma Central and
Hudson Bay Railway.
West of Amyot, tourist centre for the
district, Lake Negwazu parallels the track for
miles on the left. Fast-flowing water is noted
throughout this part of the forest. Examples
are the White River, bridged at mileages
117.6 and 129.2, and the Pickerel River,
crossed at 122.6, the former lends its name
to the meeting place of the White River and
Heron Bay Sub-divisions.
LAK€ superioi
NORTH S«OR€
Pulpwood becomes king as your "Scenic
Dome" moves westward towards Lake Superior. Regan, and Mobert—noted for Hudson's
Bay Post and Ojibway Indian settlement —
are supply centres. The White River is
crossed at mileage 24.7 and between mileages
32.9 and 40.5 the Cedar River, Cedar Lake
on the right, Cedar Creek, Cache Creek and
Cache Lake are sighted.
Literally "as old as the hills" the rocky
north shore of Lake Sviperior is, geologically,
almost the oldest land in the world. This edge
of the Pre-Cambrian Shield is comparatively
young in recorded history — less than 350
years. The bold indentations of the coast
were first observed by explorers in the early
17th century who made their way westward
by canoe.
Today the "North Shore" has an economic
significance Pere Heron and his contemporaries could not have imagined. At Hemlo
150,000 cords of pulpwood, floated down
the Little Black River, are barked and sped
by flume, seen from the left windows of
your "Scenic Dome", to Heron Bay harbour.
Just west of Heron Bay station, mileage
56.4, is your first sight of the largest body of
fresh water in the world, Lake Superior. At
Marathon, population 3,000, 325 tons of
sulphate are prodviced every day. You have a
wonderful view of the rocky, indented coastline marked by white breakers. Between
Coldwell and Jack Fish, Lake Superior reaches
endlessly southward, limitless as an ocean.
At mileage 81, 90 and 94.8, the Little Pic,
Prairie and Steel rivers enter the bay. A
great horseshoe curve takes the train around
Jack Fish Bay. By day or night it is a
magnificent sight, as is a miniature curve
within the next two miles.
Terrace, another new development, population 1597, centres around a 325-ton paper
mill. The Aguasabon River is crossed at
mileage 110.5 and at 112.8 an Ontario Hydro-
Electric Power Commission plant generates
53,000 h.p.
From Schreiber, junction of the Heron
Bay and Nipigon svib-divisions, the track
occasionally leaves the North Shore to shortcut across promontories. Pays Plat Bay, Crow
Point, Gravel Bay, Rainboth Point, Mountain
Bay, and Grant Point all face south to Isle
Saint Ignace, site of an early mission in
Nipigon Bay. Jack Pine River is bridged at
mileage 45.4, Kama Bay at 50, Jackfish
River at 53.5 and Nipigon River at 62.4. An
arm of Nipigon Bay is crossed near mileage
65. Red Rock, named for the local stone,
turns out 800 tons of pulp board and paper
daily. Across a 15-mile peninsula Lake Superior is seen again. The Wolf, Coldwater, and
Pearl rivers are bridged at mileages 83, 84
and 96.3. Loon Lake is the station for Sibley
Provincial Park which includes the craggy
promontory, "The Sleeping Giant", one of
the guardians of Thunder Bay, which is first
sighted at mileage 123.
Port Arthur and Fort William, known as
"The Lakehead" ports handle more than
2500 ships of around 7,000,000 tons a year.
Huge grain elevators and many factories
support a combined population of 66,000.
Fort William, at the mouth of the Kami-
nistiquia River, connects the Nipigon and
Kaministiquia sub-divisions. Here your watch
should be retarded one hour to Central
Standard Time.
(.4 VERENDRYE S
-^TRAIfc—
Pierre Gaultier de Varennes, Sieur de la
Verendrye, early in the 18th century, accompanied by his sons Jean, Pierre, Louis
and Francois, made his way from a post built
by earlier explorers near the mouth of the
Kaministiquia River in 1678 through the
Lake of the Woods country to the western
plains. The trail he blazed was followed in
turn by traders of the North West Company,
circa 1801, Lord Selkirk and his settlers,
Colonel Wolseley and other illustrious men.
The Matawan River is bridged at mileages
23.4 and 27.5, and near 48.5 several tributaries of the Oskondaga are crossed. McGhie
Lake lies, left, at 51.5 and the northeast arm
of the Lake of a Thousand Lakes, at mileage
71. Firesteel and Beaver rivers are spanned
at 88.5 and 100 as are the English and
Scotch at 110.9 and 112, and the Gulliver
at 139. Ignace, site of an early mission
founded by the French, is now the junction of
the Kaministiquia and Ignace sub-divisions.
Indian names occur frequently in this
heavily wooded territory; for instance, Osa-
quan, the river bridged at mileage 6, and
Wabigoon — meaning "white flower" —
spanned at 27.7, and crossed again at Dryden, a town of 3000. Beaver Creek, 77.4,
and Eagle Lake to the left between mileages
86 and 89 both have names frequently
repeated across Canada as is Vermilion Bay.
The southern tip of Island Lake is spanned
at mileage 139.
Kenora, which La Verendrye named Rat
Portage because of a mass muskrat crossing
he saw from his fort on the west shore of the
Lake of the Woods, is a popular summer
resort — especially beloved of fishermen.
With a population of 9,103, it is the junction
of the Ignace and Keewatin sub-divisions.
This land of lakes is a natural holiday resort
and from Keewatin tourist expeditions start
out for the Sturgeon River and Black Sturgeon Lakes area. The boundary of Ontario
and Manitoba is crossed at mileage 33.4.
From now on, the central coniferous region
gives way to prairie country. The transition
is marked by a 40 mile marshy fringe between mileage 50 and Molson, where the
Lac du Bonnet sub-division crosses the main
line. At Lydiatt, typical prairie agriculture
is in full swing, practically unbroken until
the suburbs of Winnipeg announce that
great city's imminence. Here La Verendrye
established his Fort Rouge in 1738 but 90
years elapsed before real settlement began
with the erection of Fort Gibraltar by the
North West Company. In 1811 Lord Selkirk
obtained a grant of 100,000 acres of Red
River land for colonization. Fort Garry, a
stone building of the Hudson's Bay Company
is maintained as a relic of early days at
Winnipeg, as is the "Countess of Dufferin",
the earliest locomotive in the west. The Royal
Alexandra Hotel and the Provincial Parliament Buildings are features of modern
Winnipeg at the confluence of the Red and
Assiniboine Rivers.
JfLk^^fC^T** prairies
The Second Prairie Plain, westward from
Winnipeg, was travelled by La Verendrye and
his sons, 1736-43, first whites in the Red
River country. Later, ox-cart trains were succeeded in the 1880's by the Canadian Pacific
Railway to which is directly traced the settlement and development of the great Canadian
west. West of Winnipeg station the great
marshalling yards attest the linking of grain
and transportation. From Stevenson Field,
the international airport, Canadian Pacific
Airlines serve Churchill on Hudson Bay.
To the south is the Assiniboine River,
bearer of the early canoes and later York
boats of the Hudson Bay Company. Portage
La Prairie, population 8,500, where the
Minnedosa sub-division branches off, was
named by La Verendrye who built Fort la
Reine in the 1730's to protect the 15-mile
land route between the Assiniboine River
and Lake Winnipeg, base of the Hayes and
Nelson river routes to Hudson Bay. From
here La Verendrye's sons Pierre and Louis
made their way to the Rocky Mountains,
likely in Wyoming. Pierre, N.D., bears its
explorer's name. The Assiniboine is crossed
at mileage 131.3, on the outskirts of Brandon, a city of 21,214, with an experimental
farm, Indian School, Provincial Exhibition,
College and Hospital. Here the Broadview
sub-division begins.
Crees and Assiniboines once roamed the
acres now being farmed, today many live on
the reservation at Griswold. Oak Lake, southwest of the line, is a tourist resort and
Virden — you can see for yourself — is
adding oil to the economy of the Second
Prairie Plain. Neudorf svib-division connects
at Virden and McAuley at Kirkella. At
mileage 74.7 you cross into Saskatchewan.
At Broadview, watches are set back to Mountain Standard Time and the Indian Head subdivision is entered. Captain John Palliser, a
British surveyor, once classed this country
as "arid". Look at it today, the granary
of the world where hard wheat is raised
on 25,000,000 acres. At Indian Head are
government-operated entomological labora-
tary, experimental farm and forest nursery
station.
Regina, "Queen of the Plains", is a tree-
shaded city of 74,000, built around lovely
Wascana Lake. The Provincial Legislature
and Canadian Pacific's Hotel Saskatchewan
dominate the landscape for miles. Once headquarters of Canada's scarlet-coated Mounted
Police, Regina is now the Dominion training
centre for that proud force.
Pasqua, where the Soo Line from Chicago,
Minneapolis and St. Paul connects with the
Canadian Pacific, is the Indian word for
Prairie. Moose Jaw, where the Swift Current
sub-division starts, with a population of
26,000, is Saskatchewan's third largest city.
The Swordfish Club is one of the few boating
clubs on the Prairies — you can see it, left,
from the "Dome".
Saskatchewan's sloughs interest conservationists and hunters. Alkali lakes, visible to
the south from time to time, yield sodium
sulphate for the nickel and paper industries
of Ontario and Quebec. GRAND COULEE
PENSE
BELLE PLAINE
MADRID
PASQUA
MOOSE JAW
BOHARM
CARON
MORTLACH
PARKBEG
SECRETAN
CHAPLIN
UREN
ERNFOLD
MORSE
HERBERT
RUSH LAKE
WALDECK
AIKINS
SWIFT CURRENT
BEVERLEY
WEBB
ANTELOPE
GULL LAKE
CARMICHAEL
TOMKINS
SIDEWOOD
PIAPOT
CROSS
CARDELL
MAPLE CREEK
KINCORTH
HATTON
WALSH
IRVINE
PASHLEY
DUNMORE
MEDICINE HAT
REDCLIFF
BOWELL
SUFFIELD
ALDERSON
TILLEY
BROOKS
CASSILS
LATHOM
BASSANO
CROWFOOT
CLUNY
GLEICHEN
STRANGMUIR
CARSELAND
DALEMEAD
INDUS
SHEPARD
OGDEN
CALGARY
BEARSPAW
GLENBOW
COCHRANE
RADNOR
MORLEY
SEEBE
KANANASKIS
EXSHAW
CANMORE
BANFF
CASTLE MOUNTAIN
LAKE LOUISE
STEPHEN
HECTOR
FIELD
LEANCHOIL
GOLDEN
MOBERLY
Swift Current Creek, spanned at mileage
110, is a tributary of the South Saskatchewan
River. The steady rise of the prairies is
notable at Swift Current, 2,432 feet above
sea-level, a city of 8,000. Maple Creek
sub-division takes our train over for a run
through still rising country. Beverley and
Webb bound a Canada Goose flyway for
spring and fall migration. There is more
water to be seen now. The Gull and Antelope
rivers are spanned at Gull Lake and, to the
left, Whitegull Lake stretches between mileages 39 and 40. Wild fowl are common
around lakes at 75.5 and 80.4. Maple Creek
town's population is 2,500. Its name is for
the water crossed at mileage 84.9. Hatton,
where the like-named sub-division starts, is
the farthest west station in Saskatchewan.
The Alberta boundary lies between here and
Walsh, Alta. Box Elder Creek marks mileage
112 and between Mackay Creek and Irvine
four more are bridged. Seven Persons Creek
at 146.2 commemorates the massacre many
years ago of seven Blackfoot Indians by
Assiniboines.
Medicine Hat, population 18,285, famed
for its natural gas, pottery and cut flowers,
marks the confluence of Ross and Seven
Persons Creeks, with the South Saskatchewan
River. The Canadian Pacific route through
the southern Rockies via the Crowsnest Pass
and Coquihalla Canyon, branches off to the
south and the Brooks sub-division takes over
ovir main line train.
For many of the 175.8 miles between
Medicine Hat and Calgary, the economy is
one of cereal grains grown on irrigated land.
Tilley is the shipping point for 25,000 irrigated acres and Brooks, population 2,500,
is headquarters of the Eastern Irrigation
District of 167,000 acres. At Cassils, where
4,200 acres are irrigated, the Cassils subdivision branches off. There are lakes at
mileage 76 and 87.6 and an irrigation canal
is bridged at 96.6. At Bassano, the Irricana
and Bassano sub-divisions touch the main line
and Gleichen serves 12,000 irrigated acres.
Irrigation was first recorded in 1879 and
by the time the Canadian Pacific transcontinental line was completed, 79,000 acres
were under irrigation. By 1917, when the
Eastern and Western Irrigation Districts
were formed, the Canadian Pacific — pioneer
in those areas — had spent more than
$25,000,000 on irrigation. Indus was appropriately named for the great river that
irrigates much of Pakistan. At Shepard , the
Strathmore sub-division joins the main line.
n   RANGE
COUNTRY
South and ahead now the rising foothills
and beyond them the taller peaks of the
Rockies appear. In the foreground, Calgary's
outskirts are marked by the Canadian Pacific
"Ogden" Shops. Affectionately referred to as
"Cowtown", "Foot-hills City" and, latterly,
"Oil City", Calgary justifies all three names.
It was founded as a North West Mounted
Police post, Fort Brisebois, in 1875 at the
junction of Nose Creek with the Bow and
Elbow rivers. Oil "strikes" in the vicinity in
recent years have added importance to this
city of 127,001 people who annually celebrate the "Calgary Stampede", an outstanding Rodeo. A Canadian Pacific hotel, The
Palliser, pinpoints the downtown area. Calgary is the meeting point of the Brooks and
Laggan sub-divisions.
West of Calgary, the suburban growth of
recent years impinges on the range lands for
a few miles, but by the time the Bow River
is crossed at mileage 7.7, the sight of grazing
cattle is more frequent. Less picturesque
now that "levis" are eastern vacation garb,
the cowboy still looks a part of his horse and
the cattle-covered grazing land sprawls on
the slopes of the rising foothills.
The Bow River, leading the Canadian
Pacific towards the passes that pierce the
Rockies, swings under the train to the right
at mileage 25.7. Morley, site of the Stoney
Indian reservation, has a population of 700
Indians and 30 whites, its Indian School
has 10 teachers for the 60 pupils. The
Stoneys, who take part each year in Banff's
"Indian Days" celebrations, work traditional
designs in leather, quills and beads, entering
their designs for prizes. Braves compete in
riding, roping and other skills.
Just where the foothills end and the mountains begin is for you to decide. The whole
contour of the land changes as your "Scenic
Dome" follows the sleek diesel locomotives
up the winding valley. At mileage 51.8 the
Kananaskis River joins the Bow — Ozada,
the station name, from the Indian, means
"forks of the river". Now, on the left, the
Bow widens into Lac des Arcs where mallard
and Canada  Geese  are seasonally visible.
Near mileage 62, on the steep slopes of the
shoulder of the Fairholme Range on the
right, sharp eyes may detect bighorn sheep.
This geological formation is locally known
as "The Gap" and here, definitely, the term
"foothills" no longer applies.
Now, ahead and to either side, the full
glory of the Canadian Rockies unfolds. To
the left, the triple-peaked Three Sisters pose
for cameras and to the right near mileage 71,
the eastern entrance to Banff National Park
straddles the highway. The Park encloses
2500 square miles in which birds, animals,
wild flowers and trees are protected by the
Government of Canada.
ROCKIES^^^Sfe^**^
Look ail around you at mileage 72. Carrot
Creek, crossed at this point, flows from the
Fairholme range on the right, where also
are seen Mounts Peechee (9615 feet),
Girouard (9875) and Inglismaldie (9715).
To the left (south) is Mount Rundle (9665),
Cascade Creek, its course traceable to 9,826-
foot Cascade Mountain, right, parallels the
line until it turns sharply south to join
the Bow.
Banff, winter population 2,500, is a town
of 8,000 in the summer. Dominated by Banff
Springs Hotel, which overlooks the valleys
enclosed by Sulphur, Tunnel and Rundle
Mountains, is the park headquarters. Movies,
hospital, hotels, boarding houses, and tourist
bungalows provide vari-priced accommodation. The Banff* Springs golf covirse, besides
being spectacular scenically, is of championship quality.
Look left at mileage 82 for the turrets of
Banff Springs Hotel showing above the pointed lodge-pole pines. To the right the Vermilion Lakes usually harbour feeding moose.
Westward, the meadows that floor the Bow
Valley between Banff* and Lake Louise often
show you deer and elk. Mount Norquay, to
the right, has a scenic ski-lift, popular the
year round, to the left you see the Bourgeau
Range. In the distance, right from mileage
83, is Mount Edith (8,370) — nearer, look
up the cliff for a huge cave, "Hole in the
Wall". Mount Bourgeau (9,517) in the
distance, Massive (7,990') and Pilot Mountain (9,680') are on your left from mileage
93. Ahead and to the right the battlements of
Mount Eisenhower loom into view. Eight
miles long and 9030 feet at its highest peak,
this mammoth upthrust was renamed in 1946
as a tribute to the world war service of the
34th President of the United States. The
tall, cloud-wreathed peak south of mileage
109 is 10,309-foot Storm Mountain.
Four miles south of mileage 112, Mount
Temple towers 11,626 feet, followed by
Protection, Redoubt, Ptarmigan, Saddle.
Sheol, Haddo, Aberdeen, Mount Victoria and
Fairview. Lake Louise station, named for the
glacier-fed lake 1000 feet above, leads to
Chateau Lake Louise, Moraine Lake Lodge
in the Valley of the Ten Peaks to the south,
and the Columbia Icefield 85 miles by motor
road to the north. A Canadian Pacific mountain resort, Chateau Lake Louise faces one
of the world's most beautiful scenic gems,
Victoria Glacier and Lake Louise.
You're "on top of the world" at mileage
121. Look left for the sign, "The Great
Divide". This boundary of Alberta and
British Columbia, one mile and 52 feet
above sea level, marks the peak of the watershed. Here a small brook divides into two
streams that lead: to the Pacific via the
Kicking Horse River, and the Columbia; to
the Atlantic by way of the Bow and— eventually — Hudson Bay. Now comes the Kicking Horse Pass, Summit and Sink Lakes
mark its entrance. Wapta Lake, on the right
at Hector station, reflects Mount Bosworth
and Paget Peak to the north.
THE SPIRAL _      „^7
TUNNELS      f—S*S
Six miles west, as the crow flies, but
eleven and a half miles by train, and 1,265'
downhill lies Field. From mileage 126, Vanguard Peak, Cathedral Crags (10,071') on
the south, balance Mount Ogden and the lush
Yoho Valley to the north. The difference
between crow flight and railway mileage becomes apparent as the track, twice reversing
by means of the famous Spiral Tunnels,
descends 105.7' in less than a mile. Between
mileage 127 and 127.5 to the north of the
track and below it can be seen the entrance
and exit of the second tunnel from which the
track continues westward. At mileage 129.1,
the train enters the first spiral tunnel, under
Cathedral Mountain (10,454') and in three-
fifths of a mile turns almost a complete circle
to emerge, headed northeast, 55.7' lower.
The track continues downgrade, crossing
at mileage 130.6 the fast-running Kicking
Horse River, to mileage 131.3 wkcn efllfefefeei
another circle is made in close to 1,000 yards
with the track headed westward again. An
upward look to the left shows the track and
tunnel entrance at 129.1. Northward is a
closer view of the Yoho Valley and to the
south Mount Stephen (10,485); below, the
Kicking Horse River, already a sizable
stream, makes its way along the pass and, to
the north, Mount Field (8,645) and Mount
Wapta (9,106) guard the Yoho Valley entrance. Beyond them are Burgess Pass and
Mount Burgess (8,463').
The upper spiral tunnel, 3,255' long,
curves 288 degrees; the lower, 2,922', its
curvature, 226 degrees and it emerges 50.4'
below its entrance. At mileage 133.6, across
the river, is Mount Field. Field, in Yoho
National Park, junction of the Laggan and
Mountain Sub-divisions, is also the junction
of the Mountain and Pacific Time Zones.
Westbound travellers retard their watches
one hour. Across the river, a motor road
follows the Emerald River valley to Emerald
Lake, site of rustic Emerald Lake Chalet, a
Canadian Pacific resort.
FORDE
DONALD
BEAVERMOUTH
ROGERS
STONEY CREEK
ALBERT CANYON
TWIN BUTTE
GREELY
REVELSTOKE
THREE VALLEY
TAFT
CRAIGELLACHIE
MALAKWA
CAMBIE
S0LSQUA
SICAMOUS
CANOE
SALMON ARM
TAPPEN
CARLIN
NOTCH HILL
ELSON
SQUILAX
CHASE
SHUSWAP
PRITCHARD
MONTE CREEK
KAMLOOPS
TRANQUILLE
CHERRY CREEK
SAVONA
WALHACHIN
SEMLIN
ASHCR0FT
BASQUE
SPATSUM
TOKETIC
SPENCE'S BRIDGE
DRYNOCH
THOMPSON
GLADWIN
LYTTON
CISCO
KANAKA
KEEFERS
CHAUMOX
NORTH BEND
CHINA BAR
SPUZZUM
YALE
CHOATE
HAIG
0DLUM
KATZ
RUBY CREEK
WALEACH
AGASSIZ
HARRISON MILLS
DEROCHE
NICOMEN
DEWDNEY
HATZIC
MISSION CITY
SILVERDALE
RUSKIN
WHONOCK
ALBION
HANEY
PORT HAMMOND
PITT MEADOWS
COQUITLAM
PORT MOODY
BARNET
VANCOUVER
Canada's only Dome route parallels the
Kicking Horse River for 35 miles to Golden.
Mount Dennis and Mount Duchesnay are on
the left, to the right Otterhead Creek and the
Amiskwi River form a broad, divided valley.
Look to the left at mileage 13 for 10,881-
foot Mount Vaux and beyond to the glacier
between Allan and Hanbury Peaks.
At mileage 15.3 the track tvirns sharply to
skirt the Beaverfoot Range and the river
races into the Lower Kicking Horse Canyon.
Between mileages 21.4 and 33 the track
crosses the canyon five times. It is bridged by
the highway at 26.5. High on the canyon wall
directly left at mileage 30 is the "Old Man
of the Mountain". Soon the canyon widens
into the valley of the Columbia. Golden is
the junction for Lake Windermere subdivision. West of Golden, to the right, is the
village of Edelweiss, built by the Canadian
Pacific for the Swiss guides available foi
mountaineers. The Van Home range on the
right and serrated Dogtooth Mountains on
the left border the valley. At mileage 44.8
the Blaeberry River enters the Columbia
which the railway crosses half a mile west of
Donald. Another picturesque canyon extends
to Beavermouth where that river enters the
Columbia  which swings  northward.
SELKIRKS -^*§BBWv: '
Cupola Mountain, first peak of the Selkirk
Range, is due north as the line crosses the
Beaver River and follows a southwesterly
valley to mileage 67.8, Rogers. Climbing, to
cross the Selkirks, the track follows the
Beaver River, at left, for 18 miles. The lower
slopes of Mount Rogers (10,525') on the
right and the Beaver River valley, downward
to the left, lead to Glacier National Park.
Spectacular white water marks Mountain
Creek, mileage 70.7, Raspberry Creek, 73.7.
Surprise Creek and Stoney Creek, between
mileages 74 and 77, are spanned by truss
bridges, the latter being an arch on a curve
over the rock-strewn bed of the creek 270
feet below.
Ahead, Mount Macdonald rears its 9,482-
foot peak directly across the railway, its top
more than a mile above the track level. The
original Canadian Pacific line climbed laboriously through Rogers Pass, rising 500 feet,
a tortuous route nearly 10 miles long through
four and a half miles of snowsheds. In 1916
the Connaught Tunnel, five miles long, was
driven through the mile-high mountain. Besides saving four and one third miles the
concrete tunnel, 29 feet wide and 21^4 "feet
high, eliminated curves equal to seven circles.
Glacier, western portal of Canada's longest
tunnel, is the station for Glacier National
Park, 521 square miles in area. The track
follows the foaming Illecilewaet River most
of the way to Revelstoke. Right and left of
mileage 88 are Cougar Mountain and Ross
Peak, and farther south, Mount Green marks
the western boundary of the valley of Flat
Creek, seen from mileage 93.2. Snowsheds
and tunnels between mileages 94 and 96 are
interesting, and the 10 crossings of the Illecilewaet River between Glacier and Revelstoke.
On the right between mileages 102-3 is
spectacular Albert Canyon. Albert Snowfield
lies to the south, its tip may be seen, left,
near mileage 109, on the east slope of Albert
Peak (9,998). Northward is Mount Revelstoke National Park. After a last crossing at
mileage 122.3 the Illecilewaet pours through
rocky Box Canyon. Revelstoke, junction of
the Mountain, Shuswap and Arrow Lake subdivisions, population 3500, is the station for
the national park.
Nearly a mile west of the station a gateway,
to the right, is the entrance to Revelstoke
National Park, and at mileage 1.7 the track
crosses the broad Columbia River. Ahead,
Eagle Pass leads the rails through the
Monashee Range, Mounts Begbie and Mac-
pherson show up to the south and, also on
the left, the Tonkawatla River flows toward
Svimmit Lake which is occasionally obscured
by three short tunnels between mileages 9
and 9.5. Victor Lake is on the right at mileage 10. Three Valley station is named for the
valley and lake to the left.
The Eagle River is crossed at mileage 15.4
— the first of six crossings in 11 miles. Kay
Falls, left near mileage 22, is fed by melting
snow from the Hunter range. On the right
are the Gold and Shuswap Ranges. At 28.3
a simple cairn marks the spot where eastern
and western contractors met when the Canadian Pacific linked Atlantic and Pacific,
November 7, 1885. The Eagle River is bridged five times more between mileages 31.3
and 43.8, and at 44.4 the junction of the
Mara and Shuswap Lakes is crossed.
«£^S^-^-^   THOMPSON
Sicamous, junction with the Okanagan
sub-division, is famous for its wild ducks.
Watch them come to the shore for bread-
crusts — they'll cluster near the dining-room
car. Shuswap Lake almost surrounds Bastion
and Vella Mountains, on the right, Salmon
Arm is the branch paralleled by the railway.
Salmon Arm, population 2,000, is a noted
fruit-packing and shipping centre. In this
country Douglas fir, Ponderosa pine and lodge-
pole pine is interspersed with grass lands.
The marshy fringes of the lake shelter and
feed Great Blue Heron and Canada Geese as
well as the more commonplace wild duck.
The Salmon River is bridged at mileage 64.8,
then passes between Mount Hilliam, Black
and Squilax Mountains on the left, and Notch
Hill to the north.
At mileage 87.5 the lake narrows into
Little Shuswap Lake and, abreast of the
Ptarmigan Hills, to the south, follows the
South Thompson River, discovered by Simon
Fraser, who named it in honour of his fellow North West Company explorer, David
Thompson. Thompson, who never saw the
streams named for him, was the first man to
trace the Columbia from its source to its
mouth, in 1808 — three years after the
Lewis and Clark party saw the lower reaches,
Kamloops, begun as a Hudson Bay Company post in 1812 is now a city of 14,000.
The Shuswap and Thompson sub-divisions
meet here. The city's beginning was Fort
Thompson, built by The North West Company in 1813. The North Thompson, flowing
from almost true North, joins the south
branch at Kamloops to flow westward as The
Thompson, which widens near mileage 4 into
Kamloops Lake.
Tranquille, named for an early Indian
chief of gentle nature, is best known for
James Huston's discovery of gold in 1856
or 57 — the start of the Cariboo gold rush.
Between mileages  8.5  and  13.8 six tunnels
— five of them in \XA miles — take the
line through the glacier-scarred rock.
Black Canyon, mileage 52.5, is shadowed
by Glossy Mountain, to the south, a 6,500-
foot peak. The Nicola River is spanned at
mileage 71 and at Spence's Bridge the line
is met by Merritt sub-division. As the Thompson's banks close in river and railway seek
the lowest levels and at mileage 87.5, the
river roars and boils through "The Jaws of
Death" towards (91) The Painted Canyon.
Across the river from mileage 93.5 Botanic
Crag, a mottled granite crest, overhangs the
gorge. The right bank of the river now flattens to a narrow plateau and, across from
mileage 95, merges with the Fraser. At
Lytton, Simon Fraser found a well-established
native community apparently centuries old.
The present town had its heyday in the
Cariboo gold rush days. Note the difference
of the two waters as they join, the Thompson
— filtered by lakes — clear, the Fraser,
murky with silt its speed has carried down.
Near Cisco the line crosses to the right bank
of the Fraser. Three tunnels pierce the rock
between mileages 101.2 and 102.7.
The canyon has widened into benchlands
and gardens and orchards, some in Indian
Reservations, are much more common than
at higher levels — Chaumox is 568 feet
above sea level. North Bend, 24th and last
sub-division between Montreal and Vancouver, a railway town noted for its rich foliage
and flowers, begins the Cascade sub-division.
From North Bend to Vancouver the track,
still hemmed between mountains, has a
gradient of less than four feet in a mile.
Starkly beautiful, the Fraser Canyon is as
memorable as its stark history. The foaming
Scuzzy River is spanned at mileage 5.5. Don't
miss, between mileages 7.4 and 8, "Hell's
Gate", and "The Devil's Wash Basin" with
its spinning whirlpool. West of Spuzzum, at
15.5, a steel and concrete bridge spans the
Fraser where the first suspension bridge west
of the Rockies was built years ago by
Joseph Trutch.
The giant rock, mid-river at mileage 23.5,
shows why Simon Fraser had to claw his way
down river by a series of Indian-built bridges.
Yale, once head of navigation, was the start
of The Cariboo Road, built 1862-5 by order
of Governor James Douglas, over which
thousands of miners and millions in gold
travelled 400 miles to the Cariboo field.
At Odium the Fraser and Coquihalla
Canyons debouch at the rail junction of the
Banff-Lake Louise and Coquihalla Canyon —
Crowsnest Pass Canadian Pacific routes.
Now, except for snow-capped Mount Baker
40 miles to the south in the State of
Washington, the mountains are behind you.
The Fraser, a wide and placid river, makes
its way through the lush, alluvial valley.
Wild roses climb on any convenient hold.
Garnets found at Ruby Creek gave that
station its name. Sawmills and fruit packing
plants gather trucks around them. Agassiz,
population 2,600, is the station for Harrison
Hot Springs, and site of a government experimental farm. Ferries connect the dairying Chilliwack Valley.
Mission City, junction with the Mission
sub-division, serves a bvisy fruit and dairy
country. From here Mount Baker is 40 miles
due south. At Port Hammond the line leaves
the Fraser, crosses the Pitt River — tidewater ! The Coquitlam River is crossed at
mileage 112.3. Coquitlam, population 3,000,
is almost a Vancouver sviburb. To the right,
mileage 115 marks Port Moody — original
terminus of the Canadian Pacific, the world's
first transcontinental railway. Busy Burrard
Inlet on the right, harbours deep-sea fishing
craft, tankers, freighters, tugs. Its shores hold
drying nets, shacks, piers, docks and factories
— Vancouver!
Photography Through The Tinted Glass Scenic Dome
The green tint acts as a filter.    Increase exposure one stop for black^and white.    Use colo
compensating filter CC 30 R for colour films.    Meter readings are safest.
WESTWARD

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