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The western provinces of Canada Canadian Pacific Railway Company. Department of Natural Resources 1912

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 THE GRANARYtOF THE BRITISH  EMPIRE
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Western
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Manitoba,Saskatchewan,Alberta,British Columbia.
Canadian  Pacific Railway
Department of Natural Resources. Get Your  Canadian  Home
from  the
Canadian Pacific
WHY FARM on high-priced, wornout lands when the richest, virgin soil
is awaiting you in Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta, the great Prairie
Provinces of Western Canada. In many parts of other districts you have to spend
as much money to fertilize an acre of your farm as a fresh, rich virgin acre
will cost you in Western Canada. The first prize of $1,000 for the best wheat
iu the world was awarded to a Western Canada farmer at the New York
Land Show—farmers on our low-priced lands won first, second and third prizes
for wheat in competition with the world.
Go where you too can prosper, where you will find perfect health, where you
can earn a farm and a home in a few years' time—many farmers have paid
for their farms with one crop—where it does not take a lifetime of drudgery
to make a competence and where energetic efforts bring riches quickly.
Non-Irrigable Land From 111 to ISO an Acre.
Ten Years in which to Pay.
The Canadian Pacific Railway Company offers you the finest irrigable and
non-irrigable land along its lines at low figures, and on long terms of payment—
lands adapted to grain growing, to poultry raising, dairying, mixed farming, and
to cattle, hog, sheep and horse raising—in the Prairie Provinces of Manitoba,
Saskatchewan and Alberta. Decide what kind of farming you want to follow and
let the Canadian Pacific Railway put you on the road to fortune. Magnificent soil
good climate, good markets, excellent schools, good government, all are awaiting you in Western Canada, and a great Railway Company whose interest is to
help you to succeed, is offering you the pick of the best. The best land is being
taken first. Don't wait. Our illustrated "Hand-books of Information" regarding
Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta and Irrigation Farming are yours for the asking, These contain more specific information than does this booklet. Write and
investigate this great proposition to-day.  Address
}. S. DENNIS, Assistant to the President, Canadian  Pacific  Railway.
DEPARTMENT OF  NATURAL  RESOURCES,
CALGARY ALBERTA. C-5 Re?  y-Y/7 ^Si
I&.vste   C°f/J
The Western Provinces
of Canada
Foreword
" The nineteenth century belonged to the United States—the twentieth belongs to Canada." Tims spoke one of the clearest thinkers in
America several yev.rs ago. Canada is a country of great distances. Extending; fiotn the Atlantic to the Pacific, it is more than equal in size to the
United States, and, in fact, rovers over 3,745,000 square miles, one-
twelfth of tin- land surface of the earth.
The completion of the Canadian Pacific Railway from ocean to ocean,
through Canadian territory, first disclosed the real capabilities of the
Western plains, and the favorable nature of their climate. Times and the
course of events have widened the scope of that disclosure, and opened a
wheat field haying a productive power equal to a world supply This wa«
a discovery of positive fact that compelled attention and dissipated doubt,
and the stream of settlement immediately began to flow. Since then it
has been demonstrated that Western Canada, wit', its tremendous dimensions, its wealth of resources and the strength of its material mights, presents to the homeseeker the one great opportunity of this age.
The potential wealth in the rich .--oil of Western Canada' haw attracted
from all quarters of the globe men and women tired of the impoverished
surroundings which are the unfortunate complement of many of the
populous centres of modern civilisation, and anxious, while there is yet
time, to secure to themselves and their families a share of the prosperity
which the boundless West holds in store for those who seek it. And they
have not come in vain, for to every willing worker Western Canada has
given freely and abundantly. Notwithstanding, however, the rapidity
of settlement, the West, is but yet upon the fringe of greater things, and out
of its 170,01)0,000 acres of wheat land, only about 10,000,000 were under
cultivation to wheat in 1911.
Western Canada is now a long way beyond the experimental stage.
It is a country thai has been tried by the mo', exacting test to which a new
country can be put, and has come triumphantly through the ordeal.
There can be no doubt now that the settlers who are so rapidly peopling
the great West of Canada, and making their homes there, are destined to
be the wh«U producers for the Hritish Empire. 2 Canadian pacific railway
PART I.
HISTORICAL
In the year lfi70 ICing Charles 11. gave to the Hudson's Hay Company
"all the lands, countries and territories upon the coasts and confines of the
seas, bays, lakes, rivers, creeks and sounds lying wilhin the entrance of the
straits commonly called Hudson's straits," with one limitation, viz., except
those "which are now actually possessed by any of our subjects, or by the
subjects of any other Christian prince or state."
From 17ti'2, shortly after the conquest of Canada, the Fur Traders
of Montreal began to extend their trade asd build forts throughout the
wide region from Lake Superior and Lake of the Woods westward to the
distant Saskatchewan.
In 177J the Hudson's Bay Company left the shore of the Bay, which
it had tenaciously hugged for a century, and erected in the Saskatchewan
district its first inland post at Cumberland House, within a few hundred
yards of Sturgeon Lake Fort,, which Joseph Frobisher, one of the Canadian
traders, had built. About the year 1800 the competition of the- fur trailers
became so fierce that the strife at times reached the point of bloodshed,
and the companies began   to feel  that ruin would soon overtake them.
A young Scottish nobleman, the Earl of Selkirk, Governor of the
Hudson's Bay Company, as early as 1802, was planning to bring a colony of
his Highland countrymen to settle at the south end of Lake Winnipeg.
Lord Selkirk's first colonists to the Far West left the Scottish Hebrides by
ship in 1811, and reached York Factory on Hudson Bay. After a trying
winter they ascended the stream from the. fort in heavy boats, and on the
25th of August. 18i'i, the first party reached the site, on the banks of the
Red River, where the city of Winnipeg now stands. This is accordingly
the natal day of the Selkirk Colony.
POLITICAL ORGANIZATION
In the year 1S35 a government was organized for the Red River
settlement, and a number of the leading settlers and more notahlc persons
were selected by the Hudson's Bay Company and made into the Council
of Assiniboia, as they now called the Rod River settlement. Outside of
this settlement, up to the Rocky Mountains, practically no settlers dwelt,
apart from the officers of the Hudson's Bay Company.
In 18t>!) an arrangement was effected with the Hudson's Bay Company whereby the whole of the area then administered by that concern
should pass under the control of the Dominion of Canada. The lion.
Wm. MacDougall was appointed Lieutenant-Governor, and a council
nominated by the Government of Canada to administer public affairs in the
new territory. The following year the province of Manitoba was
formed, and a government for that province was organized in 1871. The
remaining portion of the area lying between the Rocky Mountains and WESTERN   CANADA 3
the province of Manitoba, was formed into the three provisional districts
of Assiniboia, Saskatchewan and Alberta. In 1905 two provinces, namely,
Alberta and Saskatchewan, were constituted out of this area, and given
responsible government.
West of the Rocky. Mountains, is situated the province of British
Columbia, which had been a British colony up to the time of Canadian
Confederation The only important part of this area was Vancouver
Island, and in ISO!) this island had been granted to the Hudson's Bay
Company for a ten-year period. It was, however, considered advisable that
this colony should be added to the Confederation, and in |S7(I an agreement was entered into between the two countries by which British Columbia joined the Dominion on the condition thai a railway should be built
within ten years to unite the territory with Eastern Canada. Constiuc-
tion work upon this railway was commenced sonic years afterwards,
and was duly brought to completion and now forms the main portion of
the Canadian  Pacific Railway, the "All Red  Route."
THE SOILS OF WESTERN CANADA
Scientists have been at considerable pains to explain the conditions
that produced, in Western Canada, a soil which probably is unequalled
for fertility or extent in any other country. In the report of the Geological Survey Department for 1906, Mr. R. Chalmers, in reporting the
results of his work during the summer of the year, which, included a study
of the surface neology of the prairies, refers to the subject. The following
is an extract of this report :
"The plains or prairies of the Canadian Northwest are really the
upper or northern extension of the great valleys of the Mississippi and
Missouri Rivera into Canada.
"The materials constituting the surface deposits of this great prairie
region are of different kinds, as is shown by the following general section
of the beds in descending order :
"1. A dark or blackish, tough clay, containing some sand and silt,
nevertheless forming when wet, a soft, tenacious mass, very sticky and
coherent. In the Western States this deposit is usually called gumbo, and
the name is gradually being adopted in Manitoba and the new provinces.
"The thickness of this deposit is variable ; sometimes it is only a
few inches, wl.'.le in local areas it is eight to ten fert or more. So lar as
it has been studied it seems to be a vegetable formation, which in the
lower grounds grew in shallow lakes, ponds and swamps, accumulating
in situ (in its original situation) for ages. Dead and decayed water and
marsh plants, together with peat and other vegetation growing in moist
places, seem to make up the bulk of this deposit. The intermixed fine
sand and silt have probably been carried into the swamps and ponds by
rains, wind, etc., from the higher and drier grounds surrounding them.
The occurrence of this black soil on tb-e higher level tracts indicates that
these were also marsh and swamp lands at one time.    The wide horizontal a;
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areas covered by this formation show that it must have been formed in
water that was very shallow. On the first and second prairie steppes it
docs not seem that this black soil could have any other but a lacustrine
(Latin, lactts, a lake"1 origin; but on the third steppe in Alberta it is possibly of sub-aerial growth in some places, unless the levels of the country
h .we changed very considerably since its deposition or growth. This black
soil is the formation which makes the plains so fertile.
"2. Beneath the black loam just described, a gray clay of variable
thickness occurs almost everywhere on the plains. From this clay considerable quantities of common briek are manufactured. It seldom exceeds a thickness of four to five feet, and generally contains more or less
sand, and frequently a few pebbles.
"3. Below this lies a harder clay, somewhat similar to No. 2, but
with compact, rusty strala often called 'hardpan.' These harder strata
sometimes alternate with clays of a pebbly or coarse texture."
There is probably no district on the North American continent which
can boast of a soil as fertile and productive as that of Western Canada.
This applies very generally, and is the result of tons of deposit by the
great inland sea which once covered this part of North America, and of
whi-h the Great Lakes of the Northwest arc the remaining links.
It is only of recent years that the abnormal fertility and lasting
qualities of the soils of the great plains of America has been properly appreciated and understood. Soil chemists nowadays are drifting towards the
theory, that the principal cause of soil exhaustion is a heavy rainfall
which brings into suspended form the available plant food in the soil, and
carries it away with the storm waters into the drainage channels.
It stands to reason, that where the rainfall is not sufficient to create
floods or heavy run-off, so characteristic of the Eastern Canada and the
Eastern and Central States, but remains, more or less, in the sub-soil,
there is practically no loss by leaching whatever, and consequentlv the
lasting qualities of the soil are correspondingly greater. While the Western provinces enjoy a rainfall entirely sufficient for agricultural purposes
they are very seldom subject to excessive rains. This is tin important
fact to take into consideration in connection with agriculture on prairie
soils.
The general character of the soil of the three prairie provinces is
very wel) described by Professor Shaw, one of t he best known agronomists
of the United States, who has made a careful and thorough study of
them all :
"The first foot of soil in the three provinces of Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta, is its greatest natural heritage. It is worth more than all
the mines in the mountains from Alaska to Mexico, and more than all
the forests from the United States boundary to the Arctic Sea, vast as I hese
are. And next in value to this heritage is the three feet of soil which lies
underneath the first. The subsoil is only secondary in value to the soil
for unless the former be of good value, there is a proportionate neutraliza- 6 CANADIAN   PACIFIC  RAILWAY
tion of the latter. The worth of a soil and subsoil cannot be measured
in acres. The measure of its value is the amount of nitrogen, phosphoric
acid and [Mitash which it contains, in other words, in its producing power.
Viewed Irom this standpoint, these lands are a heritage of untold value.
One acre ol average soil in the Canadian Wes* is worth more than twenty
acres of average soil along the Atlantic seaboard. The wan who tills the
former can grow twenty successive crops without much diminution in the
yields ; whereas, the person who tills the latter, in order to grow a single
remunerative crop, must pay the vendor of fertilizers half as much for materials to fertilize an acre as would buy the acre in the Canadian West.."
The soils of the province of British Columbia vary from the light
but fertile soils of the inland plateaus to the deep, black loams of the
coast districts. The former is specially adapted to fruit-growing, and,
where irrigation is available, to the production of fodder crops. The
latter rank as the murt productive soils in America, and grow phenomenal
crops ol nearlj every kind.
CLIMATE OF WESTERN CANADA
It should be understood that in such a vast extent <>f territory with so
many varying local conditions the climate cannot be expeuted to be uniform. Each portion of the country has its own peculiar advantages in
the way of climate, and the settler can select for himself that portion for
his home where the conditions are likely to be most favorable to the
particular line of fanning which he wishes to follow. In dealing with the
climate of Western Canada, we shall, for the purposes of convenience and
clearness, divide our description into two parts :
(A) The Prairie Provinces, comprising Manitoba, Saskatchewan
and Alberta,  and
(B) The Province of British Columbia.
There are, four questions which, in one form or other, the prospective
set t for is sure to ask, and which he must have satisfactorily answered, before
finally making his choice.
1. Is the climate a healthy one ?
2. I» the whiter severe ?
3. Is the summer hot ?
4. Are I he cliniul ic conditions prevailing during the summer favorable
to agricultural operations ?
(A)    The Prairie Provinces.
1. Healthfulness. The open nature of the country, clear, dry
atmosphere and abundance of bright sunshine, its elevation (varying from
1,402 to 3,389 feet above the sea level), and the fresh breezes which blow
aeioss its plains, all tend to make it one of the healthiest countries in the
work!. There is an cut ire absence of malaria, and there is no disease peculiar to the country. The Western portions of the cf.ntry have attained
a considerable reputation as health resorts, particulaily for persons of
consumptive tendencies, anil many who have found life a burden through WESTERN  CANADA 7
delicacy of constitution in other countries have acquire*! complete health
by a few months' residence in this beneficent climate.
2. The Winter. At times and at places the winter is somewhat
severe. That is lo say, between about the 15th of Dwember and the
15th of March the thermometer frequently registers a temperature
crtisiderably below zero. At this period also storms, known loenily as
"blizzards" occasionally occur. During such, however, very low temperatures rarely prevail. Having stated this, the worst has been said.
With the aid of comfortable houses and proper clothing and furs the
prairie settler defies the winter at its worst.
The average weather during the winter in Manitoba, Eastern Saskatchewan and Northern Albeita is clear, calm and cold, with intense
bright sunshine. The snow, which never falls to more than « few inches
in depth on the prairies, becomes dry and powdery. Undei such circumstances life is enjoyable and healthful. The average settier is a cheery
soul and fond of social gatherings and amusements for which the winter
affords many opportunities. Low temperatures in winter in this dry
climate cause no inconvenience unless accompanied by high winds,
which is not often the case. The immigrant may prove this conclusively
by watching the rosy-faced school children rolling each other in the dry
powdery snow on a fine winter day when the thermometer perhaps stands
several degrees below zero.
The winter in Southern Alberta and Western Saskatchewan is a
season of bright, cloudlessdays,infrequent and scanty snowfalls and frequent
and prolonged breaks of warm weather, heralded by the chinook wind.
Wagons are used during the entire year, and it is only in occasional seasons that sleighs are necessary for brief periods. In January and the
early part of February there are sometimes short periods of cold, sharp
weather. Heavy snowstorms have at times covered the prairie more
than a foot deep, but this is very exceptional. The winter generally
breaks up in February with a grand blowing of the warm wind from the
west, followed by a period of from one to three weeks of warm, bright
weather, the beginning of Southern Alberta's spring. The earliest, spring
flowers appear in March. May is generally fine, warm and bright, June
and the earlier part of July rainy, the remainder of July, August, September,
October and generally November warm and dry. The summer, July
to September, is characterized by hot days, relieved by a never-failing
breeze, and cool nights, but the warm golden days of autumn, often lastkig
well into December, are the glory of the year. The grand characteristic
of the climate as a whole, and the one on which the weather hinges, is the
chinook wind, so called because it blows from the region formerly inhabited by the Chinook Indians, on the banks of the lower Columbia
River. It is a warm, dry wind, blowing from the mountains across the
plains, and ;ts principal characteristic is its power of rapidly melting the
snow.    The effect of this  wind in   winter  may  be   described   as  little g CANADIAN  PACIFIC  RAILWAY
■hort of miraculous, in its clearing away of the snow, always scanty in
amount, with amazing celerity.
3. The Summer. The same cause which obviates the inconvenience which might under other circumstances arise from low temperatures in winter, namely, the dryness of the atmosphere, also operates in
the settler's favor in summer time, permitting of a rapid radiation of the
heat communicated to the land by the intensely powerful rays of the sun
in our cloudless skies. It thus happens that however warm the temperature may be during the day, the nights are always cool, allowing of perfect
rest. Of course, extremely high temperatures are exceptional, but temperatures of over 90 in the shade are by no means uncommon. Here,
apain, the dryness of the atmosphere is individually helpful, by rendering
the cooling action of perspiration—Nature's great safeguard—most
effective. The writer is not aware that any ease is on record of deaths in
Western Canada directly attributive to excessive heat, while, not long ago,
it was reported that no fewer than 250 persons perished in one day in the
city of New York from excessive heat. The highest temperature recorded
there at that time was 99.8°.
4. In replying to the question, "Are the climatic conditions prevailing during the summer favorable to agricultural operations ?'' the matter
of rainfall is, of course, of first importance in non-irrigable sections.
From the statement given elsewhere it will be seen that the normal precipitation in the prairie provkiees is quite sufficient in volume to ensure satisfactory agricultural results. Indeed, the crop statistics of this area furnish
the most complete and conclusive evidence on that point.
(B)    British   Columbia.
Varied climatic conditions prevail in British Columbia. The Japanese
current and the moisture-laden winds from the Pacific exercise a moderating influence u|M>n the climate of the coast and provide a
copious rainfall. The westerly winds are arrested in their passage
east by the Coast Range, thus Treating what is known as the
"dry belt" east of those mountains, but the higher currents of air carry
the moisture to the loftier peaks of the Selkirks, causing the heavy snowfall
which distinguishes that range from its eastern neighbor, the Rockies.
Thus a series of alternate moist and dry belts are formed.
The climate of British Columbia, as a whole, presents all the conditions which are met with in European countries lying within the temperate
zone, the cradle of the greatest nations of the world, and is, therefore, a
climate well adapted to the development of the human race under the most
favorable conditions. As a consequence of the purity of its air, its freedom
from malaria, and the almost total absence of extremes ol heat and cold,
British Columbia may be regarded as a vast sanitarium. People coming
here from the East invariably improve in health. Insomnia and nervous
affections find alleviation, the old and infirm are granted a renewed lease
of life, and children thrive as in few other parts of the world. -O
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In his first .report on British ^lumbia, Profess** Macoun, of. the
Geological Survey, stated as follows : .f?
"It only remains for me to add that as years roll on, and our possessions
become developed, the value of this second Britain will come so vividly
before iMr people that men will ask with astonishment why such ignorance
prevailed in the past. To-day there are 400 miles of coast line in our-
Western possesions clothed with a forest growth superior to anything else,
in the world at present ; its shores indented with multitudes of harbors,,
bays, and inlets, teeming with myriads of fish ; its rooks andf sands containing gold, iron, silver, coal and varkma other minerals. Aad, besides
all this, a climate superior to England i,a every respect, both as regards,
heat and moisture ; and yet men ask. what is it'all worth? I answer^
worth more than Quebec and all the Maritime Provinces thrown in, and
sceptics may rest assured that the. day is not far distant when these words
will be accepted as truth."        ,
In the Kootenay district, which embraces the drainage area of the
Columbia River, the high average altitude renders the aif rarified and
bracing. The rainfall ranges from 18 to 20 inches per annum, with a
snowfall of from 1 to 3 feet. In summer the thermometer rises as high as
80 to 90 degrees in the shade, but the nights are eompensatingly cool.
At times in the winter there are cold spells, when the mercury falls below
zero, but tliese are of short duration.
Throughout the great interior plateau a much drier climate is found,
the total precipitation being from 7 to 12 inches, according to locality.
Luxuriant vegetation is confined to the borders of lakes and water courses,
while the general landscape presents the usual round-topped hills and
bunch grass of typical pasture or range land. In the many valleys thriving farms show the effects of careful cultivation, and wherever irrigation
has been practised the result is seen in ample crops.
South of Shuswap and Kamloops Lakes the climate presents the mean
between the dryness of the burxih grass country, and the humidity of the
coast. There is sufficient rain fall for all purposes, and the climate closely
resembles that of Central Europe.
The many valleys cutting the Coast Range have distinct climatic
peculiarities. Sheltered as they are by the surrounding hills from bleak
north winds, the warm breezes from the coast are freely wafted through
them. The sun's rays are concentrated on the side-hills with almost
tropical intensity, and even on the higher benches orchards and vineyards
yield enormous crofw.
As soon as the mountains are left behind and the Pacific littoral is
reached, there is an astonishing change in conditions. Where vegetation
has been left in its virgin state there is almost an impenetrable undergrowth, from which rise luxuriantly huge forests of fir, pine and spruce.
This is accounted for by the heavy rainfall, which increases towards the
north. But the winters are short, and temperate, and emphasized more by
a heavy rainfall than other climatic change,   The high mountains of Van- . 12 CANADIAN  PACIFIC RAILWAY
couver Island break the force of the heavy storms sweeping eastward over
the Pacific. /
Probably the driest point on the coast is in the vicinity of Victoria.
Harvest time is rarely unsettled, and there is seldom any difficulty incurred
in reaping the corps. During many winters there is no perceptible frost,
and delicate plants thrive throughout the year in the open air.
RAILWAY DEVELOPMENT
In accordance with its usual policy of affording, at the earliest possible
moment, railway facilities to newly settled and rapidly developing districts, the Canadian Pacific Railway Company graded last year 472 miles of
branch lines between the Great Lakes and the Rocky Mountains, the
mileage of the Company in this territory being now 5,812. Steel has been
laid on a considerable portion of the new grading. The lines graded last
year were :
Miles.
Lacombe Branch, Castor to Consort     60
Miwse Jaw Southwest Branch     35
Swift Current Southeast Branch     55
Swift Current Northwest Branch     45
Weyburn-I.ethbridge Branch, Ogema to Excel     26
Cut Knife Branch        32
Wilkie-Anglia Branch     31
Wilkie-Kerrobert Branch     36
Virden-McAuiey Branch, Two Creeks to McAuley .    23
Bassano Northwest Branch, Bassano to Standard ..    37
Estevan Northwest Branch     55
Boissevain Branch, Boissevain to Lauder .........    37
472
The length of the Company's main line from Montreal to Vancouver is
2,909.5 miles. The total mileage of the Company's lines is nearly 12,000,
and the mileage of allied lines 4,222. The new branches above referred
to all run through excellent farming districts, affording convenient markets
for the products of the settlers. The large demand for lots in the various
townsites on these new branches and also at older points on the Company's
lines, furnishes substantial proof of the development which the West is
experiencing. Special mention might be made of the fact that at the
divisional j>oint of Coronation, established September 27, 1911, the first
day's sale of lots realized nearly $130,000, and within thirty days there
were by actual count 140 buildings on the townsite with a population of
about 500.
The double track from Fort William which was completed to Portage
la Prairie in 1910, was continued through to Brandon last year. Notwithstanding the annual increase of mileage on C. P. R. western lines, the
contexrplated programme of construction for the future is even more extensive. '> j ''. WESTERN CANADA 13
WESTERN CANADA--THE WORLD'S
BREAD BASKET
The greatest industry of Western Canada is undoubtedly the production of wheat, oats and barley, and a few words bearing on the magnitude of this industry, and the systematic manner in which the wheat is
marketed and handled, is in order.
WHEAT AND LAND VALUES
Evidences of the prosperity of the farmer on the continent of America
have been multiplied and now assume an importance in the world of
finance, trade, transportation and manufacturing which has attracted
world-wide attention. Profound changes have taken place in the economic
results ot the farm, which have excited the reflections of many students
upon economic principles accompanying, if not underlying, agriculture.
Perhaps the most far-reaching factoi in the changes above indicated
has been the substantial exhaustion of the free and cheap lands, of the
United States Government and railroads, fit for agricultutal purposes without irrigation. The end of this land has been feached so suddenly that
it has given a sort of shock to the whole economic structure of agriculture.
There can be no doubt, that' one of the features of the early part of this
century is the higher valuation of farm lands in America. One cause for
this is undoubtedly the fact that up to a few years ago the prices of farm
products had fallen to a point very close to actual cost of production, and
in some cases below. The farmer is now getting a fair net return for
his labor, and this natvrally has the effect of increasing the value of his
land. Nothing affects land values so quickly as " dollar wheat," once
looked upon as something of a fabulous nature, but now an accepted
fact.
This Company's wheat lands, capable of producing higher yields per
acre than the lands of similar character in the United Slates, are sold at less
than one-quarter the price per acre asked for the better class of winter
wheat lands in the Pacific States. It is, therefore, evident that Western
Canada wheat lands are sold vastly below their real value, and thus furnish an investment second to none.
OUR WHEAT LAND
The important feature in connection with the Company's wheat lands
is that they rank as "hard " wheat producing The demand for hard wheat
is steadily increasing, while, on the other hand, the area of hard wheat
lands is exceedingly limited. Hard wheal production is confined to a
strip of country extending from Western Canada south through Western
Minnesota, the Dakotas, Western Nebraska, Kansas, and part of Oklahoma. Hard wl/eat requires for its production a soil rich in nitrogen,
ami receiving only a somewhat limited quantity of moisture, combined with 14 CANADIAN  PACIFIC  RAILWAY
a short growing season and dry atmosphere. It therefore follows that
Western Canada, which possesses all these characteristics, is in reality the
"Last West" where hard wheat producing lands can be obtained. With
the development of the Oriental markets for hard wheat products, an
era of agricultural prosperity;:whi(5hshas seldom been equalled in any part
of the globe, is now dawning.
There is one feature in connection with the wheat lands belonging to
this Company which should not be lost sight of. It is the Company's
earnest desire to dispose of its lands to actual settlers. The speculative
element cannot, of course, be altogether eliminated in the Company's
sales transactions, nor is it perhaps desirable that it should be. The farmer
who buys kind with a view to actual and immediate settlement is, however,
just as much interested in ultimately increasing land values as is the
speculator. The two things that give value to land are, first, the ability
of the land to produce, and, second, settlement. Then? can be no question
as to the producing abilities of our wheal lands, and as they are located in
what ultimately will be one of the densest agricultural settlements in America, we are in a position to offer investors and fanners an opportunity to
purchase lands at a nominal figure that will, within a few years, rank
among the most valuable agricultural areas in America. Not alone will
they pay for themselves very rapidly in the crops they produce, but by
virtue of their peculiarly favorable location they command a speculative
value entirely apart from their agricultural worth.
QUALITY WHEAT
It is interesting to note that at the big Land and Irrigation Show,
held in Madison Square Gardens, New York, November 3rd to 12th, 1911,
Canada demonstrated in no uncertain manner that she is "Mistress of
Wheat." Canada, on this occasion, carried off the prize for the best sample
of hard red spring or winter wheat grown on the two Americas Out of
sixteen entries, Canada's Prairie Provinces came one, two, three, with Sea-
ger Wheeler, of Rosthern, Saskatchewan, first ; W. J. Glass, McLeod,
Alberta, second ; and Thomas Maynard, Deloraine, Manitoba, third.
This historical event was won with wheat that weighed 6J^ lbs. per bushel
above the average, and that yielded from 70 1-5 to SO 2-3 bushels per acre.
The competition for the magnificent money prizes offered on this occasion was particularly keen, and the exhibit in its entirety was perhaps the
most thoroughly representative of the American continent that has ever
been gathered together in one place. The fact that Canada won the
first, second and third places, speaks volumes for the quality of wheat produced on the prairie lands of the Canadian West.
THE MARKET FOR GRAIN
It will readily be admitted that after everything has been said with
regard to the productive capacity of our wheat lands and the modern
facilities for transporting and handling the crop, the most important point
in connection with wheat production in Western Canada still remains to be WESTERN  CANADA 15
considered; namely, the price that the farmer may expect for his crep.
Western Canada is essentially an agricultural country, and before a farmer
decides to locate there he will endeavor to estimate what advantage he will
derive in doing so. If his endeavors are to be devoted chief!} to the production of grain he will want to know the value of the products in the
nearest market.
There is a considerable home market for wheat and cereals in interior
points in Western Canada, but the bulk of the wheat is exported to Eastern
Canada and to Great Britain. The eastbound grain export business of
Western Canada is conducted through a Grain Exchange at Winnipeg,
and all quotations are for grain in store at Fort William and Port Arthur.
The following table shows the average prices for certain grains,
F.O.B. Fort William and Port Arthur during the last six years
Average price of wheat per bushel during the years 1904 -1909 inclusive :
Year. No. 1 Nor. No. 2 Nor.     No. 3 Nor. No. 4
1904     $.92 $.89 $.87 $.78
1905.. ,.        .91 .85 ,80
1906 77 .75 .72
1907 90 .86 .83 .75
1908       1.06 1.04 .99 .94
1909       1.10 1.05% 105H .96%
Highest weekly average price of wheat per bushel during the years
1904-1909   inclusive :
1904     $1.05%       $1.02% $   97J^ $ .87
1905       1.30 1.27 .92H
1906 83V£ .80% .77^
1907       1.12%-,       1.10% 10(5 1.02%
1908       1.13% l.WH 1.06V .98%
1909       1.33% 1.30% 1 27H 1.21
Lowest weekly average price of wheat per bushel during the years
1904-1909 inclusive :
Year. No. 1 Nor.   No. 2 Nor.   No. 3 Nor. No. 4.
1904     $0.80 $0.76J^       $0 73>^       $0.66}^
1905 74% .71% .69^
1906 72% .70J^ .68
1907 71% .69% .68% .65J^
1908        .96% .91% .91M .85
1909 94K .94 .91% .88^
Average price of oats per bushel during 1907, 1908 and 1909, also
the highest and lowest weekly average price.
No. 2 Canadian Western.        No. 3 Canadian Western.
Average.    Highest. Lowest. Average. Highest.    Lowest.
1907     $0.42        $0.57%    $0.34        $0.30     $0.52%  $0.33
1908. 43 .57%        .36%        .40 .5:'%       .34 J^
1909 40%        .56^       .32%        .40 .55*4     .31^ If CANADIAN  PACIFIC  RAILWAY
Average price of barley per bushel during 1907, 1908 and 1909, also
the highest and lowest weekly average price.
No. 3 No. 4
Average Highest        Lowest       Average     Highest Lowest
1907     $0.50       $0.60%    $0.42%    $0.49    $0.65%    $0.41%
1908 50 .56%        .44%        .47        .54 .42%
1909 50%        .61H        .45 .49%    .60 .43
Average price of flax per bushel during 1907, 1908 and 1909, also the
highest and lowest weekly average price.
No. 1 Northwestern No. 2 Manitoba
Average Highest        LoweBt       Average     Highest Lowest
1907     $122       $1.33%    $1.02       $1.11    $1.25%    $0.99%
190S       1.15 1.25%      1.02%      1.13      1.23%      1.01%
1909       1.42 1.75 1.22 1.36% 1.73 1.20
The tariff of freight charges on grain from stations in Saskatchewan
to Fort William or Port Arthur is from 10 to 20 cents per hundred pounds,
or from 9J^ to 12 cents tier bushel for wheat, from hVi to 7 cents per bushel
for oats, from 7% to 9% cents per bushel for barley, and from 9 to 11%
cents per bushel for flax. The rate of transportation is somewhat lower
Iron: Manitoba points, and higher from points in Alberta.
THE  GRAIN MARKETING  SYSTEM
The Manitoba Grain Act of 1900, with subsequent amendments,
completely regulates the grain trade in the provinces. Each amendment
has obtained for the farmer some important concession, and by its provisions, if the farmer chooses to avail himself of them, the greatest possible
immunity is secured from abuses that may arise in connection with the
marketing of his crop.
In Canada all grain is sold according to grades established by law.
The inspectors, who are government appointees, decide the grade of all
grain passing out of the country. TLe fact that they are able to determine
the grade of the grain to the satis-faotion, on the whole, of both the buyer
and the seller, is evidence that the system is an excellent one.
The warehouse commissioner, whose office is at Winnipeg, Manitoba,
is also a government officii'.!. He is not allowed to have any pecuniary
interest in the grain trade. In the performance of his duties under the
Act he is required to have complete oversight of the grain trade generally,
in order that it may be properly conducted.
Almost all of the grain of Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta is
handled through interior elevators. Some of these are owned by the
farmers ; but most of them are owned by grain dealers and milling companies. All grain dealers in the province must be licensed and bonded,
thus securing the farmer from loss through either dishonest intentions or
financial embarrassment of the dealer. There are few stations in Western
Canada at which there are not one or more elevators.
A farmer may deliver his wheat to the elevator and receive cash for
it, or, if he prefers to hold his wheat for a time with a prospect of obtaining
a better price, he may store it in the elevator and secure a storage ticket
setting forth that he is eatitled to a stated number of bushels of wheat of WESTERN  CANADA 17
a certain grade. Or, if he prefers to load his grain into a car without
dealing with the elevator he may do so. The farmer having even a few
hundred bushels of grain to sell has the privilege of an alternative method
of shipping. Loading platforms, from which a farmer may load directly into
the car. have been erected at nearly all shipping points in order to facilitate
the handling of grain. The railways are compelled by law to erect these loading platforms at any station from which wheat in carload lots is shipped.
SOME WESTERN CANADA GRAIN FACTS
Land Area Acres.
Manitoba     162,38,8,480
Saskatchewan     155,092,480
Alberta     160.755,200,
Less than 10 per cent, of the arable land upder cultivation in 1911. ,
Crop Statistics. Manitoba. Saskatchewan and Alberta
Bushels.        Bushels.        Bushels.        Bushels.
Year. Wheat. Oats. Barley. Flax.
1901       63,311,632     38,909,654     7,331,255      266,420
1902 ..'       67,034,117      45.139,455    12,718,839       722,625
1903       56,146,021      47.215,479    10,448,161       881.000
1904       54,390,678      44,620,520    10,920,850       535,543
1905       81,506,857      66,311,800    13,447.800       733,700 ,
1906       94,201,984      94,244,000    16,888,000    1,023,510
1907         70,922,584;     74,513,561    19,187.149    1,7X2,065
1908         96,863,689    108,987,855    24,050.645    3,165.320
1909       118.109,000    163,998,752    30,542,000    4.X33.167
1910       101,236,413    108,301,000    16,993,170   4,038,950
1911*         184,728,000   204.758,000    30,205,000    7.465,000
"Estimate Dominion Government.
Grain Storage Capacity. Western Canada
(Including Port Arthur,
Port William, Keewatin
and the Territories).
and points
in Manitoba
Year.               Bushels.
Year.               Bushels.
Year.
Bushels.
1900. .... 20,908,000
1904 41,186,000
1908....
6O,80S,600
1901   21.000.000
1905 46 640,630
1009	
63,190,100
1902     21,298,000
1906   50.453,200
1910....
.  77,901,100
1903 30,356,400
1907    55.600.000
1911....
. 84.917.700
Wheat Inspected at Winnipeg
Year.              Bushels.
Year.               Bushels.
Year.
Bushels.
1900  ....   12.355.380
1004 39,784,500
1908  ...
.   75,466.030
1901    45,651.81)0
1905  ...    65.819,940
1909...
.  94,922,385
1902    ... 51,833,000
1906   73,097,950
1910 ...
.  8K,269,330
1903    40,396,650
1907   64,41)4,150
1911.   .
127.519,000
Milling Capacity. Western Canada—'Inc. Fort William and Keewatin).
1909.
1910.
1912.
Flour mills, daily capacity ... 41,035 bbls.      41,530 bbls.
77,740 bbls.
Oatnwal mills, daily capacity .   1.450 bbls          1,425 bbls.
3.150 bbls.
l».   ;;-j;:A*v >fti 1    . . ,-«!, .   ; 18 CANADIAN  PACIFIO RAILWAY
PART II.
HOW  TO  OBTAIN  LANDS  IN
WESTERN   CANADA
The largest owners of land in Western Canada, are the Dominion
Government, the Government of British Columbia ami the Canadian
Pacific Itnihvay Company. The former disposes of its land by granting
free homesteads, and, in a very limited way, by selling the same under
the "pre-emption" regulations. The Railway Company sells its lands to
settlers on very liberal terms, and at sufficiently low prices to ensure rapid
settlement.
CHEAPER TH'AN HOMESTEADS
A great many farmers visiting Wpstern Canada in search of new
homes, come with the idea of taking up Government lands under the
Homestead Regulations. While, on the surface, ii might seem paradoxical to argue that lands which are practically grnutiil free are in the end
more expensive than those thai are bought and paid for, it can readily be
shown that, with the lil>eral terms offered by this Compnny, the average
farmer will be better off by purchasing railroad law!. In the first place,
he does not have to acquire land thirty to forty miles from transportation
facilities in the ht»i>o of railways being ultimately extended, lie can obtain
land within a few miles of the railway, and in close proximity to a shipping
point.
It will be easily understood that with the great rush of people that has
taken place into Western Canada during recent years, all homesteads
of any great value, within close proximity to transportation facilities, have
long ago passed out of the hands of the Government, and such being the
case it is submitted that it will pay the practical farmer better to purchase
land close to railroads than to accept as a free gift a homestead, lying remote from transportation facilities, and perform the conditions imposed
by the Homestead Regulations.
SYSTEM OF LAND SURVEY
MANITOBA, SASKATCHEWAN AND ALBERTA.—The old system of survey under which' most of Manitoba is laid out, allows 99 feet for a
road allowance around each section of land, which forms one mile square.
The new survey system gives 66 feet only for roads around two sections,
viz., 1 and 12, 2 and 11, etc. In Alberta and Saskatchewan the latter system prevails.
The landR are laid off in townships, practically square in form, bounded
on the east and west sides by true meridians of longitude, and on the north
and south by chords of the circular parallels of latitude. Tlie tiers of
townships are numbered from one upwards, commencing at the International Boundary, and lie in ranges from east to west, numbered in regular WB0TKHN  CANADA
10
order westward from certain standard lines called principal meridians.
Each township is divided into 36 sections containing 640 acres, more or less,
divided by road allowances 66 feet in width. Each section is in turn divided iuto four quarter sections of 160 acres each, which are designated
the southeast, the southwest, the northeast and the northwest quarters.
The comers of each division are marked on the ground by suitable posts,
rendering it an easy matter to locate any particular piece of land.
The following is a surveyed plan of a township. In every township,
sections Nos. 11 and 29 are reserved by the Government for. school purposes, and Nos. 8 and 26 by the Hudson's Bay Company.
CANADIAN   PACIFIC  RAILWAY   LANDS IN
MANITOBA,  SASKATCHEWAN
AND ALBERTA
In consideration of the construction of the transcontinental line,
which was completed in the early '80's, the Canadian Pacific Railway
Company received from the Dominion Government twenty-five million
acres of land in the Western provinces. I'nder the terms of its agreement,
the Railway Company had practically the privilege of selecting these lands
from among the odd-numbered sections throughout Western Canada.
It is the unsold port ion of these lands in Western Canada that the Company
now offers for sale.
The ini|>ortant point to bear in mind is, that all the Company's lands
were selected in the early history of Western Canada, and the selection
was made on the basis of a very  thorough inspection.    In other words, 20 CANADIAN   PACIFIC  RAILWAY
all the remaining land now owned by the Company is still the pick of an
-normous area from which the Oompany hail the privilege of selection.
GENERAL CONDITIONS OF LAND CONTRACTS
1. All improvements placed upon land purchased to be maintained
until final payment has been made.
2. All taxes and assessments lawfully imposed upon the land or improvements to be paid by the purchaser.
3. The Company reserves from sale under these regulations; all
mineral, coal and petroleum lands, stone, slate and marble quarries, and
land with water power thereon.
TERMS OF SALE
Canadian Pacific Railway lands in Manitoba, Saskatchewan and
\lberta are sold on the uniform basis of one-tenth cash and the balance
in nine equal annual instalments, interest at   the rate of six per cent, per
annum.
\
ACTUAL SETTLEMENT. —If, however, lands are purchased for
•ic.tual settlement, somewhat more favorable terms are extended. Such a
purchaser must pay down one-tenth of the purchase price, but the second
payment does hot.Jieeorr.e due tint il two years after the purchase of the land,
interest only being payable at the end of the first year; the remaining
portion of the principal is then divided into nine equal, annual payments
with interest at six per cent, per annum. »■•'•-
To secure the advantages ot these terms, the purchaser must, undertake to settle upon the land, with his family, if married, and break up at
least, one-sixteenth thereof and make proof of such settlement and cultivation within one year to the satisfaction <.r the Company. In the event of
(ahy failure to furnish such proof, within the time stated, the purchaser shall
be required at the end of one year from the date of the purchase, to pay
the second payment and interest, as per contract.
Residence upon adjacent land, and the erection of buildings on the
land will be accepted in lieu of actual residence.    Fencing of the land for
lasture, etc., to the satisfi ■ 'tion of the Company will be accepted instead
tf cultivation.
CANADIAN PACIFIC READY-MADE FARMS
In 1909 the Canadian Pacific Railway inaugurated what is known as
its "Ready-Made" or Improved Farms policy. During that year, a number of farms were equipped with a house and barn, a well was drilled on
each, the whole farm surrounded by a substantial wire fence, and fifty
acres broken and seeded to crops. . .-,,.,, ...   ,, WESTERN  CANADA 21
In the Bpring of 1910, these were settled by a contingent of British
farmers, who were personally conducted by the Company's agents from
Great Britain, to the location of these farms. So successful was thin
colony, that the policy was broadened, the buildings on subsequent farms
improved, and the number of ready-made farms available for occupation
increased.
Under the present arrangement, a settler steps from the train and
proceeds immediately to a farm which is quite ready for him, and on
which he may begin earning an income, at once. The houses on these
farms, are superior to those of some settlers of many years' residence,
while the barns are of a pattern most approved by progressive Western
Canadian  farmers.
These farms are sold on the ten-year-payment basis. The price of the
improvements is added to the price of the land, the whole being payable,
one-tenth cash and the balance in nine equal annual instalments, with
interest at the rate of six per cent, per annum.
To begin with, these ready-made farms were established only in
Alberta, but now the policy has been extended to include Manitoba,
Saskatchewan and British Columbia as well. The farms in the Prairie
Provinces are especially adapted to mixed farming, while those in British
Columbia are designed for a combination of intensified farming and fruitgrowing.
"LOAN TO SETTLERS" POLICY
Realizing that there are a great many farmers now residing outside
of Canada, especially those tilling rented farms in the United States,
who would come to Canada could they see their way clear financially,
the Canadian Pacific Railway, during the spring of 1912, decided upon
a policy that will be of material assistance to this class of agriculturists.
Briefly, to experienced farmers, who already own the necessary implements
and machinery, and have enough cash to make a payment of one-tenth
the purchase price of the land, the Company will advance a loan of $2,000,
to be expended in improving the land.
The conditions of this loan are: Applicants must be married men
actually engaged in agriculture and resident outside of Canada; applicants,
at their own expense, must make a personal selection of the land they
propose to buy; applicants must be the owner (free of encumbrance) of
sufficient horses, cows and other live stock and farm implements, to enable them to go into occupation of their land and proceed with the development without having to purchase any livestock or implements; no
application will be accepted for a greater area than a half section; applicants, in addition to having sufficient cash to make their first payment on
the land must have enough to keep their families for one year from date of
occupation; the total advance must be expended improving tlie land
purchased. The advance will be added to the list price of the land, and
will be repayable in nine annual instalments with the remaining nine-
tenths of said purchase price, interest at the rate of six per cent, per annum, 22 CANADIAN  PACIFIC   RAILWAT
■"'•■   ; --?•!>  TOWNSITES'    to ■;.,:;•-■
On the completion of the construction of any railway line, the Company selects townsites conveniently located to serve the area affected by
the railway. These townsites are then subdivided and are offered for sale
to the public Upon the opening of tlie townsite, the Company frequently
puts up for public com petition a portion of the original subdivision, the
balance being held for sale at the Company's Land Offices in Calgary,
Alberta; Lethbridge, Alberta; Saskatoon, Saskatchewan; Winnipeg,
Manitoba.
TERMS OF PAYMENT FOR TOWN LOTS
The Company has adopted uniform terms for the sale of its to#nsite
property. One-third cash is demanded, and the balance in two equal instalments in six and twelve montlvs from the date of purchase. The rate, of
interest charged on deferred payments on town property sales is 8 per
cent, per annum.
For further information apply to the C. P. R. Land Agent at Calgary,  Alta.;  Lethbridge,  Alta.;  Saskatoon,  Sask.,  or  Winnipeg,   Man.
MINERAL, COAL AND TIMBER LANDS
Mineral, coal and timber lands and quarries located on railway lands
iSn Manitoba, Saskatchewan or Alberta, will be disposed of at reasonable
terms to persons giving satisfactory evidence of their intention and ability
to utilize the same.
NATURALIZATION
It is not necessary for anyone purchasing or owning lands anywhere
in Western Canada to become a British subject, unless he so desires. The
majority of those who have settled in the Canadian West from foreign
countries have, however, become citizens.
TITLE
When you purchase land from the Canadian Pacific Railway you
make your "Contract" direct with that Company, the deed to the land
being made by them under the authority of what is known as the " Land
Titles Act, ISM." The "Title" is perfect, and you are dealing with »
corporation which has assets of hundreds of millions of dollars.
The Land Titles System of Western Canada was perfected and applied
in the early stages of colonization, and is regarded as the simplest and
most efficient in the world.
BRITISH COLUMBIA LANDS
Ful] information regarding British Columbia lands may be obtained
by addressing the Superintendent of ijuids, T)e|»artment of Natural Resources,  Canadian  Pacific Railway Co.,  Calgary-; from  the Provincial WESTERN CANADA 23
Land Department, Victoria, British Columbia, or from any of the following
persons:
East Kootenay (Central)—R. R. Bruce, Wilmer, B. C.
East Kootenay (Southern)—A. H. Webster, Cranbrook, B. C, and
J. Austin, Elko, B.C.
West Kootenay—H. & M. Bird, Nelson, B. C, and Thos. Abriel,
Nakusp, B. C.
Yale District—J. A. McCallum, Grand Forks, B. C,
The Company is also interested in the following townsites, where, in
many cases, local representatives may be consulted as to priee of lots
and obtaining of application forms :—Cranbrook, Revelstoke, Nelson,
Nakusp, Fort Steele, Creston, Elko, Proctor, Grand Forks, Kitchener,
Bull River, Yahk, Eholt, Midway, Greenwood, Castlegar, Cascade,
Columbia, Tochty, Swansea, Jaffray, Fort Steele Junction, Goatfell, Alton,
Wasa, Mallett, Parsoa, ICimberley, Arrowhead, Lardo, Gerrard, Kamloops
and    Vancouver.
ESQUIMALT AND NANAIMO RAILWAY LANDS
The Esquimalt and Nanaimo Railway Company owns nearly 1,200,000
acres of agricultural, timber and mineral lands on Vancouver island, extending from Otter Point on the Southwest coast to Crown Mountain in
the Comox district, which include within their boundaries all the flourishing farming, mining, lumbering and fishing communities along the East
Coast and the line of the Esquimalt and Nanaimo Railway, a tract recognized to be the choicest portion of Vancouver lvjand. This magnificent estate is being systematically explored km ihe Company, whose intention it is to clear the available agricultural la#5i of timber and divide it into
convenient sized lots, when it will be oftv' for sale to truit gigowers
farmers, poultry and dairymen, at reasonable prices ami on favorable
terms. As the interior is explored it is the intention of the Goiflpany to
extend the railway and build branches into the most desirable valleys to
afford easy access to the agricultural, timber and mineral lafida.
Fuller information regarding these landed au>\ the Couai anv's town-
sites may be had by application to THE LAND DEPARTMENT*
ESQUIMALT AND NANAIMO RAILWAY COMPAMYi, VICTORIA,
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
DOMINION GOVERNMENT LANDS IN MANITOBA, SASKATCHEWAN AND ALBERTA
FREE HOMESTEAD REGULATIONS
Any person who is the sole head of a family, or any male over eighteen
years old, may homestead a quarter section (160 acres, more or less) of
available Dominion land in Manitoba, Saskatchewan or Alberta.  WESTERN  CANADA 20
Entry.—The applicant must appear in person at the Dominion Land
Agency or Sub-Agency for the district. Entry by proxy may be made at
any agency, on certain conditions (which may be ascertained from the
Secretary of the Department of the Interior or any Dominion Lands
Agent), by father, mother, son, daughter, brother, or sister of intending
homesteader. A fee of $10 is payable with the application for homestead
entry..
Homestead Duties.—Six months' residence upon and cultivation
of the land in each of three years. A homesteader may live within nine
miles of his homestead on a farm of at least 80 acres solely owned and occupied by'him, or by his father, mother, son, daughter, brother or sister.
Pre-emption.—In certain districts a homesteader in good standing
may pre-empt a quarter-section alongside his homestead. Price, $3 per
acre. Duties—Must reside six months in each of six years from date of
homestead entry (including the time required to earn homestead patent)
and cultivate fifty acres extra.
Purchased Homestead;—A homesteader who has exhausted his
homestead right and cannot obtain a pre-empt ion, may take a purchased
homestead in certain districts. Price $3 per acre. Purchased homesteads
may be acquired on any available lands on either odd or even numbered
sections south of townships 45, east ot the Calgary <v Edmonton Railway
and the west line of range 26, and west of the third meridian and the "Soo"
railway line. Duties—Must reside six months in each of three years,
cultivate fifty acres, and erect a house worth $300.
Patent.—After the expiration of the period fixed by the Dominion
Lands Act, and the fulfilment of the required duties application should be
made for the issue of a patent; Proof of such fulfilment must be made
before the local Dominion Lands Agent or such other person as may be
authorized by the Minister of the Interior. Failure on the part of an entrant for a homestead to apply for patent within five years from date of
entry shall render the homestead liable to forfeiture. In the case of a preemption, failure to apply for patent within eight years from date of entry
shall render it liable to forfeiture.
COAL AND MINERAL RIGHTS
Coal mining rights which are the property of the Crown may be leased
for a term of 21 years, at an annual rental of $1.00 per acre. Not more than
2,560 acres shall be leased to one applicant, which in surveyed territory
must be contiguous and must be described by Section, Tp., and Rg. A
royalty at the rate of five cents per ton shall be collected on the merchantable coal mined.
All applications should be submitted to the Agent of Dominion Lands
for the district in which the rights applied for are situated, and should
he accompanied by a fee of $5.00 in each case. The lease shall include the
coal mining rights only, but the lessee may be permitted to purchase a
certain area af surface at $10.00 per acre. 26 . SANADIAN  PACIFIC  RAILWAT
Permits to mine coal for domestic purposes may be issued'on application to the Agent of Dominion Lands for the district in which the lands
are situated for an area not exceeding three acres, which area must previously have been staked out by planting a post at each comer. Rental,
$5.00 per acre per annum, and royalty 20 cents per ton anthracite coal,
15 cents for bituminous coal and 10 cents for lignite coal.
PROVINCIAL GOVERNMENT LANDS IN
BRITISH COLUMBIA
The Government of British Columbia does not grant free homesteads.
The fact of a person having a homestead in another province or on Dominion Government lands in this province, is no bar to pre-empting Crown
lands in British Columbia.
Lands owned by the Provincial Government are laid off and surveyed
in quadrilateral townships containing thirty-six sections of one-square
mile*each, whenever it is practicable to carry this survey through.
HOW TO SECURE PRE-EMPTION
Any person, except an aborigine, being the head of a family, a
widow, or a single man over eighteen years of age, and being a British
subject, or any alien, upon his making a declaration of his intention to become a subject may, for agricultural purposes, record any tract not exceeding one hundred and sixty acres, of unoccupied and unreserved Crown
lands which may not be within an Indian settlement.
If the land be tinsurveyed, he shall first place a stake or post four
inches square and four or more feet high (tree stumps squared and the
proper height will do) at one corner of the land to be recorded, and he
shall inscribe upon each post his name and the anglewhich it represents, thus:
" John Smith's land N, E. post," or "John Smith's land N. W post,"
or whatever corner the post may represent. In addition to this, he must
post a written or printed notice, giving description in detail of the length
and direction of the boundaiy lines of the land sought, and the date of
his location and of his intention to apply for and record the same.
After staking the land and marking the posts, the applicant must
make an application in writing to the Commissioner of the district within,
which the land is situated. This application must be recorded within
thirty days after location, if the land is within ten miles of the offices of
the Commissioner. One additional day will be allowed for the filing
of such application for every additional ten miles or fraction thereof.
The appl-cation must contain a full description, in duplicate, of the land
sought, to be acquired, and must also have attached a sketch plan in duplicate, and be accompanied by a fee of $2.00 and a declaration of re-staking.
If the applicant desires to pre-empt surveyed land, he must make a
similar application in writing to the Commissioner, giving the description WESTERN   CANADA 27
as before mentioned, and accompanying it with plan in duplicate. He
must also pay the $2.00 fee. It will not be necessary for him to plant posts.
Any number of persons, not exceeding four, may unite in partnership
for the purpose of pre-empting, holding and working land, and shall be
eligible to pre-empt as a firm, for agricultural purposes, an area to the
extent, to each of the persons, of one hundred and sixty acres. Each
member of the firth shall represent his interest by occupation of some
portion of the land so held, but it, shall not be necessary in such cases, that
he shall reside on his particular pre-empt ion. All the persons may
reside together on one of the pieces. For the purposes of obtaining a
certificate' of Improvement to the land pre-empted in this way, it shall
be necessary to show the Commissioner *na' 'improvements, amounting
in the aggregate to $2.50 per acre for the whole of the land, have been made
on some portion thereof.
A pre-emptor or pre-emptors of unsurveyed land shall have the land
surveyed at his own cost and expense, within five years from the date of
record, subject to the rectification of the boundaries. The regulations
governing the survey of the same are practically identical with those
pertaining to the purchase of land under the different land grants of the
Canadian Pacific Railway as more fully set forth in this pamphlet.
In all cases the person or persons making the pre-emption entry shall
within sixty days of the elate of certificate, enter into occupation of the
land so recorded.
A pre-emptor, after carrying out the conditions pertaining to his
pre-emption entry, is required to go into occupation of his land for a
period of at least two years and to make permanent improvements thereon
to the value of $2.50 per acre. The meaning of the word "occupation"
under the Act implies the continuous, bona-fide personal residence of the
pre-emptor or his family on the laud recorded by him. He may not, without special permission from the Commissioner, be absent during one year
for a longer period than two months.
A pre-emptor who has been in occupation of his pre-emption for
not less than two years from the date of its record, shall be entitled to
receive from the Commissioner a certificate, to be called a Certificate of
Improvement; upon bis proving to him by declaration in writing of himself and two other persons, or in such other manner as may be required', I hat
he has been in occupation of his pre-emption claim front the date thereof,
and has made permanent improvements thereon to the value of $2 50
per acre.
After the granting of the Certificate of Improvement as aforesaid
and the payment of $1.00 per acre for the land has been made, a Crown
grant of tin- fee simple, of and in the laud recorded in such certificate, will
be executed in favor of the pre-emptor, upon payment of the sum of
$10.00 therefor; bit. no Crown grant shall be executed in favor of any
alien who may have declared as aforesaid, his intention of becoming a
British subject, until he has become such according tp law. 36 CANADIAN   PACIFIC  RAILWAY
SALE OF PROVINCIAL CROWN LANDS.
"Crown Lands" which mean and include such ungranted public
lands as are within and belong to His Majesty in right of the Province of
British Columbia, and whether or not any waters flow over or cover the
same, are in part open for sale.
Every person desirous of' purchasing unsurveyed, unoccupied and
unreserved crown lands, shall stake the land in practically the same way
as provided in the case of pre-emption, and if within ten miles of the
office of the Commissioner he shall post to him notice in writing, together with ••. statutory declaration in duplicate, and shall commence and
continue the publication of a notice in the British Columbia Gazette and
in a local newspaper, setting forth the description of the land which lie
desires to purchase, and shall, within three months of the date of tVie
first publication of such notice, make an application in duplicate to the
Commissioner for permission to purchase the said land, filing a statutory
declaration in duplicate of the publication of the notice and accompanying
. it with a deposit equal to the sum of fifty cents per acre on the area applied
for.    The Commissioner shall then issue a certificate of purchase therefor.
The minimum price of first -class land is $5.00 per acre, that of seeond-
jlass lands. $2.50 per acre, but the Chief Commissioner may for any reason increase the price of any of the lands above the said price;
The minimum area that he may purchase under the provisions of
he Act shall be 40 acres, measuring 20 chains by 20 chains, except in cases
where such area cannot be obtained, and the maximum area under general
conditions shall be 640 acres, measuring 80 chains by 80 chains.
if the Chief Commissioner decides that the land can be sold, he shall
forthwith notify the applicant, who shall have the land required surveyed
at his own cost and expense by a duly authorized British Columbia Land
Surveyor, in accordance with the regulations as previously sel forth,
and the deposit of fifty cents per acre shall then be credited towards the
payment of the purchase price.
It shall be the duty of the surveyor to classify the lands as timber
lands, first and second class lands as herein set forth.
FIRST-CLASS LANDS under the Act are those which are
suitable for agricultural purposes, or which are capable of being brought
under cultivation profitably, or which are wild hay meadow lands. All
other lands, other than timber lands, shall rank and be classified as second-
class lands.
TIMBER LANDS an; those which contain timber to the extent of
8,000 feet per acre to the west of the Cascades, and 5,000 feet per acre to
the east of the Cascades. These timbei lands shall not be open for sale or
pre-emption, hut particulars relative to permission in regard to cutting
from off Government timber lands may be had by applying to any Provincial Government   Agent. WESTERN  CANADA 2t»
B. C. GOVERNMENT LAND AGENTS—The following is a list of
Government Agents with whom pre-emptions may be filer!. I.ands in outlying districts in which there is no resident agent, are dealt with in the-
Land Department, Victoria, B. C, R. A. Renwiek, Esq., Deputy Commissioner.
LIST OF ASSISTANT COMMISSIONERS OF LANDS
Distjuct. Name. Address
Alberni  .11. C. Rayson    Alberni
At.Iin J. A. Fraser  Atlin
Cassiar I James Porter Telegraph Creek
Yale Division of V"a!e Ii. P. Christie    Ashcroft
Kamloops     K. T VV. I'earse .... Kamloops
Similkameen   I. Ii. Brown    Kairview
Osoyoos L. Norris      Vernon
Kamloops, Nicola Division . . . Wm. N. Rnlfe    Nicola
East Kootenay, South Div I. F. Armstrong     . .Cranbrook
East Kootenay, North Div.   . .E. J. Scovil      Golden
West Kootenay, Nelson Div.   . W. F. Teet/.el     .   . . Nelson
West Kootenay, Slocan Div. .. E. E. Chipmen   .... Kalso
Kootenay, Revelstoke Div Robt. Gordon Revelstoke
New Westminster S. A. Fletcher    New Westminstet
Nanaimo Geo. Thomson Nanaimo
Hazelto'n and Fort Fraser  .... Wm. Allison    IlHzeltdn
Skeena  . ..I. H. McMullen     . .Prince Rupert
Ft. George, Cariboo and Peace
River Geo. .1. Walker   .... Barkerville
Lillooet     F. Soues  . .Clinton
DOMINION GOVERNMENT   LANDS IN BRITISH COLUMBIA
All the lands in British Columbia within twenty miles on each side
of the Canadian Pacific Railway main line, called "The .'.ailway Belt " are
the property of the Dominion of Canada, with all timber anil minerals thej
contain (except precious met-vls) This tract of land, with its timber,
hay, water powers, coal and stone, is now administered by the Department
of the Interior of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, practically according to the
same laws and regulations as are the public lands in Manitoba, Alberta
and Saskatchewan, and is open to any male over 18 years of age or widow
having a family dependent on her, who has not already under the homesteading regulations acquired land in any part of the Dominion of Canada.
Government agencies are established at Kamloops and New Westminster 30 CANADIAN  PACIFIC RAILWAY
PART III.
MANITOBA
Manitoba ffommen/'ed her separate existence wilh a population of
some 12,000 people in 1870, ami now is estimated to |m)sw>ss about 500,000
of a population, partly made up by immigration from the continent of
Europe, as well as by Settlement from the United States.
In 1878 the first railway entered this province, coming from St. Paul,
Minnesota, to the little town of St. Boniface, from which transference was
made to Winnipeg by ferry over the Red River. But the rising spirit of
Canada, backed by the persistent outcry of Manitoba, demanded that a
transcontinental railway should be built, which would connect Manitoba
with the Eastern provinces. This was finally accomplished, and the first
through Ujiin from Montreal to Vancouver passed through Winnipeg on
July 1st (Dominion Day), V886.
BOUNDARIES AND AREA
The province of Manitoba was created and became a sister of the
Confederation of Canada under an Act passed in 1870. The area of the
province as then created was 13,500 square miles. The boundaries of the
province have, however, recently been considerably extended so as to
give access to the Hudson's Bay. The area now covered by this province
is 253,732 square miles, which makes Manitoba approximately the same
sue as Alberta and Saskatchewan.
The province is bounded on the west by Saskatchewan, on the
east by Ontario, on the south by the International Boundary, and extends north to the Hudson's Bay.
NATURAL DIVISIONS
From a standpoint of agriculture and settlement, the province may
roughly be divided into the following great areas :
1. The Plains District.—This area is bounded by the International
Boundary on the south, the province of Saskatchewan on the west, and
Range 6 west of the 1st Meridian on the east. Roughly speakiug, the
northerly boundary of the Plains Area is Township 14. This district
is  well settled.
2. The Park Country.—The Park Country of Manitoba consists of mixed prairie and woodland, and extends in n atrip about 30 miles
wide, and describing a quarter circle from the International Boundary to the
easterly boundary of Saskatchewan. This strip commences some 50
miles west of the Lake of the Woods and skirts the southerly point of
Lake Winnipeg. A tongue also extends into the plains country with the
top lying between Brandon and Portage la Prairie, and the point exu nding
to the International Boundary east of the town of Emerson. This area
contains most of the unsold binds of the company. c
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NO«£sCClfil'ttCC*f c — t*.3c««ft CANADIAN  PACIFIC RAILWAT
3. Forest Area.—The northern forest is as yet unsettled and extends from a line drawn in a north-westerly direction from the southern
point of Lake Winnipeg to the northerly boundary of the province.
CEREAL PRODUCTION
Although the province of Manitoba is the oldest settled of the prairie
provinces, it is well within the truth to state that farming is as yet in its
infancy. The area now under cultivation is an amazingly small iiercentage
of the total area availiible for the production of crops
In order to convey a correct idea of the agricultural wealth and productiveness of the province, statistics of yields of the principal grain
crops for a period of twenty-eight years are quoted on page 31.
SUMMARY
The following summary of yields per acre of principal grain crops in
Manitoba, based on the foregoing figures, shows th' situation in a nutshell
and will convince the most sceptical that this province is one of the richest
districts on the American continent. There can be no dispute in regard
to accurate records covering a continuous period of twenty-seven years.
Wheat, average for 27 years. 18.39 bushels per acre.
Oats. average for 27 years. 35.60 bushels per acre.
Barley, average for 27 years. 29.87 bushels per acre.
Flax,      average for 20 years. 13.16 bushels per acre.
It may here be mentioned that the number of threshing outfits in active
operation in the Province of Manitoba during the fall of lull was 3,193.
COMPARATIVE STATISTICS
To those who have not studied the question with care, the foregoing;
figures lose much of their significance. It has, therefore, been thought
well to establish a comparison between yields per acre of spring wheat
in Manitoba and those of the principal wheat producing States of the
Union for a ten-year period :—
State or Territory
1809
1900
1901
1902
1903
1904
1905
1906
1907
1908
1909
New Jersey   	
14.8
19.1
16.8
16 0
11.0
13.3
16 4
18.3
18.5
17 3
17 06
14  1
19.5
!7 2
14 7
12.5
13.4
16.3
16.0
19.0
10 4
14.05
Wi>„t Virginia  ....
9.3
9 8
10 9
7 7
10.2
10 1
12.3
12 7
12.2
13 0
13 0
Ohio 	
14.2
9 8
8.4
6 0
S3
7 6
IS. 3
15 8
11.1
17  1
10 0
17 7
13.7
10.0
15.5
11.5
9 2
17.1
18.3
20 4
20.7
13.1
IB 3
14.4
14.5
10 0
IB B
18.0
15 9
15 3
9.8   18.5
18 8
w iaeonsin   	
15.5
15 5
IB 1
18.1
IB.6
15 5
16.6
16.3
14   1
18. i
19 0
13.4
10.5
12 9
13 9
13.1
12.8
13.3
10 9
13.0
12.8
16 8
Iowa    .	
13.0
15.8
16.2
12 7
12.4
11.6
14.2
15 7
13 4
17 2
18.1
North Dakota ....
12.8
4 9
13  1
IS U
12.7
11  8
14.0
13.0
10.0
11.6
13 7
South Dakota ....
10 7
6 9
12.9
12 2
13 8
9.6
13 7
13.4
11 .2
.12.8
11  1
Nwbraska	
10.3
12.0
17  1
20 9
15.7
13.6
19.4
22.0
18  1
17 2
16 7
9.8
11.1
14.1
17 7
IH 4
10 3
t8.5
8.9
15.0
10 4
9 0
10.9
14.1
13.4
11  2
12.4
10.7
10.8
13 9
8.9
9.3
15.1
11.5
17  1
110
7.4
15.0
12 «
It 0
14 6
13.0
9 1
14 2
17.13
8.9
25.1
26.0
lb. 52
16.32
21  07
19.49
14.22
17.23
17 33
It will be observed from the above, that Manitoba, in moat years*.
is well in advance in point of average production per acre. WESTERN   CANADA ; -33
MIXED FARMING
A President of the United States had the following advice to give to
the young men of his country :
"If I were advising young men as to their future profession I would
say that there are greater opportunities in agriculture than in any other
profession in our country. We have arrived at a time in the development
of this country and the world where old methods of agriculture must be
discarded if we would keep up with the procession. Also land is becoming too valuable to treat in the  old wasteful way."
The President of one of the greatest transportation systems in America
supplements the above advice with the following statement :
"The farmers of this land cannot prosper until stock-raising becomes
an inseparable part of agriculture. The natural increase of animals, the
butter and milk, the stock sent to market—all add materially to the
income of the farm. Still more important is the fact that of all forage fed
to live stock at least one-third in cash value remains on the, land in the
form of manure, that soon restores worn-out soil to fertility and keeps
good lands from deteriorating. By this system the farm may be made
and kept a source of perpetual wealth."
Everyone who has given the matter any thought, has unhesitatingly
counselled the farmer in Western America to discard the "one-crop
system" and to engage more largely in animal husbandry, leading naturally to what is termed "diversified" or "mixed" farming. This advice is
doubtless excellent, but does not always take sufficient account of local
conditions. The opening up of a new country is always attended with
more or less wasteful methods. The "one-crop" system is one of them.
Elsewhere in this handbook comments on the subject have been quoted
from the report of the Scottish Agricultural Commission. The reply
they received to their enquiry as to why mixed farming was not largely
practised was to the effect that grain growing had proved to be a profitable
business, and most of the farmers were content, at present, to pursue that
system of farming until such time as circumstances forced them into the
more elaborate scheme involved in mixed farming.
There is another feature to take into consideration. A large majority of the early settlers were men with brawn and energy, but generally
with exceedingly limited capital. On taking possession of the raw prairie
they naturally looked to grain production to furnish them with the quickest
cash returns. Futhermore, animal husband^ involved a certain amount
of building investment, which was generally beyond the means of the pioneer.
THE GRADUAL EVOLUTION
Manitoba is the oldest settled of the Canadian Prairie Provinces
and the change from the "one crop" to the "mixed farming" system,
which is growing gradually all through the Canadian West, has naturally 34 CANADIAN   PACIFIC  RAILWAY
been more marked in that province than elsewhere. The following statistics show the expenditure incurred for farm buildings in the Province of
Manitoba during recent years :
Year. Value.        Year. Value.        Year. Value.        Year. Value
1900.. $1,351,000 1903.. $2,961,750 1906. .$4,515,085 1909. .$2,589,780
1901... 1,434,880 1904... 2,950,710 1907.. 1,735,825 1910.. 3,546,539
1902... 2,228,875 1905...  3,944,101 1908..  2,054,490
The above figures show the growth that has been made more clearly
than words could tell. The Province of Manitoba is now dotted with
magnificent farm-steadings, including large and commodious barns, with
every convenience for the care of the live stock.
LIVE STOCK STATISTICS
The following statistical table shows the increase in live stock in the
Province of Manitoba between the years 1899 and 1911 :
Year. Horses'.          Cattle. Sheep. Pigs.
1899  102,655 220,248 33,092 66,011
1900  118,629 237,560 25,813 77,912
1901  141,080 263,168 22,960 94,680
1902  146,591 282,343 20,518 95,598
1903  161,250 310,577 22,569 105,157
1904  143,386 306,943 18,228 118,986
1905  157,724 319,290 18,508 104,113
1906  164,444 363,202 16,606 120,838
1907  173,212 463,862 14,442 118,243
1908  169,905 415,483 16,924 120,364
1909  189,132 372,520 17,922 155,541
1910 ■■'.'. 232,725 397,261 32,223 176,212
1911  251,572 407,611 37,227 192,386
During the period covered by the above figures horses increased
in number over 100%, and cattle a little less. Pigs increased about
300%. The somewhat stationary condition of the sheep industry is accounted for by the fact that very few of the Manitoba farms are as yet
enclosed with sheep proof fences, which renders the handling of this class
of live stock a somewhat difficult matter. During recent years the introduction of cheap woven wire fences on the farm has made a considerable
difference, and it is certain that a large increase in the sheep stock of the
Province of Manitoba may be looked for in the future. WESTERN CANADA
Average
Total
Yield
Yield
Tons
Tons.
1.8
42,602
1.7
29,783
1.8
173,896
2.2
3,521
Average
Total
Yield
Yield
Bushels.
Bushels.
29.5
4,160
25.5
8,823
18.
6,138
19.2
13,286
18.6
13,578
FODDER AND ROOT PRODUCTION
The following statistics show the production of fodder and root crops
during the year 1911 in the Province of Manitoba :—
CULTIVATED GRASSES
Acres.
Brome  23,517
Rye  17,037
Timothy     95,832
Clover Or Alfalfa  3,902
PEAS
Area in
Crop
District. Acres.
Northwestern       141
Southwestern          346
North Central       341
South Central  '.       692
Eastern          730
Province       2,250
POTATOES
Area in
Crop
District. Acres.
Northwestern    9,901
Southwestern       6,967
North Central    8,469
South Central     7,176
Eastern 11,965
Province    '. 44,478
ROOTS
Area in
Crop
District. Acres.
Northwestern    3,215
Southwestern       1,892
North Central    2,164
South Central     2,622
Eastern       3,555
Province    13,448
20.4
Average
Yield
Bushels.
201.4
186.3
199.
165.3
180.
45,985
Total
Yield
Bushels.
1,994,065
1,297,952
1,685,331
1,186,193
2,153,700
187.
8,317,241
Average
Total
Yield    .
Yield
Bushels.
Bushels.
272.
874,480
240.
454,080
286.
618,204
267.
700,074
292.
1,038,360
274.
3,684,898 36 CANADIAN  PACIFIC   RAILWAY
The high yields of clover and alfalfa are worthy of special attention.
An attempt is being made to promote the introduction of clovers and alfalfa by the Provincial Government with very gratifying result. Every
effort is made to induce the farmers to put in large areas of this crop, not
alone in order to provide feed, but also to enrich the soil.
LIVE STOCK MARKETS
The chief live stock markets for Western Canada are located in the
City of Winnipeg, Manitoba. Large union stock yards have been provided, and buyers are always present to take practically everything that is
offered. All the export cattle from the West pass through the Winnipeg
stock yards, and large shipments are generally sorted at that point. The
farmer of Manitoba is in a very enviable position in regard to markets, as
with the growth of the centres of population, the home requirements fully
absorb the total live stock production of the province. There are also
large abattoirs located in Winnipeg, which are continually being extended
in sympathy with the increase of the local demands for animal products.
DAIRYING
The following statistics of the production of dairy products in the
Province of Manitoba from the year 1900 to 1911 show a very satisfactory
progress  of  that  industry :—
Butter Cheese
Year. Pounds. Value. Value. Total Value
1900  3,338,431 $ 541,661.04 $102,330.05 $ 643,991.09
1901  5,208,740 837,964.69 88,348.32 926,314.10
1902  3,915,875 636,160.69 111,443.24 747,603.93
1903  4,271,703 707,346.98 151,362.28 858,709.26
1904  3,948,594 660,620.42 107,836.96 768,457.38
1905  4,160,956 769,591.15 127,346.49 896,937.64
1906  6,251,294 1,182,502.33 195,244.51 1,377,746.84
1907  4,816,244 1,048,585.29 168,997.20 1,217,582.49
1908  3,918,568 810,604.31 183,294.01 1,400,269.66
1909  5,616,427 1,208,187.20 163,330.20 1,371,517.40
1910  6,905,759 1,537,613.28 99,250.23 1,636,863.51
1911  7,638,406 1,715,982.62 70,090.63 1,786,073.25
Manitoba has great advantages as a dairy country. The pasturage
is rich and nutritious and contains an abundance of variously flavored
grasses. The domestic water pupply is excellent, and ample both for
watering, the stock and for use in the dairies, streams of pure running water
being often available. "> WESTERN   CANADA 37
The Provincial Government established in 1896 a dairy sshool in
Winnipeg, which proved a great success. Since the completion of the
Agricultural College in Winnipeg, the staff in that institution has devoted
special attention to the development of the dairy industry of the province,
with considerable effect. The market prices for butter, cheese, cream
and milk are as high as anywhere on the continent of America. At the
present time enormous shipments of milk and cream are made from the
States of Wisconsin and Minnesota to Winnipeg daily. Upon these shipments high duty is paid, which would leave an enormous profit for the
producers within the boundaries of the province. The tendency to
exclusive' grain farming has seriously retarded the dairy industry. There
is, however, a notable change and with the advent of a greater population,
thus solving the labor difficulty, great things are expected from the dairy
industry of Manitoba.
POULTRY
The following statement shows the number of poultry disposed of during the year 1911 by the farmers of Manitoba. With prices of eggs soaring
skywards and with dressed poultry, at times, almost impossible to obtain,
there is little excuse for the Manitoba farmer tolerating the tremendous importation of eggs and dressed poultry that now takes place from various
parts of America into the City of Winnipeg, and, for that matter, into other
parts of Western Canada. The dry climate lends itself particularly well
to poultry rearing, and the unlimited quantities of screenings and coarse
grains available on every Manitoba farm, renders enormous expansion
in this profitable branch of live stock husbandry an easy matter. Tbi8
is another instance where the prosperous grain grower is ignoring the side
issues of the farm to his detriment.
The Provincial Poultry Association has carried on exceedingly useful
work by lectures and demonstration, and the output of the province each
year shows a large, though not altogether satisfactory increase. The
following are figures for 1911:
District. Turkeys.
Northwestern  19,893
Southwestern     32,235
North Central \v  21,855
South Central  37,348
Eastern  22,766
Geese.
Chickens.
10,004
100,288
8,540
113,818
9,032
88,625
14,742
240,040
22,084
200,506
Province ,.....,..,...     134,097        64,402        743,277 38 CANADIAN   PACIFIC  RAILWAY
PART IV.
SASKATCHEWAN
The remarkable progress of the Province of Saskatchewan, which,
previous to September, 1905, was part of the Northwest Territories of
Canada, might easily lead the casual visitor to doubt that the present
wonderful development is the result of such a comparatively short period.
The few survivors of the countless herds of buffalo that roamed these
plains, are now confined to the national parks and forest reserves. The
Redman who regarded the broad expanse of plain and the endless winding
river valley as his by right of inheritance, has been retired to the Indian
reserve. The plains on which the buffalo thrived before the advent of the
white man now support large herds of cattle and horses. The domain
of the Indian has become the home of farmers from all parts of the world ;
and the cosmopolitan population gathered here under the sheltering
folds of the Union Jack has proved to the world, that these broad and fertile
acres are indeed the " Bread Basket of the British Empire."
BOUNDARIES AND AREA OF SASKATCHEWAN
This province lies between the 49th and 60th parallels of north latitude,
and between the meridians of 102 and 110 degrees west from Greenwich.
The southern border is the International Boundary, the dividing line
between Canada and the United States. South of Saskatchewan are the
States of North Dakota and Montana ; east of it is the province of Manitoba ; west of it is the province of Alberta, and on the north and northeast it is bounded by the unorganized Northwest Territories. Its greatest
length is 760 miles ; and its width on the south, is 393 miles. At the
middle it is 300 miles wide, and at the northern boundary it has a width
of 277 miles. The area of this great quadrangle is 250,650 square miles,
of which 8,318 square miles is water. The land surface contains 155,092,480
acres.
NATURAL DIVISIONS
Prior to 1901, the settlement of Saskatchewan, as now constituted,
was confined mostly to a narrow belt of territory extending about fifty miles
west of the boundary of Manitoba, to a strip about the same width extending as far west of Moose Jaw along the main line of the Canadian Pacific
Railway, and to settlements adjacent to Prince Albert and the Saskatchewan River above that point. There was also a sparse population around
Battleford, Maple Creek and in a few other districts. At present the area
that may be regarded as being populated, though sparsely in places it
is true, is many times greater in extent than that settled up to 1901. The
province may roughly be divided into four great divisions.
The Plains. In the south, and extending as far north as Saskatoon,
with the exception of a considerable district north of the Qu'Appelle WESTERN   CANADA 39
Valley comprising the Beaver Hills, Touchwood Hills, etc., the country
consists of open rolling prairie, gently rolling plain, dotted here and there
with placid lakes and clumps of trees, with occasional stretches of open,
level prairie, where the plain as far as the eye can reach is unbroken by
slope or declivity aDd the gaze is unobstructed by even a single tree.
There are, however, in different parts of these divisions ranges of
low hills intersected by ravines, many of which are well wooded and supply
considerable quantities of fuel. The most important are : The Coteau,
including the Dirt Hills, which extends from the International Boundary
west of Estevan to a point beyond the Elbow of the Saskatchewan River ;
Moose- Mountain, north of Areola; Last Mountain, Touchwood and
Beaver Hills, north of the Qu'Appelle Valley.
The Park Country. North of Saskatoon and extending to the
southern edge of the great northern forest which, in Saskatchewan, is
bounded on the south by a line passing from Saw River northwesterly
through the vicinity of Prince Albert, the country is mixed prairie and
woodland, and is splendidly adapted for mixed farming and for stock-
raising. As a home-making proposition, this part of Saskatchewan stands
unequalled. Portions of the more heavily wooded area in the park
country have been reserved from settlement by the Government in order
to provide timber  and game preserves.
The Ranching Country. That lying to the west is perhaps the
most suitable part of the province for ranching. In the districts west
of the Coteau and south of the South Saskatchewan River the stockmen
have until recently been permitted to pasture their herds in peace and were
but little interested in the invasion of the homesteader. The domain of
"King Wheat" has, however, gradually been extended and the arable
areas are being made to yield their generous tribute of golden grain.
The Cypress Hills, Wood Mountain, the Coteau and the more hilly areas
intervening will, however, always be the secure retreat of the rancher.
There he may continue to produce some of the finest horses, sheep and beef-
cattle in the world.
The Northern Forest. North of the belt of mixed prairie and woodland, lies the great northern forest, the northern edge of which may be
described by a line drawn from the northern part of Reindeer Lake to the
southern part of Lake Athabasca. This timbered belt is covered with a
forest of spruce, tamarack, jack pine, poplar and birch.
The remainder of this area is not thickly wooded, although black
spruce, pine and poplar are found in the extreme northern parts of the
province.
RAINFALL STATISTICS
This table is a compilation, averaged of all the available data respecting
precipitation at all the meteorological stations in the province in each year
since 1905. Snowfall is reduced to its "water equivalent," ten inches of
snow being stated as one inch of rain. "-...'■
■ WESTERN   CANADA
41
MONTH
January . .
February .
March   . . .
April	
May	
June  	
July   	
August . . .
September
October. '. .
November
December
1910
.46
.84
.55
2.07
2.63
1.50
2.12
.97
.29
.71
.96
.62
.36
.53
.69
2.46
2.64
5.36
1.41
.72
.61
.99
1.62
1.9C7
.96
.31
1.03
.74
.91
3.64
1.81
3.49
1.41
.29
.12
.29
.80
.26
.17
■1.15
2.21
5.22
1.28
1.16
1.57
.36
1.52
1.38
1905
Average
precipitation
for 10
years by
months
.48
.36
.38
.44
2.58
.70
.66
1.03
.72
2.10
3.49
2.28
2.41
.69
.61
.60
Total        13.48
April-September .         9 .84
18.01
13.28
15.48
10.76
15.00
12.00
17.08     15.94     17.00
12.59      12.80      12.69
AGRICULTURE   IN  SASKATCHEWAN
During the last five or six years millions of acres of land in Saskatchewan, that previously were regarded as of very little value for agricultural
purposes, have proved their capability of producing magnificent crops
of cereals. In the earlier years, the famous Indian Head and Pheasant
Plains districts were regarded as unrivalled for wheat production, and
while the results achieved by them in grain growing have assisted in no
small measure in making the Canadian Northwest justly famous, it is
now clearly demonstrated that extremely successful cereal production is not
by any means confined to these areas. Similarly, future events may indicate that some of these tracts of land within the provincial boundaries,
which are now believed by some to be better fitted for grazing than for agricultural purposes, are well suited to the growing and maturing of cereal
crops.
KING  WHEAT
It is a trite saying that "Wheat is the basis of all civilized existence."
While there are more rice eaters than wheat eaters in the world, wheat is.
the chief grain food of the white man. There has been an almost universal
increase hi the individual consumption of wheat of late years. A few
years ago the individual wheat consumer annually required six bushels
of grain. The individual consumption to-day, however, is seven bushels
per year. And while in 1871 the bread eaters of the world numbered
three hundred and seventy-five millions, to-day they number five hundred
and seventeen millions. In spite of the ever-increasing crop area of wheat,
the point is gradually being reached when the vrorld's production of wheat
will not more than keep pace with the demand. While the production in the
United States has doubled during the past thirty years, the tendency at
the present time is not towards, any continued expansion. At the same
time the population of the United States is increasing tremendously,
and the point will soon be reached when that great country will become
an importing instead of an exporting country. Indeed, if we are to believe
the "Northwestern Miller," of Minneapolis, the most influential milling 42 CANADIAN   PACIFIC  RAILWAY
journal in the United States, that time has now come. Arguing that
the recent elections in the State of Minnesota are a revolt of the people
against the heavy cost of living, that the cost of bread is a factor of importance, and that the American wheat producer has the bread consumer
at his mercy, the "Miller," in its issue of December 16th, says :—"The
American farmer is not producing enough wheat because other crops
pay better, nor does he want what is produced elsewhere to come in.
The country is near the danger line of wheat shortage.   The last great
wheat fields lie across the line in Canada, etc." The
"Miller" advocates free wheat from the Dominion of Canda, and says "it
would rather both wheat and flour be admitted free than to see wheat
barred out." Less than a century ago, New York State was the chief wheat
producing area of the United States, a fact that enabled Rochester to acquire the name of the "Flour City." The latter distinction is now held by
Minneapolis, located some 1,500 miles further west. The time will come
when the great flour producing centre of America will be located in the
Canadian   West.
SASKATCHEWAN—THE WORLD'S CHAMPION
It is no mean accomplishment of a Canadian province to stand the admitted champion in high quality wheat production for the continent of
America, which is tantamount to the championship of the world.
This, however, is the honor Saskatchewan has gained. During the
great Land and Irrigation Show, held in Madison Square Gardens, New
York, in November, 1911, Mr. Seager Wheeler, of Rosthern, Saskatchewan, entered a sample of 100 pounds of Marquis wheat for competition
for the one thousand dollar gold prize offered by Sir Thomas Shaughnessy
for the best sample of wheat grown in America. Mr. Wheeler's wheat
carried off the prize, and it is interesting to note that the second prize
was won by Mr. W. J. Glass, of Macleod, Alberta, and the third prize by
Mr. Thomas Maynard, of Deloraine, Manitoba. There were sixteen entries
in all, three of which were from Canada.
It is worthy of note that Mr. Wheeler's wheat weighed 6}^ pounds
per bushel above the average, that it had yielded the enormous quantity
of 70|^ bushels to the acre. Mr. Wheeler readily sold the balance of his
seed at $8 per bushel, and the 100 pounds he entered for competition more
than repaid him the original purchase price of his farm.
Mr, Wheeler makes the following statement in  this connection :
"Preston wheat was my premier variety for many years,
and of this variety I now have my plot registered. But while
at the seed fair at Regina last year, I saw some Marquis wheat and
realized that this was as good, if not a better wheat. I secured
some of it from Dr. Saunders, Ottawa, and W.A Munroe, of the
experimental farm, Rosthern. I sowed this wheat in three different
plots, and it was from the three plots I secured the wheat which 1
sent to New York and with which I won the prize.    When the WESTERN   CANADA 43
wheat was threshed in the fall it was found that there was considerable difference in the three plots The one sowed with
Dr. Saunders' seed went 80% bushels to the acre and Munroe's,
70f6 bushels.
"The wheat sent to New York had no advantage over the
other varieties grown on the farm. As a matter of fact, it was
grown on the first piece of property broken on the farm. This
piece has been under cultivation ever since, being sowed with
wheat, barley, potatoes, etc., in rotation with a summerfallow
in   between.
"Of course, I don't know, but I think it was the finest
Marquis wheat grown this year. That the Marquis produces a
wheat like that under such unfavorable weather conditions as
existed this year speaks well for this wheat. When the Marquis
wheat ripened, and it was a few days earlier than the other
wheat, it was cut in the usual manner, but as I was unable
to get one of the regular threshers, I got my brother, Percy
Wheeler, to thresh it with a small machine. It was then cleaned in
the usual manner and prepared for the competition.
"From one head of wheat I have grown 2}/z pounds of wheat,
and that is simply because I have carefully selected by hand all
the different heads."
LIVE STOCK
Although the live stock industry in the Province of Saskatchewan
was, until the last rush of settlement, the principal industry of the province,
at the present moment grain growing occupies the most prominent place
in the farmers' operations in every part of the province, excepting the
southwest corner, a district comprising approximately 25,000 square miles,
and in the Touchwood Hills country lying northeast of Last Mountain
Lake. In those parts of Saskatchewan where grain growing has not yet
become general and large herds of cattle and flocks of sheep remain on
the open range the year round, ranching is still of prime importance.
Throughout the remainder of the province, south of the 54th parallel of
latitude, grain growing is now the principal business of the farmers ; and
the live stock industry is forced to take a secondary place and become but
complementary to the other. Even in what has for many years been exclusively range country, the homesteader is rapidly pushing his way forward and the rancher is retreating farther and farther into the rolling and
broken lands of higher altitudes, known as the Cypress Hills.
Mixed farming is, however, making great strides in certain districts,
especially adapted to the raising of live stock, and these, generally speaking, are included in the great "park belt" or semi-wooded area tributary
to the Saskatchewan River and along the Sheho-Lanigan branch of the C.
P. R., and the main lines of the C. N. R. and G. T. P. railways. Here
the land is less easily broken up and the temptation to risk all in'a wheat 44
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crop is thereby somewhat reduced. ■  The area runs in a north-westerly
direction across* the province and varies in width from 75 to 150 miles.
'7.' The following Statistics showing the number of head of live stock in
the hands of farmers! and ranchers in Saskatchewan and the annual increase during recent years, is of special interest.    It may be taken for
granted that the increase is generally due to the advance of the mixed
farming   system.
Milch       Other
Year. Horses.      Cows.       Cattle.       Sheep.      Swine.       Poultry.
1901.......   83,461       56,440,    160,613      73,079      27,753
1906. ...... 240,566     122,618    360,236     112,290     123,916
1908 343,863     179,722     565,315     144,370    426,579     3,411,052
1909 428,776    233,548    594,632     152,601     352,385     4,343,643
CATTLE.—The cattle stock of the province, including milch cows,
is increasing rapidly, having exceeded a growth of three hundred per cent.
in the eight years from 1901 to 1909. Cattle raising was one of the earliest
agricultural industries of Saskatchewan, and has been the foundation of
many fortunes in the earlier days. Large numbers of cattle are raised in
the " park country" throughout Saskatchewan, but the greatest, number
of beef cattle are at present raised in the ranching country south of Maple
Creek and in the Wood Mountain and Touchwood Hills districts.
The newcomer is generally struck with the high quality of Saskatchewan beef cattle. One reason for this is the encouragement that has for
many years been given Saskatchewan cattle growers by the old Territorial
and present provincial Governments. The Provincial Cattle Breeders'
Association, with headquarters at Regina, was formed a number of years
ago and has devoted special attention to the sale and distribution of purebred bulls throughout the province. The Association works in close
co-operation with the Provincial Department of Agriculture and receives
considerable assistance from the latter as well as from the Dominion
Government. The leading feature of the annual pure-bred cattle sale
is the favorable transportation arrangements that are offered farmers who
purchase individual animals or in lots smaller than full carloads. The
Association undertakes the delivery of these pure-bred cattle to the
purchaser's nearest railway station at a nominal charge.
Another feature that has promoted the production of high-quality
cattle in the province of Saskatchewan is the system of Government supported agricultural fairs that are held annually throughout the province.
Among these might be mentioned the Provincial Fair at Regina, also
the Moose Jaw, Saskatoon, Yorkton, Prince Albert and many other smaller exhibitions.
The market for cattle in  Saskatchewan is excellent.    The beef is
generally bought on the hoof by the agents of the large cattle exporting .
concerns.    A feature of the industry is the fattening of the stock on the
mixed farm for disposal in the spring of the year when the ranching stock
i  WESTERN  CANADA 47
is seldom in fit condition to kill. A considerable number of Saskatchewan
eattle are exported to the Pacific Coast, but the bulk are probably consumed
locally and sold on the Winnipeg market.
SHEEP.—The raising of sheep is confined to the southwestern part
of the province. Here large flocks ranging from a hundred to many thousands are run on the open range throughout the year. In 1901 there were
73,079 sheep in the province, and in 1908 the number was 144,370. The
value of sheep and lambs exported annually from Maple Creek and adjacent
stations amounts to about $100,000. About 300,000 pounds of wool is
shipped annually from these stations. The value of it varies with the
different seasons.    In 1909 the price was about 12 cents per pound.
SWINE.—The swine industry has developed rapidly with the increase
in settlement ; and the number of hogs in the province increased from 27,753
in 1901 to 426,529 in 1908. Elevator screenings and low-grade grain
furnish a cheap and satisfactory food for swine ; and the wonderful development in grain glowing will furnish a further impetus to this branch
of the live stock industry.
From the<e figures it will be seen that while "wheat is king" the
province produces a considerable amount of pork, of which la,rge quantities
are shipped east to Winnipeg annually. The future promises a great development of this branch of agriculture. The impetus given to wheat
growing in the last decade by continued heavy yields of No. 1 Hard has
served for the time being to attract farmers from the more sure and rational
methods of farming, such as stock raising and mixed farming. But the
pendulum should soon swing the other way; and when it does Saskatchewan
will be as well known for her swine industry as she is at present famed for
her large yields of wheat. The farmer will have solved the question of
transportation when he is able to market his wheat on "four legs."
HORSES.—At the present time the draft horse is one of the greatest
assets of the Saskatchewan farmer. With thousands of f.ettlers coming
into the province annually, bringing few, or in many cases no horses, there
has in recent years developed a great demand for farm power. Steam and
gasoline engines aid the prairie farmer on all sides ; but the time has not
yet come for these to supersede the horse in agricultural operations
in any very marked degree.
The prices paid for horses are high. Many carloads of work horses are
imported annually from Eastern Canada, and some are being brought from
the United States. The average price is about $400 per team ; but teams
of sound, well-trained horses, weighing about 3,000 to 3,200 pounds per
team will bring from $400 to $500 at five or six, years of age. The coming
to the province of large numbers of new settlers annually, many of whom,
as before noted, expect to buy horses here, has made a splendid market,
which Saskatchewan farmers should be able to supply. The prices that
are being paid for horses in the other provinces, and the general scarcity
of them at any price indicates that this industry will be a profitable one. 48 CANADIAN 'PACIFIC   RAILWAY
The Department of Agriculture of the province has not been lax in
appreciating the present opportunity to aid in establishing in the province
a foundation stock of draft horses that will in future years furnish cheap,
efficient farm power. In 1903 a Stallion Enrollment Act was passed compelling the enrollment as "pure-bred" or as grades of all horses standing
for service in the Northwest Territories. This Act has been operative
since that time with the result, that 303 pure-bred and 249 grades were enrolled in 1904 (including the Province of Alberta"* ; 88 pure-breds and 71
grades in 1905 ; 140 pure-breds and 113 grades in 1906 ; 153 pure-breds and
124 grades in 1907 ; 196 pure-breds and 175 grades in 1908, and 328 pure-
breds and 346 grades in 1909.
At the present time the Clydesdales of Saskatchewan are among the
foremost in America. Several large breeders and importers have, at the
head of their studs, stallions of great individual merit, which have stood
at the top in many of the leading shows in Great Britain, the United States
and  Canada.
Except for her horses. Saskatchewan is not yet noted specially for
live stock. The adaptability of the province to an easier system of farming
and one from which returns may be derived more quickly, viz. : wheat
growing, has hitherto precluded the possibility of her winning a reputation
in other lines. But the climate and soil are favorable to live stock husbandry ; this system of farming must eventually be recognized as most important ; the large extent of her arable land and the skill and enterprise
of her people give promise that Saskatchewan, in the not far distant future,
will vie with her older sister provinces in supplying live stock to the markets of the world.
DAIRYING.—Interest in dairying is constantly increasing because
of the changed conditions arising out of the growth and development
throughout the province. Many new settlers are coming from dairy sections in other provinces and states and these naturally favor mixed farming.
Localities adapted to dairying are being opened up and provided with
railway facilities, the demand for good butter is increasing, while the price
remains firm and satisfactory. In recent years the supply has not been
sufficient to meet the demand.
The present activity in co-operative dairying presents a marked contrast to that of four, years ago when the dairying branch of the provincial
Department of Agriculture was inaugurated. The industry was then in its
infancy and the year's make of creamery butter was less than one hundred
thousand pounds. During the year 1909 over six hundred thousand
pounds were made and the creamery patrons increased in number during
the interval from 400 to 1427. This progress represents the increase of
patrons at existing creameries rather than any marked expansion in the
number of new creameries.    Most of the creameries are under the direct WESTEKN   CANADA 49
supervision of the Department of Agriculture, Regina, and the Minister of
Agriculture, through the Superintendent of Dairying, supervises all business transactions with the exception of arranging for cream delivery.
This particular part of the work receives the attention of the local board of
directors. Butter sales are effected by the department and the advances
on cream are made direct to the patrons twice each month. These advances are based on the wholesale price of butter at the time of payment
and are forwarded regularly, even if the butter is not sold. They constitute an advance payment only and at the end of the summer and winter
seasons, which terminate on November 1st and May 1st respectively, the
season's business is closed and, after deducting the actual manufacturing
cost, the balance, if any, is forwarded to the patrons. The average price
realized for butter during the season 1909 was 23.44 cents per pound.
The statutes relating to dairying enable the department to regulate
to quite a marked extent the various phases of organization. Efforts are
being made to establish the industry on a permanent basis, and to assist
in so doing legislation has been passed providing for a government loan of
not more than $1,200 to any creamery company complying with certain
regulations. The loan is repayable in five years and the rate of interest
charged is three per cent. The annual payments are ten per cent, of the
original loan the first two years, twenty per cent, on the third, and thirty
per cent, the remaining two years. The small payments for the first two
years make it easier for a new company to do a satisfactory business with
its patrons until operations become thoroughly established, following which
the heavier payments are not considered an encumbrance. The legislation
is chiefly beneficial, in that its liberal terms induce prospective companies
to seek advice and assistance from the government. In this way the department has been able to prevent a great deal of unhealthy expansion
and development in creamery operations by carefully investigating all
conditions and pointing out how premature organization might retard
rather than augment the usefulness of a creamery. Among other things
the Act requires all companies to submit their plans and specifications to the
department for approval. The location and site arc also subject to the
same conditions. When at all possible, centralization of creamery work
is advocated and encouraged. This appears to be the solution of successful
creamery work under our present conditions. It has a tendency to reduce
the manufacturing cost and correspondingly increase the net returns to the
farmers. It has the additional effect, of minimizing the expenditure on
capital account and having a large make of butter under the direct supervision of a competent manager, thus making uniformity in quality.less difficult. The various forms of assistance which the government is extending
are duly appreciated by the farmers throughout the province and there is
every reason to believe that a live and enthusiastic interest is being developed with respect to this branch of farming. To an intelligent dairyman who will conduct his work according to modern methods, Saskatchewan affords opportunities almost unsurpassed. 59 CANADIAN  PACIFIC  RAILWAY
PART V.
  ALBERTA 	
With the Rocky Mountains to the west as a background and the
International Boundary separating Canada from the United States to
the south as a base, the Province of Alberta extends north and east, comprising an area greater than that of any country in Europe, save Russia,
and more than twice the combined areas of Great Britain and Ireland.
Its northern boundary, the 60th parallel of latitude, passes through the
Shetland Islands and north of St. Petersburg ; and its southerly boundary,
the 49th parallel of latitude, passes south of the English Channel, through
France a few miles north of Paris, through the southern portion of the
German Empire, and through the middle of Austria Hungary. Thus the
Province, lies wholly within the north temperate zone, and the climate
compares favorably with that of those European countries just mentioned.
AREA OF ALBERTA
Few people outside of the Province of Alberta have any adequate
idea of its vast size. To grasp it, one must conceive of Canada with its
3,745,000 square miles of territory as larger than the continent of Europe,
larger than the whole of the United States. One must regard the various
provinces of Canada as budding young nations greater in size and richer
in natural resources than many of the great nations of the Old World.
Alberta is larger than any state of the Union, excepting Texas. It is as
large as the combined areas of California, Oregon and Washington, or the
combined areas of Montana, North Dakota and Minnesota. It is larger
than Germany, France or Austria-Hungary, and contains a greater proportionate area of agricultural land than these countries.
The province embraces 162,765,200 acres. Of this 1,510,400 acres
is the estimated area contained in rivers and lakes, leaving 160,755,200
acres of land. Allowing the odd sixty million acres for the rough land of
the eastern slope of the Rocky Mountains, other mountains and hills, together with waste places that will not likely be suitable for cultivation, there
still remains the enormous area of One Hundred Million acres available
for settlement. Of this only about One Million acres were actually in
crop during 1911. In other words, not more than one per cent, of the
land available for cultivation in the province has as yet been brought
under rtie plow.
NATURAL DIVISIONS
For the purposes of intelligent description, the Province of Alberta
may be divided into the following sections, within each of which the system of agriculture is more or less universal :
1. The Plains District. ThiB area is bounded on the south by
the International Boundary, and on the north by Township 32.    It con- WESTERN   CANADA 51
tains the famous Bow River Valley, and the Canadian Pacific Railway
Irrigation Block. The plains district presents the usual features of the
open prairie with tree growth along rivers and streams and throughout
the foothills of the Rocky Mountains.
2. The Park Country. This area is bounded on the south by
Township 31, and reaches as far north as Township 62, about 50 miles
north of the city of Edmonton. The country is dotted with groves of
trees, interspersed with grass meadows. It is traversed from east to west
by the North Saskatchewan and other rivers.
3. The Forest Area. This is the great northern forest, and covers
practically that portion of the province lying north of the park country
Here and there open prairie may be found in the vicinity of rivers, and in
such places settlement occurs here and there. Otherwise, this area is entirely
in virgin condition.
RAINFALL STATISTICS
The following statistics, showing rainfall in the Calgary district,
compiled by the Dominion Government, cover a period of fifteen years :
Year.                                       Inches. Year.                                      Inches
1897   20.58        1904  11.10
1898   16.79        1905  16.51
1899   23.01        1906  16.14
1900    15.41        1907  16.45
1901   21.31        1908  17.96
1902   35.71        1909  16.15
1903   21.98        1910  11.89
1911...  20.04
CEREAL CROPS IN ALBERTA
Winter Wheat.—Winter wheat in Southern Alberta is one of the safest crops grwwn, and gives uniform and satisfactory results. Winter wheat
is produced on summ<?rfaUowed land only, which ensures economy in time
and labor. The crop ripens earlier than spring wheat, and its culture can
be systematically pursued with the certainty that nothing will intervene
to hinder each particular farming operation in good season.
By way of conveying information on the possibilities of winter wheat
production, it may be mentioned that Mr. C. Nathe, of Macleod, threshed
3,700 bushels from 60 acres of land, being at the rate of 64?-^ bushels
per acre. A. E. Burnett, some 40 miles south of Calgary, recently threshed
4,280 bushels of winter wheat from 71 acres of land, or at the rate of
60J4 bushels per acre ; and P. A. McAnally, near Crossfield, some twenty
miles north of Calgary, threshed 596J4 bushels from nine acres, or at
the rate of 66}^ bushels to the acre.    Crops of from 48 to 55 bushels per 52 CANADIAN  PACIFIC  RAILWAY
acre are common, and a winter wheat crop of 35 bushels to the acre is not
considered at all unusual.
Spring Wheat.—The prize wheat of the province at the Provincial
Seed Fair in 1907 came from Southern Alberta, and the wheat which won
first place at the World's Columbian Exposition in 1803 was grown in the
Peace River Valley, in Northern Alberta. When we consider that grain
of such high quality can be grown at the extremities of the province, it
speaks well for the possibilities of the crop throughout the whole land.
It is grown successfully in all parts of the province, and each year sees a
great increase in the area sown. The yields have been excellent, and
when compared with those obtained in the neighboring States to the south
of the line, have been uniformly higher.
Oats.—There is no section of the province where oats of the very
highest quality cannot be produced successfully. The prize-winning
sample of oats at the Paris Exposition was produced in Alberta. While the
southern portion of the province has become famous as a section admirably
adapted to growing a high quality of winter wheat, the central portion
of the province has become equally well known as a district that grows
large crops of a superior quality of oats. A yield of 115 bushels per acre
is not uncommon in the central district, and from 50 to 60 is regularly obtained. While 34 pounds is the standard weight for a bushel of oats, those
that won the first prize at the Provincial Seed Fair, weighed by the Dominion Grain Inspector for the province, tipped the scale at 48 pounds.
The same official stated that Alberta was prepared to advocate a standard
grade of oats calling for a weight of 42 pounds to the bushel, and also made
the statement under oath that 85 per cent, of the Alberta oats examined
by him would weigh over 42 pounds to the bushel. It is this fact which
has led to the establishment in the province of large oatmeal mills. It
is not unusual to see a large field of oats standing over five feet high.
There is a large market for oats in the Province of British Columbia
and the Yukon territories, also in the Orient, Eastern Canada and Great
Britain.
Barley.—There are two varieties of barley produced in the province;
the six-rowed barley, principally used for feeding purposes, and the two-
rowed barley, utilized entirely for malting. The six-rowed is the principal
barley crop in Central Alberta at the present time, and probably preponderates also in Southern Alberta, although the production of a high-
grade two-rowed barley in the latter district is rapidly coming to the
front. Barley is a heavy yielder in Alberta. Instances are on record
during the past year (1909) where crops have threshed out as high as 78
bushels to the acre.  54
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LIVE STOCK IN ALBERTA
HORSES.—In breeding horses, Alberta occupies a somewhat similar
position to Canada that Kentucky does to the United States. Owing to
the high altitude, dry and invigorating atmosphere, short and mild winters,
the nutritious grasses and inexhaustible supply of clear, cold water,
Alberta is pre-eminently noted for her horses, which have become famous
for their endurance, lung power, clean bone, and perfect freedom from
hereditary and other diseases. There are, in Alberta, several grades of
horses, varying in point of quality from the hardy Indian pony (cayuse)
to the beautiful, well-formed thoroughbred.
Heavy draft horses are now finding a ready sale at highly paying prices.
Teams, weighing 3,000 lbs., and upwards, are worth $500 and more.
Between 2,500 lbs. and 3,000 lbs., the average price would be $400, and
the value of teams weighing between 2,000 lbs. and 2,400 lbs. is $250
and upward, according to quality.
CATTLE.—Southern and Central Alberta now supply the Province
of British Columbia and the Yukon Territory with beef. In addition, a
large export business to Great Britain is done. It is a fact, that the
cattle of this province are of much better quality and breeding than the
average run of range stock in the Western States. The best pure-bred
bulls are being used. It is an interesting fact, that the City of Calgary
is the home of the largest individual pure-bred cattle auction in the world.
This takes place in the month of April each year, and on that occasion
stockmen gather from far and near to purchase their bulls, and to transact
other business. Shorthorns, Herefords, Polled Angus, and Galloways
are the chief beef breeds, while Holsteins and Ayrshires are produced for
dairy purposes.
SHEEP.—Sheep, in common with other stock, have always prospered
on native Alberta grasses. With the growth of alfalfa and field peas on
the irrigated lands will come a marked extension of the sheep raising industry, and the ever-increasing population in the eastern part of Western
Canada, where stock raising is not so profitable, will forever guarantee
a satisfactory market.
Those engaged in sheep raising are enjoying unparalleled prosperity.
Mutton and wool now command top prices. Flock masters in Alberta
will not be affected for many years to come by the great fluctuations in sheep
products. Woollen mills are being established in the West, and apart
from the local demand there is a good market for mutton in British Columbia, the Yukon and the Province of Manitoba.
In the year 1910-1911, the huge sum of $26,677,312 was spent on
wool and its manufactures in Canada, yet the sheep industry is one that
lends itself particularly well to development in the Province of Alberta
and the other Western provinces. The report of the Commissioners
appointed to investigate the sheep industry of Canada, Great Britain  WESTERN   CANADA 57
and the United States, published November 1st, 1911, discloses the
fact that in Canada there were at the time of investigation but 2,106,000
head; in Great Britain, 31,852,772; New Zealand, 23,792,947; Australia,
92,241,226 sheep of shearing age; Argentine, 67,211,754; and United
States of America, 51,216,000, including lambs. The Province of Alberta,
alone, could easily take care of all the sheep in the whole of Canada.
HOGS.—As might be expected in a district where the dairy industry
is growing so rapidly, hog raising, affording as it does, the most economical
method of realizing the largest returns from coarse grain, skimmed milk,
and other dairy by-products, is a very important branch of farming in
Southern and Central Alberta. The soil conditions and the climate,
which are so eminently suited for dairying, are also productive of those
crops which make the cheapest pork. Calgary, the live stock centre
of Alberta, has an excellent pork-packing establishment, where top prices
are paid. The production of an acre of barley costs just about one-half
of what an acre of corn does, and will fatten one-third more hogs. The
•cost of production of an acre of peas does not exceed $1.50, only about
•one-fifth of what it costs to cultivate an acre of corn, and a fourth more
hogs can be fattened from the produce of the same amount of, ground.
Pea-fed hogs are becoming famous all through America for the excellent
quality  of the bacon.
DAIRYING.—The Provincial Government maintains at Calgary the
largest and most important "dairy station" and cold storage plant in
the West. Some years ago Alberta dairymen became dissatisfied with the
private creameries which were then in operation throughout the country,
•and asked the Government to take charge of these institutions. The
Dominion authorities fell in with the request, placed experts at the disposal of the dairymen, and eventually organized a chain of co-operative
creameries all through the country. These creameries are subject to the
•control of the patrons, through boards of directors, under absolute Government management. Most of the patrons separate their milk at home,
by means of hand separators, and bring their cream to the dairy stations
from three to four times a week. The cream is then carefully tested and
weighed, and at the end of every month each patron gets credit for the
•equivalent of his cream in butter, and receives a cash advance of ten cents
per pound.
Here is our dairying proposition : A never-ceasing abundance of
the best food for cows ; our nutritious native grasses, supplemented by
.alfalfa and peas ; an abundance of fresh, pure water ; with our provincial
creameries taking charge of the cream, manufacturing it into butter
:and finding the best market, all at a nominal charge of four cents per
pound ; a cheque to the farmer the first of every month, and a home
market already greatly in excess of the production, and constantly and
Tapidly   expanding.
POULTRY.—There is a large field in Alberta for the industrious
poultry raiser.    A few acres and a hundred chickens will yield a good  WESTERN   CANADA 39
income. With eggs at 25c. to 60c. per dozen, and dressed poultry at from
15c. to 25c. per pound on the Calgary market, little need be said about
the profits of this valuable feature of the Southern Alberta farm.
Turkey raising has come to be an industry of importance. Thousands of these birds are grown and fattened for markets in the Coast cities,
and thousands of dollars are brought into the country every year through
this business alone. Where large areas of wheat stubble may be utilized
for forage ground, the expense of putting turkeys on the market is small
indeed.
IRRIGATION   IN   ALBERTA
Irrigation has been proven an admirable adjunct to mixed farming in
Southern Alberta, and as a consequence several extensive irrigation undertakings, covering some millions of acres of the most fertile lands in
Canada, are now in course of completion.
THE BOW VALLEY "IRRIGATION BLOCK"
In the year 1894, the Dominion Government withdrew from sale and
homestead entry a tract of land containing some millions of acres located
in Southern Alberta, east of the City of Calgary, along the main line of the
Canadian Pacific Railway. The object of this reservation was to provide
for the construction ultimately of an irrigation system, to cover the
fertile Bow River Valley. It was realized that such a project could only
be successfully accomplished by so administering the lands embraced
within the tract in question that the promoters would not be hampered by
any vested interests created by the alienation from the Crown of any
of these lands. This tract was transferred to the Canadian Pacific
Railway Company upon their undertaking to construct gigantic irrigation systems, which now utilize the waters of the Bow River to irrigate
the land in this reserve. From the fact that the main and branch lines of
the Canadian Pacific Railway traverse the tract throughout its entire
length and breadth, it will be realized that these lands are among the
most desirable in America to-day, not alone from a standpoint of quality,
but also on account of location, proximity to markets, and to all the social
and educational advantages to be found in big cities. The project, the
greatest on the American continent, is now being pushed to completion
by the Canadian Pacific Railway Company, which, when undertaking to
construct this gigantic irrigation system, selected as part of its land grant a
block comprising three million acres of the best agricultural lands in the Bow
River Valley, which has now been opened for colonization. The tract
which was selected has an average width of 40 miles north and south and
extends for 150 miles to the east of Calgary. It is bounded on the south
by the Bow River and on the northeast by the Red Deer River. €0 CANADIAN  PACIFIC  BAILWAY
THE LETHBRIDGE IRRIGATION SYSTEM
This is the pioneer irrigation undertaking on a large scale in Western
Canada. It was started in the year 1900, and was completed some years
ago. This extensive irrigation system, which has been constructed at an
expenditure of over $400,000, draws upon an inexhaustible water supply in
the lakes fed by the melted snows and glaciers of the Rocky Mountains,
from which flows the St. Mary River, where the head works are located.
The length of the main canal is 61 miles, of the Lethbridge branch 32
miles, and of the Stirling branch 22 miles, making the entire length of
the canal system 115 miles. Water is here provided in never-failing
abundance for the conversion of the region into one of rich, productive
agriculture.
This irrigation system skirts the famous Milk River ridge on the
north, which is one of the most celebrated grazing areas in Western Canada. The area under irrigation is about 100,000 acres. These lands may
be purchased on application to the Canadian Pacific Railway, Department
of Natural Resources, at Calgary.
The Lethbridge irrigation system is admirably served with transportation facilities. One railway line connects Lethbridge with the International
Boundary and other lines traverse the centre of the district and serve
the more westerly portion thereof.
THE  COMBINATION  FARM
While it has. been clearly demonstrated that the grain land in
Southern Alberta is of the richest soil to be found, and, without the aid of
irrigation, is producing maximum crops, there is, taken in connection
with the production of winter wheat on non-irrigable lands, a still more attractive and profitable opening for the new settler—the purchase of a
"combination"   farm.
Southern Alberta irrigated districts contain non-irrigable as well as
irrigable areas, and offer to the purchaser an opportunity to engage in mixed farming under almost ideal conditions. Here can be secured in the
same quarter section, side by side, land lying above the canal system for
the production of grain and the grazing of live stock, and irrigable
land for other crops, such as alfalfa, barley, vegetables, etc., requiring
abundant moisture. For farm, purposes there is a never-failing supply
of water, which ensures crops when the seed is placed in the ground, while
the problem of a constant supply of water in every pasture for the use of
the live stock is also solved.
The irrigated portions of the land will raise all kinds of grain and root
crops and a sufficient supply of fodder for winter feeding.
The non-irrigated sections will grow winter wheat or furnish the
finest pasture for live stock to be found in the world.
Combination farms may perhaps be regarded as one of the best
agricultural propositions on the North American Continent. WESTERN   CANADA 61
THE CROP INSURANCE PLAN
An examination of the rainfall tables presented in this booklet will
reveal the fact that there is a sufficient precipitation every year to successfully mature cereal crops such as winter wheat. But with the increase of
population and prosperity more scientific methods of farming were naturally discovered and utilized, and the general introduction of irrigation
marks an epoch in the history of Southern Alberta. As a matter of fact,
farmers now are not satisfied with returns more or less in accordance with
the accident of rainfall, but are aiming at perfection in the development
and maturity of their crops. It would, therefore, appear to be a sinful
waste not to utilize the means which have been placed at the disposal
of settlers in districts favored with an adequate water supply to supplement the efforts of Nature. Having water available in his ditch or reservoir, the irrigation farmer is able to distribute it on his crop at such season
of the year and in such quantities as experience has taught him are the most
propitious to favorable results. He is not at the mercy of the weather.
The contention of the experienced irrigatiomst is, that those farmers cultivating without the aid of irrigation in any portion of the world where
water supply by gravity can be economically secured, are playing an unskilful game of hazard in trusting solely to the bounty of Nature and omitting to take such precautions as have been placed at their command.
The irrigation farmer, on the other hand, controls his water supply absolutely, and has, other things being equal, a crop assured beyond all
peradventure. In Southern Alberta the farmer is able to insure his
crop against drought, just as effectually as he insures his life. Both are
designed to protect the prudent farmer and his family against losses from
uncontrollable  causes.
SIMPLICITY OF IRRIGATION FARMING
Irrigation farming is simplicity itself. The most successful community cf irrigation farmers in Southern Alberta to-day is one composed
wholly of stttlers who never saw an irrigated farm before they came to the
province. To irrigate land does not require any more skill than it does to
plow or harvest a crop, and, contrary to the general idea, irrigation farming
is not only scientific farming, but "business" farming.
The great irrigation development m Western North America has been
the result of the efforts of people who migrated from the East and the
Middle West, with no knowledge of irrigation.
The sprinkling of a lawn, the watering of a plant, is irrigation in its
simplest form. Without it the lawns and parks, which give to city life a
touch of Nature's beauties, would be devoid of all that makes them attractive. 62 CANADIAN   PACIFIC  RAILWAY
ANIMAL HUSBANDRY
In studying the economic side of irrigation, the first fact that must be
clearly grasped is, that the backbone and foundation of any irrigation
enterprirte is not the production of either fruits, garden truck, or other expensive crops, but the feeding and finishing of live stock and the development of dairying in all its branches. This has been the history of irrigation expansion everywhere in the United States. The proof of this contention is that out of the total irrigated acreage in crops in the United
States at the time of the last decennial census, sixty-four per cent; was in hay
and forage crops.
THE VALUE OF IRRIGATION IN SOUTHERN ALBERTA
The following article, taken from "The Farm and Ranch Review,"
the leading agricultural paper of Alberta, will be of interest to prospective
settlers :—
"The wiseacres who infested the country some years ago and who
missed no opportunity of informing the newcomer that ' irrigation was not
needed,' are now, we are thankful to say, largely conspicuous by their
absence. The fact that millions were being expended on the construction
of irrigation systems all through Southern Alberta, and that there were 272
individual irrigation systems in operation in Southern Alberta, with almost
1,000 miles of ditches capable of irrigating over 3,000,000 acres of land, was
powerless to influence the preconceived notions of the individual who
thought that because irrigation was being made available, erroneous impressions would go abroad and Southern Alberta would be classed as an
arid desert.
"Irrigation should be recognized as an agricultural art of very wide
application and importance. Its association with the idea of desert
reclamation has blinded the eyes of the public to its value for regions
where the task of reclamation is not required. Irrigation is not a mere
expedient to flood the ground because it will not rain. The farmer suffers
losses as great because it rains too copiously at the wrong time, as he
does because it does not rain when the crops need it most. Rarely does
all his ground need water at the same time. Some crops thrive under
moist conditions ; others are destroyed by moisture. Irrigation is a system
of improved culture to be applied, like other means of improvement,
when the soil needs it. No one questions the wisdom of the saving and
storing of manures, nor, with the worn-out soils, the generous outlay
for commercial fertilizers. The same is true of soil improvement by
drainage. There should be a similar attitude in regard to irrigation. The
two greatest drawbacks to irrigation development in Southern Alberta are
undoubtedly, first, the notion that irrigation is of importance only in arid fa
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regions and under desert conditions ; and,  secondly,  ignorance of the
ease and cheapness with which a farm   water supply can be distributed.
"It was only in 1906 that experimental work under irrigation was
inaugurated and the Dominion Experimental Farm for Southern Alberta
established.
"The farm is divided into a ' dry' farm and an 'irrigated' farm. The
duty of the superintendent is to gain the best possible results under dry
land culture on the one hand, and, on the other, to demonstrate the value
of irrigation in Southern Alberta. It will, therefore, be carefully noted
that it is not, in any shape or form, the duty of Mr. Fairfield, the superintendent, to demonstrate the value of irrigation as compared with dry land
farming. Any conclusions reached on the farm can, therefore, be relied
upon as being absolutely unbiassed and disinterested.
"While the object of establishing the experimental farm was not to
encourage irrigation farming at the expense of dry land farming operations,
it is possible to make instructive comparisions between results upon the
same farm and under the same management, of crops grown under irrigation and those grown on the non-irrigated area.
"The comparative figures as embodied in the Farm Report for the
years 1908 and 1909, all that are available since the inauguration of the
comparative tests, are of more than ordinary interest. Comparing the
results secured under natural rainfall conditions with results secured under
irrigation, the following crops show, as the result of adopting the latter, the
percentage of increase set opposite each :—
Potatoes  260%            Mangolds . .   . . :  102%
Turnips  200%           Field Peas    73%
Sugar Beets  184% Barley (two-rowed)   . . . 69%
Carrots  141%            Barley (six-rowed)  45%
Corn  128%           Spring Wheat    33%
"The highest yielding wheat under irrigation covering two years
results went 43}4 bushels per acre. The same wheat without irrigation
yielded 33 bushels per acre during the same period. In six-rowed barley
the figures were 6134 and 48 J4 bushels respectively. Two-rowed barley
under irrigation yielded 65 and without irrigation 4934 bushels per acre.
Potatoes made a remarkable showing under irrigation. The figures were
646 Vi bushels per acre as compared with 14934 without irrigation. Sugar
beets yielded 24J4 tons per acre under irrigation, and 6J4 without. Mangels, 25 tons per acre and 13 H> without. Turnips about the same. Carrots
15 tons under water and 6J^ tons under dry land culture. Fodder corn
yielded 1534 tons under irrigation as compared with 634 tons without."
"The foregoing records are the first official facts and figures bearing
on the value of irrigation in Southern Alberta that have ever been produced. Furthermore, the copious natural rainfall rendered the conditions enormously in favor of the non-irrigated farm.    Again, these results  66 CANADIAN   PACIFIC   RAILWAY
were obtained on newly-broken land, while it is readily admitted that irrigation farming will not begin to yield maximum results until several crops
have been taken off the land and the soil has thus been reduced to a good
mechanical  condition."
IRRIGATED   EXPERIMENTAL  AND DEMONSTRATION
FARMS
As a general rule, once a corporation that is in the land business has
sold a new settler a farm, its interest in the transaction ceases. The Canadian Pacific Railway Company is in an entirely different position. When
a parcel of land has been finally sold, that Company's interest in the transaction does not cease. In fact, it only commences. The Railway Company is vastly interested in the success of every individual purchaser,
who at once becomes a valued patron of the road.
The Company realizes that the bulk of the settlers coming into
occupation on its irrigated lands, will be more or less ignorant of the
proper methods of handling and applying water for irrigation, and it
therefore, places at their disposal, expert advice an>i assistance. The Company operates, at central points, farms devoted to demonstrating the
agricultural possibilities of the tract. The staff of the Company's Demonstration Farms is always ready to assist new colonists. On some of the
farms are maintained pure-bred bulls and boars for the free use of the
settlers. The maintenance of these demonstration farms is in line with
the general policy of endeavoring to create prosperous agricultural communities in Alberta. The Company realizes the difference between
land-selling and colonization, and that a somewhat paternal administration
accelerates the result the Company is striving for, namely, the greatest
possible measure of development in the shortest possible time.
THE CANADIAN IRRIGATION LAW
ft is of great importance that the laws under which irrigation is practised should be so framed as to avoid any litigation that might possibly
arise over water rights. In many of the States of the Union where irrigation is in vogue more money has been spent in litigation over water rights
than upon actual irrigation development.
The Canadian irrigation laws and their administration are acknowledged by the leading irrigation experts of the continent to approach
perfection as nearly as possible. The United States Department of Agriculture, in Bulletin 96 of that department, recommends the Canadian law
to the consideration of those whose duty it will be to prepare irrigation
laws in the future for use in those States where irrigation is practised or is
likely to be practised. Under these laws, the waters of Alberta being recognized as the property of the Crown, the title given for a water right is equal
to and as good as is the title given for land. It' is not necessary to be
a citizen of Canada in order to own land there. WESTERN  CANADA 67
PART VI.
BRITISH COLUMBIA
The Pacific Maritime Province of Canada, as British Columbia
is often called, is a great quadrangle of territory, 700 miles long, and averaging 400 in width, lying between the Rocky Mountains and the Pacific
Ocean. Extending north from the 49th parallel of latitude, it has a coast
line of 450 miles on the Pacific Ocean, the northern portion being cut off
from the sea by a narrow strip of Alaskan Territory. The boundary on
the north is the 60th parallel.
NATURAL    DIVISIONS
The province may be divided roughly into three areas, each having
its special characteristics, viz.:
1. ISLANDS.—The islands adjacent to the Coast, comprising
Vancouver Island, the Queen Charlotte Group, and the innumerable
islands of various sizes that dot the Coast line. Washed by the waters
of the Japanese current, the climate is mild and moist, and the same may
be said of the narrow strip of territory intervening between the Coast
Range and the sea shore. This influence also affects to some extent the
estuaries of the rivers flowing into the Pacific.
2. INTERIOR PLATEAU.-—The great interior plateau, flanked by
mountains on the east and west, and forming the southern half of the
Mainland. This is elevated some 3,500 feet above sea level, and has been.
so deeply eroded by lake and river streams that in some parts it appears
mountainous, but the absence of sharp edges to the hill tops and the innumerable rounded boulders point conclusively to the fact that at some
remote period this immense area was the bed of a vast inland sea.
3. THE NORTH COUNTRY.—The northern half of the province is
separated from the plateau by various cross mountain chains, from whence
spring the head waters of the Peace River. Except in isolated patches,
comparatively little is known of this area. The Coast Range of mountains
forms a rocky frontier on the west, while the eastern boundary, following the
120th meridian of longitude, cuts the Rocky Mountains at the Peace
River Pass, and continues north through a rolling prairie region that has
never been thoroughly explored.
AREA
The area of British Columbia has been variously set down from
375,000   to   395,000 square miles.    From careful surface measurements
of the map, the following results have been obtained, according to the
present main political divisions :
Square Miles. Acres.
Kootenay 23,500 15,060,000
Yale        24,300 15,850,000 68 CANADIAN  PACIFIC  RAILWAY
Lillooet     16,100 10,300,000
Westminster  7,660 4,900,000
Cariboo    150,500 96,350,000
Cassiar '.  ,150,000 96,000,000
Comox (Mainland)  7,100 4,550,000
Vancouver Island  16,400 10,000,000
395,560 253,010,000
The foregoing figures are given approximately to approach round
figures as nearly as possible.
MARKETS
It is an axiom in trade that " there is no market like the home market,"
and in this respect British Columbia is singularly blessed, for there is no
country in the world which offers such exceptional advantages in the way
of markets for farm products. The mining and logging camps, with which
the whole country is dotted, employing thousands of men ; the numerous
working mines and smelters with their large staffs of employees ; the railways, operating and under construction, and the lake and river steamers
are all liberal patrons of the farmer at prices unaffected by competition,
for imported articles do not disturb local trade, and in every case home
produets are preferred to those from abroad. The established cities and
towns and the new ones which are constantly springing up, with the
opening of new mines and the establishment of new industries, afford
splendid markets to the farmer, who deals directly v,ith the customer or
retailer for cash—the trading system in vogue in older countries being practically unknown. Fruits and early vegetables, not disposed of locally,
find an unlimited market east of the Rocky Mountains, and in the Coast
cities of the province. Eggs, butter, milk and cream are always at a
premium, the local production falling far short of supplying the demand.
In many towns fresh milk is hard to get, and it is unknown in the mining,
lumbering, and railway camps, where the imported condensed substitute
is used. The importations of these articles into British Columbia for an
average year throw light on the possibilities for dairying and poultry-
raising in British Columbia.    They are :—
Butter   . .'  $1,345,739
Condensed milk and cream   676,000
Eggs  2,85,682
Poultry     1,113,400
If cheese, which is not made in quantity in British Columbia, be added,
$680,207, we have a total of over $4,000,000 sent out of the Province annually for articles which can be profitably produced at home.
Again, in the matter of fresh meats and salt pork, ham, bacon, and
lard the yearly importations aggregate $2,136,336, as well as $800,000
worth of beef cattle, sheep and swine, all of which should be raised
by the farmers of the province.  70 CANADIAN   PACIFIC  RAILWAY
Although British Columbia has begun to export, fruits, the home
market falls far s'hort of bring supplied, for we find that in an average year
the province "imported $800,000 worth of fruits and fruit products, viz.:
apples, other fruits (not tropical), canned fruits, jams and jellies. The
importation of apples may be partly accounted for by the demand in the
early spring and summer months, when no home-grown stock is available,
which has to be supplied from New Zealand and Australia. The "other
fruits" represent the berries and early fruits grown in California and
brought in before the local fruits have matured. The jams, jellies, and
canned fruit, however, should and will be produced in the province as the
fruit industry develops, and in good time all the other products of the
ranch, farm, dairy, and orchard, of which the province now imports
such large quantities annually, will be won from the fertile valleys and hillsides of British Columbia. There is no fear of over-production in any
branch of agriculture, for in the future, as in the past, the farmers will not
be able to supply the ever-increasing demand created by the march of industry.
FRUIT  GROWING
His Excellency Earl Grey, former Governor-General of Canada, who
recently visited British Columbia, was greatly impressed with the future
possibilities of the fruit industry. In his reply to the address of the Royal
Agricultural Society, on the occasion of the opening of the New Westminster Exhibition, His Excellency said :—
"Fruit-growing in your province has acquired the distinction of being
a beautiful art as well as a most profitable industry. After a maximum wait
of five years 1 understand the settler may look forward with reasonable
certainty to a net income of from $100 to $150 per acre, after all expenses of
cultivation have been paid.
"Gentlemen, here is a state of things which appears to offer the opportunity of living under such ideal conditions as struggling humanity
has only succeeded in reaching in one or two of the most favored spots
upon the earth. Thei-e are thousands of families living in England to-day,
families of refinement, culture, and distinction, families such as you would
welcome among you wixh both arms, who would be only too glad to come
out and occupy a log hut on 5 acres of a pear or apple orchard in full bearing, if they could do so at a reasonable cost."
A few years ago the man who would have ventured to describe the
Kootenays as fruit-growing districts would have been looked upon as a
visionary or an imbecile; to-day Southern British Columbia is acknowledged
to be the finest fruit country on the continent. Not only will it produce
fruit in abundance, but the quality of its fruit is superior to that grown
in any other part of America. Certain varieties of fruit attain perfection
in certain localities—for instance, the Fameuse apple develops its best
qualities on the Island of Montreal—but taking a collection of British
Columbia fruit, it is larger, better colored, and better flavored than any
similar miscellaneous lot, the product of any other country.     Proof of this 03
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is not far to seek. In 1903 Messrs. Stirling and Pitcairn, of Kelowna,
on Okanagan Lake, shipped a trial carload of apples to Great Britain.
The shipment consisted of Spys, Baldwins, Ontarios, and Canada Reds.
They arrived in Glasgow, Scotland, on November 9th, in splendid condition,
and sold at 6s. per box, or about $1 more per barrel than the choicest
Eastern Canadian apples-—reckoning three boxes and a half to the barrel.
The British Columbia apples aroused much interest among fruit-dealers
as well as consumers, and many letters were received by the consignors
from persons eager to secure shipments of the splendid fruit. In the year
following, 1904, the British Columbia Department of Agriculture forwarded
a collection of British Columbia fruit to London, England, for exhibition
purposes. The exhibit was greatly admired, and evoked the highest
encomiums from the newspapers. The London Times, while hesitating
to declare the fruit superior to the best English specimens, admitted that
they very nearly approached them in color, shape, and flavor, even after
having travelled 6,000 miles by railway and steamship. The Royal
Horticultural Society's appreciation of the fruit was shown by the award
of the Society's gold medal and diploma.
WHOLESALE PRICES OF  FRUIT
The following table gives the highest, lowest, and average prices of
packed fruit in British Columbia for three years :—
High. Low.     Average.
Apples, 40 pound box       $2.00 $0.60 $1.30
Crab-apples, 40pound box           2.00 1.00 1.40
Pears, 40 pound box             2.00 .60 1.45
Plums, 20 pound box           1.00 .50 .80
Prunes, 20 pound box         1.00 .50 .70
Peaches, 20poundbox         1.25 .50 .70
Strawberries, 24 pound crate         2.85 2.00 2.45
Raspberries, 14 pound crate            2.00 1.50 1.70
Blackberries, 14 pound crate         2.40 1.50 1.65
Gooseberries, per pound  .10 -05J^ -07%
Cherries, per pound  .15 -03J4 .09J4
Currants, per pound  .08 .04 .06
AN EXPANDING INDUSTRY
Figures furnished by railway and express companies show that fruit
shipments have increased over 50 per cent, in five years, the total shipments
by rail in 1902 being 1,950 tons, while those of 1907 aggregated 4,743 tons;
1908 showed an increase of 1,755 tons, or a total of 6,498 tons. In 1910 the
shipments aggregated 8,745 tons.
These shipments are far from representing the whole crop, the bulk
being consumed locally, while considerable quantities are shipped by water,
of which no record is kept.
The increase in fruit acreage has also been great within recent years.
In 1891 the total orchard area was 6,431 acres ; in 1901 it had only increased to 7,430 acres ; but between that and 1904 the increase was jumped WESTERN   CANADA 73
to 13,430, and in 1905 to 29,000 acres. The increase during 1906 amounted to over 20,000 acres ; number of trees planted, 1,000,000. In 1907
over a million fruit trees were planted, and a still larger number in 1908,
so that the acreage in fruit is now 100,000 acres.
The approximate value of the fruit crop of 1910 is estimated at $1,900,-
000, while that of 1902 was valued at $391,000.
The quality of the peaches and grapes grown in Southern British
Columbia can scarcely be excelled, the crisp, dry air and bright sunshine
combining to impart a lusciousness and flavor lacking in the fruit, of lot
countries. The recent discovery of fig-trees growing wild on Vancouver
Island, near Nanaimo, has suggested the possibility of the successful cultivation of this fruit, especially in the southern districts, and no doubt the
experiment will be made in the near future. Almonds, walriuts, chestnuts,
nectarines, apricots, and some semi-tropical fruits have been successfully
grown.
THE CAPITAL INVESTMENT
A few figures bearing on the cost of making the orchard, that is,
bringing it to the point where it is revenue-producing, will not be out
of place.
Irrigated Land
20 acres irrigated at $250 per acre $5,000
Fencing   , .'        250
Preparing land, plowing and harrowing . .        150
Trees (yearlings), 80 per acre at 20c        320
Setting out trees (1,600 at 8c. each) '.        128
$5,848
Maintenance for Five Years :
Average cost of irrigation at $3.50 per acre   $   350
Cost of cultivation, pruning, spraying, etc., at $20 per acre per year .   3,000
$3,350
Making the total cost of the orchard at the end of the fifth year,
when it should be beginning to give commercial returns $9,198
Non-irrigated   Land :
In the case of unirrigated land, the cost would be approximately:—
20 acres at $200 per acre    $4,000
Fencing       250
Preparing land, plowing and harrowing        150
Trees (yearlings), 80 per acre at 20c. each     ....      320
Setting out trees (1,600 at 8c. each)                 128
$4,848 74 CANADIAN   PACIFIC  RAILWAY
Maintenance for Five Years :
Cultivating, pruning, spraying, etc., at $30 per acre per year ....... $3,000
Making the total cost of the orchard at the end  of  the fifth year,
when it should be beginning to give commercial returns $7,848
Root crops and small fruits planted between the trees for the first
three or four years should more than pay for the upkeep of the orchard.
The fourth year the trees will produce a little fruit, probably $100
worth. In the sixth year the orchard should produce about $800 worth
of fruit. The increase in production after this will be very rapid. The
tenth year the orchard is in a full bearing state, and should pay the owner
a net annual profit of $100 to $150 per acre—an assured income of $2,000'
to $3,000 a year.
' THE PROFITS IN FRUIT GROWING
This estimate of profits is not based upon paper and pencil, but is
justified by actual experience. Mr. T. W. Stirling, Bankhead Ranch,
Kelowna, says :—
"This orchard of about 16 acres will produce about 160 to 170 tons this
present year (1905).
" In 1903 it produced 140 tons.
"In 1904 it produced 130 tons.
"In 1905 it produced 160 to 170 tons.
"Apples (Jonathan) planted in 1900 produced this year 100 pounds a
tree.    Fruit worth $1.50 per 40-pound box, f. o. b. packing-house.
"Last year these trees yielded, as four-year-olds, 60 pounds a tree.
Next year's crop may be estimated at 200 pounds per tree.
"One and one-third acres of Bartlett pears produced 16 tons of fruitr
or about 800 boxes. Selling price, $1.35 per box, f.o.b. packing-house,
$1,080.
"One and one-third acres of Beurre d'Anjou pears produced 17 tons,,
or 850 boxes.    Selling price, $1,40 per box, f.o.b. packing-house, $1,190.
"Two and one-third acres of Italian prunes produced 32 tons, or 3,200!
crates.    Selling price, 60 cents per crate, $1,920.
"One acre of plums produced 12 tons, or 1,200 crates. Selling price,
70 cents a crate, $840.
"Over $5,000 from 6 1-3 acres."
The actual experience of many fruit-growers is highly satisfactory to.
them, and a temptation to every man who desires to make money pleasantly to set up in the business. In Okanagan there are instances of $500;
to $600 gross profit per acre. At Kelowna 9 tons of pears and 10 tons-
of prunes per acre are not uncommon. Near Nelson, 14 acres produced
1,000 cases of strawberries and 94 tons of roots, netting the owner $100 per-
acre. This land was formerly a cedar swamp. At Lytton, Tokay grapes,
averaging 4 pounds to the buneh, were grown in the open. On the Coldstream Ranch, near Vernon, 20 acres produced $10,000 worth of Northern.
Spy apples.    At Peachland \]4. acres gave a return cf $700 in peaches.. WESTERN  CANADA 75
Tomatoes to the value of $1,500 per acre were grown on Okanagan Lake.
A cherry tree at Penticton produced 800 pounds of fruit ; another, at
Agassiz, 1,000 pounds.
In the suburbs of Victoria the following results are authenticated :
Four acres of strawberries produced 28,126 pounds of fruit, which sold for
$2,598 net, or $650 per acre ; half an acre produced 2,826 pounds, giving a
net return of $301 ; another grower raised 12,556 pounds of berries on l1^
acres, which sold for $1,228.60 net, or over $800 per acre. Rockside
Orchard, Victoria, produced marketable plums and cherries from ten-
year-old trees as follows : Plums—35 trees Grand Duke, 442 crates, averaging 22 pounds ; 18 Hungarian prunes, 216 crates; 27 Engelbert, 290
crates; 10 Tragedy, 142 crates—1,070 crates, a total of 20,416 pounds from
90 trees. Cherries—Twenty-five Olivet trees yielded 230 crates of 24
pounds, or a total of 5,520 pounds.
FRUIT GROWING AREAS IN BRITISH COLUMBIA
With such diversity in soil and climate it is unavoidable that British
Columbia should be divided horizontally into a number of areas, each of
which has its individual peculiarities, and so suited particularly to certain
classes of fruit.
The main recognized fruit districts of the province are as follows :
1. Vancouver Island and adjacent Islands. Because of the mild and
equable climate this district has so far been more successful in small fruits
than in large fruits. Peaches, grapes, apricots and other tender fruits are
successfully cultivated in a small way in very favorable locations. Sweet
cherries, plums and prunes do well, except when a moist season brings
injurious fungous diseases. Some cherries have proven very profitable.
Winter apples do not mature well except in most favorable locations, but
all kinds of pears and several varieties of early apples are very successful.
Strawberries and raspberries are usually successful and the fruit of a high
quality.
2. The Lower Mainland is a district west of the Coast Mountains
and adjacent to the Fraser River. Here the climate is mild and damp
with a precipitation of from 50 to 70 inches per year. Fungous diseases are
very prevalent in consequence of the damp climate, and the cost of fighting:
them is a large item of expense. The small fruits such as strawberries and
raspberries, do particularly well, however, and, because of the natural early
season of the district, early apples, pears and plums usually yield good
returns.
3. The district of the Upper Fraser up to the 52nd parallel and including the main Thompson River and Nicola Valleys is in the Dry Belt. Irrigation is essential, but fungous diseases are almost unknown. This district
is proving more or less valuable for a wide range of fruits, but generally
speaking, the growing of the hardier winter apples is the industry of
greatest   promise.
4. The country surrounding Shuswap and Adams Lakes, the valley of
the Spallumcheen River and the Armstrong district, has a total precipita- 76 CANADIAN   PACIFIC  RAILWAY
tion of from 18 inches to 25 inches, which, with its generally excellent soil,
makes irrigation unnecessary for large fruits. The quality of the fruit is
particularly high. The general climatic conditions are similar to those
of Ontario, more so than in any other district in the province. The timber
is not very heavy, and land clearing runs from $50 to $125 per acre. Winter apples have proven most remunerative. On suitable soils, celery,
potatoes, etc., have made Armstrong famous.
5. The Okanagan Valley is the largest shipping district for fruit and
vegetables in the province at the present time. Here all northern fruits
are successfully grown, winter apples especially so, all under irrigation,
the rainfall running from 12 inches to 15 inches. This district is perhaps the
most advanced in fruit growing in the province.
6. The valley of the Similkamecn and contiguous valleys are all in the
Dry Belt. In this district the semi-tropical climate reaches up into
British Columbia, and here European varieties of grapes and similar
fruits are successfully grown. This is a large district, and has some very
fine land ready for irrigation, but hitherto insufficient transportation
facilities have hindered its general development.
7. The Boundary country is that of the Kettle River and its tributaries, and lies directly east of Similkameen. This also is in the Dry Belt,
and is a fruit growing area of good size. The industry is becoming well
established and the Grand Forks prunes and winter apples are well known
in the Prairie markets.
8. West Kootenay. This is a very large district most of which lies
along the Arrow Lakes, Kootenay Lake, Slocan Lake and the south
Columbia River. The rainfall is from 18 inches to 40 inches, and has
resulted in a heavy growth of timber, the clearing of which is proceeding
steadily. The large mining camps in this district have so far consumed the
great bulk of the fruit produced, but high quality winter apples will in a
short time be produced in sufficient quantities to reach the markets of the
prairies and Great Britain. Irrigation is necessary in this district only in
the driest seasons and for small fruits.
The above are all fruit districts which have been more or less proven
by actual experience, and each markets its own special varieties. The
following are other districts of which not so much is known:
9. East Kootenay. Lying directly east of West Kootenay from
which it is separated by the Selkirk Mountains. This district includes
particularly the upper reaches of the Kootenay and Columbia Rivers, including Windermere Lake. At present the district is largely devoted to
cattle ranching. While the winter temperature will prevent the growth
of the more tender fruits, the hardier apples have done well and more
planting is being done each year.
• 10. The Northern Coast. Another immense section which has certain possibilities but in which little has been done is the big territory lying
west of the Coast Mountains, all along the coast and including the Queen
Charlotte Islands.    The Department of Agriculture is undertaking the o
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planting of a number of trees at various parts in the territory for experimental purposes, from which more will be known in a few years.
11. The Northern Interior. This vast territory, including the
valleys of the Skeena, Bulkley, Nechaco, Naas, etc., has aroused considerable interest because of the building of the Grand Trunk Pacific
through it. Excellent fruit has been produced in the Kitsumkalem
Valley and Lakelse Lake Districts, and settlers are taking in with them
many thousands of fruit trees at the present time.
While it is doubtful whether the northern interior will be good for the
production of the more tender varieties of fruit, there will undoubtedly be
considerable success with the hardier kinds of pears and apples.
JAFFRAY FARM PLOTS
Adjoining the townsite of Jaffray, British Columbia, which is situated on the B. C. S. Railway, about 30 miles south-east of Cranbrook,
and in the centre of a thriving lumbering and rich farming district, the
Company has for sale plots of from 7 to 13 acres at prices varying from
$900.00 to $1,500.00 per plot. These plots are sold on deferred payments, ono-tenth down, the balance in nine c^ual yearly instalments
with interest at 6 per cent, per annum. Two aeres in each plot have
been stumped and ploughed, and the balance, cleared of all underbrush and timber. The land is free of rock, the soil good and eminently
suitable for fruit and vegetable growing. There is a ready market for
all kinds of farming produce in the immediate neighborhood.
Fuller particulars, together with price list and blue prints showing
location, may be obtained from the Superintendent of Lands, Department of Natural Resources, Canadian Pacific Railway, Calgary, Alberta.
DAIRYING
Dairying in British Columbia should be one of the leading agricultural
industries. A large proportion of the now settled portions of the Province
are richly endowed by Nature with the necessary soil and climatic conditions for the development of this industry. The market is scarcely excelled
by any country in the world and, as a consequence, prices for dairy produce
run high. Along with this high price of the product we find that the price
of concentrated food stuffs and labor are high. But to offset this very
large quantities of hay and grain can be grown per acre. The winter season is not long, for scarcely a day passes that cattle cannot go out, and for a
large portion of the year can obtain some food. The buildings for housing
cows <!o not need to be built so warm and the question of ventilation is a
minor one. Labor on a dairy farm is easier to hold because it can be
engaged for and very profitably employed during the entire year.
As the land increases in value more intensive methods of cultivation
are being used and this adds greatly to the dairy industry, by giving a
larger production of the product in a smaller area, thus decreasing very
much the cost of manufacture and delivery of the product to private and
co-operative concerns, as well as the individual.
The great increase in the population of the Province, and of the cities WESTERN   CANADA
79
in particular, has to some extent changed the character of the dairy business, especially that of the manufacture of butter and cheese. The country
surrounding the towns and cities is being opened up by suburban lines,
both electric, and steam, and as the cities are calling for more and better
milk a great many patrons of creameries have now placed at their doors
open markets for milk and sweet cream. This has been taken advantage
of by many during the last year, and as a result the manufacture of butter
does not appear to be as great as in former years. Most of the creameries
outside of this influence have reported this year an increase in production,
and considering the greater number of people that are using milk and
cream we must conclude that the industry is still growing and must of
necessity grow much larger.
The British Columbia Dairymen's Association, by its increased membership this year, shows to a certain extent the advance movements in this
industry. The Association is now on a more prosperous basis than ever
before and is effectually attacking many of the problems and aiding
financially and otherwise many of the difficulties that confront the dairymen. To a certain extent it is assisting in the educational work and in
promoting the interests of the dairymen in general.
The following is a list of the more important creameries in the province, and the figures are those reported to the Department of Agriculture
for the year 1910 :
Names of Companies
| No. of
Address     j     Patrons
Amount of
Butter
made
1. Comox Creamery Association . .
2. Vancouver Creamery Co., Ltd.   .
3. Nanaimo Creamery Association
4. Salt Spring Island Creamery As.
5. Okanagan Vallcv Creamery Co.,
Ltd :	
6. Royal Dairy Co
7.  Cowichan Creamery Association   Duncan
Courtenay
Vancouver
Nanaimo. .
Ganges . . .
Armstrong
Victoria. .
Eden Bank Creamery Co Chillivacl.
46
80
55
48
20
30
158
146
81
175
92
47
5
15
1S7
217
,901 lbs.
,000 "
,500 "
,650 "
000 "
600 "
879 "
893 "
Average Aver'ge
Price        Price
Received Paid for
|    Fat
Total reported '     583
39.66
32.
40.
38.
32.
43
43.
33.
34.33
31.
43.
37.
27.
40.
38.5
32.
823,423 lbs.      37.57   i  35.33
Names of Companie.3
Milk
Cream
Gals.
Buttermilk.
Ice
Gross
Returns
1
J 30,683.37
S3,175.20
440.00
93.00
800.00
912.00
1,800.00
S400.00
200.00
993,000.00
37,440.00
4. Salt Spring Island Creamery
20,029.08
5. Okanaean Valley Creamerv
Co., Ltd  "„..;
1,500
21,900
8,000.00
J16.425.00
55,000.00
597.50
90,980.00
4,644.31
70,022.92
Total reported	
$21,0W.31
23,400
57,220.20
SI, 197.50
$1,312,156:37  WESTERN   CANADA 81
CREAMERIES IN BRITISH COLUMBIA
Comox Creamery Association, Courtenay, B. C. ; Salt Spring Island
Creamery Association, Ganges; Eden Bank Creamery Association, Sardis;
Chilliwack Creamery Association, Chilliwaek ; Victoria Creamery Co.,
Ltd., Victoria ; Cowichan Creamery Association, Duncan ; Nanaimo
Creamery Association, Nanaimo ; Richmond Dairy Co., Ltd., Vancouver ;
B. C. Condensing Co., Ltd., New Westminster ; Vancouver Creamery Co.,
Ltd., Vancouver ; City Dairy & Produce Co., Vancouver ; Stewart
Creamery Co., Vancouver; D. Naysmith & Co., Vancouver; Standard Milk
Co., Vancouver, Okanagan Valley Creamery Co., Armstrong; Royal Dairy
Co., Ltd., Victoria;New Westminster Creamery Co., New Westminster.
LIVE    STOCK
A new era in agricultural development in the Province of British
Columbia is approaching and conditions pertaining to the live stock industry are rapidly improving. An increased interest in stock raising is being exhibited on every hand; Particularly is this to be seen in the breeding
of heavy and light horses, dairy cattle, and poultry.
As a comparatively new province, British Columbia is developing -
rapidly. With the enormous increase in the population of the larger cities
and the development of the lumbering, mining, and fishing industries,
there has been a constant and increasing demand for all food products. The
greatest increase in consumption of food products during the past year has
been in butter, cheese, pork, mutton, eggs and dressed poultry. The value
of dairy produce (exclusive of milk) importations amounted to $2,02,5,946,
and the value of dressed poultry and egg importations amounted to
$2,399,082. The home production of dairy produce (exclusive of milk)
amounted in value to $1,081,566, which was approximately only one-half
of the market demand Also the demand for dressed poultry and eggs was
nearly $2,000,000 in excess of the home supply. These conditions have
tended towards an increased interest in the dairy and poultry industries.
The rapid growth of city population has resulted in an increased demand
for milk which naturally affected the quantity of butter manufactured. The
increase in the demand for pork and mutton has not been met with a corresponding development of the swine and sheep industries. The raising of
swine is a complement to the dairy industry and with the recent impetus
given to the latter it is to be expected that in future more pork will be produced for home markets. Considering the adaptability of the province for
the raising of sheep it is surprising that importations last year should have
amounted in value to $1,214,028.
The heaviest importations in live stock have been in dairy cattle and
heavy horses. The rapid growth of the cities and the opening up of the
agricultural sections of the country have largely been responsible for the
large importations of draft horses. Transfer and commission houses
are constantly demanding sound horses of good weight and small farms are
always in need of sound horses of the agricultural class. 82 CANADIAN  PACIFIC  RAILWAY
Prices for all classes of live stock are somewhat variable, prices at
present being exceptionally good. So long as the agricultural districts of
the province are being opened up and devoted to agriculture, and so long
as our urban population increases at the rate which it has been for the
past while back, average prices for all classes of live stock and food products
will be good.
HORSES.—The breeding of draft horses has received considerable
impetus recently, owing to the demand for good sound horses for city use
and in many districts, especially along the Lower Mainland and on Vancouver Island, the quality of the horses has been improving rapidly during
the last few years, so that to-day British Columbia has many horses which
will compare favorably with those in other parts of Canada.
The lumber business is at present in a flourishing condition and the
development of this industry has demanded horses of good breeding,
suitable for lumbering purposes. Horses of this class are produced at good
profits in many parts of the Province and the great need is for more horses
being kept and bred in these districts. In the Upper Country comparatively little attention has been given to the breeding of horses except
under range conditions. The range, however, is not supplying the class of
horse that is most needed, and greater consideration should be given to the
class of stallions used. Draft horses sell from $500 to $900 per team, while
for extra choice specimens much higher prices have been realized. Farm
teams are worth from $300 to $600. There have recently been brought,
into the province large numbers of Clydesdales, Percheron, Belgian and
Shire stallions. These have usually brought good figures, some of the best
upwards of $5,000 each. First-class mares of these breeds are comparatively
few in number, with Clydesdales predominating. Breeding mares at
present are bringing good figures, from $300 to $500 apiece. Quite a
demand has been created for light horses, particularly high-stepping harness horses of the Hackney type and also for good saddlers. The annual
horse shows, held in the Coast cities, are important factors in encouraging
the breeding of light horses. The price of this class of horse varies according to quality and action, ranging from $400 to $2,000. Although the
market for this class of horse is rather limited, prices are exceptionally
good and the quality of the exhibits in a British Columbia horse show compares favorably with that found in the largest horse shows in the world.
The Horse Breeders' Lien Act has been in operation for four years, and
has done much to improve the quality of stallions throughout the province.
CATTLE.—In the districts surrounding the larger cities of the
Coast, in the Fraser Valley, and on Vancouver Island, the dairy industry
has been making rapids trides. With the increase in the dairy industry,
there has also been a noticeable increase in the quality of dairy stock
bred. Dairymen are coming to realize the importance of a pure-bred
sire and are also breeding many valuable cows. WESTERN  CANADA 83
In those districts in the immediate vicinity of Victoria and Vancouver,
tlolsteins predominate, while in other districts where creameries have been
established, Jerseys and Ayrshires are more largely kept. With the establishment of the creamery system, the quality of the butter has been
greatly improved, and the quantity placed on the market increased as well.
Extra choice Holstein, Jersey, Guernsey and Ayrshire bulls, for
breeding purposes, command exceptionally good prices. Many of these
have been brought in recently and long prices have been paid for them.
Prices for heavy-producing cows are also good, ranging from $260 to
$500. Grade cows sell from $60 to $125, according to the quality. The
principal grades being bred are Jersey and Holstein.
Very little dairying is carried on in the Upper Country and until
farmers use some system of irrigation for the growing of crops, it is evident
that dairying cannot develop very materially in these parts. There is,
however, considerable interest being taken in the dual-purpose cow. There
are several breeders of Red Polls and this class of cattle seems to be gaining
favor where exclusive dairying cannot be carried on. There is also room
for the breeding of milking Shorthorns, and in the Dry Belt where the
rainfall is very light, if the proper system of irrigation were established
so that fodder crops would be-produced,,the number of dual-purpose
cattle could be materially increased. Creameries could be established
and butter, as well as beef, could be supplied to the market. The northern
portion of the Province provides good opportunities for the development
of the dairy industry along these lines. At present, practically all the beef
produced for our markets is grown under range conditions,—Hereford and
Shorthorn grades being almost exclusively used. Practically all of the
imported beef comes from Alberta, while prices for native beef are very
good, ranging from 4c. to 7c. at shipping point. The quality of the stock
is improving slowly, through the use of imported pure-bred Shorthorn and
Hereford  bulls.
SWINE.—As a complement to the dairy industry, the raising of
swine proves very profitable and they may be kept in nearly every district
of the province. At the same time the supply is not nearly equal to the demand. With our comparatively mild winters, where there is very little
snowfall, and where abundance of green food may be produced, hogs may
be raised cheaply. In many parts of the province clover and alfalfa do
very well, and in the Fraser Valley, along the Lower Mainland and on
Vancouver Island,—the chief centre of the dairy industry,—hogs are being
kept in greater numbers. The chief breeds are Yorkshire, Tamworth and
Berkshire, with crosses of Yorkshire-Berkshire and Tamworth-Berkshire.
There is strong sentiment in favor of the bacon type of hog, yet it is not
advisable to breed the extreme bacon type as produced in Ontario for the
English market. It is doubtful if British Columbia will ever export pork,
consequently there will be more profit in producing a thicker bacon hog
than in breeding of those to produce the Wiltshire side. Prices for live hogs
average from 6J^c. to 8c, and breeding stock of all kinds sells well. 84 CANADIAN   PACIFIC   RAILWAY
SHEEP.—British Columbia is annually importing thousands of mutton carcasses from Australia, as well as from other parts, and at present
comparatively little is produced at home.
In many parts of the province there are few other industries which
could be made more profitable than the growing of sheep. The production
of mutton is a more important factor than the production of wool, consequently the short and medium wool breeds predominate. Also the climatic
and soil conditions have something to do with the breeds kept. Shrop-
shires, Southdowns and Oxfords are most numerous, while a few Lincolns,
Leicesters and other breeds are in favor in some parts. There are comparatively few flocks maintained under range conditions, but small flocks,
kept under range conditions, are very profitable. One serious difficulty
in the maintaining of large flocks is the prevalence of coyotes and panthers
which sometimes destroy a large number of the flock. A small flock
kept on the average farm where mixed farming is carried on, and properly
looked after and winter fed, to a certain extent, will give the owner a handsome profit. Mutton always commands a good figure, and spring lambs
sell quite high.    Breeding rams and ewes also command good figures.
GOATS.—A comparatively new industry is being developed in many
parts of the province. In such districts as the East and West Kootenays
where, because of the nature and contour of the land and the fact that
most of it is not cleared, dairying cannot be developed, and it is here that
the milch goat is being bred.
Interest in the goat industry has increased very rapidly of late and
many small farm owners are anxious to keep a goat or two and naturally
they desire one of good milking qualities. Many goats are being imported
at from $25 upwards and, because of the economy in milk production and
the ease with which the goat may be raised, it is believed that the goat
industry will soon become an important one in British Columbia.
Live Stock Organization.—The Stock Breeders' Association of
British Columbia has been in existence for some four years and has done
a great deal towards improving the live stock industry of the province.
Its chief work is educational, but, at the same time, it does much in a
practical way to assist stockbreeders. It encourages the importation of
pure-bred live stock and provides for special prizes at the leading exhibitions of the Province. It also endeavors to interest the young men of
our farms in live stock, and in this connection it provides for prizes in
stock judging competitions at the Fall Fairs. It endeavors to promote
the welfare of the live stock industry in general.
POULTRY
Splendid markets for all kinds of poultry products await the producers
in British Columbia. For years to come, the supply of eggs and fowls produced in the province cannot overtake the enormous demand.    At the ,   ,,
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present time, supplies are drawn from all parts of the North American
continent. Eggs are shipped from Kansas, California, Washington, Oregon, and other States ; from the provinces of Alberta, Saskatchewan,
Manitoba and Ontario, and even from China. Live poultry is brought in
by the earload from the mid-western States and provinces, and fattened
before consumption in the province. It is calculated that one city
alone imports 50,000 dozen eggs weekly, and it is estimated that the
eggs produced adjacent to the above mentioned city, and which help to
supply the demand, do not exceed in numbers more than 5,000 dozen
weekly. Such a condition is undesirable when we consider the advantages,
both of climate and nearness to markets, that the province enjoys.
Although there are not a few ranches in the province where the sole
form of occupation is poultry raising, and the owners are getting good
returns for their investment, at the same time it must not be forgotten
that excellent profits are possible on farms of mixed husbandry. The returns from the flock should add materially to the income of the fruitgrower, the dairyman, or even the man who is merely in the process of clearing his land. The orchard makes an admirable run for poultry, especially
growing stock. In the orchard many insect pests will be destroyed and the
manure from the fowls will greatly enrich the soil. By-products in the
orchard and in the fields are converted into profit. Fowls are economizers,
and when a poultry department is carried on with other branches of farming a system of rotation could be adopted very profitably.
Regarding prices for poultry products, it may be stated that they are
higher now, throughout the year, than at any previous period. For instance : ■ •
In 1905 the average price paid per dozen for eggs was 30c.
In 1906 the average price was 34c.
In 1907 the average price was 37c.
In 1908 the average price was 40c.
In 1909 the average price reached 50c. in some parts of the province.
In 1910 the average, price reached 55c. in some parts of the province.
During 1910 the price per dozen ranged from 75c. down to 25c. per
dozen.
In some parts of the province, especially on Vancouver Island, the
greater majority of fowds kept are of the lighter or egg-laying breeds, such
as Leghorns, Minorcas, etc. On some of the large poultry plants distributed throughout the province, can be found up-to-date methods in
vogue that can compare favorably with the larger and older established
poultry plants of the east.
Quite recently, several co-operative egg circles, or stations, have been
formed in the province, and these have helped the members to market their
product more profitably, and also assisted the members to procure their
grain and other feed supplies more economically. WESTERN  CANADA 87
All branches of poultry culture can be engaged in, and next to hens
or common poultry, the breeding of water fowl, ducks especially, can be
successfully carried on in almost all sections of the province. The Chinese
population here are good customers and consume the majority Of water
fowl offered on the market.
The British Columbia Poultry Association, organized recently with a
.membership of over four hundred, is doing splendid work in assisting
poultrymen generally throughout the province. The Association, besides
assisting and helping local poultry associations, also provides utility classes
for market poultry, in live and dressed fowls and eggs, at its annual show,
and is also assisting in helping to procure grain and feed at a reduced cost.
The Association receives financial aid from the Provincial Government,
and has been a great boon in many ways and has justified its existence.
In connection with poultry keeping, not a few of the more enterprising
poultrymen have launched out into the selling of day-old chicks, and have
found it a very profitable part of the business. There seems to be a considerable demand for them, and prices realized give a substantial margin
for profit. In the vicinity of Victoria, there is also a considerable demand
for day-old ducklings, for which good prices are paid.
Crate fattening establishments have been opened, and these centres
offer first-class prices for all the surplus cockerels that the poultrymen can
produce. As a matter of fact, so great is the demand, that cockerels are
shipped in from the East and South by the carload to help out the inadequate local production. Retail prices for fattened table fowl during the
past year never went below 25c. per pound and ranged as high as 35c.
Quite a large number of turkeys are marketed during the year but, as
in all other poultry products, the supply is away below the demand. There
are splendid opportunities offered for the breeding of turkeys, especially
in the sparsely settled districts, where plenty of free range can be secured.
This is very essential to successful turkey raising, as is also fresh or virgin
ground. Turkeys will not flourish if allowed to mingle with other varieties
of fowls. Owing to the plenteous supply of insect life, wild berries and
seeds, turkeys can be raised very cheaply. In fact, turkeys were marketed
at Thanksgiving, 1910, that had secured all their food from this source,
except during the first two weeks of their life. Tip top prices are realized
for this class of flesh, the retail prices ranging from 28c. to 40c. per pound.
Bulletins relating to poultry keeping may be had by application to
the Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B. C.
CEREALS AND MIXED FARMING
. To the man of small capital mixed farming affords the most promising
means of making a comfortable livelihood in British Columbia. To engage
exclusively in fruit-growing, one is obliged to provide for the period from  WESTERN   CANADA 89* ,
the setting-out of the trees till they come into bearing, thus requiring an
income from other sources, while in mixed farming returns may be counted
on from the start. A few acres planted in small fruits, early vegetables,
potatoes, carrots, onions, cabbages, etc., with fowls, some cows and pigs,
will give a man an assured income the first season, and will not interfere
with his planting a variety of fruit trees, which will become profitable later.
Another advantage of mixed farming is the fact that a man and his family
can attend to the work, which occupies them pleasantly the year round,
while the special farmer, with but one crop to depend upon, has to cultivate
a larger area and hire help during the short periods of seeding and harvest,
and has nothing to occupy his time the remainder of the year. Large-
farms, and specialties in agriculture, should only be attempted by men of
sufficient means to tide over long periods of unproductive idleness.
GRAIN GROWING.—Wheat is grown principally in the Fraser
Valley, Okanagan, Spallumcheen, and in the country around Kamloops
in the Thompson River Valley. Until the northern interior of the province
is brought under cultivation through the construction of railways, the wheat
area will not be greatly increased. Wheat is only grown on the Mainland
Coast and Vancouver Island for fodder and poultry-feeding.
Barley of excellent quality is grown in many parts of the province.
Oats are the principal grain crop, the quality and yield being good,
and the demand beyond the quantity grown. Rye is grown to a limited
extent, and is used for fodder.
The average yield of grain and prices are as follows :—
Wheat, bushels per acre . . .25.62 ; price per ton $38.00
Oats, bushels per acre 39.05 ; price per ton 35.00
Barley, bushels per acre ... 33.33 ; price per ton 35.00
These averages are very much exceeded in many cases, according
to nature of soil and local conditions. In the matter of oats, as high as
100 bushels to the acre is not an uncommon yield.
ROOT CROPS.—Potatoes, turnips, beets, mangels, and all other
roots grow in profusion wherever their cultivation has been attempted.
Sixty-eight tons of roots to a measured acre is recorded at Chilliwack, and
near Kelowna, on Okanagan Lake, 20 acres produced 403 tons of potatoes,
which sold at $14 per ton. The Dominion census places the average yield
of potatoes at 162.78 bushels to the acre. The average price of potatoes
is $14 to $16 per ton, while carrots, turnips, parsnips, and beets sell at an
average of about 60 cents per bushel.
HOP CULTURE.—The Okanagan, Agassiz, and Chilliwack districts
are well suited to hop growing, and produce large quantities, unexcelled
in quality. British Columbia hops command good prices in the British
market, and most of  the crop is sent there, though now Eastern Can- DO CANADIAN   PACIFIC  RAILWAY
ada and Australia are buying increasing quantities. The yield of hops
averages 1,500 pounds to the acre, and the average price is 25 cents
per pound.
FODDER CROPS.—Besides the nutritious bunch grass which affords
good grazing to cattle, horses, and sheep on the benches and hillsides, all
the cultivated grasses grow in profusion wherever sown. Red clover,
alfalfa, sainfoin, alsike, timothy, and brome grass yield large returns—
three crops in the season in some districts and under favorable circumstances. Hay averages about lJ-£ tons to the acre, and the price from $17
to   $25.
SPECIAL PRODUCTS.—Tobacco growing has proved successful
in several districts, notably in Okanagan, where a leaf of superior quality
is produced. Tobacco of commercial value will grow in almost any part
of Southern British Columbia, and there is no reason why the farmers
of the province should not cultivate it in a small way for their own use,
as is the custom in many parts of Quebec and Ontario, and thus gain
the experience necessary to undertake its production on a large scale.
F. Charlan, Chief of the Tobacco Division of the Department of Agriculture, Ottawa, in a report made in 1908, says of the development of tobacco culture in Okanagan Valley : "The progress made by the industry
in such a short time is really surprising. I was much pleased also with the
quality of the product. The aroma is very fine, very agreeable, much like
that of some Havanas. This tobacco would make excellent fillers. The
seed is imported from Cuba and renewed every four years."
Experiments have proved that the soil and climate in and about
Victoria are admirably adapted to the production of flowering bulbs, and
quite a large business has been established. There is a good market for all
the bulbs that can be grown, as the bulk of those used in North America are
imported from Europe, and the Pacific Coast alone uses fifty million
annually. The profit to be derived from bulb-growing is estimated at over
$2,000 per acre.
The importance of apiculture is beginning to be recognized, and a considerable quantity of delicious honey of home production is found in the
local markets. As the area of cultivation extends, bee-keeping should
become a profitable adjunct of general farming.
The Coast districts and many of the lowlands of the interior are well
suited to cranberry-culture, which is being tried in a small way, and with
success, by settlers on the west coast of Vancouver Island.
Celery, another vegetable luxury, is grown in limited quantities, and
the soil and climate warrant its cultivation on a more general ocale. Celery
properly grown and packed commands good prices and an unlimited
market.
Sugar beets grow to perfection in several localities, but their cultivation on a large scale has not been attempted. ' WESTERN  CANADA 91
Indian corn, melons, and tomatoes are profitable items in the output
of the small farmer, and are successfully grown in all of the settled districts.
IRRIGATION
The introduction of irrigation has wrought great changes in agricultural methods, but its advantages are not generally understood. Mixed
farming is especially profitable on irrigated lands, for it has been proved
that under this system seemingly worthless land is made to produce four
times as much as the choicest soil cultivated under the old method. While
there is much to learn in connection with irrigation, men quickly appreciate its great advantages. It renders them independent of the elements
in the conduct of their farm work, so that they have only to study the needs
of their locality and adjust their products to the demand, thus deriving a
continuous income without fear of failure from drought or excessive rain.
Under the "Water Act, 1909," unrecorded water may be diverted from
any natural source for irrigation or agricultural purposes generally. The
scale of fees is fixed by the Lieutenant-Governor m Council, the rates being
very reasonable for water recorded and actually used for agricultural
purposes. The discharge of 1 cubic foot of water per second is the unit of
measurement of flowing water and 1 acre-foot (i. e., a quantity of water
that will cover 1 acre of land 1 foot deep) is the unit of measurement of
quantity.
Generally speaking, there is abundant water within reach, but there
are sections where the height of the land above the water-level or distance
from the source of supply stands in the way of individual attempts at irrigation, but the work may be accomplished by co-operation and with the
expenditure of capital. In Okanagan, Similkameen, and Kamloops districts, companies have purchased large tracts of land, formerly used as cattle
ranges, which they are subdividing into small holdings of 10 acres and
upwards, and constructing reservoirs and ditches, which will provide an
unfailing supply of water. These companies are already reaping the
reward of their enterprise, as the land is being rapidly sold to actual
settlers, who are planting orchards and engaging in mixed farming.
The Provincial Government, impressed with the importance of irrigation, has appointed a commission of experts to study the hydrographic
conditions existing in the "dry belt," and to formulate a comprehensive
plan for the reclamation of many hundreds of thousands of acres of bench
lands from pasturage to flourishing orchards and farms, the homes of
thousands of prosperous settlers.
THE DRY BELT '
There are in the Province of British Columbia many hundred thousand
of acres of excellent land which may be classed as arid or semi-arid, and to
which it seems impossible to supply water, unless some genius shall arise
with a new scheme and methods now unknown to irrigation experts. 92 CANADIAN   PACIFIC  RAILWAY
In Southern Yale alone.there are nearly 2,000,000 acres which are practically valueless except foi pasture, and as it takes many of these acres
to support a single head of stock, a very extensive region seems doomed
to remain indefinitely an almost uninhabited wilderness. Irrigated
and sown with fodder crops, these lands would feed ten times the number
of cattle ; but planted with fruit, grain, and vegetables, each 40 acres would
support at least from three to five people, or, at a conservative estimate,
a population of 200,000. It has been demonstrated in Nebraska, Wyoming, Kansas, Colorado, Texas, Utah, Arizona, New Mexico, and other
States lying partly or wholly within the boundaries of the American
Desert, that, under the system of "dry farming," wherever the annual
rainfall averages as high as 12 inches, as good crops can be raised without
irrigation as with it. Dry farming consists simply in the exercise of intelligence, patience, and tireless industry. Its underlying principles are :
First, to keep the surface of the land under cultivation loose and finely
pulverized. This forms a soil mulch that permits the rains and melting
snow to percolate readily through to the compact soil beneath, and that at
the same time prevents the moisture stored in the ground from being
brought to the surface by capillary attraction, to be absorbed by the hot,
dry air. The second is to keep the subsoil finely pulverized ?.nd firmly
compacted, increasing its water-holding capacity and its capillary attraction, and placing it in the best possible physical condition for the
germination of the seed and development of plant roots. The "dry
farmer" thus stores water not in dams and artificial reservoirs, but right
where it can be reached by the roots of growing crops.
There are instances in British Columbia in which crops are being
successfully grown on land which had been considered worthless for
agricultural purposes on account of its altitude and the impossibility of
getting water to it. One of these examples of "dry farming" is on what is
known as the Commonage, near Vernon, and the other on the uplands near
Midway. The success which has attended these experiments will doubtless encourage others to take up scientific farming—for that is just what
dry farming is—and in time much of the land that is now given up to sagebrush, cactus, and bunch-grass will yield plentiful crops of grain, fruit, and
vegetables. JWESTERN  CANADA 93
PART VII.
INDUSTRIES IN WESTERN CANADA
It goes without saying, that the marvellous development that has
taken place in Western Canada, particularly during the last decade, has had
the effect of building up a number of the most progressive and handsome
cities in the world. Western Canada will, within a comparatively short
period be the home of teeming millions whose comforts and necessities must
be provided for. To cater to this increasing population will require
a vast amount of capital and labor. Industrial centres are now springing
up all over Western Canada, and openings exist for the profitable employment of capital and business experience in a multitude of directions.
THE LOCAL MARKET
The construction of the Canadian Pacific Railway across Western
Canada opened up a territory rich in raw material, destined for the development of every kind of commercial enterprise. The enormous increase year by year in land settlement demands a contributary increase
in industrial development. The market for the manufactured article is
within the territory of its manufacture, and merely awaits the further in-
vestigaton on the part of the capitalist.
Each year new towns come into extistence; each year the demand for
supplies grows greater; each year the importation of merchandise that
could be manufactured in the country is steadily increasing.
The Canadian Pacific Railway, with its 1,200 cities, towns and
villages in the West, opens up a tremendous field for commercial development. The retailer is demanded at every point; the wholesaler at
strategic corners, where he is able to cover a large expanse of settled
country; the manufacturer in the cities where the wholesale man takes
the larger part of the output. For the manufacturer, the waterpowers of
the Western rivers and the natural gas field, constitute a means by which
the raw material may be turned into the finished product with economic
success and in competition with the products of any country in the world.
INDUSTRIAL  OPENINGS
The best illustration of the demand for factories in Western Canada
may perhaps be found in the list of imports shown in the annual summary,
issued by the Dominion Government, and for which Canada is at the
present moment sending millions of dollars  out  of the country.
The total imports for the year ending March, 1912, amounted to
$547,382,582, of which $521,348,701 represent merchandise, and $26,033,-
881 coin and bullion. 94 CANADIAN  PACIFIC  RAILWAY
Among the articles imported, in the composition of which the raw
material lies right at our door, are the following:
Brick, tiles, claj' and manufactures of  $2,719,852
Carriages, carts, wagons, etc  11,753,840
Cordage, rope and twine  2,603,358
Earthenware, china and graniteware  2,582,966
Flax, hemp, jute and manufactures of  6,471,837
Glass     4,100,386
Gloves and mitts  1,893,385
Leather and manufactures of     6,386,934
Brass and manufactures of    '.  3,538,865
Copper and manufactures of  5,913,165
Iron and steel and manufactures of     96,140,200
Paper and manufactures of   9,347,698
Soap  1,120,760
Sugar, molasses, etc  18,152,131
Wood and manufactures of   20,619,904
Bread stuffs  13,483,034
CLAY AND CEMENT PRODUCTS
The Dominion Government has been for the last few years and still is
engaged on a survey of the clay and shale deposits in the West, and from a
summary report already issued, it would appear evident that every kind of
clay product can be manufactured. The demand for building material
outstrips the supply by many thousands of dollars annually, and thus there
is a great field open for the manufacture of all clay products, and cement and '
its products, the huge deposits of lime rock in Alberta and British Columbia
being eminently suitable to this industry.
FLAX STRAW PRODUCTS
Although over 11,000,000 bushels of flax were produced in the year of
1911, all the straw was destroyed. Putting the straw at 1,500,000 tons, it
would have yielded under manipulation 300,000 tons of commercially spinnible flax fibre, which at Canadian prices would have yielded
$60,000,000. In addition to the use of the fibre for linen and coarser stuffs,
it may also be utilized in the manufacture of paper and card fabric.
CREAMERIES AND BEET  SUGAR  FACTORIES.
The Provinces of Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba, during the
year 1911, produced 11,141,207 pounds of butter, valued at $2,753,671;
660,725 pounds of cheese valued at $84,691; 14,044,000 bushels of potatoes valued at $6,303,000; 247,000 bushels of turnips and other vegetables
valued at $2,931,000; 2,429,000 tons of hay and clover valued at $5,892,000.
The sugar beet as grown in Alberta is manifestly successful and produced
15,000 tons of sugar valued at $75,000 last year, but there is a much larger
scopeior this and other industries at the present time, with an exceedingly WESTERN   CANADA 95
profitable future. Not nearly sufficient is being produced to take care of
the home market in addition to which there is a large outside market to
provide for, with products which should, and can, be grown to perfection
in the West.
WESTERN CANADA WATER POWERS
Enormous water powers can be and are being developed in Western
Canada. In Western Ontario, east of the boundary of Manitoba, the
water powers are estimated to produce 237,347 h.-p., and have so far
been developed at Kakabeka Falls and Kenora. In the Province of Manitoba the estimated water power amounts to 519,000 h.-p., of which 53,000
h.-p. has been developed, principally for the City of Winnipeg.
The water powers of the Province of Saskatchewan are estimated
to produce 470,200 h.-p., but are at the present time practically undeveloped.
The Province of Alberta has huge water powers within its boundaries.
It is estimated that there is available 1,167,300 h.-p., of which only about
7,300 h.-p. has been utilized up to date.
! The water powers of the Province of British Columbia are estimated
to produce 2,045,945 h.-p., and at the present moment 137,000 h.-p. has
been developed.
NATURAL RESOURCES OF WESTERN CANADA
In Western Ontario the product of the iron ranges which are tributary to the lake ports are being developed, and the iron ore used at the blast
furnaces at Port Arthur. The gold mining claims south of Dryden, and at
Kenora, are being exploited. The cities of Port Arthur and Fort William
during the season of navigation handle the huge grain crop of the West,
which is shipped out over the lakes, and the freighters bring back a large
tonnage of coal and merchandise. The paper pulp industry is being developed at Dryden.
In the newly added territory to the Province of Manitoba there are
enormous natural resources, which have not as yet been sufficiently explored to form any adequate estimate of their value. There are, however,
large stretches of timber and big coal deposits as well as other minerals.
The lakes of Manitoba—Winnipeg, Winnipegosis and Manitoba—are
famous for their white fish. Rich deposits of gypsum, clay, shale, limestone,
gravel and sand exist.
The Province of Saskatchewan also possesses valuable coal, shale,
gravel and sand deposits, and, in the north, valuable timber limits.
The Province of Alberta is the home of the natural gas field, and has
coal beds underlying a large part of the province. Vast deposits of clay,
gravel, sand and limestone are found, and, in some cases, extensively utilized. Tron ore and copper are also reputed to be found on the east slope
of the Rocky Mountains.
The principal products of the Province of British Columbia are coal,
gold/silver, copper, lead, zinc, timber, furs, fish, oil, hops, fruit, vegetables. 96 CANADIAN   PACIFIC   RAILWAY
wheat, oats, barley, hay and cultivated grasses, marble, granite, limestone,
gypsum, clay, shale, gravel, sand, etc.
Vancouver Island, with its ports at Victoria, Nanaimo and Alberni,
is building up an immense shipping trade to all parts of the world. The
island is tremendously rich in timber and minerals.
LUMBERING
Lumbering on a large scale is an important industry in the northerly
portion of the Prairie Provinces, and in the foothills of Alberta and the
east slope of   the Rocky Mountains.
In British Columbia the lumbering industry is next in importance
to that of mining. The vast forest of large trees west of the Coast Range
were for many years the supply market for the world in the way of spars
and masts, and at the present day much of the larger timber used throughout Canada for works of importance necessitating the use of large pieces
of timber, is brought by rail or boat from the Western slopes. The
province may now be said to possess the greatest compact area of merchantable timber on the North America continent, this being roughly estimated at 182,750,000 acres. It is only of comparatively recent years that
the lumbering industry of the interior has risen to importance, but since
the opportunities have developed, the mountain mills have become one
of the chief sources of supply for the immense demand that has opened
throughout the prairie provinces. The red cedar shingles obtain a ready
market as far east as the province of Ontario, while the beautiful grains
of the British Columbia fir have opened a way for the using of it for finishing
purposes throughout the whole of Canada and in the Northwestern States
of America. The Western species of hemlock is much superior to that
of the east and is as serviceable in many ways as the highly prized fir. The
overseas trade is steadily growing, and with the opening of the Panama
Canal the Coast trade will expand very rapidly.
At the close of the last year there were 207 large and small sawmills
in the province, with an annual daily capacity of 4,500,000 feet, or an
average capacity of approximately 21,500 feet. In addition to this number
there were 49 shingle mills with an aggregate daily capacity of 3,395,000
shingles. The cutting throughout the province for 1909 being 755,000,000
feet, shows a marked increase over five years previously—1904 when the
cut was but 325,271,500 feet. Of the 1909 production 450,000,000 feet
came from the coast mills and the balance 325,000,000 was cut in the interior.
MINING
MANITOBA,    SASKATCHEWAN   AND   ALBERTA.—From the
fourth meridian west to the boundary of the Provinces of Alberta
and British Columbia vast areas are underlaid with rich deposits
of lignite, bituminous and, anthracite coals. The coal mines at present
in operation have increased their output to supply the market fairly well, WESTBBN CANADA 07
but much yet requires to be done. The lignite eoals on the eastern boundary of the coal belt are being mined at Cypress Hills, Medicine Flat, Red
Deer, Edmonton, Sturgeon River and MorinviHe districts. The cost at the
mouth of the pit ranges from $1.50 to $2.50 per ton. A class of coal
superior to this 'geologically called lignitic.i is mined principally at Lethbridge and Taber where over $3,000,(X)0 has been invested
The true bituminous or steam coal Is mined south-west of Pincher
Creek, Alberia, a number of mines in the Prank-Blairmore district and
at Canmore on the main line of the Canadian Pacific Railway.
The most important anthracite deposit is near Banff, where the Bank-
head Mines, Limited, have an output capacity of 2,(500 tons pel day. The
anthracite dust is made into briquettes, which have receiver! h ready
sale in the domestic market. This is the only anthracite mine being
operated in Canada, and for this class of coal will supply the market from
Winnipeg to Vancouver with a hard coal equal to that shipped from
Pennsylvania.
For years past placer gold in paying quantities has been found on the
banks and bars of the North an-l South Saskatchewan, also on the Pembina, Smoky, McLeod and Athabasca Hivers. In the main range of the
Rocky Mountains mineralized veins of copper with a small percentage of
gold and galena veins carrying a fairly large percentage of silver have been
located, l'rospectiug work has been done on a number of the leads, but. up
to the present not enough to prove them at depth.
BRITISH COLUMBIA justifies her title as the mineral province of
Canada, inasmuch that in 1909 she produced two thirds as much in the
following metals and coal products as all the other Canadian Provinces
combined, and that, too, In spite of the fact that her iron and zinc
deposits are still undeveloped, and mica; gypsum and oihet mineral*
which she has in abundance not yet drawn upon.
The total'provincial production for 1908 of gold, silver, copper, lead,
coal, coke, etc., amounted to $23,851.277, while the production fur last
year was as follows : ,
Gold placer          $     477,000
Gold lode    '      4.1)24 .<W>
Silver  1,239,270
Lead  1.709,259
Copper . .  5,9!*.522
Coal-' •••• 7,022,666
fc'f; Coke ,■  1,522,218
Other materials  1,600,000
$24,443,025
Ore mined in the province during the year 1909, exclusive ot coal, whs
2,057,713  tons.
The number of mines from which shipments were made in 1909 whb
89, but of these only 52 shipped more than 100 tons during the year.
The tonnage of coal mined in the province in 1909 amounted to 98 CANADIAN   JACmC RAILWAY
2.006,476 long tons and 2J58.703. long tons of coke, a total of 2.265,179
lone t««is valued at $8,574,884. Expar/ling industries, milway rxtenpion
and increasing population demand an ever-increasing production of
«ml. The total mineral production recorded for the provimw to end of
1909  was  $347,820,584.
The steady increase in production is shown in the following table :
1890       $ 2,(HM,803
1895  5,IH3,042
1900          16,344,751
1905 ./.          22.4lVl.325
1906          24.U80.546
1907         25,SX2,5H0
1908          23.851,277
1909         24,443,025
Ni«t«.—During 1908 and 1909 the price of metal was low, which account* for decrease in value, though the actual tonnage produced in 1908
exceeded that of 1907 by 279,492 tons of \hVi% and the average assay
was greater.
Practically all the mining which has been done to date is confined to
within a comparatively few miles from the railways, and hardly 20 per
cent, of British Columbia ran be said to be really known.   It is calculated
that there are yet untouched some 300,000 square miles known to be
richly mineralized, a field for the pros)>ector such as exists nowhere else in
the   world.
FISHERIES
Extensive fisheries are carried on in the vast inland waters of Manitoba. Saskatchewan, Alberta and Western Ontario. In the Lake of the
Woods, caviar of the highest quality is obtained. The famous whitefish
of the prairie lakes is shipped to the Eastern States in gTeat quantities.
In British Columbia the province's fisheries for the year ending 31st
March, 1909, show a total value of products of $6,465,000, of which the salmon fisheries produced $4,287,000; the value of the halibut catch for the same
period was $875,000; of whales, $357,000; of herring, $944,000. It is estimated that the total value of these products this year will exceed that of
1909 by $2,000,000.
The principal food fishes of the North Pacific are salmon, herring,
sturgeon, bass, oolachans, smelts, perch, trout, skill, sardines, anchovies,
shad, oysters, clams, crabs, shrimps, and prawns. Whales are very plentiful
along the Coast of Behring Sea. Dog fish are valuable for their oil and
in the manufacture of guano. Sealing, at one time a leading source of
profit, has fallen off of late owing t« restrictions imposed by the Behring
Sea award and the decreasing number of these mammals.
Apart from the commercial aspects of British Columbia's deep sea
fisheries, the lakes and streams offer exceptionally good sport to the
amateur fisherman and angler. AH the numerous rivers, creeks, and lakes,
as well as the sea, teem with fish, so that the gentle art may be enjoyed
at all seasons and in every part of the province. WESTERN  CANADA 99
The streams and lakes of Vancouver Island are in this respect particularly famous in the west, while the "Outlet" on t'.e West Arm of the Koot-
emty River at Proctor, "The Pool" at Slocan Junction,the Creston district, and the waters of southern Yale are amongst the best known fishing
resorts on the mainland. Non-residents of the province desirous of tingling
must first obtain a licence, which costs five dollars.
BUSINESS OPPORTUNITIES
It would be safe to estimate that a new town is being started
in Western Camilla at least once a week with the i remetidous
•expansion in railway construction and the opening up of new territory
for settlement. It is, of course, evident that the great agricultural development of the Western Province* creates business opportunities to
equally as great an extent. In the newly established towns, general
stores, blacksmith shops and all other enterprises peculiar to centres of
development are required, and those who avail themselves of these
opportunities to enter business in the early history of the new towns in
Western Canada scarcely ever have occasion to regret that step.
PROFESSIONAL OPENINGS
Equally as great opportunities exist for certain classes of professional
men in the towns of Western Canada. Doctors, lawyers, veterinary surgeons, pharmacists and others are in many cases urgently needed in these
new communities.
Information as to the requirements which will enable professional
men to practise in the various Western provinces of Canada may lie obtained by application to The Provincial Secretary, Winnipeg, Manitoba; Regina, Saskatchewan; Edmonton, Alberta, or Victoria, B. C.
MONTHLY PUBLICATION
The Canadian Piicific Railway Company, realizing the need that
exists for directing those seeking industrial, business or professional openings in Western Canada, has compiled a statement, which is corrected
monthly. <*f openings in these directions in towns along its system in
Western Canada. This will be mailed free of charge to anyone applying
to the address given below.
INDUSTRIAL BUREAU
The Canadian Pacific Railway maintains a bureau whose mission
it is to carcfulh investigate and report upon the legitimate manufacturing
and business requirements of the various cities and towns in Western Canada, and to place reliable information on this subject before interested
parties. Anyone who desires to investigate the |M>ssibilities of Western
Canada in a manufacturing or business way should direct his inquiry to
The Industrial Branch,
Department of Natural Resources,
Canadian Pacific Railway,
Calgary,   Canada. 100 CANADIAN   PACIFIC  RAILWAY
PART VIII.
GENERAL INFORMATION OF
INTEREST TO SETTLERS
PUBLIC WORSHIP
The utmost religious liberty prevails in Canada. T.iere is no State
Church. Christian churches of various beliefs are found in the country
towns as well as in the cities. The number of specified denominations of
religious thought in the Dominion, according to the last census, was 168. No
place is the Sabbath more respected than in the Canadian West.
SOCIAL CONDITIONS
It is an interesting fact that the population of Western Canada,
widely scattered and composed of many nationalities, is singularly peaceful and law-abiding. Life and property are better protected, and individual right? more respected, even in the isolated mining camps and remote agricultural settlements, than in some of the great centres of civilization in older countries. The country, though new, enjoys all the necessities
and many of the luxuries and conveniences of modern life. There are
few towns which are not provided with waterworks, electric lights, and
telephones. The hotels are usually clean and comfortable, and the
stores well stocked with every possible requirement. There is little
individual poverty. A general prosperity is the prevailing condition
throughout Western Canada, for no one need be idle or |>enniless who
is able and willing to work. The larger towns are well supplied with
libraries and reading rooms, and some of the provinces have a system
of travelling libraries, by which the rural districts are furnished free
with literature of the best description
All the cities and larger towns have well equipped hospitals, supported by Government grants and private subscriptions, and few of the
smaller towns are without cottage hospitals.
The blind, deaf and dumb and other unfortunates are well cared
for in well appointed institutions, maintained bj' the various Provincial
Governments and under the management of experts.
Daily newspapers and periodicals of a high character are published
in all the cities in Western Canada, and even in the remote and sparsely
settled districts, a weekly paper is generally a feature of the market
town,
EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM   OF WESTERN CANADA
One-eighteenth part of the whole prairie section of Western Canada,
or two sections in every township, is set aside as a school grant for the
maintaining of schools.    This provides a very large school fund, which WESTERN  CANADA 101
will assure the maintenance of an adequate and advanced school system.
The schools arc non-sectarian and national in character.
MANITOBA.—The public school system established in the Province
of Manitoba i« well abreast of the times. Its management is vested in one
of the Ministers of the Government assisted by an Advisory Board consisting of 12 members. In almost every locality where these condition'.- exist
schools have .-lining up. The cost of maintaining schools is moderate,
owing to the liberal assistance given by the Government Each tear.lier
employed must have a cert ideate of a recognized standard of education,
issued hy the State, and, in addition, must present evidence ol having
received Normal training. A thorough system ol inspection ha= been
inaugurated, each school beimr usually visited twice during the year.
The inspectors are not elected, but. are appointed by the Govemmeut on
account of their special aptitude for the duties they have to perforin
In the schools of the larger towns the hisjher branches of strnh are laught
and pupils arc prepared for University matriculation and Teachers' certificates. Uniform State examinations for Teachers' certificates are held
annually at, convenient points The people of the Province take a keen
interest in their schools. The Government has always given the school
problem its first consideration, with the result that a system has been
established which leading authorities admit provides as practical an
education as can be obtained in the older Provinces of Canada or the United
States.
Summed up, the leading features of the Manitoba System are :
1. Government control, freed from political interference.
2. Liberal Government assistance.
3. Comparatively light taxation.
■4. A very practical course of studies.
5. Thorough supervision by competent inspectors.       .
6. Trained teachers and uniform State examinations.
7. Free text books for pupils.
SASKATCHEWAN .—School districts are established in the Province of Saskatchewan by the Government, but are controlled, maintained
and managed by the resident ratepayers of the district. The maximum
size of rural districts is limited to 25 square miles, but the majority of
districts at present being formed comprise an area of from It! to 21) square
miles. In order that a district be established, it must have four persons
actually resident, therein, who, on the erection of the district, would be
liable to assessment;, and at least twelve children between the ages of 5
ami 16 years inclusive. The schools are sustained by provincial aid, and
also by local rates.
The province was established on September 1, 1905. At the close
of that year there were 942 school districts organized, During the year
190fi, 248 new districts were erected ; in 1907, 240 ; in 1908, 315 ; 1909,
25ti, and in 1910, 252, but as two districts were disorganized there was a 102 CANADIAN  PACIFIC  RAILWAY
net gain of 250 ; thus between September 1, 1905, and the close of 1910,
the number of school districts increased from 942 to 2,251. Saskatchewan school population, 1909, 53,969, viz., rural, village, town and city
sehools, 53,08.) ; high schools and collegiates, 880 ; departments, 1,918 ;
Government  grants,   $315,596.
A university supported and controlled by the province was established in 1907. It is located in the city of Saskatoon, on the banks of the
Saskatchewan River. The College of Arts and Science was opened in
September, 1909, and has now a large number cf students in attendance.
The College of Agriculture was opened for students in 1911. The University has secured a campus of about 300 acres, and a college farm, with
experimental plots, containing over 1,000 acres. The farm buildings include a college building, a residence for students, a laboratory for agricultural engineering, a pavilion for stock judging, a power-house, barns and
three residences for the staff. A staff of twenty in arts and agriculture
carries on the work of the College.
ALBERTA.—The school system of the Province of Alberta is acknowledged to be equal, if not superior, to any' on the continent. Its management is vested in one of the Ministers of the Government. The
organization of school district's is optional with the settlers. Districts
formed cannot exceed five miles in length or breadth, and must contain at
least four actual residents liable to assessment, and eight chikhen between the ages of five and sixteen inclusive. The cost to the taxpayer of
maintaining a school is small, owing to the liberal assistance given by the
Government ; the public grants paid to each school are from $250 to
$300 per year. Each teacher employpd must have a certificate of a
recognized standard of education, and a thorough system of inspection is
inaugurated, each school being visited twice during the year. In the
schools of the larger towns, the higher branches of study are taught, find
pupils are prepared for university matriculation and  teachers' certificates.
Calgary alone has sixteen public schools, including a high school
complete in every essential, the Provincial Normal School, the Western
Canada College for boys, the St. Hilda's College for ladies, and. the St.
Mary's Convent for girls, a stafl of fully 1.4.0 instructors being employed
in the various educational institutions of the city.
The Provincial University has been established at Strathcona op the
north sirle of the Saskatchewan River, overlooking the Parliament Buildings. In Edmonton, educational needs are amply provided for by 20
public school buildings, most of which are massive, handsome edifices,
which would be creditable to any city on the continent. There are numerous other educational institutions, such as Alberta College, Westward'
Ho School for Boys, convents, etc,
BRITISH COLUMBIA.—The facilities for education in this province
are equal to any part of the Dominion of Canada, and will bear comparison
with the standard elementary schools of Great Britain. Attendance in
public schools  is  eompulsory, but the system is free and non-sectarian. WESTERN  CANADA 163
The expenditure for educational purposes amounts to over $625,000 annually. The Provincial Government builds a sehool-bouso, and pays a certified teacher in every rural district where twenty children between the
ages of six and sixteen can be gathered together, placing the management
in the hands of.tli-e local trustees, and sending inspectors and examiners
periodically to look over the work. For outlying districts and mining
camps this arrangement is very advantageous. High setfewils arc also
established in cities whore classics and higher mathematics arc taught.
There are also Normal schools for the training of tenehenj. The minimum
salary paid to teachers in turnl districts is $90.60 per month, and reaches
as high, as $175 00 ii city and high schools. The Legislature recently
passed an Act lot the establishment of the University of Btifeis'. . .ilumhia,
for the endowment of which two million acres of public I xif- have been set
apart. The Educational Department is presided over by a Minister of the
Grown. Under him is a Superintendent of Education and six inspectors.
There are boards of trustees in charge of all schools in every district.
The number of pupils enrolled in 1909 was 36,227. showing a marked
increase within the last two years. According to the last educational report there are 448 schools in operation throughout the province, including
18 high schools, 51 graded schools and 139 municipality schools, together
with 240 of what are known as common schools, employing, all told, 911
teachers. When this is compared with the fact that with the opening of
the public school system in 1872 there wore just, 28 schools with the same
number of teachers and 1,028 pupils, the growth of this system can be
readily pictured
The high sehoois are distributed as 'ollows : Victoria (Victoria College), Vancouver (Vancouver College), ^ew Westminster, Nanaimo, Nelson, Rossland. Cumberland, Vernon, Kaslo, Chilliwack, Grand Forks,
Kamloops, Armstrong, Golden, Revelstoke, Kni'-rby, Kelowna, and Ladysmith. There is » Provincial Normal School at Vancouver, and many
excellent, private fqlleges and LjggjrcS^jseheols. Victoria and Vancouver
Colleges are affiliated te MblSf UaWersity, Montreal, and have high
schools and university department's.
AGRICULTURAL ORGANIZATION
Forming part of the educational system of Western Canada, an admirable system of agricultural instruction and demonstration has been
developed through the efforts erf the Dominion Oovertiuieiit, the various
Provincial Departments of Agriculture, and the Canadian Pacific Railway
Company.      As an example of this useful work we quote the following :
"An announcement that has met. the applause of all Western Canada
"has just been made by Mr. .1. S. Dennis, Assistant to the President and
"head of the (•'anadian Pacific Hailway's Department of Natural Resources.
"Mr. Dennis stated that the company will establish and operate in Western
"Canada, twenty-five demonstration farms upon which the most ap-
" proved system of mixed farming will be practised with the idea of giving H|np:!;:-
■' ■'  ■'■■:■■■'!■:'■   '■.'■-.-   '!.   ■ ■'■'   ■
"■'   ■■■■■'■■■.' '■:■.■   '■■..'■■. ;; WESTERN  CANADA 105
" Western farmers absolute proof that this is the best paying system
'"and only manner of farming that insures permanent agricultural cVvelop-
"ment.
"Mr. Dennis is very strong on the point that the time has come
"when farmers in Western Canada must devote their energies to diversified
"farming rather than to straight grain growing. The older agricultural
"districts of both Canada and the United States offer proof that continual
"cropping to grain results in such depiction of the soil that the earth
"becomes non-productive. Every possible effort will be made to prevent
"this occurring in the Prairie Provinces, and the Candian Pacific, in line
"with its policy of working al ways for permanent development of the cotin-
"try, will be in the van of the movement.
"Each of these new farms will be placed in charge of an expert, agriculturist whose duty it will be to prove by example that in any series
"of years mixed farming will produce more satisfactory results than will
"straight, grain growing. As at the present demonstration faring operated
"by the company, farmers will be given advice without charge and it is
"expected that agriculturists of each district will often gather at the
"farm for lectures and practical demonstrations with the result that all
"will become better farmers and greater producers.
"As on all best farms, the dairy cow will form the backbone of the
"industry on the Canadian Pacific farms. In addition to the dairy herds,
"numbers of beef cattle, hogs, sheep and chickens will be kept, and small
"areas will be under crou to various grains, grasses and roots."
Five of these demonstration farms have already been put in operation
in Manitoba; ten in Saskatchewan, and ten in Alberta.
Each of the four Western Provinces maintains a thoroughly up-to-date
and splendidly equipped Department of Agriculture, whose mission it is
to disseminate useful information on agricultural subjects among
farmers, particularly among the new settlers who are not acquainted with
the agricultural conditions of Western Canada. In addition to what may
be termed purely educational work, the Province of Alberta maintains
demonstration farms at Olds and Sedgewick, designed to interest the farmer
in live stock husbandry.
In the Canadian Pacific Irrigation Block, east of Calgary, the Railway Company operates a number of splendidly equipped demonstration
farms, in the hands of a competent staff, which is available to give disinterested advice to the newcomer, and to assist him in a more direct manner.
On these farms are maintained pure-bred sires of various breeds of domestic
stock, which are available for service.
The Dominion Government many years ago organized a chain of
splendid experimental farms all through Western Canada. A farm,
largely devoted to fruit growing is located at Agassiz, B. G, and another
will shortly be established near the coast. Two of these farms are located
in Alberta, one at Lacombe in Central Alberta and the other at Lethbridge in Southern Alberta.    The latter is operated partly as an irrigated 106 CANADIAN   PACIFIC RAILWAY
farm and partly under a dry farming system. In the Province of
Saskatchewan an experimental farm has been maintained at Indian Head
for many years, and a sub-station is now to be started at Scott, in the
northerly portion of the province. In the Province of Manitoba the
Dominion Farm is located at Brandon, which is nearly the centre of the
province.
Agricultural colleges under the direction of the provincial authorities
are located near Winnipeg for the Province of Manitoba, and at Saskatoon,
Saskatchewan. Within a few years it is very probable that such colleges
may also be established in the Provinces of Alberta and British Columbia.
The Agricultural Society and Farmers' Institute are features of the
educational work of the provinces. Agricultural fairs, stallion shows and
seed grain fairs are held annually by these bodies, and several meetings,
addressed by experts and devoted to agricultural discussion, are held
periodically under the auspices of the local agricultural societies and institutes. Stock-judging schools are also arranged in each of the provinces.
All this work is carried on almost entirely at the expense of the different
local governments.
TAXATION IN WESTERN CANADA
Owing to the liberal grants made by the Dominion Government to the
various provinces, taxation in Western Canada is extremely low.
The revenue of .the Dominion is raised entirely through a low tariff on
imports and excise, duties and no direct tax of any sort is levied. The
Prairie Provinces have practically adopted the "single tax" system for
the creation of provincial revenue.
MANITOBA.—Under the Municipal Assessment Act, all buildings,
improvements, eq'uipment, five stock, etc., are exempt from taxation in
rural districts. This brings farm property down to a straight "single
tax" basis, the land only being assessable and only on the same valuation
as adjoining unimproved lands of the same class. In other respects the
bnrden of taxation is, as far as possihle, removed from the shoulders of the
farmer.
SASKATCHEWAN.—As a result of its autonomy terms, Saskatchewan, as a province, occupies the unique positibn of being able to conduct
its provincial affairs without having to resort to what is generally known
as direct taxation. The only tax collected by the provincial government
is that for educational purposes, and this tax, which is termed "supplementary revenue;" has been of incalculable assistance to new and struggling school districts in rural areas, averages about 6.6 mills on the dollar
in city school districts, 8 to 10 mills in town districts, and from 5 to 6
mills in rural districts, the rate differing in different districts according to
local expansion, extent of rateable territory and type of schools erected.
The municipal laws form a strong inducement to the intending settler.
The taxes for municipal purposes are low, the average assessment, per acre
being, in small local improvement districts, about four cents per acre.^hile
the maximum assessment which can be levied is five eents per acre.    In ....       , .,    WJMpiBH  CANAPA 107
rural municipalities the average assessment is five cents per acre, and the
maximum whieh can be levied is six and one-quarter cents per acre.
The rural municipalities, which are comprised each of nine townships,
except, where natural boundaries necessitate a modification, have power
to borrow by debenture to carry out permanent improvements, and the
Indebtedness thus incurred may be spread over a period of twenty years.
As a safeguard against extravagance, the borrowing powers of a municipality are limited to $3,000 per township, and a debenture cannot bear a
greater rate of interest than 8 per cent.
ALBERTA.—-The rural taxation system of Alberta is based entirely
on the land. Improvements, live stock, chattels or pergonal property
of any kind are exempt absolutely. The province pays a large share of
the cost of education and public works, and, as it derives its principal
revenue from the Federal Government by annual per capita grant, it is
unnecessary to levy any considerable local taxes. As soon us a parcel of
land passes into individual ov> nership, the same becomes liable for local
Improvement and General Provincial Educational taxes, which, when
levied by the Government will not exceed a total of 2J^ cents an acre. If,
however, th? district, on which this land is situate is made into a School
District or Local Improvement District, or both, a tax may be levied up to
a rate of 15 cents per acre. The maximum tax that may be laried under
the Educational Tax Aat being 10 cents per aera, and under the Local
Improvement Act, 5 cents per acre, thus making the total of 15 cents per
acre. These rates are, of course, subject to change by the Provincial
Government should it be found advisable.
BRITISH COLUMBIA.—Outside of incorporated municipalities,
all taxes are imposed and collected directly by the Provincial Government
and form part of the consolidated revenues of the province, which are expended in public improvements, roads, trails, wharves, bridges, etc.,
and in the administration of justice, arid assisting in maintaining schools.
The rates imposed by the last assessment act are as follows :
On personal property, one-half of one per cent.: on, improved real
estate, one-half of one per cent.; on wild land, four per cent. ; on working
coal mines (known a? class "A"), one per cent.; on unworked coal Bimes
(known as class "B"l, two per cent.; on. timber'and, two per cent.; ah
being on the basis of assessed yahses
All incomes up to $1,096 arc exempt, ©n taxable incomes of 82,000
the assessment is one per cqpU,and this vicreases b,\ small tiercufagrvs up
to incomes of $7,000. Over t*te latter the rate is 21*! per cunt. 'd(»'se rates
are lower than those levied in former years. A discount of 10 per cent, is allowed on all taxes (except seUool taxes in rural school lUstviota) if the
amount is paid by the 30th .lime.
In addition to »he above them is a tax on all coal shipped from the
mine of 10 fonts per ton, and on coke of 15 cents per- ton. Minerals are
taxed 2 per cent., on the gross value, at the mine, less the cost of transportation and treatment.    A royalty is reserved on minerals where the tax 108 CANADIAN   PACIFIC  RAILWAY
is not exigible.    Unworked Crown granted mineral claims are taxed at the
rate of 25 cents per acre.     The following exemptions are allowed :
On mnvtitages as persona! property: on the unpaid purchase money
o? land as personal property ; On household furniture and effects in dwelling
(muses . on homesteads under the Dominion Land Act, and on pre-emptions undei the Provincial Land Act for two years from date of entry
and to the extent of $500, for loi.r years thereafter ; on farm produce and
on live stock and machinery on the farm up to the value of $1,000, and on
all income from the farm,
EXEMPTION LAWS
While the law contemplates that anyone shall pay his just debts,
Manitoba, Saskatchewan ;,-,hI Alberta provide a very liberal exemption
law to cover cases where, through misfortune of any sort, the farmer is
unable to . ei his liabilil ies, that is. the law protects from seizure for debt,
where no mortgage exists, a certain number of horses, cattle, swine, and
poultry, some household, effects and a years provisions, so.thai if a settler
who has not mortgaged bis property is overtaken by misfortune, be cannot
be turned out ol lis house and home
In British Columbia,also, the farm and buildings, when registered, cannot be taken I'm-debt incurred after registration,and it is free from seizure up
to a value nut greater than $5110 (£100 English). Cattle "farmed on
shares" are also protected by an Exemption Act.
VOTING   BEGULATIONS
Canadian naturalization laws are very liberal, much more so than those
of the United States. Those who formerly wet;e residents of or were
born in any country other than Canada, but now arc located in Canada,
may transact business and own real estate here as much or as long as they
.'•house without becoming naturalized. The\ are also allowed to vote (providing they own property) on all but national issues, and upon becoming
naturalized the privilege of voting upon national issues is extended to them.
TELEPHONES
In the three Prairie Provinces one of the advantages awaiting the
coming of the settler is the telephone. The Provincial Governments control all telephone lines in these provinces, and are continually extending
then Bystem into the rural districts as settlement demands it. This system provides a most economical, complete and  up-to-date rural service.
In British Columbia the telephone service is still in the hands of a large
company, but extensions in rural districts are made to cope with the advance of wit lenient.
DOMESTIC  WATER   SUPPLY
An abundance of good well water is readily obtained almost anywhere
in Western Canada by digging, driving or drilling.    The cost ranges from WESTERN  CANADA 109
$2.00 to $3.00 per foot completed. In many sections springs abound, and
reports are continually being received from well drillers and others to the
effect that they have, during the course of their operations, secured heavy
flows of artesian well water. Western Canada enjoys the reputation o4 an
exocHent  domestic water supply.
WORK AND WAGES
Tire current wages paid in and about the mines of British Columbia
are as follows : Miners, $3 to $4 per day (12 shillings to 16 shillings); ore
shovellers, $3 (12 shillings): laborers, $2.50 per day (10 shillings),; blacksmiths and mechanics, $4 to $5 per flay (16s. 8d. to 20 shillings). Board
is usually less than $7 (28 shillings) per week at mining camps.
Generally speaking, there is little demand for laborers otl er than farm
hands and domestic help outside of Hie cities and larger towns. In these
there is during the spring, summer and fall months an active demand
for artisans .rid mechanics of the building trades, particularly eanwters
and bricklayers at high wages. There is also a good deal of railway
construction work that utilizes large numbers of men. Homesteaders
with teams are often employed to do work of this nature and are able thus
to supplement the revenue from their agricultural operations which in the
early years is usually small. It should he remembered, however, that
settlers near the route of the new railway lines can best take advantage of
such   opportunities.
The regular market in Western Canada for labor is, however, on the
farm. Men are employed in many cases for the whole year, but some
farmers who have not work for men throughout the whole twelve months
engage them for only the crop season or from April to October. During
these months the crops are grown, harvested and threshed, and many
farmers are able before November to rt.i-rkct the greater part of their grain.
When men are employed for a twelve months' term they are paid from
$18 to $30 per month with board and lodgings. These are extremes however, and an average would probably be $25 per month lor good men
When employed for only eight months, the wages are higher, and other
things being equal would average from $25 to $40 per month. For only
harvesting and threshing, men are paid from $35 to $50 per month, or $2
to $3.00 per day.
The wages paid to domestic servants range from $15 to $35 per month,
according to qualifications. There is at til times a scarcity of domestic
help  in   Western  Canada.
Skilled mechanics receive from four to six dollars per day, payment
being made on the basis of hours of work.
There is absolutely no opening for clerks and office help. The supply
is always much greater than the demand. Of course, any young man,
who is strong and willing to work, may generally obtain work on a farm
during the season, no matter what his previous occupation may have
been. 110 CANADIAN   PACIFIC  RAILWAY
SHOOTING AND FISHING     ',''...
All through Manitoba sfad Saskatchewan prairie chickens (grouse) are
generally plentiful. North of Qu'Appelle big game may be found. At
Yellow GraHS, on the "Soo" branch line front Pasqua, ducks, geese and
plover art? found in myriads during roost seasons. In the Dirt Hills,
about 20 miles south of Regina, deer ami antelope, besides wild fowl, are
fairly plentiful; and in the district about Regina there are inm-.merable
opportunities for bags of duck and chickens, and nearly all the species
of plover.
The "Mecca" of goose shooting is on the south side of Buffalo Lake,
about 20 miles north of Moose Jaw, and also on l^akes Winni|>eg and
Manitoba. Wild geese in countless thousands come down from their
feeding grounds in the Arctic circle in the months of September and
October, and remain there until they take their departure for the south
when ice begins to form on the lakes. Proper hides dug in the stubbie
fields in the line of flight of the geese, and decoys set out, will afford the
finest goose shoot ing the keenest sportsman can desire.
On the branch railway from Regina to I^-ince Albert sportsmen should
get good bags of chicken and ducks, while in the illimitable pine forest
beyond Prince Albert, which is readied by line from Regina, game of marly
every description abounds, Montreal and Red Deer Lakes deing especially
goo;! spots.    Complete outfits can be procured at Prince Albert.
Rush Lake, a few miles from the station, on the main line of the
Canadian Pacific Railway, is one of the finest points for geese, duck and
other water fowl, where large bags can surely be made. Farther west,
again, is the antelope country, Swift (Xirrent, Maple Creek and Medicine
Hat being among the best outfitting points for a trip after these, tlie most
beautiful animal of the plains. At Calgary, in sight of the " Rockies,"
superb sport may be enjoyed with the grouse among the brushy foothills
of the giant range. Good shooting will be found within easy driving
distance of the town, and glorious mountain trout fishing on the Bow River
and its tributaries, to say nothing of the delights of visiting the  ranches.
Edmonton is the gateway to the vild, half-known country
to the north, a huge territory most abundantly stocked with game. In
the Smoky River District, which is several hundred miles north
of Edmonton, there are yet a few good buffalo, the best authorities say about seventy-five head in all. These the Mounted Poliee
are striving strenuously to protect, but their extinction is much
to be feared. Moose exist in large numbers in the forest-covered
country between the North Saskatchewan and Lake Athabasca, and
are to l>e found in the extension of the same belt to the north-west of it,
even into Alaska. To the northward of the Great Slave lAe, that vast
solitude known as the "barren lands" extends to the very shores of the
frojsen sea. It is the home of the musk ox, the barrenground caribou, the
wolf, the glutton, and the Arctic fox. Along the shores that bound it the WESTERN  CANADA 111
polar bear may frequently be shot. It Ss a region full of interest to the
naturalist and to the explorer.
In Southern Alberta, reached by the Macleod branch from Calgary,
or by the Crow's Nest Pass Railway from near Medicine Hat, esiieciaily
in that ixirtion lying between Macleod mid the mountains, there is
the same wonderful variety of game, with the addition of blue grouse
(cock of the mountains), as the foothills are approached. There is good
chicken, goose and duck shooting between Macleod and the International
Boundary. Swans are ulso bagged occasionally. Trout are plentiful in the
three brandies of the Old Man River, ami its numerable tributaries west
of Macleod, and the most enticing bait for a big one is a mouse. There is
also good fishing in the St. Mary's ami Waterloo (alsocullitl the Kootenay)
and in all their branches, and capital 8|*>rt with either gun or line can be
obtained in the chain of Kootenay Lukes on the eastern slojie of the
Rocky mountains. Salmon trout weighing from 15 lbs. to 40 lbs. are
among the catches in Eastern Kootenay. In the mountains book of these
lakes, grizzly, cinnamon, silver tip and black bear, mountain sheep and goat
are fairly plentiful. Guides are necessary, and the tourist will find good
men in any of the settlements and stations along the line of the Crow's Nest
Pass Railway. This new Hue has brought a great, undisturbed game country within easy reach of the sportsman.
British Columbia is truly the sportsman's paradise. Pheasants,
grouse, quail, duck, geese; in fact, almost every known game bin! may be
found in the vicinity of the coast, while in the interior bear, deer, mountain
goat and sheep are plentiful. Trout are readily obtained in the mountain
lakes and streams, and every variety of fish from the herring to the wliale
is available along the coast.
SETTLERS' EFFECTS
,   Freight Regulations for Their Carriage on the C.P.R.
1. Carloads of Settlers' Effects may be made up of the following described property for the benefit of actual settlers, viz.: Live stock, any
number up to but not exceeding ten (10) head, all told, via.: Cattle, calves,
sheep, hogs, mules, or horses ; household goods and personal property
(second-hand); wagons, or other vehicles for personal use (second-hand);
farm machinery, implements and tools (all second-hand); softwood lumber
(pine, hemlock, basswood or spruce—only), and shingles, which must not
exceed 2,500 feet in all, or the equivalent thereof; or in lieu of, (not in
addition to) the lumber and shingles, a portable house may be shipped;
seed grain; small quantity of trees or shrubbery; small lot live weights
or pet animals; and sufficient feed for the live stock while on the journey.
Settlers' effects rates, however, will not apply on shipments of second-hand
wagons, buggies, farm machinery, implements or tools, unless accompanied
by household goods. The amount of seed grain must not exceed the following : Wheal, 4,600 lbs, ; oats, 3,400 lbs.; barley, 4,800 lbs.; flax seed,
1,400 lbs. 112 CANADIAN   PACIFIC  UAII.WAY
2. While the Canadian Pacific Railway is desirous of continuing to
give liberal encouragement to settlers, both as to the variety of the effecte
which may be loaded in cars, and the low rates thereon, it is also the duty
of the Company to protect, the merchants of the Northwest by preventing
as far as possible the loading of merchandise of a general character in cure
with personal effects
3. Passes.—One man will be passed free in diargepf full carloads of
settlers' effects when containing live stock, to feed, water and care for them
in   transit.
4. Settlers' Effects, to be entitled to carload rates, must consist of a
carload from one point of shipment to one point of destination. Carload
shipments will not be stopped in transit for completion or partial unloading.
5. The minimum carload weight of 24,000 lbs is applicable only
to cars not exceeding 36 feet in length. If the actual weight of the carload
exceeds 24,00"-> lbs. the additional weight will be charged for at the carload
rate.
6. The minimum charge for less than carload shipments will be
100 lbs. at. regular first-class rates.
7. Should a settler wish to ship more than ten head of live
stock, the additional animals will be charged for at proportionate rates over
and above the carload rate for the settlers' effects.
8. Less than carload shipments will be understood to mean only
household goods (second-hand), wagons, or other vehicles for personal
U9e (second-hand), and second-hand farm machinery, implements and
tools. Settlers' effects rates, however, will not apply on shipments of
second-hand wagons, buggies, farm machinery, implements or tools, unless
accompanied by household goods.
9. Shipments of settlers' effects from connecting lines will be
charged from the Canadian Pacific junction point, the settlers' effects rates
from that point.
10. Car Rental and Storage of Freight in Cars.—When freight is
to be loaded by consignor, or unloaded by consignee, one dollar ($1.00)
per car per day or fraction thereof, for delay beyond 48 hours in loading or
unloading, will be added to the rates named herein, and constitute a
part of the total charges to be collected by the carriers on the property.
Consignees are allowed twenty-four hours after notice of arrival of
shipments in which to give orders for placing or delivery of ears before the
forty-eight hours' free time mentioned herein begins.
CUSTOMS   REGULATIONS
The settler is allowed to bring in duty free, wearing apparel, also
household goods and farm machinery that has been in use for at least, six
months, but this does not include threshing machines or engines of any
kind. On threshing machines, including engines and separators, a duty
of 20 per cent, on their valuation is collected ; on automobiles, 35 per
cent.'; engines, alone, 27% per cent., and engines for farming operations. WESTERN  CANADA 113
20 per cent. The land buyer may bring in duty free, one head of horses
or cattle for each ten acres of land purchased or otherwise secured up to
160 acres, and one head of sheep for each acre of such land. Other stock
may be admitted up to any number, on a payment of 25 per cent, on valuation at the point of entry. However, any number of registered stock
may be brought in duty free, provided certificates of such registration in
Canadian herd baoks, are shown to the proper Customs Officials. It may
be well to take special note that it does not pay to smuggle anything in that
is dutiable, otherwise such goods or chattels may be confiscated, or if not
an amount may be assessed against such articles that would make it quite
equivalent to confiscation. The owner or a competent attendant should
accompany the shipment to the point of entry, in order to pay the proper
duty charges, untess a suitable certificate is secured before starting. Goods
of every nature may be forwarded in bond, to any point of delivery, which
mi.-.<t be in that case a port of entry. Otherwise, such shipment will be sent
to some port of entry, and back freight will be charged. Very great
inconvenience may be saved with reference to the matter of duty by
obtaining full information before making such shipment.
QUARANTINE  REGULATIONS
Cattle, horses and sheep will be passed only upon a certificate of a
quarantine inspection officer. Swine are subject to quarantine and should
not br brought into Canada.
Any intending settler who contemplates bringing domestic animals
into Canada should, some time before shipment takes place, communicate
with "The Collector of Customs" at Winnipeg, Man., Regina, Sask.,
Lethbridge, Alta., or Sumas, B. C, to ascertain the exact condition upon
whic'-. such animals may be admitted into Canada, and to procure and
fill out whatever forms are required by the Canadian Government Quarantine Officers.
COST  OF  LIVING
To the farmer with limited resources it is important to know how far
his capitn-l will go and how it, should be expended. The cost of living is
also a vital feature entering into his calculations. The Company is
anxious that every settler shall become prosperous and satisfied, and tl is,
therefore, important that they should labor under no misapprehension in
regard to the conditions prevailing in Western Canada, so that they may
not over-et' imate their resources or fail to lay out their capital to the
best advantage.
The following are the retail prices of certain commodities prevailing at
Calgary, Alberta, on the 1st of June, 1912.
This point has been selected as it is located in about the centre of
Western Canada, and the prices there will, therefore, represent a fair
average. East of Calgary, prices may generally be expected to be somewhat lower on most commodities, and at points west of Calgary probably
a shade higher. 114
CANADIAN  PACIFIC  RAILWAY
Farm Implements (Canadian)
2-furrow 12-inch gang $05 .00
JO-dise i&in. Disc Harrow     49.00
Thrce-seetion spik*- tooth harrow ...   I 7 00
Single iftaa 10-ft. drill   100 00
Mower, 5-fi cut   65 00
Hone Hake. 10 ft.         30 00
Binder, compl«t/». 8 feet ISO ,00
Wagon, complete, 3-ton . 1(50.00
Harness and Saddlery
Good average work harness, per set   .$45.00
Collars hand-made, each   ...       ...  3.50
Single buggy harness $15.00 ami up
Italian     .'       ^c.     to     S2.00
Saddles     $4.50 to $75.00
Furniture
Wood seat chairs S 0. 55 upwards
Leather seated f hairs      1 50
Common kitchen tables ...     3.35
Dinine Tables      6.^0
Sjidoboards   13.40     ||
Bureaus      8 45
Waahatarida     3.So      ^
Kitchen cupboards    12.50      *(
Iron beds        3  55      ^
Wire stjnnsrs        2 ,00
MattrfSBes     2,55      "t
Wire camp cots          2.55
Canvas camp cots     2.00
Pillows, 3-lhs. each 00
Couches        6.35
Window shades        .40
Sheeting, plain or twill, per
yard 30      |]
Sheets, per pair       1.50
Blankets, white, per pair .. 3.05
Blankets, amy, per pair ... 2 10
Carpets, all-wool and union 35-52c.
Carpet squares, all-wool   ..    7 .45
Caroet square, union     4 .45
Toilet sets      1 ■ "5
Dry Goods and Clothing
Staple and fancy woollen
goods 10 to 25 p.c.
cheaper than St.   Paul
Cotton goods 25 p.c. higher
Boots and Shoes 10 p.c.higher
Silks 10   p.c. cheaper
Meats
IVr lb.
Steaks,   mund     12*^e to 1 *»c.
Steaks,   Porterhouse     18c. to 20c.
Roast,    rib      15c. to ISc.
Roast      8c. to 15c.
Corned   beef     Se. fco 10o.
Mutton, side 12Hc. to 15c.
Mutton,    chops      15c. to 18c.
Mutton, fore quarter  12^c.
Pork      15c. to 20c.
Sausage    12 *-$«. to 15c.
Dressed   chicken     15c. to 25c.
Lard,   bulk     l.He. to 20c.
Salmon, steaks   12'4c, to 18c,
Turkeys   25c. to 30c.
Groceries
Potatoes   00c.  to 75c,  per bushel
Butter 30c. to 35c. per lb.
Eggs       30n.   to   15c.
Gran, sugar 6^c. per lb.
Brown   suear    .60. per lb.
Boiled oats 2V-ic. per lb.
Fancy   flour, .S3.00 to &3.40   per   100   lbs.
Ham.   24c. per lb.
Bacon 2iie. pnr lb.
Tomatoes  12J^c. per tin
Cor*i 2 tins 25c.
Evap.   apples    "2 lbs. 25c.
Evap. peaches* and pears. . , ,"l2V$c. per lb.
EVap. prunes 10c to 12J^rc. per lb.
Oranges 30c. to 50c. doz.
Lemons 25c. to 3fi«. doz.
Apple? $2.50 per box
Salt per bbl S3.25
Soda biscuits    . . 10c. per lb.
Tea 25c p*r lb. up
Coffee   26*?. per lb. up
Rice   5c. per lb.
B^ans  be. per (b.
Onions 3o. to 5c. per tb.
Tinned Salmon 15c. to 20e.
Jams, pure h lbs. for 75c.
Table and cooking  syrup. .. .75c. per gal.
Cheese      20c. per lb.
Baking powder 25c. per lb.
Kerosene oil 40c  per gal.
Gasoline 40e. per gal.
Vinegar    00c. per gal.
Starch ".. .. ,10c. per lb.
Turnips      1 c. per lb.
Tinned beef  20c,—2 for 35c.
Condensed   milk    15c.—2 for 25c,
Codfish     15c—2 for 25c.
Spines  .Same a-* St. Paul
Crockery  Same as St. Paul
Good board and room may be had in most Western towns at from $&
to $8 per week and upwards. WESTERN   CANMJ4 115
PART IX.
LEADING   CITIES    OF
WESTERN    CANADA
Those contemplating emigrating to Canada will be interested in a very
brief description of the leading cities of the West, to one of which the
immigrant will doubtless purchase his ticket, unless he has a specific
destination in view elsewhere.
MANITOBA
WINNIPEG.—Thirty-five years ago Winnipeg's population was less
than 1,000. That city is now the railroad and business centre of the
Canadian Middle West, and has a population estimated at 175,000.
Twenty-two railway lines radiate from it, and it is the chief central point
of the three transcontinental railways traversing Western Canada. Winnipeg has 23 chartered banks, a vast number of manufacturing establishments, 122 churches and missions, 33 public schools, several colleges, a
university and provincial agricultural college. Its magnificent buikhugs
and parks make it one of the finest cities in Western America.
BRANDON.—The city of Brandon is situated-on the Saskatchewan
River, 134 miles west of Winnipeg, and is a growing distributing centre.
1901 the population was 6,520, and by the census of 1911 it was 9,1120,
while at the present time it numbers 15,000. Brandon is ulso a centre of
education, has several flourishing industries, 10 banks, 20 churches, and
has four railway systems entering its limits. Among other leading centres of settlement in Manitoba may be mentioned Portage la I'rairie with a
population of 7,500; St. Boniface, population, 7,000; Selkirk, 3,400;
Virden,  2,300.
SASKATCHEWAN
REGINA.—This is the capital of the province and also the largest
city in Saskatchewan. It is an important distributing and financial centre. The population is 31,000. Regina has 27 manufacturing concerns,,
several wholesale houses, colleges, 7 public schools, churches of all denominations, and is credited with being the largest distributing centre for agricultural implements in the world.
SASKATOON.—This city claims the distinction of having grown
more rapidly into prominence than any other city in Canada. In 1903
there were 113 inhabitants, while the present population is 18,000. Saskatoon is the location of the Provincial iViversity and Agricultural College.    The city has spent one and a quarter million dollars on its public  WESTERN   CANADA 117
schools, which are thoroughly well equipped. It is also a wholesale distributing centre of considerable importance. There are 13 branches of chartered   banks.
MOOSE JAW.—This is a divisional point on the main line of the
Canadian Pacific Railway, with a population of 17,000. Moose Jaw has, in
addition to other factories, a large milling industry, and is well equipped
with educational facilities, including residential colleges for boys and girls.
PRINCE ALBERT.-—This city is picturesquely situated on the
North Saskatchewan River, and is one of the oldest centres of settlement
in the Province of Saskatchewan. The present population of Prince Albert is 8,5(X). Large lumbering concerns are loca • d near this city, employing 5,000 men the year round.
ALBERTA
CALGARY,—This is the largest city in Alberta, with a population of
65,000. Calgary has some 400 retail stores, 140 wholesale establishments,
58 manufacturing concerns, 21 banks and is the chief divisional centre
of the Canadian Pacific Railway in Alberta. Here also is located the head
offices of the Department of Natural Resources of t! at Company. The
extensive Western car shops of the Canadian Pacific Railway, for the erection of which an appropriation of $2,800,000 has been passed, are now in
course of construction. These shops will eventually employ nearly 5,000
men. The city has many splendid business blocks, ranging in cost from
$100,000 to half a million dollars. The city owns, operates and controls all
its public utilities, including street railways, electric light and gravity waterworks. Calgary is one of the most up-to-date and beautiful cities in Canada.
EDMONTON.—This is the capital city of Alberta, and has a population of 45,000, with 21 branches of chartered banks. There are AS
wholesale houses and a large number of industrial enterprises of various
kinds. The city is also the centre of an important and rapidly developing
lignite eoal industa*', and is the centre of supplies for the north country.
The Provincial University has been established on the north side of the
Saskatchewan River, overlooking the Parliament Buildings. The city
also contains ample educational facilities an.' operates all public utilities.
Edmonton's location on the Saskatchewan River is most picturesque and
much admired.
LETHBRIDGE is situated in Southern Alberta on the Crow's Nest
line, and is also a growing manufacturing and distributing centre, with a
population of 14,000. Lethbridge owns its electric light and power plant,
has wide streets and ample educational facilities, 10 branches of chartered
banks, and the mines operating in the vicinity have a pay roll of over
1200,000  a  month. IIS CANADIAN PACIFIC RAILWAY
MEDICINE HAT contains some 7,000 inhabitants. This city .is j
located near the easterly boundary of Alberta on tlie main line of the
Canadian Pacific Radway. Medicine Hat is famous for its inexhaustible
supply of natural gas. A number of manufacturing establishments
utilizing natural gas for fuel and power have located there. The entire
gas supply is owned by the municipality.
BRITISH COLUMBIA
VANCOUVER.—Vancouver is the commercial metropolis of the
Province of British Columbia, and is the terminus of the Canadian Pacific
Railway. This city now has a population of 110,000. It is the most
important Canadian shipping centre on the Pacific coast, and its harbor
is one of the finest in the world, land-locked, sheltered, roomy and deep
enough for the largest fleet of vessels. Vancouver has a great many
prosperous industrial concerns, and is a wholesale and distributing centre
of large magnitude. It is well supplied with high-class public schools,
colleges and other educational institutions, and promises to become
one of  the largest cities  on the entire Pacific coast.
VICTORIA.—This is the capital of the Province of British Columbia, j
and is the oldest centre of settlement in that province. Victoria is a city
of 50,000, and is a tourist centre of considerable importance. It
is also springing into prominence as a wholesale centre, and a number of
industries are located there. The gardens and parks of the city are -
famed throughout the world, and it bears the reputation of being the
most desirable residential point in Canada on account of its climate and
situation.
NEW WESTMINSTER.—New Westminster is situated on the Fraser
River, about 16 miles from its mouth, and 12 miles south of Vancouver.
It is the centre of the salmon eanning industry, and also enjoys a large
share of the coast lumber trade. This was the capital of the old Crown
colony of British Columbia. Several state institutions arc maintained here,
and the city owns and operates its own electric light plant. It is also the
centre of an exceedingly rich agricultural district. The present population
of New Westminster is about 14,000.
NANAIMO.—This is referred to as the "coal city" of British Columbia, and is located 73 miles northeast of Victoria, and has a fine harbor
on the east coast of Vancouver Island. Its chief industry is coal mining,
but latterly this city has also become important as a centre of the herring
fisheries. Nanaimo coal is shipped to the United States and Oriental
points, and it is the coaling station for all ocean going steamships! The I
population is about 10,000.
PRINCE RUPERT.—This is the terminus of the Grand Trunk
Pacific Railway, and is springing into considerable prominence. It is
now a port of call for all northern lines of steamers. The town is beautifully laid out and has a population of some 5,000 souls. ■HMni
'  ;
:~* i
m 120 CANADIAN   PACIFIC  RAILWAY
PART X.
ROUTES, RAILWAY  SERVICE  AND
INFORMATION   BUREAU
Although an attempt has been made to incorporate in tlu>, handbook
as much reliable information as possible regard nig Wet-tern Canada it is
not to be supposed that the entire subject could be completely dealt
with in this manner Doubtless, many points will oceui to the intending
settler upon which he desires fuller knowledge and advi'rse, Such being the
case it has been considered advisable to append complete lists of Canadian
Pacific Railway and Dominion Government Officers to whom the intending immigrant may, with the utmost confidence, apply for disinterested information and advice.
ROUTES TO THE CANADIAN WEST. —Colonists arriving in
Canada at Quebec or Montreal in summer, or Halifax, or St.. John,
N.B., in winter (Halifax to St. John via Intercolonial Railway), travel to
their new homes in Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Albeita or
British Columbia, by the Canadian Pacific Railway direct. Settlers from
the Eastern States travel via Montreal, Prescott or Brockville, and thence
by the Canadian Pacific; but if from Southern and Western New York
and Pennsylvania via Buffalo, Niagara Falls, Hamilton, Toronto, thence
Canadian Pacific Railway; those from the Middle States either by Toronto, or by Chicago, St. Paul and Kmerson, Man, or by St. Paul and
Portal; from the Middle Western Coast States by Portal (or, if for
Manitoba, by Kmerson, Man.), from the Pacific Coast States by Vancouver, or Sumas, or through the West Kootenay mining regions via
"Kingsgate" and Canadian Pacific from Rossland and  Nelson.
ATTENTION AND CIVILITY of the employees of the company are
spoken of by every traveller on the line. The cleanliness of cars and stations is also noticed. These two points are, next to safety, most carefully
watched by the management.
EQUIPMENT.—This line operates the finest Passenger, Sleeping,
Parlor and Compartment Observation Cars in the world. The wheels
and axles are of Krupp steel. The car bodies are strongly framed to meet
any contingency, and are wider and higher than those of most other railways. Both first and second-class cars are designed to secure uniform temperature, combined with perfect ventilation, and freedom from di.yt arid
with the maximum ol strength, elegance and comfort.
LIGHT.—The company's care arc brilliantly illuminated by modern
lighting   systems. WESTERN  CANADA 121
COMPARTMENT OBSERVATION CARS, finished in the most
luxurious style and fitted with every convenience, are run on transcontinental trains only, between Montreal and Vancouver, and are the very
latest that skill and experience can suggest. They contain, besides one
drawing-room, compartments (containing one lower and one tipper berth
and toilet facilities), a buffet, capable of serving light refreshments, a well-
selected library, a writing desk, a large observation room, fitted with easy
chairs, and an observation platform at the rear end; they are lighted by
electricity.
SLEEPING AND PARLOR CARS are owned and operated by the
company, and no expense has been spared to make them perfect. They
are finished outside :,ith polished mahogany, and their interior, with their
beautiful fittings, are beyond comparison. The berths are wider, higher
and longer than in other Sleeping Cars. The curtains, blankets and linen,
made expressly for the company, are of the finest quality. Writing paper
and envelopes are furnished free to Sleeping Car passengers on transcontinental trains on application to the porter; and to keep travellers informed
on current events, a summary of the news of the world is daily bulletined
in the Sleeping Cars and at the Company's hotels in the mountains.
TOURIST SLEEPING CARS, fitted with mattresses, curtains,
blankets, pillows, linen, etc., and in charge of porters, are run at stated
intervals between Boston and Vancouver; daily between Montreal and
Vancouver; Toronto and Vancouver; St. Paul, Minn., and Seattle, Wash.;
and St. Paul, Minn., and Spokane, Wash., and Portland, Ore., via the
Crow's Nest. The Tourist Sleeping Car is designed after the pattern
of the Company's Standard Sleeping Car and neatly upholstered in leather.
There is small kitchen and cooking range provided in car where passengers
may prepare their own meals if supplies have been taken along. Passengers who do not wish to prepare their own meals may, when on trains
that carry a dining car, have their meals on dining car a la carte. The
berth rate in the tourist is about one-hall' that of the Standard Sleeper.
SECOND-CLASS OR COLONIST SLEEPING CARS are well
built, bright and pleasant, and the sleeping accommodation is excellent.
No extra charge is made in these cars to holders of Sen . 1-Class or
Colonist Tickets travelling on regularly scheduled transcontinental trains.
They are um-ipholstered, but bedding, etc., can be purchased if not otherwise provided at Halifax, St. John, Quebec, Montreal, Quebec Junction,
Ottawa (Union), North Bay, Toronto (Union), Sudbury, Fort William,
Winnipeg, Calgary, and Vancouver, at following rates: Mattresses, Wo
cents each; blankets, 90 cents each; pillows, 30 cents each; straps, 15 cents
each; curtains, 85 rents per pair.
DINING CAR SERVICE.—The company operates Dining Cars on
all important trains. The service is a fa carte; the passenger thus pays
for what he orders only. This service is well up to the standard of the
first-class restaurant, and the prices charged are as reasonable as a high-
class service permit of. 122 CANADIAN  PACIFIC  RAIIaWAT
DINING HALLS are located at convenient stations, at which ample
time is allowed for meals. Dining halls and luneheon counters are marked
thus || on the time table.
Special attention is called to the excellent dining facilities at Mc-
Adam Junction, N. B., Windsor Station, Montreal, Union Station, Ottawa,
North Bay Station, Winnipeg Station, Field, B. C, Glacier, B. C, Revelstoke, 15. C, and Sicamous, B. C.
SAFETY—Kvery appliance of proved value calculated to secure safety has been adopted on this line. These are too numerous to mention,
but they include an elaborate guard system at all bridges. Special care
has been taken to make the heating apparatus on trains safe.
STOP-OVERS.—Intending settlers holding through tickets to points
on the Canadian Pacific Railway west of Winnipeg are given the privilege
of stopping over at stations where they wish to inspect the land. If
stop-over is desired, application should be made to the Immigration
Office of the Company at Winnipeg, in case the settler's ticket does not
specifically provide for stop-over privileges.
All trains are met upon arrival at Winnipeg, or before reaching that
city, by the agents of the Government and Canadian Pacific Railway Company, who give colonists all the information and advice they require in
regard to their new homes.
Hotel System—Canadian Pacific Railway
THE CHATEAU FRONTENAC, QUEBEC—In the quaintest and
historically the most interesting city in America. One of the finest hotels
on the continent. It occupies a commanding position overlooking the
St. Lawrence, its site being unrivalled.
Rates, $4.00 per day and upward with special arrangements for large
parties and those making prolonged visits. One mile from C. P. R.
Station, transfer charge: Bus, 25 cents; Carriage, 50 cents. American plan.
THE PLACE VIGER, MONTREAL is a handsome structure immediately opposite the Viger Square, at.Place Viger Station, 1 )/<i miles from
Windsor Street, Station, and at a convenient distance from Ocean Line
docks, most tastefully furnished, the style and elegance characterizing the
Chateau Frontenac at Quebec, being also found here.
Rates, $4.00 per daj and upward, with special arrangements for large
parties and those making prolonged visits.   American plan.
THE ALGONQUIN, ST. ANDREWS, N.B.. (Open from June
to September), has recently been thoroughly renovated and much enlarged.    Best natural golf links in Canada.
Rates, $3.50 per day and upwards, with special inducements for those
making prolonged stays. Also The Inn (open from July 1st) at $2.50
per day and upward.    American plan.
McADAM STATION HOTEL. McADAM JUNC, N. B., is especially convenient for commercial and other travellers, owing to its location
at the junction with the main line of the company's branch lines intersecting Newjlruuswiek.   Rates, $3.00 per day and upward.   American plan. "" ■
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1 124 CANADIAN   PACIFIC   RAILWAY
CALEDONIA SPRINGS HOTEL. CALEDONIA SPRINGS. ONT..
is situated at the famous Caledonia Springs, about 300 yards from the C.
P. R. Station. The Springs are now well known all over the American
Continent.    Special tales by the week or month.
THE ROYAL ALEXANDRA. WINNIPEG. MAN.—The Royal
Alexandra is one of the most palatial hotels of the Canadian Pacific hotel
system anil is centrally located, adjoining the .station, in the progressive
city of Winnipeg, almost midway between the Atlantic and the Pacific
oceans. It is operated on the European plan and has MOD rooms, 111) of
which have private baths, and all are fitted with the most modern and
luxurious furnishings. Rates are according to the location of the room
or suite from $2.00 per day upwards (European plan), and the prevailing
prices are lower than in many of the first-class hotels in the eastern cities.
A big addition has now been built to this hotel.
NEW HOTEL AT CALGARY. ALTA.—The company has now under construction a new Hotel at Calgary. The plan and general arrangements of the other Hotels of the company will be followed and every
known modern convenience will be installed.
BANFF SPRINGS HOTEL. BANFF. ALTA. fOpen from May
15th to October 15th). in the Canadian National Park, on the eastern
slope of the Rocky Mountains is 4,500 feet above sea level, at the junction
of the Bow and Spray Rivers. A large and handsome structure. Distance
from C. P. R. Station is about 1 V% miles and transfer charge is 25 cents.
Rates, $4.00 per day and upward, American plan. %
CHATEAU LAKE LOUISE, LAGGAN, ALTA. (Open from June
10th to September 30th). is a quiet resting place in the mountains,
situated by Lake Louise, from which there is a good carriage drive. A
convenient, base from which to explore the lakes in the Clouds. The Chateau is situated about 21••£ miles from Laggan Station, and transfer charge
is 50 cents.
Rates, $4.00 per day and upward.    American plan.
MOUNT STEPHEN HOUSE, FIELD STATION. B. C. a chalet
hotel fifty miles west ol Banff, at the Base of Mount Stephen, which towers-
8,000 feet above.     This is a favorite place for tourists, mountain climbers
anil artists.     The wonderful Yoho Valley is reached by way of Field.
Rates, $3:50 per day and upward,    American plan
EMERALD LAKE CHALET. NFAR FIELD. B. C. (Open from
June 15th to September  30th). a  most  romantically  situated   Swiss
chalet hotel with accommodation for forty guests     The gateway to Yoho
Valley.    Seven miles from Field Station.    Transfer charge, $1.00.
Rates, $3.50 per day and upward     American plan.
GLACIER HOUSE. GLACIER. B. C.  (Open from May 1st to.
October 31stl. in the heart of the Selkirks, within forty-five minutes'
walk of the Great Glacier, which covers an area of about thirty-eight square
miles.
Rates, $3.50 per day and upward.   American plan. WESTERN   CANADA 126
HOTEL REVELSTOKE. REVELSTOKE. B. C. situated between
the Selkirks and Gold Ranges, at the portal of the West Kootenay gold
fields and the Arrow Lakes. Rates, $3.00 per day and upward. American
plan.    A. J. MaeDonell, Lessee.
KOOTENAY LAKE HOTEL, BALFOUR. B. C. (Open from May
10th to October 15th).—A new, first-class tourist hotel at Balfour, B. C.'j
near the junction of the Kootenay River and Kootenay Lake. An ideal'
resort for sportsmen-.    Rates, $3.50 per day and upward.
HOTEL SICAMOUS. SICAMOUS. B. C. built on the shores of the
Shuswap Lakes where the Okanagan branch of the C. P. R. begins.
Rates. $3.50 per day and upward.    American plan.
HOTEL VANCOUVER. VANCOUVER. B. C. the Pacific Coast
terminus of the railway, is a hotel designed to serve the large commercial
business of the city as well as the tourists who find it profitable and interest ing to remain a day or longer. Situated x/i mile from C. P. R. Station;
transfer charge, 25 cents.
Rates, $1.00 per day and upward.    American plan.
CAMERON   LAKE   CHALET.   CAMERON   LAKE.  B. C—The
chalet at Cameron Lake on Vancouver Island, E. & N. Ry. is an attractive
place for a  holiday.
EMPRESS HOTEL. VICTORIA. B. C—Newly completed, at
short distance from boat landing. One of the most beautiful hotels on
the American Continent.    European plan.
HAYTER REED. Manager-in-Chief, Hotel Department,
Canadian Pacific Railway, Montreal.
CANADIAN GOVERNMENT IMMIGRATION AGENTS
Intending settlers will receive full information regarding any part
of Canada from any of the Canadian Government Immigration Agencies, a
list of which is added :
GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND
Mr. J. Obed Smith, Superintendent of Emigration, 11-12 Charing Cross,
London, S. W.
Mr. Alfred F. Jury, Old Castle Puddings, Presson's Row, Liverpool.
Mr. G. II. Mitchell, 139 Corporation Strict, Birmingham.
Mr. L. Burnett, 1 <> Parliament Street. York.
Mr. Andrew O'Kellv, 81 Queen Street, Exeter.
Mr. John McLennan, 2(i Guild Street, Aberdeen.
Mr. Malcolm Mr-In tyre, 35-37 St. Enoch Square, Glasgow.
Mr. Edward O'Kelly, 44 Dawson Street, Dublin.
Mr. John Webster, 17-19 Victoria Street, Belfast. 126 CANADIAN   PACIFIC   RAILWAY
CONTINENT OF EUROPE
Mr. D. Treau de Coeli, 23 Place de la Gare, Antwerp.
THE UNITED STATES
Rhode Island—El/.ear Cingras, 17 Customs House St., Providence, R. I.
New York—.1. S. Crawford, 301 E. Genesee Street, S\ racuse, N. Y.
Ohio—11. M. Williams, 413 Gardner Building, Toledo. Ohio.
Indiana and Keniuck\—O. W.   Aird,   316   Traction-Terminal   Building,
Indianapolis,  Indiana.
Michigan—M. V. Mclnces, 176 Jefferson Avenue, Detroit, Mich.; C. A.
Laiirier,  Marquette,  Mich.
Illinois—<C. .1. Broughton, Room 412, Merchants Loan & Trust Building,
Chicago,   Illinois.
Wisconsin--Geo. A. Hall, 2nd Floor, 125 Second St., Milwaukee, Wis.
Minnesota and Iowa—E. T. Holmes, 315 Jackson St.,   Si. Paul, Minn.
North Dakota—Chas. Pilling, Clifford Block, Grand Forks  N. I).
South Dakota—.1. M. MacLachlan. Drawer 57,S, Watertown, Syracuse.
Nebraska, Colorado and Southwestern  Iowa—W.  V.  Bennett, 220 17th
Street, Room 4, Bee Building, Omaha, Nebraska.
Missou-i,   Kansas,  Oklahoma,   Indian  Territory   and  Arkansas—W.  II.
Rogers, 125 West Ninth Street, Kansas City, Miss.
Montana, Idaho. Wyoming and Utah—Benj. Davies, Room 6, Dunn Block,
Great Falls,Mont.
Washington,   Western   Idaho,   Oregon   and   California—J.    N.    Grieve,
Spokane,  Washington.
CANADIAN PACIFIC RAILWAY AGENCIES
Antwerp . .Belgium—Thomas McNeil, \gent.   25 Quai .Jordaena
Baltimore .  .. ,,\Iu.—Arthur W. Robson, Passenger and Ticket Agent,
127  East  Baltimore St.
Battle Creek. Mich.—E. C. Ovw.1t, Travelling Passenger Agent   3fi3  Lake Ave.
Belfast  .   .. Ikei.and—Wm. McCalla, Agent   41 Victoria St.
Belllngham . Waish.—W. H. Gordon, Passenger Agent    113 West Holly St.
Birmingham . .Eng.—W.  T.  Treadwav,   Agent    4   Victoria  So.
Boston    .   .. .M >»s.—F. R. Perry. D.P.A ; Ci. A. Titcomb. C.P.A 302 Washington St.
Brandon  .  ...Man—.1   E. Proctor, District Passenger Agent.
Bristol        Eng.—A. S. Ray, Agent    18 St. Augustine's Parade
Brock Wile . ... On i.—Geo. E. McGlade, City Ticket Agent,
Cor. King  St.  and  Court  House  Av.
Buffalo N. Y.—G. II. Griffin. C. P. A.; C. S. Richardson, 13.KA 233 Main St.
Calgary   .   .. .Alta.—It. 0. McN'eiliie, District Passenger Agent.
Chicago III.—Geo. A. Walton, Genl. Agt. Passr. Dept   224 So. Clark St.
W. A. Kittermaster, Gen'l Agent, I'rt. Dept.,   230 So. I.a Salle St.
Cincinnati   .   .Ohio—A. J. Blaisdell. Genl. Agt., Pass'r Dept   430 Walnut St.
B. R. White (Freight) 407 Traction Building
Cleveland ... .Ohio—Geo. A. Clifford, City Passenger Agent,
Cor. Superior and West 3rd St.
Detroit Mich.—A. E. Edmonds, D.P.A.: E. Olson, D.F.A 7 F«rt St. W.
Duluth Minn.—Jas. Maney. Gen. Pass'r Agt., D.S.S. & A. Ry„     Manhattan Bldg.
Edmonton .. .Al.T\.—Chas.   F.   Fyfe,   City   Ticket   Agent    It.)   Jasper   Ave.
Everett ..Wash.—A.   B.  Winter,  Ticket Agent    1513  Hewitt Av.
Glasgow. .ScctlaM'—Thos. Russell, Agent   120 St.Vincent St.
Halifax N. S.—J. D. Chipman, City Passenger and Frt. Agt....  37 George St.
Hamburg. Germany—C. F. A. Flugge, Agent, Alsterdamm 8; Thos. Cook ,v. Son,
39    Alsterdamm WBSffcttN  CANADA
127
.Ont.—J. Merrimau, C.P.A.; W. J. Grant, D.F.A.. Cor. King & James Sts.
 —D. W. Cradd->ck, General Traffic Agent, China, etr.
.Mo.—Kdward Merchant, T.P.A.; L.C. Jack. Frt. As?.., 411 Sheiilley Bldg.
.Kvi;.—F. W. Foster, Agent  Royal liver Building. Pier Head
& t II. S. Caniiichai-I, Genl. Pass'r. Agt,     62-f)5 Charing Cross S.W.
r,NQ.— -j T   , Slllitllt (jeu|. Froight Aaent.. and 07-tiS King WUHam St. KC.
.Ont.—W. Pulton. City Passenger Agent  I'fil I >ui.idas St,
Cal.—A. A.   Pulhanms, Gent. Agt., Pass'r Dept..    <>09 South Spring St.
..Ar-s.—Union S. S. Co. of New Zealand (Ltd.), Thoa. Cook & Son.
,Ww.-F. T. Sansom, P. A., 100 Wisconsin St..   A. G.G.   Laudei, F.A.,
913 Majestic Building
Minneapolis, Minn.—tt. S.   Elworthy.  Agent Poo-Line     410 Nicollet Ave.
K. J. Herbert, 1st Asst. Gen. Pasa'r Agt.    Windsor St. Station
A   E. Laiande, City Passenger Agent 218 St. James St.
District Paw3eh&er Agent.
W. Fl. finell. Eastern Passenger Agent;   T. F   Madden. CP A.
4.18 Broadway.
International Sleeping Car Co   281    filth   Ave.
N. Y.—D.  Isaacs     Prospect    House
Ont.—George   Duncan,   City   Passenger   Agent   42   Sparks  St.
Catpiii,    Agent    1     Rue   Scribe
Huntington, Gen. Agt.. Pas«'r Dept.,   020-631   Chestnut St.
Hamilton ..
Hong Kong
Kansas City
Liverpool
London
London . .. .
Los Angeles
Melbourne .
Milwaukee .
Montreal
Nelson .  ..
New York
.Qu«.-
.B;C.-
. N.Y.
Niagara Falls
Ottawa	
Paris France—Aug.
Philadelphia  ...Pa.—F. W
Pittshurg P.
Portland Mb.—F.
Portland       Ore.—F.
L. Williams, Genl. Agt. Pass'r Dept., Oliver Bldg.. 340 Sixth Ave.
It. Barrett, Ticket  Agt., Maine Cent, lid Union Dept.
R. Johnson, G.A.P.D., 142 Third St.. E. L. Cardie, 0. A. F. D.
2(W    Corbett    Bldg.
Quebec Que.—G. .1. P. Moore, City Pass'r Agt.,   30 St. John St., Cor. Palace Hill
Rotterdam. . . Hot..—John   Otten   &   Zoon,   Agents         Noodblack
Sault Ste. Marie. Mich.—W. J. Atchison, C.P.A., 224 Ashrnun St.; W. C. Sutherland
Depot T.A.
St. John N.B.—W. B. Howard. D.P.A., 8 King St, ;   W. H. C. Maekav. C.T.A
49  King St.
St. Louis Mo.—W. M. Porteoufl, F. A., Room 428 Pierce Bldg.. T. J. Barnes. C.P.A.
72fi Olive St.
St. Paul Minn.—1*. M   Elarmsen. City Ticket Agent, Boo-Line   379 Robert St.
St.  Petersburg.  Russia—The Nordiske Reisebureau       19 Bokhaja Ktvijushenaja
San Francisco. Cal.—G. M. Jackson. G.A.P.D.; W. W. Smith   64A Market St.
(PaluteH.tel)
Saskatoon   .  .Sa--?r.—W. E. Lovelock. City Ticket Agent    241 Second Avo,
Seattle Wash.—E. E. P*-nn, G.A.P.D.. J. \V. Draper. G.A.F.D   713 Second Ave.,
Sherbrooke.. . Que.—E. II. Sewell, City Passenger Agent     6 Strathuotm Sq.
Spokane    .    .WA*H.—T. J   Wall, General Ageot Passenger Dept    14 Wall St.
Sydney Aim.—Union S. S. Co. of New Zealand (Ltd)
Tacoma Wash.—C. ft. Naylor. C.P.A.; 0. U. Beeker, Freight Agent,
11.13 P.-u/Lio Ave., Arcade Building
t rte*      / M, G. Murphy, District Passengei Ag-ut    16 King St East
Toronto UNT~ 1 W. Maughan, City Tieket Agent    Mi King St. East
Vancouver . .. -B.C.—J. Moe, C.T.A., 434 Hastings St., Chas. Millard. Depot T. A.
D. Chetham, City Passenger Agent    1102 Government St,.
Altmaii,    Agent Kaerntn erring,    7
L. Powell, City Pasa'r and Frt. Agent,
Bond Bldg.. 14th St. and N.Y. Ave.
. G. Richardson, City Passenger Agent,
Cor. Main St. and Portage Ave..
.Japan—W. T. Payne, Manager Trans-Pacific Line; 11. T. E. Wilgress, Agt.,
14 Bund"
H. W. Brodie, C. R. Foster, Wm   KTrrr.
General PassengeT Agent,    General Passenger Agent,      General Passenger Agent,
Vancouver, B. C Winnipeg, Alan. Montreal, Que.
Victoria B.C—L.
Vienna .... Austri \—S.
Washington . .D, C—A.
Winnipeg . .. .Man.-
Yokohania
J. S. Dennis, W. It. McInnm,
Assistant to the President, Freight Traffic Manager,
Calgary,   Alta., Montreal.  Que.,
Canada. Canada.
C- E- E.   PftHHER.
Passenger Traffic Manager,.
Montreal.  Que.,
Canada. 128
CANAIHAN   PACIFIC  RAILWAY
PUBLICATIONS OF THE CANADIAN PACIFIC
RAILWAY COLONIZATION DEPARTMENT
Besides this free booklet, the following publications may be obtained
postage prepaid, on application to the Comp-any at Calgary, Alberta,
Canada:—
- MANITOBA FOR MIXED FARMING "—A handbook of information regarding the provinee of Manitoba, the oldest settled o.f the
prairie provinces. This should be in the hands of every person who contemplates settling in Western Canada     FREE
" SASKATCHEWAN. THE GOLDEN "—A handbook of information concerning Saskatchewan, the great wheat-growing province of
Canada. This publication is well illustrated, and contains all the latest,
statistics hearing on the phenomenal development of this province.   FREE
" SUNNY ALBERTA." a folder, profuselv illustrated, dealing with
general agricultural conditions in Southern and Central Alberta, anil tna
famous Bow River Valley, Treats on Soil, Climate Combination Farms,
Canadian Irrigation- Laws, the Production of Cereals, Alfalfa, Timothy,
Stoi k liaising, and giving useful hints to those who desire, to farm cither
on the irrigated or non-irrigated lands of the Company.
" IRRIGATION FARMING "--Diversified farming and stock raising is the foundation upon which all irrigation projects rest. This book
gives the business aspect of the industry in the Irrigation Bloc;., and
shows that, upon its rich alfalfa meadows live-stock feeding and dairying
lead to certain success. Every up-to-date farmer nowadays is a stockman,
and this hook wdl anneal to that class FHEE
"SETTLER'S GUIDE "—A text book, useful <o any farmer, giving
Valuable information ii. regard to farming practice upon irrigated and non-
irrigated lands in northerly latitudes. This work was compiled for the
Company at great, expense both with regard to time anil money. FIVE
CENTS.'
"PICTURESQUE BOW RIVER VALLEY " -A splendid album
of views, measuring 10 x 12 inches, bound with heavy silk cord, (in 1 in ev>ry
respeel a Work of art, and an interesting souvenir of Southern Alberta.
These twenty-four views bring the varied beauties and possibilities of the
great Province of Alberta and the Irrigation Block within th" range of vour
vision. ONE    DOLLAR
PASSENGER    DEPARTMENT
TOURIST PUBLICATIONS.—In addition to the above booklets
which deal more particularly with the agricultural resources of WeMorn
Canada, the following publications of special interest, to tourists may be
obtained: Challenge of (.'." Mountains; Fishing and Shooting; French and
Pickerel Hiver; Glacier Booklet; C.reat Lakes Folder-; Hotel System;
Highway to the Orient; Hotels and Boarding Houses; Home from California; Kawartha Lakes; Laurontian Mountains District; Muskoka Lakes;
Montreal (place Viger); Open Seasons; Point an Brail; Pacific Coast Tours;
Pacific S. S. Log; Quebec (Chateau Frontenac); Resorts in the Kockies;
St. Andrews by the Sea; St. Andrews' Inn, Tourist Car Folder; Wicifare
Work. Applications for the above publications should be directed to:
The General Passenger Agent,
Canadian Pacific Railway, Winnipeg, Man.,
or Montreal, Que., or 67 Charing Cross,
London, Eng.   ;-';a-
ISSlN^
SVIAF*   C3F=-
WESTERN CANADA
MAHITOBA, ALBERTA, SASKATCHEWAN AND PART OF BRITISH COLUMBIA,
SHOWING SYSTEM OF LAND SURVEY AND LINES OF THE
CANADIAN PACIFIC RAILWAY COMPANY.
109°   Longitude      West    J 07° from      Greenwich Get Your  Canadian Home
from  the
Canadian Pacific
CANADIAN PACIFIC Irrigable Farms, in the Bow
River Valley and other Sections or SUNNY SOUTHERN ALBERTA, are not only Farming propositions of
great merit but also are Investments that will constantly
grow in value.
IRRIGABLE LAND FROM S35 to S75 PER ACRE
TEN YEARS IN WHICH TO PAY.
Write for our Handbook of Information regarding
Irrigation Farming. It will tell you of the wonderful
opportunities for Mixed Farming on Land where you
"Pay for  Rain instead of Praying for it." Address—
J. S. DENNIS, Assistant to the President, Canadian  Pacific  Railway.
DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES,
CALGARY ALBERTA. ■

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