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Eastward : seeing Canada from Canadian Pacific scenic domes Canadian Pacific Railway Company 1955

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 EASTWARD
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g)C/M£S EASTWARD
Across Canada by Caiuxcfiuut uaa^ic
The World's Longest "Dome" Route
VANCOUVER
BARNET
PORT MOODY
COQUITLAM
PITT MEADOWS
PORT HAMMOND
HANEY
ALBION
WHONOCK
RUSKIN
SILVEROALE
MISSION CITY
HATZIC
DEWDNEY
NICOMEN
DEROCHE
HARRISON MILLS
AGASSIZ
WALEACH
RUBY CREEK
L
KATZ
ODLUM
HAIG
CHOATE
YALE
SPUZZUM
CHINA BAR
NORTH BEND
CHAUMOX
KEEFERS
KANAKA
CISCO
LYTTON
GLADWIN
THOMPSON
DRYNOCH
SPENCE'S BRIDGE
TOKETIC
SPATSUM
BASQUE
ASHCROFT
SEMLIN
WALHACHIN
SAVONA
CHERRY CREEK
TRANQUILLE
KAMLOOPS
MONTE CREEK
PRITCHARD
SHUSWAP
CHASE
SQUILAX
ELSON
NOTCH HILL
CARLIN
TAPPEN
SALMON ARM
CANOE
SICAMOUS
SOLSQUA
CAMBIE
MALAKWA
CRAIGELLACHIE
TAFT
THREE VALLEY
REVELSTOKE
GREELY
TWIN BUTTE
ALBERT CANYON
GLACIER
STONEY CREEK
ROGERS
BEAVERMOUTH
DONALD
Geographically and historically the Canadian Pacific
main transcontinental line is unique. From tidewater
to tidewater, the world's longest — and Canada's only
— "dome" ride is packed with thrills. Between the
Pacific and the Rockies and between the Great Plains
and the east you retrace the trail of the famous
explorers who opened the great North American continent three and a half centuries ago and from the
luxurious comfort of your all-stainless-steel train trace
the course of the rushing rivers, mighty lakes and
dangerous rapids they conquered.
The scenic grandeur of the Canadian Rockies first
hurst upon Scots whose names live in the mighty
rivers that parallel your ultra-modern journey. Across
the prairies, penetrated first by the French, your view
encompasses the very trails marked by early expeditions and hardened by the creaking wheels of covered
These great men of the past lead you, in the air-
conditioned comfort of a high-level "Scenic Dome",
through forests and lake-lands; the rich Pre-Cambrian
Shield; gentle farm-lands, by inland seas, between
great wheatfields, beside roaring streams through the
mountain passes. In the wake of the explorers you see,
through the picture windows on four sides of you,
The Fraser Valley, the Rockies, Lake Louise, Banff,
Lake of the Woods, Lake Superior, French River,
Muskoka, the pleasure-lands of the Gatineau; mines,
mills, factories, great cities — Vancouver, Calgary,
Medicine Hat, Moose Jaw, Regina, Brandon, Winnipeg, Fort William-Port Arthur, Sudbury, North Bay,
Ottawa.
Your swift journey across a continent will be filled
with memories you will want to treasure. This brief
guide has been prepared to help you remember.
Waggons.
For operating reasons each sub-division through which the only "Dome" route in Canada passes, numbers
its mileage afresh from east to west. Mileage boards on telegraph poles mark each mile. From your comfortable
seat in one of the Scenic-Domes of "The Canadian" or "The Dominion", diesel-drawn from the start to the
finish, you will be able to identify each point of interest by noting the nearest mileage board quoted in the
context below.
FORDE
MOBERLY
GOLDEN
LEANCHOIL
FIELD
^*3r
Busy Burrard Inlet on the left, harbours
deep-sea fishing craft, tankers, freighters,
tugs. To the left, mileage 115 marks Port
Moody — original terminus of the Canadian
Pacific, the world's first transcontinental
railway. The Coquitlam River is crossed at
mileage 112.3. Coquitlam, population 3,000,
is almost a Vancouver suburb. At Port
Hammond the line crosses the Pitt River,
meets the Fraser. Mission City, junction with
the Mission sub-division, serves a busy fruit
and dairy country. From here Mount Baker
is 40 miles due south.
Wild roses climb on any convenient hold.
Garnets found at Ruby Creek gave that
station its name. Sawmills and fruit packing
plants gather trucks around them. Agassiz,
population 2,600, is the station for Harrison
Hot Springs, and site of a government experimental farm. Ferries connect the dairying Chilliwack Valley. The Fraser, a wide
and placid river, makes its way through the
lush, alluvial valley.
At Odium the Fraser and Coquihalla
Canyons debouch at the rail junction of the
Banff-Lake Louise and Coquihalla Canyon —
Crowsnest Pass Canadian Pacific routes.
The giant rock, mid-river at mileage 23.5,
shows why Simon Fraser had to claw his way
down river by a series of Indian-built bridges.
Yale, once head of navigation, was the start
of The Cariboo Road, built 1862-5 by order
of Governor James Douglas, over which
thousands of miners and millions in gold
travelled 400 miles to the Cariboo field.
West of Spuzzum, at 15.5, a steel and
concrete bridge spans the Fraser where the
first suspension bridge west of the Rockies
was built years ago by Joseph Trutch. Don't
miss, between mileages 8 and 7.4, "Hell's
Gate", and "The Devil's Wash Basin" with
its spinning whirlpool. From Vancouver
to North Bend the track, still hemmed between mountains, has a gradient of less than
four feet in a mile. Starkly beautiful, the
Fraser Canyon is as memorable as its stark
history. The foaming Scuzzy River is spanned
at mileage 5.5.
The canyon has widened into benchlands
and gardens. Orchards, some in Indian
Reservations, are much more common than
at higher levels — Chaumox is 568 feet
above sea level. North Bend, first of 24
sub-divisions between Vancouver and Montreal, a railway town noted for its rich foliage
and  flowers,  begins  the Thompson  "Sub".
-I*.: THOMPSON
Near Cisco the line crosses to the left
bank of the Fraser. Three tunnels pierce the
rock between mileages 102.7 and 101.2. At
Lytton, Simon Fraser found a well-established
native community apparently centuries old.
The present town had its heyday in the
Cariboo gold rush days. Note the difference
of the two waters as they join, the Thompson
— filtered by lakes — clear, the Fraser,
murky with silt its speed has carried down.
The right bank of the river now flattens to
a narrow plateau and, across from mileage
95, merges with the^JFraser. Across the river
from mileage 93.5 Botanie Crag, a mottled
granite crest, overhangs the gorge. At mileage 91 The Painted Canyon leads the river
to the hissing "Jaws of Death". The rails
climb higher toward Spence's Bridge to meet
the Merritt sub-division. The Nicola River is
crossed at mileage 71. South, near mileage
54, is 6500-foot Glossy Mountain, followed
at 52.5 by Black Canyon.
Between mileages 13.8 and 8.5 six tunnels
— five of them in l1/^ miles — take the
line through the glacier-scarred rock. Tran-
quille, named for an early Indian chief of
gentle nature, is best known for James
Huston's discovery of gold in 1856 or 57 —
the start of the Cariboo gold rush.
Kamloops, begun as a Hudson Bay Company post in 1812 is now a city of 14,000.
The Thompson and Shuswap sub-divisions
meet here. The city's beginning was Fort
Thompson, built by The North West Company in 1813. The North Thompson, flowing
from almost true North, joins the south
branch at Kamloops to flow westward as The
Thompson, which widens near mileage 4 into
Kamloops Lake.
The South Thompson River was named by
Simon Fraser in honour of his fellow North
West Company explorer, David Thompson.
Thompson, who never saw the streams named
for him, was the first man to trace the
Columbia from its source to its mouth, in
1808 — three years after the Lewis and
Clark party saw the lower reaches. Gentler
country and the widening river herald the
lakes, shadowed on the right by the Ptarmigan Hills. At mileage 87.5, Shuswap Lake
begins.
The Salmon River is bridged at mileage
64.8, then passes between Mount Hilliam,
Black and Squilax Mountains on the left,
and Notch Hill to the north. Salmon Arm,
population 2,000, is a noted fruit-packing
and shipping centre. In this country Douglas
fir, Ponderosa pine and lodge-pole pine is
interspersed with grass lands. The marshy
fringes of the lake shelter and feed Great
Blue Heron and Canada Geese as well as the
more commonplace wild duck.
Shuswap Lake almost surrounds Bastion
and Vella Mountains on the left, Salmon
Arm is the branch paralleled by the railway.
Sicamous, junction with the Okanagan subdivision, is famous for its wild ducks. Watch
them come to the shore for bread crusts —
they'll cluster near the dining-room car.
Mileage 44.4 is the junction of Shuswap
and Mara Lakes, and you follow the Eagle
River, crossing it five times between mileages 43 and 31. At mileage 28.3 a simple
cairn marks the last spike—driven, November 7th, 1885, when the Canadian Pacific
linked east and west. Melting snow from the
Hunter Range, right, feeds Kay Falls (mileage 22). Last crossing of the Eagle River is
made at mileage 15.4.
Three Valley station is named for the lake
and valley to the right. Victor Lake, at mileage 10, on the left, reflects wooded slopes.
On the right, Summit Lake is occasionally
obscured by three short tunnels between
mileages 9.5 and 9. Now, to the right, Mounts
Macpherson and Bigbie appear and we trace
the Tonkawatla River eastward through Eagle
Pass, gateway from the Monashee Range to
the Columbia Valley. A long bridge takes us
across the mighty Columbia. Ahead and to
the left is Mount Revelstoke. Just past mileage one, look left for the entrance to Mount
Revelstoke National Park. Junction of the
Shuswap and Mountain sub-divisions on the
main line, and the connecting Arrow Lakes
"sub", Revelstoke has a population of 3,500.
The stalwart Selkirk Mountains stand between us and the Rockies. Rocky Box Canyon
is an abrupt exit from the valley as the Illecilewaet River roars westward beneath us at
mileage 122.3. On the left is Mount Revelstoke Park. Albert Snowfield lies to the
south, its tip may be seen, right, near mileage
109, on the east slope of Albert Peak
(9,998'). On the left between mileages
103-2 is spectacular Albert Canyon.
Snowsheds and tunnels between mileages
96 and 94 are interesting, and the 10 crossings of the Illecilewaet River between Revelstoke and Glacier. Glacier, western portal of
Canada's longest tunnel, is the station for
Glacier National Park, 521 square miles in
area. The track followed the foaming Illecilewaet River most of the way from Revelstoke. Left and right of mileage 88 are
Cougar Mountain and Ross Peak, and farther
south, Mount Green marks the western
boundary of the valley of Flat Creek, seen
from mileage 93.2.
Ahead^Mount Macdonald rears its 9,482-
foot peak directly across the railway, its top
more than a mile above the track level. The
original Canadian Pacific line climbed laboriously through Rogers Pass, rising 500 feet,
a tortuous route nearly 10 miles long through
four and a half miles of snowsheds. In 1916
the Connaught Tunnel, five miles long, was
driven through the mile-high mountain. Besides saving four and one third miles the
concrete tunnel, 29 feet wide and 21*4 feet
high, eliminated curves equal to seven circles.
The last pinpoint of light from the western
portal disappears just as the diesels emerge
into the Beaver River Valley at Connaught.
At mileage 77, a spectacular 270-foot waterfall is spanned by a curved bridge, Stoney
Creek. Almost as spectacular are Surprise
Creek (74), Raspberry Creek (73.7) and
Mountain Creek (70.7). To the left is Glacier
National Park and the lower slopes of Mount
Rogers (10,525'). Ending the north-easterly
skirting of the valley at mileage 67.8, Rogers,
the line soon crosses the Beaver River. Due
North is Cupola Mountain, last peak of the
Selkirks and the beginning of the magnificent "Big Bend" of the Columbia, last seen
at Revelstoke.
From Beavermouth, where the Beaver
enters the Columbia River, another picturesque canyon leads eastward to the Rockies.
The Columbia is crossed near Donald and,
at mileage 44.8, is joined by the Blaeberry.
To the left is the Van Horne Range, and
through right-hand windows, the Dogtooth
Mountains. Near mileage 34, look left for
the village of Edelweiss, built by the Canadian Pacific for Swiss gviides available for
mountaineers. Next comes Golden, junction
of the Lake Windermere sub-division, and
busy centre for the Columbia Valley.
Now the valley narrows into the Lower
Kicking Horse Canyon, and high on the
wall, right, at mileage 30 can be seen the
"Old Man of the Mountain". Between mileages 33 and 21.4 the rails bridge the river
five times. At 26.5, both are spanned by a
highway. Skirting the Beaverfoot Range, the
track turns sharply at mileage 15.3.
Look to the right at mileage 13 for 10,881.
foot Mount Vavix and beyond to the glacier
between Allan and Hanbviry Peaks. Mount
Dennis and Mount Duchesnay are on the
right, to the left Otterhead Creek and the
Amiskwi River form a broad, divided valley.
T«€ SPIRAL _       -so
Field, in Yoho National Park, junction of
the Mountain and Laggan Sub-divisions, is
also the junction of the Mountain and Pacific
Time Zones. Eastbound travellers advance
their watches one hour. Across the river, a
motor road follows the Emerald River valley
to Emerald Lake, site of rustic Emerald Lake
Chalet, a Canadian Pacific resort.
One of the most spectacular examples of
railway engineering in the world, the famous
Spiral Tunnels, demands your attention now.
Six miles east, as the crow flies, but 11^4
miles by train and 1,265 feet higher, is the
Great Divide — highest point on the Canadian Pacific railway. To reach this elevation
HECTOR
STEPHEN
LAKE LOUISE
CASTLE MOUNTAIN
BANFF
CANMORE
EXSHAW
KANANASKIS
SEEBE
OZADA
MORLEY
RADNOR
COCHRANE
GLENBOW
BEARSPAW
ROBERTSON
CALGARY
OGDEN
SHEPARD
INDUS
DALEMEAD
CARSELAND
STRANGMUIR
GLEICHEN
CLUNY
CROWFOOT
BASSANO
LATHOM
CASSILS
BROOKS
TILLEY
ALDERSON
SUFFIELD
BOWELL
REDCLIFF
MEDICINE HAT
DUNMORE
PASHLEY
IRVINE
WALSH
HATTON
KINCORTH
MAPLE CREEK
CARDELL
CROSS
PIAPOT
SIDEWOOD
TOMPKINS
CARMICHAEL
GULL LAKE
ANTELOPE
WEBB
BEVERLEY
SWIFT CURRENT
AIKINS
WALDECK
RUSH LAKE
HERBERT
MORSE
ERNFOLD
UREN
CHAPLIN
SECRETAN
PARKBEG
MORTLACH
CARON
BOHARM
MOOSE JAW
PASQUA
MADRID
BELLE PLAINE
PENSE
GRAND COULEE
REGINA
PILOT BUTTE
BALGONIE
McLEAN
QU'APPELLE
INDIAN HEAD
SINTALUTA
WOLSELEY
SUMMERBERRY
GRENFELL
the track reverses itself twice in the tunnels.
To the left, mileage 133.6, across the Kicking
Horse, is Mount Field (8,645'), ahead, up a
long slope, is the lower tunnel entrance. This
tunnel, 2992 feet long, turns 226 degrees
while climbing 50.4 feet. To your right as
the train emerges, mileage 131.3, is the Yoho
Valley, guarded by Mount Wapta (9,106')
and Mount Field. Beyond them stands Mount
Burgess (8,463'). Now headed west the train
crosses the now fast-running Kicking Horse,
mileage 130.6, to enter the tunnel under
Cathedral Mountain (10,454') at mileage
129.7, with Mount Stephen (10,485') in
excellent view on the right, and another good
view, also to the south, of the Yoho River
and its valley. In 3,255 feet, the tunnel
curves 288 degrees and climbs 55.7 feet.
From the exit, 129.1, a magnificent view,
left, of the Yoho Valley and Kicking Horse
Canyon, unfolds. Immediately below you see
the tunnel entrance. Between mileages 127.5
and 127 to the left, you see entrance and
exit of the lower spiral tunnel.
From mileage 126 Cathedral Crags (10,-
071') and Vanguard Peak are visible on the
right as are the lush Yoho Valley and Mount
Ogden at the left. The Kicking Horse River,
narrow and fast, hisses and bubbles in the
headlong rush down the hill you have just
climbed.
Sink and Summit Lakes, feeding pools for
the Kicking Horse, mark the end of the pass,
Lake Wapta, on the left at Hector Station,
reflects Paget Peak and Mount Bosworth to
the north. You're "on top of the world" at
mileage 121. Look right for the sign, "The
Great Divide". This boundary of Alberta and
British Columbia, one mile and 52 feet
above sea level, marks the peak of the watershed. Here a small brook divides into two
streams that lead: to the Pacific via the
Kicking Horse River, and the Columbia; to
the Atlantic by way of the Bow and — eventually — Hudson Bay.
Four miles south of mileage 112, Mount
Temple towers 11,626 feet, ranked by
Protection, Redoubt, Ptarmigan, Saddle,
Sheol, Haddo, Aberdeen, Mount Victoria and
Fairview. Lake Louise station, named for the
glacier-fed lake 1000 feet above, leads to
Chateau Lake Louise, Moraine Lake Lodge
in the Valley of the Ten Peaks to the south,
and the Columbia Icefield 85 miles by motor
road to the north. A Canadian Pacific mountain resort, Chateau Lake Louise faces one
of the world's most beautiful scenic gems,
Victoria Glacier and Lake Louise.
i/1
%}$H?''"
ROCKIES
The tall, cloud-wreathed peak south of
mileage 109 is 10,309-foot Storm Mountain.
Ahead and to the left the battlements of
Mount Eisenhower loom into view. Eight
miles long and 9030 feet at its highest peak,
this mammoth upthrust was renamed in 1946
as a tribute to the world war service of the
34th President of the United States. Pilot
Mountain (9,680), Massive (7,990') and
Mount Bourgeau (9,517') — in the distance
— are on the right from mileage 93. In the
distance, left from mileage 83, is Mount
Edith (8,370') — nearer, look up the cliff
for a h«^e-eave,^Holem the Wall". Look
right at mileage 82 for the turrets of Banff
Springs Hotel showing above the pointed
lodge-pole pines. To the left the Vermilion
Lakes usually harbour feeding moose. The
meadows that floor the Bow Valley between
Banff and Lake Louise often show you deer
and elk. Mount Norquay, to the left, has a
scenic ski-lift, popular the year round, to
the right you see the Bourgeau Range.
Banff, winter population 2,500, is a town
of 8,000 in the summer. Dominated by Banff
Springs Hotel, which overlooks the valleys
enclosed by Sulphur, Tunnel and Rundle
Mountains, is the park headquarters. Movies,
hospital, hotels, boarding houses, and tourist
bungalows provide vari-priced accommodation. The Banff Springs golf course, besides
being spectacular scenically, is of championship quality.
Look all around you at mileage 72. Carrot
Creek, crossed at this point, flows from the
Fairholme range on the left, where also
are seen Mounts Peechee (9615 feet),
Girouard (9875) and Inglismaldie (9715).
To the right (south) is Mount Rundle
(9665), Cascade Creek, its course traceable
to 9,826-foot Cascade Mountain, left, parallels the line until it turns sharply south to
join the Bow.
Now, ahead and to either side, the full
glory of the Canadian Rockies unfolds. To
the right, the triple-peaked Three Sisters pose
for cameras and to the left near mileage 71,
the eastern entrance to Banff National Park
straddles the highway. The Park encloses
2500 square miles in which birds, animals,
wild flowers and trees are protected by the
Government of Canada.
Near mileage 62, on the steep slopes of the
shoulder of the Fairholme Range on the
left, sharp eyes may detect bighorn sheep.
This geological formation is locally known
as "The Gap" and here, definitely, the word
"mountains" no longer applies.
RANG€   '^^VTw
C0UNTRY-3*r
Now, on the right, the Bow widens into
Lac des Arcs where mallard and Canada
Geese are seasonally visible. Just where the
mountains end and the foothills begin is for
you to decide. The whole contour of the land
changes as yovir "Scenic Dome" follows the
sleek diesel locomotives down the winding
valley. At mileage 51.8 the Kananaskis River
joins the Bow — Ozada, the station name,
from the Indian, means "forks of the river".
The Bow River, leading the Canadian
Pacific from the passes that pierce the
Rockies, swings under the train to the left
at mileage 25.7. Morley, site of the Stoney
Indian reservation, has a population of 700
Indians and 30 whites, its Indian School
has 10 teachers for the 60 pupils. The
Stoneys, who take part each year in Banff's
"Indian Days" celebrations, work traditional
designs in leather, quills and beads, entering
their designs for prizes. Braves compete in
riding, roping and other skills.
West of Calgary, the suburban growth of
recent years impinges on the range lands for
a few miles, but until the Bow River is
crossed at mileage 7.7, the sight o£ grazing
cattle is quite frequent. Less picturesque
now that "levis" are eastern vacation garb,
the cowboy still looks a part of his horse and
the cattle-covered grazing land sprawls on
the slopes of the foothills.
Affectionately referred to as "Cowtown",
"Foot-hills City" and, latterly, "Oil City",
Calgary justifies all three names. It was
founded as a North West Mounted Police
post, Fort Brisebois, in 1875 at the junction
of Nose Creek with the Bow and Elbow rivers.
Oil "strikes" in the vicinity in recent years
have added importance to this city of
127,001 people who annually celebrate the
"Calgary Stampede", an outstanding Rodeo.
A Canadian Pacific hotel, The Palliser, pinpoints the downtown area. Calgary is the
meeting point of the Laggan and Brooks
sub-divisions. South and behind now the
rising foothills and beyond them the taller
peaks of the Rockies fade. In the foreground, Calgary's outskirts are marked by
the Canadian Pacific "Ogden" Shops.
TM€ PRAIRIES
For many of the 175.8 miles between
Calgary and Medicine Hat, the economy is
one of cereal grains grown on irrigated land.
Irrigation was first recorded in 1879 and
by the time the Canadian Pacific transcontinental line was completed, 79,000 acres
were under irrigation. By 1917, when the
Eastern and Western Irrigation Districts
were formed, the Canadian Pacific—pioneer
in those areas —■ had spent more than
$25,000,000 on irrigation. At Shepard, the
Strathmore sub-division joins the main line.
Indus was appropriately named for the
great river that irrigates much of Pakistan.
Gleichen serves 12,000 irrigated acres and
Bassano marks the junction of the Irricana
and Bassano sub-divisions with the.main line.
At mileage 96.6 an irrigation canal is bridged
and at mileage 87.6 and 76 lakes occur.
Cassils is the centre of 4,200 acres of irrigated land, and Cassils sub-division junction.
Headquarters of the Eastern Irrigation District of 167,000 acres is at Brooks, population 2,500; and Tilley is the shipping point
for 25,000 irrigated acres.
Medicine Hat, population 18,285, famed
for its natural gas, pottery and cut flowers,
marks the confluence of Ross and Seven
Persons Creeks, with the South Saskatchewan
River. The Canadian Pacific route through
the southern Rockies via the Crowsnest Pass
and Coquihalla Canyon, branches off to the
south and the Swift Current sub-division
takes over our main line train.
Saskatchewan's sloughs interest conservationists and hunters. Alkali lakes, visible to
the south from time to time, yield sodium
sulphate for the nickel and paper industries
of Ontario and Quebec.
Oddly named Seven Persons Creek, at
mileage 146.2, commemorates the massacre,
many years ago, of seven Blackfoot Indians
by Assiniboines. Between Irvine and Mackay
Creek, four streams are crossed. Box Elder
Creek is spanned at mileage 112. Imperceptibly, the land is sloping downward to
the east. Walsh is the last station in Alberta.
The Saskatchewan boundary is crossed before Hatton, junction for the like-named
sub-division, is reached.
Maple Creek, population 2,500, is named
for the stream crossed at mileage 84.9. Wild
fowl are plentiful in lakes at 80.4 and 75.5.
Right, mileages 40-39, is Whitegull Lake
and at Gull Lake the Antelope and Gull
Rivers are crossed. Webb and Beverley,
loosely bound a Canada Geese flyway.
Swift Current, a city of 8,000, at an
altitude of 2,432 feet above sea level, marks
the steady descent from the Rockies' level.
Here the Swift Current sub-division takes
over Canada's only "Dome" trains.
At mileage 110 Swift Current Creek, a
tributary of the South Saskatchewan River,
is bridged.
Moose Jaw, where the Indian Head subdivision starts, with a population of 26,000
is Saskatchewan's third largest city. The
Swordfish Club is one of the few boating
clubs on the Prairies — you can see it,
right, from the "Dome". Pasqua, where the
Soo Line from Chicago, Minneapolis and St.
Paul connects with the Canadian Pacific, is
the Indian word for Prairie.
Regina, "Queen of the Plains", is a tree-
shaded city of 74,000, built around lovely
Wascana Lake. The Provincial Legislature
and Canadian Pacific's t Hotel Saskatchewan
dominate the landscape for miles. Once head-
quarters of Canada's scarlet-coated Mounted
Police, Regina is now the Dominion training
centre for that proud force.
A+I^wS^-Ih! OAKSHELA
BROADVIEW
PERCIVAL
WHITEWOOD
BURROWS
WAPELLA
RED JACKET
MOOSOMIN
FLEMING
KIRKELLA
ELKHORN
HARGRAVE
VIRDEN
ROUTLEDGE
OAK LAKE
GRISWOLD
ALEXANDER
KEMNAY
BRANDON
CHATER
DOUGLAS
HUGHES
CARBERRY
MELBOURNE
SIDNEY
AUSTIN
MACGREGOR
BAGOT
BURNSIDE
PORTAGE
LA PRAIRIE
HIGH BLUFF
POPLAR POINT
REABURN
MARQUETTE
MEADOWS
ROSSER
BERGEN
WINNIPEG
N. TRANSCONA
OAKBANK
HAZELRIDGE
CLOVERLEAF
LYDIATT
MOLSON
JULIUS
SHELLEY
WHITEMOUTH
DARWIN
RENNIE
TELFORD
INGOLF
LOWTHER
BUSTEED
LACLU
KEEWATIN
KENORA
MARfiACH
SCOVIL
HAWK LAKE
PINE
EDISON
VERMILION BAY
GUNNE
EAGLE RIVER
MINNITAKI
OXDRIFT
DRYDEN
BARCLAY
WABIGOON
DINORWIC
DYMENT
TACHE
RALEIGH
OSAQUAN
IGNACE
BONHEUR
MARTIN
ENGLISH RIVER
NIBLOCK
UPSALA
SAVANNE
RAITH
BUDA
FINMARK
KAMINISTIQUIA
MURILLO
WEST FT WILLIAM
FORT WILLIAM
PORT ARTHUR
MACKENZIE
LOON
PEARL
OUIMET
DORION
HURKETT
RED ROCK
NIPIGON
ROSSPORT
SCHREIBER
TERRACE BAY
JACK FISH
NEYS
COLDWELL
ANGLER
MARATHON
HERON BAY
HEMLO
MOBERT
REGAN
WHITE RIVER
AMYOT
FRANZ
LOCHALSH
MISSANABIE
DALTON
NICHOLSON
CHAPLEAU
NEMEGOS
KINOGAMA
KORMAK
RIDOUT
SULTAN
WOMAN RIVER
RAMSAY
BISCOTASING
Captain John Palliser, a British surveyor,
once classed this country as arid. Look at
it today, the granary of the world where hard
wheat is raised on 25,000,000 acres. At
Indian Head are government-operated entomological laboratory, experimental farm and
forest nursery station. At Broadview, watches
are set ahead to Central Standard Time and
the Broadview sub-division is entered. The
Saskatchewan-Manitoba boundary is crossed
at mileage 74.7. Crees and Assiniboines once
roamed the acres now being farmed, to serve
which the McAuley sub-division connects at
Kirkella and the Neudorf at Virden where
you will see, at left, producing oil wells.
Oak Lake, to the southwest, is a tourist
resort. At Griswold there is an Indian
Reservation.
Brandon, a city of 21,214, with an experimental farm, Indian School, Hospital,
College and annual Provincial Exhibition,
joins the Broadview sub-division to the
Brandon "sub". At the city's eastern outskirts the Assiniboine River is bridged.
Portage La Prairie, population 8,500, where
the Minnedosa sub-division branches off, was
named by La Verendrye who built Fort la
Reine in the 1730's to protect the 15-mile
land route between the Assiniboine River
and Lake Winnipeg, base of the Hayes and
Nelson river routes to Hudson Bay. From
here La Verendrye's sons Pierre and Louis
made their way to the Rocky Mountains,
likely in Wyoming. Pierre, N.D., bears its
explorer's name. The Second Prairie Plain,
westward from Winnipeg, was travelled by
La Verendrye and his sons, 1736-43, first
whites in the Red River country. Later, oxcart trains were succeeded in the 1880's by
the Canadian Pacific Railway to which is
directly traced the settlement and development of the great Canadian west. West of
Winnipeg station the great marshalling yards
attest the linking of grain and transportation.
From Stevenson Field, the international airport, Canadian Pacific Airlines serve Churchill
on Hudson Bay. To the south is the Assiniboine River, bearer of the early canoes and
later York boats of the Hudson Bay Company.
The suburbs of Winnipeg announce that
great city's imminence. Here La Verendrye
established his Fort Rouge in 1738 but 90
years elapsed before real settlement began
with the erection of Fort Gibraltar by the
North West Company. In 1811 Lord Selkirk
obtained a grant of 100,000 acres of Red
River land for colonization. Fort Garry, a
stone building of the Hudson's Bay Company
is maintained as a relic of early days at
Winnipeg, as is the "Countess of Dufferin",
the earliest locomotive in the west. The Royal
Alexandra Hotel and the Provincial Parliament Buildings are features of modern
Winnipeg at the confluence of the Red and
Assiniboine Rivers.
A V€R€NORY€S
-■■--TRAIL-	
Typical prairie agriculture reigns eastward
to Lydiatt, but from Molson, where the Lac du
Bonnet sub-division crosses the main line,
the transition from prairies to the central
coniferous region, marked by a 40-mile
marshy fringe, is apparent as far as mileage 50.
Manitoba is left behind and Ontario entered at mileage 33.4, and a land of lakes
becomes a natural holiday resort. Keewatin is
the starting point for expeditions to the Black
Sturgeon   Lakes   and   Sturgeon   River   area.
Kenora, which La Verendrye named Rat
Portage because of a mass muskrat crossing
he saw from his fort on the west shore of the
Lake of the Woods, is a popular summer
resort — especially beloved of fishermen.
With a population of 9,103, it is the junction
of  the   Ignace  and  Keewatin  sub-divisions.
Pierre Gaultier de Varennes, Sieur de la
Verendrye, early in the 18th century, accompanied by his sons Jean, Pierre, Louis
and Francois, made his way from a post built
by earlier explorers near the mouth of the
Kaministiquia River in 1678 through the
Lake of the Woods country to the western
plains. The trail he blazed was followed in
turn by traders of the North West Company,
circa 1801, Lord Selkirk and his settlers,
Colonel Wolseley and other illustrious men.
The next step as we retrace these journeys
brings us to Island Lake, spanned at mileage
139. Then come Vermilion Bay, Eagle Lake,
mileage 89 and Beaver Creek, mileage 86 —
all names that recur across the continent.
Names of Indian origin are often met, too:
"Wabigoon", meaning "white flower", crossed at Dryden, a town of 3,000 and again at
-xnHe_age_27t7t an<LOsaqjaan^ the^riv^iLita^^seiL-
at mileage 6. The heavily wooded territory is
interrupted by Ignace, start of the Kaministiquia sub-division, site of an early mission
founded by the French.
Trees, rivers and small game characterize
the land from here to the Great Lakes. At
mileage 139 we cross the Gulliver, the Scotch
at 112 and the English River at mileage
110.9. The Beaver is spanned at 100 and the
Firesteel at 88.5. The northeast arm of the
"Lake of a Thousand Lakes" is seen at mileage 71, and on the right, mileage 51, McGhie
Lake. Tributaries of the Oskondaga are
spanned near 48.5, and the Matawan River
is bridged twice, mileages 27.5 and 23.4.
Fort William, at the mouth of the Kaministiquia River, connects the Kaministiquia
and Nipigon sub-divisions. Here your watch
should be advanced one hour to Eastern
Standard Time. Port Arthur and Fort William, known as "The Lakehead" ports handle
more than 2500 ships of around 7,000,000
tons a year. Huge grain elevators and many
factories support a combined population
of 66,000.
LAK€ SUP€R10f
NORT«S«fOR€
"The Sleeping Giant", proud guardian of
the lakehead harbour, is lost to view at mileage 123; Loon Lake station serves Sibley
Provincial Park which includes the craggy
promontory. Pearl River is crossed at mileage
96.3, the Coldwater and Wolf at 84 and 83.
Lake Superior, lost to sight, reappears again
at Red Rock, 15 miles across a peninsula.
Earned for the colourful local stone, the
town turns out 800 tons of pulp board and
paper daily.
An arm of Nipigon Bay is crossed hear
mileage 65 and the Nipigon River at 62.4.
In the next few miles, Kama Bay, at
50, and Jack Pine River, 45.4, are bridged.
In the bay to the south, Isle Saint Ignace,
site of an early mission, faces Grant Point,
Mountain Bay, Rainboth Point, Gravel Bay,
Crow Point and Pays Plat Bay. The track
occasionally cuts across capes, leaving the
North Shore of Lake Superior temporarily
out of sight.
Schreiber marks the junction of Nipigon
and Heron Bay sub-divisions. An Ontario
Hydro-Electric Power Commission plant,
generating 53,000 h.p., is passed at 112.8
and the Aguasabon River at mileage 110.5
Terrace, another new development, population 1597, centres around a 325-ton paper
mill.
Now you need eyes on both sides of the
"Dome". The track curves and bends to the
contours of the rugged coastline, negotiates
a miniature bend as a rehearsal and then
takes the spectacular horseshoe turn around
Jack Fish Bay, mileages 97.5 - 99.5. Eastward to Heron Bay views of the great lake
are magnificent.
Literally "as old as the hills" the rocky
north shore of Lake Superior is, geologically,
almost the oldest land in the world. This edge
of the Pre-Cambrian Shield is comparatively
young in recorded history —- less than 350
years. The bold indentations of the coast
were first observed by explorers in the early
17th century who made their way westward
by canoe.
Today the "North Shore" has an economic
significance Pere Heron and his contemporaries could not have imagined.
Jack Fish is a commercial shipping point.
The Steel, Prairie and Little Pic rivers enter
the bay at mileages 94.8, 90 and 81. Between
the great curve and Coldwell stretch the white
breakers that mark the rocky, indented coastline. At Marathon, population 3000, 325 tons
of sulphate is the daily production. Peninsula
Bay is usually filled with rafts of timber
from the forest lands to the east, towed from
Heron Bay to feed the mills. Between Marathon and Heron Bay, mileage 56.4, a last
look to the right brings Lake Superior,
largest body of fresh water in the world, into
view for the last time. On the left a spindle-
legged flume carries pulpwood to the harbour. At Hemlo a barking mill handles
150,000 cords a year.
JTH€ GREAT LAKES
•FOREST
Pulpwood is king in the country now ahead
of your Scenic Dome, between mileages 40.5
— 32.9. Cache Lake, Cache Creek and Cedar
Creek come into sight. Also on the left is
Cedar Lake and river. The White River is
bridged at mileage 24.7. Supply centres in
this forest area include Mobert — with
Ojibway Indian settlement and Hudson's
Bay post — and Regan. Fast, white water
calls strongly to outdoorsmen.
White River station is named for the river
we are to meet again. Here the White"* River
sub-division begins and meteorological records are kept. The Pickerel River is crossed
at mileage 122.6 and the White River at
mileages 129.2 and 117.6. On the right Lake
Negwazu parallels the track for miles —
almost to Amyot, tourist centre for this fishing and hunting district.
Franz marks the crossing of the Canadian
Pacific by the Algoma Central and Hudson
Bay Railway. South lies a hunter's paradise.
At Missanabie, Indian name for "big water",
another crossing occurs—this not so modern.
This was a stop on the water route between
Lake Superior and James Bay in the early
days of trapping and trading.
Chapleau, population 3,936, is district
headquarters of the Ontario Departments of
Lands and Forests and Game and Fisheries
as well as the junction of the White River
and Nemegos sub-divisions.
Rivers and lakes too numerous for naming
feed the stands of jack pine, tamarack, hemlock, balsam, fir, spruce, maple, oak, birch,
elm, ash and hazel that abound. North of
Nemegos, titanium and iron claims have been
staked. The station name is short for the
Nemegosanda River, first of four crossed
between mileages 120 and 99. In order follow
Aspiskanagama, Kinogama and Ridout.
METAGAMA
P0GAMASING
GENEVA
CARTIER
WINDY LAKE
LEVACK
LARCHWOOD
CHELMSFORD
AZILDA
SUDBURY
ROMFORD
DILL
WANUP
BURWASH
PAGET
DELAMERE
RUTTER
BIGWOOD
FRENCH RIVER
WANIKEWIN
PICKEREL
PAKESLEY
BEKAN0N
BRITT
BYNG INLET
NAISC00T
MANBERT
PTE. AU BARIL
SHAWANAGA
CARLING
NOBEL
PARRY SOUND
DOCKMURE
OTTER LAKE
BLACK ROAD
R0SSEAU ROAD
BRIGNALL
GORDON BAY
LAKE JOSEPH
MACTIER
RODERICK
BALA
SEVERN FALLS
L0VERING
MEDONTE
EADY
CARLEY
CRAIGHURST
MIDHURST
ESSA
YPRES
BAXTER
ALLISTON
BEET0N
TOTTENHAM
PALGRAVE
HUMBER
BOLTON
KLEINBURG
WOODBRIDGE
WESTON
WEST TORONTO
PARKDALE
TORONTO
Biscotasing, Ontario Forestry Service flight
base, is popular with tourists; Metagama with
hunters who outfit here for fishing, too.
Lumbering is in evidence on many of the
rivers, such as, at mileage 25, Pogamasing
and, crossed at 17.5, the Spanish River. This
area roughly defines the eastern edge of the
Great Lakes Forest Region.
Cartier ends the Nemegos and starts the
Cartier sub-divisions. On the right at mileage
104.5 is Windy Lake. Now watch both sides
of the line- for evidence of mining and smelting, mileage 82-81.
The mineral basis for Sudbury's population of 60,239 is evident in the surrounding
country. Copper ore was discovered when the
Canadian Pacific line was built in 1883 and
Sudbury's prosperity began. Today, nickel
leads the diversified industrial activities.
OLD
+JURONIA
The description "Old Huronia" applies
only to part of the route travelled from
Sudbury to Toronto. The establishment of
the first white settlement west of Montreal
at Sainte Marie, three miles from Port
McNicoll, in 1639, makes this territory significant. Until the opening of a road from
Toronto to Georgian Bay in the early 19th
century, the major route to the east was by
way of the French River, Mattawa-Ottawa
River route.
From Sudbury the line skirts Ramsay Lake
and, at Romford, leaves the main transcontinental line. To the left, mileage 117.5,
the Coniston smelter appears, last sign of the
rich mineral belt, and the Wanapitei River,
mileage 112.9, marks the boundary of the
Sudbury Game Preserve. Occasional elk may
be spotted as far south as Kakakiwaganda
Lake near mileage 103.
Left, opposite French River Station, is a
Bungalow Camp, headquarters for modern
explorers of the French River, crossed just
beyond the station, which races between
rocky banks towards Georgian Bay. This was
the vital link for explorers and traders 350
years ago. At mileage 81 the Pickerel River
is crossed and parallels the track for half
a mile.
Right, at mileage 4.9, a needle-like, inlet
of the big bay is Pointe au Baril, popular
summer resort. Scattered lakes on both sides
of the "Dome" mark the way to Georgian
Bay, sighted first, right, at mileage 26. At
Parry Sound, population 5,000, noted fishing
and hunting centre, look left from the Bridge
for Seguin Falls. The Seguin River is crossed
again at 22.6, the Boyne at 20, and Otter
Lake Narrows at 17. Occasional rocky outcrops trace the edge of the Canadian Shield
and Lakes Joseph and Stewart, left at mileages 3.5 and 1.2 herald the Muskoka Lakes.
MacTier joins the Parry Sound and Mac-
Tier sub-divisions. On the left, look for Lake
Muskoka, the Moon and Mishkosh Rivers,
to the right, Bala Falls and Bala — entrance
to the Muskoka Lakes. A good sample of
this lake and river vacationland is the long
finger lake seen, left, at mileage 111.5. Here,
too, is the fringe of Old Huronia, entered
by rail from Medonte, junction for Port
McNicoll, eastern terminal port for the Canadian Pacific Great Lakes Steamships that
ply west to Sault Ste. Marie and Fort William
— the canoe route used by early explorers.
Travellers who break their rail journeys
embark within three miles of the recently
excavated and partly re-constructed settlement at Sainte Marie. Nearby, the Martyrs'
Shrine commemorates Fathers Brebeuf, Daniel, Jogues and Gabriel Lalemant who were
killed in the area. At its height the settlement housed 60 white religious and lay
workers who served almost 3000 square
miles of savage country.
The high bridge at mileage 68 offers a fine
view of historic Huronia as you enter a
reforestation area, keyed by the Ontario
Provincial Forestry Station at Midhurst. Near
Ypres Junction, Camp Borden, largest military establishment in Canada, occupies 50
square miles. Amongst the busy towns passed
between here and Toronto is Alliston, birthplace of Sir Frederick Banting, co-discoverer
of insulin, and centre of prosperous tobacco
growing. Rolling farm lands lead down to
lake level again, busy suburbs — first residential, then manufacturing — mark the
Ontario Capital's outskirts and the tall
buildings on the lakeside city herald the end
of the longest "Dome" ride in the world.
mwom
CONISTON
WANAPITEI
MARKSTAY
HAGAR
WARREN
VERNER
CACHE BAY
STURGEON FALLS
MEAD0WSIDE
BEAUCAGE
NORTH BAY
CORBEIL
NOSBONSING
BONFIELD
RUTHERGLEN
EAU CLAIRE
MATTAWA
KLOCK
DEUX RIVIERES
BISSETT
STONECLIFFE
MOOR LAKE
BASS LAKE
WYLIE
CHALK RIVER
PETAWAWA
PEMBROKE
MEATH
SNAKE RIVER
C0BDEN
HALEY'S
PAYNE
RENFREW
MAYHEW
CASTLEFORD
SAND POINT
BRAESIDE
ARNPRIOR
PAKENHAM
SNEDDEN
ALMONTE
CARLETON PLACE
ASHTON
STITTVILLE
WESTBORO
OTTAWA WEST
HULL WEST
HULL
OTTAWA
BLACKBURN
NAVAN
LEONARD
HAMMOND
BOURGET
PENDLETON
PLANTAGENET
ALFRED
CALEDONIA SPGS.
McALPIN
VANKLEEK HILL
STARDALE
ST. EUGENE
RIGAUD
DRAGON
CHOISY
ALSTONVALE
HUDSON HEIGHTS
HUDSON
COMO
ISLE CADIEUX
VAUUHttiii.
(Dorion)
ILE PERROT
(Terrace)
STE. ANNES
(Ste. Anne de
Bellevue)
BAIE D'URFE
BEAUREPAIRE
BEACONSFIELD
POINTE CLAIRE
CEDAR PARK
LAKESIDE
VALOIS
STRATHMORE
PINE BEACH
DORVAL
summerlea
grovehill
montreal west
westmount!
■
WINDSOR STATION!
MONTREAL
B€SID€ LAKE .
NIPISSING    ^V2
- Coniston develops the mineral wealth -o-f
the surrounding country. Here a matte smelter, four blast-type furnaces, a concentrator
and sintering plant support a population of
2,425. Now, lumber, pulp and fishing become
economic mainstays; the Wanapitei, bridged
at 67.3, is fishing water. So are the North
Veuve River, crossed five times between mileages 58.6-57.4; Stag Creek, bridged at 41.5
and Bear Creek, at mileage 39. The Big
Sturgeon River rapids, just west of Sturgeon
Falls station, gave the town its name. Due
south, across Lake Nipissing, the French
River forms a natural water gateway to
Georgian Bay and today, many holiday-
makers are as familiar with the rapids and
portages as were the early traders, missionaries and explorers. From "dome" cars,
the lake is visible as far west as Beaucage.
Three hundred and fifty years ago Champlain, Radisson, Brebeuf, Lallemant, Nicolet,
Joliet, Brule, Duluth, LaSalle, La Verendrye,
Marquette, and their un-remembered companions turned due west at Mattawa; paddled
laboriously up the Mattawan River, and made
their way to Lake Nipissing, the French River
and Georgian Bay by lake-chains and portages. Some went west via Lake Huron and
Lake Superior^others south by Lakes Huron
and Michigan.
Their route, in general, you retrace, a
few miles south of the lake and river chain.
Today's scenery in this game-filled country
is little changed. North Bay, headquarters of
the Algoma District of the Canadian Pacific,
and the provincially owned Ontario Northland Railway — connection for Hudson's
Bay, is a city of 19,900. Market for 120,o00
acres of general farming land, this busy
trading centre was a stopping place for
Samuel de Champlain, the explorer, in 1615.
Near Corbeil, noted for the birth of the
Dionne Quintuplets, an arm of Lake Nipissing is called South Bay — hence the
city's name. In addition to its economic
importance this area is notable for hunting
and fishing.
Lake Nosbonsing, right, at mileage 98.5 is
fished for bass, maskinonge and pickerel:
Bonfield Falls is seen, left, at mileage 98.
Lake Talon, part of the early canoe route,
can be glimpsed at mileage 94, between
Bonfield and Rutherglen. Trout are caught
in the Amable du Fond river, mileage 83.
Beaver dams and lodges in the lakes at
mileages 79 and 77 and Earl's Lake, 74.5,
attest to the availability of food variety for
river travellers in the old days.
The Canadian Pacific line, following the
route of the explorers, enters the Ottawa
Valley at Mattawa, a trading post since 1784.
THE HISTORIC
OTTAWA VALLCY -*
Wild country betokens good hunting and
fishing. Lumbering is in evidence along the
line, and, evidence of hydroelectric development of the upper Ottawa, track diversion
was carried out to permit damming of the
river to generate 480,000 H.P. at Des Joachims. To the left, at mileage 50.5, and
between mileages 32 and 26.5, the former
track is visible at low water.
Pembroke, 13,000, the county town of
Renfrew, turns out lumber products, furniture and electrical appliances.
To the left, at mileage 91, part of 23-mile
Allumette Island can be seen. This probably
was a stopover point for Pere Marquette and
trader Louis Joliet, co-explorers of the Mississippi, Ohio, Arkansas, Illinois and Chicago
Rivers. Watch, in season, for migrating Canada Geese in the area between the Muskrat,
mileage 84.4 and West Bonnechere (74)
rivers, and for the Ottawa River on the left
at Braeside. The Madawaska is bridged at
mileage 40, and The Mississippi at mileages
32.4 and 17.6. Ontario's Mississippi has no
connection with a larger river of the same
name! In the next few miles Renfrew, population 7,609; Arnprior, 4,500; Almonte,
2,617 and Carleton Place, a railway and
manufacturing town of 4,700 are passed.
Pleasant farm-lands and prosperous country trading centres lead to Ottawa, capital of
Canada. Ottawa, in Ontario, and Hull,
Quebec, have an area population of 249,345.
The Rideau Canal locks, Parliament Buildings, Chaudiere Falls and many great industries are in full view as your train makes
two crossings of the big river.
Leaving Ottawa, the line crosses — in the
city limits — the Rideau River, named by
Samuel de Champlain in 1613 when, with
Brule and de Vigneau, the first white men
penetrated westward.
A natural highway for canoe travel, the
mighty river was the main trade artery for
Huron, Algonquin and Iroquois Indians and
it was by this route that the early explorers,
iiecollet and Jesuit missionaries ana traders
made their way to the west with the help of
Indian guides.
Vast forests bordering the river and its
tributaries felt the lumberman's axe as Canada's population increased, rivermen rafted
the timber to mill sites and the valley's
economic phase began in the 19th century.
With the advent of electricity its waters were
harnessed and diversified manufacturing
lends an urban balance to the prosperous
farming that has followed the clearance of
the forest areas.
The South Nation river is crossed near
mileage 50 and between mileage boards 22
and 21, the boundary between Ontario and
Quebec. At Rigaud, site of religious institutions, the Rigaud River enters the Ottawa.
To the left the Ottawa, now widened into the
Lake of the Two Mountains, accompanies
the main line to Vaudreuil-Dorion, where it
empties into the St. Lawrence.
From Ste. Anne de Bellevue to Montreal
you pass new residential suburbs, Montreal's
international airport, at Dorval, and, immediately south, the industrial city of Laehine, home of Lasalle — explorer of the Ohio
River and Lake Michigan in search of China.
Then — Montreal, seaport 1,000 miles from
an ocean and bilingual metropolis of Canada.
Photography Through The Tinted Glass Scenic Dome
The green tint acts as a filter.    Increase exposure one stop for black and white.    Use colour
compensating filter CC 30 R for colour films.    Meter readings are safest.

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