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Eastward across Canada by Canadian Pacific Canadian Pacific Railway Company 1954

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 EASTWARD
** GxmoJUom, Gaelic
■ ■7A7!m77lyXL,
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"THE CANADIAN"
VANCOUVER   BANFF   CALGARY  MOOSE JAW     REGINA
WINNIPEG
"THE DOMINION"
FORT WILLIAM SUDBURY    OTTAWA    MONTREAL
The Only "Dome" Route Across Canada * <&«k '£      .'.«rA
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Vancouver
to ALASKA
NANAIMO
nino
/
£/     VICTORIA
\
VANCOUVER
Vancouver, end of steel for the world's first transcontinental railway, is Canada's gateway to the
Orient and the South Pacific. Canadian Pacific
"Empresses of the Air" fly passengers north-west
to the Orient, south to Hawaii, Fiji, Australia, New
Zealand, Mexico, Peru-—north to the Arctic.
Vancouver's golf courses, parks, fine buildings, sea
beaches and pleasant climate attract visitors from
many countries. Fast Canadian Pacific "Princess"
liners, from piers a stone's throw from the station,
give fast day and night service to Seattle, Nanaimo
and Victoria on pleasant Vancouver Island, mainland British Columbia ports and Alaska.
SEATTLE
Princess liner near Victoria
Victoria, temperate capital of British Columbia, is
the entrance to the year-round playground of
Vancouver Island. Here The Empress, westernmost
of the Canadian Pacific chain of hotels from sea
to sea, vine-clad, set in its own T0!/2-acre garden
facing the harbour, close to business and shopping
centres, is the focal point of local society, headquarters for visitors. Golf, motoring, tennis, sailing,
swimming, riding, picturesque parks and scenic
drives are the background of a holiday life that
includes shopping for woollens, diamonds, silverware, linens and many other imports.
The Empress Hotel,  Victoria Across Canada by Canadian Pacific
TORONTO
MONTREAL
syjOHN
* HALIFAX
to DETROIT
Travel, even the luxurious travel of today in the
comfort of Canadian Pacific Scenic Domes, is an
adventure. Travel, the Canadian Pacific way from
tidewater to tidewater across the wide provinces
of British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario and Quebec, is an adventure in
which the traveller of today retraces the trails
blazed in a glorious past through the promise of a
boundless future.
The Canadian Pacific transcontinental main line
parallels in this 20th Century the routes of many
brave and pious explorers of the 17th Century.
It retraces the journeyings of such heroes as
Thompson, Fraser, Mackenzie, Joliet, LaSalle,
Radisson, Pere Marquette, Champlain, Nicolet and
Du Lhut, whose names are imprinted indissolubly
upon the histories of Canada and the United States.
Explorers of the river routes that first opened
the Great Lakes and the rivers to the Gulf of
Mexico; discoverers of the great prairies that
sweep majestically upward from lake level to
the Rockies; pioneers who traced mighty streams
through the mountain barriers to the Pacific Ocean,
all led the builders of the world's first transcontinental railway. These great men of the past lead
you, who sit in the air-conditioned comfort of a
high-level Scenic Dome, beside roaring streams
that point their silver arrows through the mountain
passes, between great wheat fields, beside inland
seas along the edge of the rich pre-Cambrian
Shield, through lake-lands and forests, through
gentle farm lands. Back over the trail of the explorers you see through the picture windows on
four sides of you: mines, mills, factories; great
cities, Vancouver, Calgary, Medicine Hat, Swift
Current, Moose Jaw, Regina, Brandon, Winnipeg,
Fort William-Port Arthur, Sudbury, North Bay,
Ottawa, Toronto, Montreal; the pleasure lands of
the British Columbia coast, Lake Louise, Banff,
Lake of the Woods, the North Shore of Lake
Superior,   French   River,  Muskoka,  the   Gatineau.
"Across Canada by Canadian Pacific", prepared
for riders of the longest "Dome" route in the world,
is based upon the railway practice of dividing the
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Vancouver-China Bar  Page 4
North Bend-Drynoch     ....... Page 5
Spence's Bridge-Tranquille   ..... Page 6
Kamloops-Tappen  Page 7
Salmon Arm-Three Valley     ..... Page 8
Revelstoke-Moberly  Page 9
Golden-Field  Page 10
Hector-Castle Mountain    ...... Page 11
Banff-Robertson  Page 12
Calgary-Redcliff  ......... Page 13
Medicine Hat-Boharm   ....... Page 14
Moose Jaw-Kemnay ........ Page 15
Brandon-Keewatin    .  Page 18
Kenora-West Fort William  Page 19
Fort William-Regan  Page 20
White River-Sudbury  Page 23
Romford-Toronto ........  Pages 24-25
Romford-Montreal Pages 26-28
Crowsnest Pass-Coquihalla Canyon . Page 29
track into Sub-Divisions. While the timetable shows
the distance between Vancouver and Montreal as
2,881.2 miles and between Vancouver and Toronto
as 2,703.6, the "Mileage Boards" found on telegraph poles along the right of way start afresh
at the eastern boundary of each sub-division. For
instance, Pembroke, 219.4 miles from Montreal, is
indicated on the track side by Mileage Board 93
of the Chalk River Sub-Division. In order to pinpoint points of interest in the scenery for ready
location from a moving train, reference is made
throughout this book to the nearest mileage board
and each sub-division traversed is named at its
start. Following the operational practice of dividing
the line from east to west, these pages divide the
Canadian Pacific transcontinental main line—the
"Scenic Dome" route—from Vancouver to Montreal
and Toronto. At the side of each page a yellow
plan map bears the names of all stations on that
page.
Because the Canadian Pacific main line travels
generally in an east-west direction "north" is
used throughout the book to indicate scenes and
places on the left, just as north always is indicated
by the top of a map.
Front cover picture is an artist's conception of Canadian Pacific Scenic Domes in the Bow River Valley. VANCOUVER
BARNET
PORT MOODY
COQUITLAM
PITT MEADOWS
PORT HAMMOND
HANEY
ALBION
WHONOCK
RUSKIN
SILVERDALE
MISSION CITY
HATZIC
DEWDNEY
NICOMEN
DEROCHE
HARRISON MILLS
AGASSIZ
WALEACH
RUBY CREEK
KATZ
ODLUM
HAIG
CHOATE
YALE
SPUZZUM
CHINA BAR
Cascade For a few miles, the eastward run
Sub-Division of the world's longest Scenic Dome
riqle, the Canadian Pacific transcontinental main
line, is at sea level. The factories and docks that
characterize Vancouver, the piers, drying nets,
deep-sea fishing craft, fishing shacks, the many
activities of a busy harbour line Burrard Inlet and
spell the last sight of sea level for more than 2,880
miles until it is reached again at Montreal. In
between stand the barriers of the Coast Range, the
Monashee Mountains, the Selkirks, the towering
Rockies and the long, steady slope eastward across
the Great Plains to Winnipeg. Keep an eye to the
north for the old station at Port Moody, original
western terminus of the Canadian Pacific, the
world's first transcontinental railway. At mileage
115, Burrard Inlet ends. Coquitlam, population
3,000, is named for the nearby Indian Reservation
and the Coquitlam River is spanned at 112.3. At
mileage 109.7, the Pitt River, almost the last tidewater, is crossed by a long bridge and the track
points northeast to the mighty Fraser River and
Port Hammond, population 3,000.
Breezes bear the tang of the Pacific Ocean
across the meadows and ahead the apparently
impassable barrier of the Coast Range looms
heavily. Mission City, with a population of 5,000,
junction with the Mission Sub-Division, is a busy
centre for this fruit growing and dairy country and
from your Scenic Dome vantage point, you can see
40 miles south in the State of Washington, snow-
topped Mount Baker. The mighty Fraser south of
the track waters the Chilliwack Valley, noted for
its fine dairy herds, which is served by ferries at
Agassiz, population 2,600, site of a Government
Experimental Farm and station for Harrison Hot
Springs. Along the way activities are divided
between sawmills and packing plants to which
strings of trucks bring fresh gathered crops, for
this is the heart of the fruit and dairy lands. Ruby
Creek, mileage 48, owes its name to garnets found
in the neighbourhood. The gentle, domesticated
pattern of the land begins to change as the stark
grandeur of the mountains approaches ever closer
and, at Odium, the mouths of the Fraser and
Coquihalla Canyons form a natural landmark for
the junction of the Banff-Lake Louise transcontinental line with the Coquihalla Canyon-Crowsnest
Pass route of the Canadian Pacific through the
Southern Rockies. Haig honours the name of the
famous British Field Marshal. At mileage 31.2,
Emory Creek is bridged on its way to the Fraser,
still navigable but much faster than in its broader
reaches back on the level valley. Yale was once
head of navigation on the Fraser and a look at
the river here will show what stalwart steamship
captains had to contend with as they brought the
miners and freighters to the beginnings of
the Cariboo Waggon Road. Built, 1862-5,
under the orders of Governor James Douglas
of British Columbia, this 400-mile road was
used by thousands of miners to carry millions
in treasure from the famous Cariboo Gold Field.
Earlier than that, in 1848, it was the site of a
fur brigade trading fort. Now the Fraser, once so
placid, hemmed in the canyon that took it countless
Hell's Gate
aeons to flume out, torments itself into twisting
eddies and backwaters. Between mileages 23
and 22, look for a giant rock in the middle of the
river which still withstands the heavy pounding.
Simon Fraser, discoverer of the river, tells of making
his way down the canyon on a series of ladders
built by the Indians. He little knew that 19th Century
engineers would use his route for a transcontinental
railway. The Spuzzum River is bridged at mileage
17.1. At Spuzzum, 15.5, where a steel and concrete
bridge spans the Fraser, is sited a bench noted by
Fraser in his diary as a resting place. The present
bridge is located where the first suspension bridge
west of the Rockies built by Joseph Trutch was slung
on wire cables, woven at the site, on wooden
towers. Long before the railroad came to Spuzzum,
the great Hudson's Bay Company established a
trading post there. Many rivulets and creeks find
their way to the Fraser on both sides: White's
Creek is crossed at mileage 9.7 and Williams Creek
at 9.2. Just above this, a spinning whirlpool is
known as "The Devil's Wash Basin". It is caused
by a narrow rock formation between mileages
8 and 7 aptly christened "Hell's Gate". Conservationists particularly will be interested in the
series of basins beside cascades by which salmon
"Friendly Folk"
Ever notice how friendly railway men are? You see
crews of passing trains wave to each other. Section
men miles away from anywhere stop Work and
wave as the train goes by — and you wave in
return. This is friendliness, but it is more than that.
Everyone on the Canadian Pacific is concerned
with the welfare of your train and the hands flung
high in greeting tell a story to the crew of your
train. Watch a little more closely and you will see
that section men divide forces as you pass, one to
each side of the track. They have been keeping a
watchful eye on the running gear of the train and
the "highball" is an assurance that everything is in
order on both sides. This combination of efficiency
and friendliness spreads beyond the railway
family and trainmen can tell you of many instances
where residents near the track "check the train9'
and give the proper signals. evade the rapids as they swim up-river during the
spawning season. A notable example is at mileage
5.5 where the Scuzzy River flowing from north of
the track enters the Fraser and the "salmon elevator" climbs up under the railway bridge. Although
the average gradient between North Bend and
Vancouver is a little less than four feet in a mile,
the climb between Odium and North Bend has
been 300 feet in 41 miles and the speed and turbulence of the Fraser makes this readily apparent.
The gradual climb, together with the abrupt
change from wide valley to narrow canyon emphasizes its stark beauty — graphically comparable with the equally stark history of its early
development. North Bend, junction of the Cascade
and Thompson Sub-Divisions, is mainly a railway
town noted for its rich foliage and flower-filled
gardens of which those at the station are a
notable example.
"Suicide Rapids"
Thompson Eastward from North Bend the
Sub-Division Canadian Pacific transcontinental
main line climbs along gradually narrowing bench
lands. The rise of the land is noticeable although, at
Chaumox, Indian translation of "too hot", the
altitude is as yet only 548 feet above sea level.
Tiny gardens and orchards, some in Indian Reservations, replace the broader fields of the coastal
plain. At mileage 113 the Salmon River is bridged.
To the south is Kanaka Mountain. Skow Wash
Creek is crossed at mileage 106.3 and Kwoiek
Creek, named for the peak north of the line, at
104.6. Once worked by Hawaiian labourers, the
old placer mining bar across the river gives its
name to Kanaka. Between mileages 102.7 and
101.2 the track rests on a ledge hewn from the
rock and passes through three tunnels. In contrast
the old Cariboo Road toiled high above the river.
Near Cisco, named for the late Chief Siska, at
mileage 101, the railway crosses to the left bank
of the Fraser, to reach, a few miles ahead, its
confluence with the Thompson River. Sharply defined, the two waters, drab in the case of the
Fraser, clear because — like the St. Lawrence where
it is joined by the Ottawa, 2,500 miles to the east
— it   is   filtered   through   lakes,   the   Thompson.
For Camera Fans
In general, the precautions you take in shooting
through windows should be observed in making
photographs from the "Scenic Dome".
For colour transparencies of the various popular
makes, colour compensating filter No. CC30-R is
advised with exposure increases as recommended
for this filter on Daylight Type film. In order to
get exposures, either with colour or black and
white film, the use of an exposure meter is recommended, readings being taken from within the
"Scenic Dome". Where no meter is available, an
exposure increase through top or side windows of
one full camera stop is general practice.
Either the front or rear seats offer the best opportunities for pictures but please remember that
receding scenery sets up focusing problems. It is
generally considered that the best way to avoid
reflections is to expose as close to the glass as
possible and, of course, avoid halation by shooting
away from the sun. Train movement effects are
lessened considerably for lateral photographs by
using a 45° angle.
NORTH BEND
Lytton, the town where the rivers join, was a well-
established Indian community when Simon Fraser
first came upon it, centuries after its foundation.
Traders, using both rivers for their highways,
gave Lytton importance, and, during the gold rush
it came into its heyday. At mileage 95 the plateau
begins to narrow. The Fraser turns northward, the
Thompson points to the east. Following the water
level, the Canadian Pacific parallels the Thompson
River into a canyon noted for the colourful rocks
and earth that line its sides. Across the river, at
mileage 93.5, Botanie Crag, a green granite
crest that overhangs the clear water, takes its
name from a creek that enters here. The Painted
Canyon, mileage 91, lives up to its name. Sagebrush, dwarf jack-pine, poplar and some bull-pine
grow in this area. The rushing river at mileage
87.5 spills out through the aptly named gorge —
"Jaws of Death" —the modern highway follows
the route of the old Cariboo Road. At 84.6 the
Nicoamen River is bridged by the railway which
passes  under  the   highway  at   81.4.   Drynoch   is
CHAUMOX
KEEPERS
KANAKA
CISCO
LYTTON
GLADWIN
THOMPSON
The Thomson River near Spence's Bridge.
DRYNOCH SPENCE'S BRIDGE
T0KET1C
SPATSUM
BASQUE
ASHCROFT
SEMLIN
The Thompson River
WALHACHIN
SAVONA
CHERRY CREEK
TRANQUILLE
named for the seat of the Clan McLeod on the
Island of Skye and the Canadian Pacific follows
the river closely as the canyon widens into a
gentler contour. Once known as Cook's Ferry —
for obvious reasons, Spence's Bridge marks the
junction with the Merritt Sub-Division, a line that
runs southward to Brodie on the Canadian Pacific
route through the southern rockies. The Nicola River
is crossed at mileage 71 and the next station,
Toketic, is well named, "Pretty Place". The locally
prolific wild cotton gives its name to Spatsum.
Pimainus Creek is bridged at mileage 67 and
Pukaist Creek near mileage 65. Glossy Mountain,
south of the track, rears bald contours to a peak
of 6,500 feet, and the river narrows to squeeze
through Black Canyon, mileage 52.5, in a roaring
boil of hissing, foaming white against the rock
formations. Ashcroft, named for the birthplace in
England of a legendary early settler, was a
gold-rush town. Today it is noted for the quality of
its potatoes and tomatoes —a long way from the
Cariboo days! Walhachin, once-more euphoniously
— "Wallacheen" meaning "land of plenty", has
a tragic history. Here was the scene of an early
experiment in irrigation. A group of Englishmen
watered an orchard and brought fine apples to
bearing. Then the bugles of 1914 blew. They
crossed the Atlantic to war —and none returned!
A  few  trees,  unkempt  and   untended,  still   bear
lonely fruits. Savona got its name from an early
Italian immigrant who operated a ferry across
the western end of Kamloops Lake in 1861. As the
Thompson widens into Kamloops Lake the countryside takes on a more domesticated pattern. Here is
some of the finest ranching land in Canada —
look for ranch and farm houses of sturdy, picturesque logs. Cherry Creek, named for the stream
crossed near the station, serves this prosperous
area. Between mileages 13.8 and 8.5 the train
passes through six tunnels — five of them in a mile
and a quarter — driven through the glacier-
scarred rock. North, across the lake, at mileage 11,
red-stained Battle Bluff was the scene of fierce
Indian struggles years ago that are still recalled
in tribal song and legend. Tranquille station, and
the river crossed at mileage 6.5f take their names
from an early Indian chief who was thus nicknamed
by French traders because of his gentle disposition.
History remembers better, though, James Huston's
discovery of gold here in 1856 or'57 — the prime
start of what developed into the Cariboo gold
rush. Kamloops Lake narrows again and by mileage
4 has taken on the characteristics of a river.
Historians are certain that David Thompson, the
famous explorer and map-maker, never saw the
river that is his flowing monument, and feel reasonably sure that he never knew that Simon Fraser had
given it his name. Now, as the outskirts of Kamloops are reached, from almost true north the waters of
the North Thompson enter the Thompson which,
from this point eastward, becomes the South
Thompson. Kamloops, junction of the Shuswap and
Thompson Sub-Divisions, has a population of
14,000. The city was founded as a Hudson's
Bay Company post in 1812. Fort Thompson was
built in 1813 by the North West Company and
named for David Thompson, explorer of the Kootenay District and Columbia River — probably when
Simon Fraser named the Thompson River. Today's
name is an anglicized spelling of the Indian
word "Kumeloops", meaning unknown. Cattle,
forest products, canning, fruit and vegetable
shipping and registered seed are the major local
industries. Many lakes and streams in this district
are well-stocked with game trout. You will see
many irrigated farms and broad cattle ranches
and this countryside also contains gold, copper and
base metal mines.
Shuswap Between   Kamloops   Station    and
Sub-Division mileage 126 sites of prehistoric,
semi-subterranean houses built by Indians have
been discovered in the area that divides the track
and the South Thompson River. Local historians
offer no origin for the name Monte Creek, perhaps
"three-card monte" was a popular pastime in
railway construction days! Except for one 500-foot
hump at Notch Hill, the line is fairly level for the
next 80 miles with an average altitude of 1,160
feet. This is a prosperous mixed farming and fruit
belt, more densely populated than any territory
in western British Columbia. The Canadian Pacific
transcontinental main line parallels the South
Thompson  River  arid  the  Ptarmigan  Hills,  to  the
south, though gentle in slope, begin to give promise
of greater heights in the Monashee, Selkirk and
Rocky Mountains ahead. Chase Creek is spanned at
mileage 93.5. Squilax, "sheep" in the Indian
tongue, is on the southern shore of Little Shuswap
Lake which broadens, at mileage 84, into the
western tip of Shuswap Lake itself. The big lake
is credited with containing more varieties of trout
and other game fish, including steel-head salmon
trout and salmon from the Pacific than any other
fresh water in British Columbia. The land slopes
gently upwards to the north. Weaving between
Mount Hilliam, Black and Squilax Mountains to the
south and Notch Hill to the north, the line turns to
parallel White Creek (north) between Carlin and
Tappen, named respectively for a lumber operator
and early contractor. The Salmon River is bridged
at mileage 64.8. The Shuswap Lakes are the
reservoir on which the South Thompson River,
traced from Kamloops to Salmon Arm by the
Canadian Pacific, draws heavily. They, and the
river, important to the economy of British Columbia,
are examples of the far-reaching effect of the
North West Company. Simon Fraser discovered
them early in the 19th Century. Salmon Arm,
population 2,000, deals in dairy products, feed,
poles, boxes, packing and lumber. Oddly-named
Canoe is a farmers' exchange, warehousing and
lumbering centre. Wild duck have made the lake
— averaging a mile wide between Salmon Arm
and Sicamous —a favourite feeding and breeding
area. South of the track lies Larch Hills Provincial
Forest. To the north Shuswap Lake, of which Salmon
Arm, paralleling the line is the south side, is a
three-sided rectangle almost surrounding Vella
and  Bastion Mountains behind which White Lake
KAMLOOPS
MONTE CREEK
PRITCHARD
SHUSWAP
I
CHASE
SQUILAX
ELSON
f^ ^7§7^        :':JhS'*'^;       s;;
fcSfc
NOTCH HILL
CARLIN
Orchards like  this  earn  British   Columbia's  apple  reputation.
TAPPEN SALMON ARM
CANOE
SICAMOUS
SOLSQUA
CAMBIE
MALAKWA
CRAI6ELLACHIE
TAFT
THREE VALLEY
has a fabulous reputation amongst anglers. Sicamous, lake-head port for mail, is the junction with
the Canadian Pacific Okanagan Sub-Division.
The word means "places cut through". This is great
duck country and the wild migrants become tame
enough to paddle close for bread thrown on the
quieter backwaters. At mileage 44.4 the main
line crosses the eastern end of Shuswap Lake at
Sicamous Narrows and starts its long, magnificently scenic climb towards the height of land,
breasting the course of the twisting Eagle River
which it will cross eleven times in 28 miles. The
first crossing is made at mileage 43.8. Solsqua,
Indian word for bear, may have been an apt
choice of name once, but few have been seen
recently. It is in scenery such as this that the Scenic
Dome comes into its own. Watching eyes are
rewarded on al! sides. At mileage 40.4, 37.1 and
32.8,  the   Eagle   is  spanned   again.  Malakwa   is
Automatic Block Signals
While the red, yellow and green lights that you see
from the "Scenic Dome" are welcome because they
add colour to the journey by day or night, they
have more serious business to do. These are the
lights of the Automatic Block Signal System — an
intricate series of electrical sections called "blocks",
into which the transcontinental main line is divided.
Entrance of the train into each block is governed
by the colour light signal which tells the engineman
whether he may enter the block or if he must stop.
More complicated than highway traffic signals,
but governed by easily interpreted rules, block
signals sometimes require two or more colour
lights to convey their full meaning.
Under certain rules, for instance, a stop signal
may command an absolute stop, requiring the
train to stop and stay there. In some cases, it may
be a "permissive" stop which allows the train to
proceed in accordance with the rules after coming
to a stop.
Red, yellow and green lights are used in modern
signal practice; some lights flash on and off intermittently. In certain locations, semaphore signals
are used and the position of the blade in daytime
has the same meaning as the colour light signal.
Indian for mosquito —and fishermen in the local
waters will understand its choice as a station name.
Another crossing of the Eagle is made at 31.3.
North of the track at Craigellachie (mileage 28.3)
a simple cairn marks the spot where the "last spike",
driven November 7, 1885, completed the world's
first transcontinental railway. Here westbound
and eastbound construction gangs met. The spike
was a good, workable one — not silver or gold as
some legends claim! Threading its way between
the Hunter and Shuswap Ranges, the line crosses
the Eagle three times between mileages 24.6 and
26.3. Near mileage 22, beautiful Kay Falls are
seen, and, also to the south Mount Griffin (7,1200
of the Hunter Range. The Gold Range (7,000')
rise to the north. Three more bridges within the
three miles between 18.5 and 15.4 complete the
crossings of the Eagle. At obviously named Three
Valley, Wap Creek flows from the south into Three
Eagle Pass
Valley Lake. Snowsheds, encountered at mileage
13.5, are a reminder of railroading difficulties to
be surmounted, and three short tunnels momentarily
obstruct the view of Eagle Pass and Summit Lake
between mileages 9.5 and 9. A wooden overhead
bridge carries the highway above at mileage 8.6.
The grassland areas that marked the western
end of the Shuswap Sub-Division have gradually
given way to Douglas fir, the inevitable lodge-pole
pine and Ponderosa pine that are common to this
country, variously described as the Fraser Uplands,
or Fraser Plateau. Northeastward Mount Revelstoke
commands the view and to the south are the Tonka-
watla River, Mount Macpherson (7,8930 and
Mount Begbie (8,946'). At mileage 1.7 the Canadian Pacific meets and crosses the mighty Columbia
River. Of the Columbia River's 1,150 miles, the 459
miles in Canada drain an area of 40,000 square
miles, serve the lumber industry and generate
thousands of horsepower. From its source in the
giant snow-dome that forms the Columbia Icefield,
reached from Lake Louise station 86 miles to its
south, this mighty stream has wound its way at
varying speeds west and south in its search for the
wide waters of the Pacific. David Thompson traced
the Columbia from its source to its mouth. In 1807,
he made his way to the Icefield via the Saskatchewan and in the following years explored the
river, evading hostile Piegan Indians who had
attacked Lewis and Clarke in 1805, to the point
where the American expedition had struck the
Columbia and followed it to its mouth. His is still
the sole comprehensive survey of the entire river.
Southward, the Columbia broadens into the Arrow
Lake system, served for many years by that most
romantic of all vessels, the "stern-wheeler", S.S.
"Minto".
Revelstoke, population 3,500, is a lumbering
centre and junction with the Arrow Lake, Mountain
and Shuswap Sub-Divisions. Don't miss the station
gardens, a bank of lovely flowers, and an exhibition Kiosk which is a key to the area. Mount
Revelstoke summit is reached by car for a magnificent view of the Columbia Valley and the winter
sports area famous amongst the ski fraternity for
the championship jump.
8 Amherst— Baron Jeffery, Field Marshal (1717-97),
Commander in Chief in North America 1758, Governor of Virginia 1763.
Brebeuf— (1593-1649), born in France, Jesuit
Missionary to the Hurons, martyred by the Iroquois
1649.
Brule — Etienne, born end of 16th Century, reached
Canada as a boy in 1608, accompanied Champlain
1615. In 1618, explored south through Pennsylvania
to Chesapeake Bay. Died 1633.
By —John (1781-1836), military engineer, 1826
constructed Rideau Canal. Bytown (now Ottawa)
named after him.
Champlain — Samuel  de  (1567-1635),  first visit  to
America  1598, founded  Quebec 1608.
du Lhut— or Duluth, Daniel G. (1640-1710), born in
France, explored Sioux country 1681. Duluth, Minnesota, is named for him.
Fraser— Simon (1776-1862), born in New York,
partner in North West Company, explored Fraser
and Thompson  Rivers.
Joliet — Louis (1645-1700), born in Quebec, co-
discoverer with Marquette of the Mississippi.
LaSalle— Rene Robert Cavelier (1643-87), born in
France, Seigneur of Laehine, explored Ohio River,
Lake Michigan and Upper Illinois searching for China;
reached Texas by sea.
La Verendrye — Pierre Gaultier de Varennes (1688-
1749), born Three Rivers, Que., fur trader and explorer.
Macdonald— Sir John Alexander (1815-1891), born
in Scotland, lawyer and statesman in Upper Canada,
first Prime Minister of the Dominion, considered "Chief
Architect of  Confederation".
Marquette — (1637-75), born in France. 1666, Jesuit
missionary to Canada, shared discovery of Mississippi with Joliet.
Nicolet — Jean (1598-1642), born in France, came to
Canada 1618, explored Lake Michigan as far as
Green Bay, senior official of Company of One
Hundred Associates.
Radisson—-Pierre Esprit (1636-1710), born in Paris,
reached Canada 1651, explored Great Lakes,
credited with foundation of Hudson's Bay Company.
Sfrafhcona — Lord (1820-1914), Sir Donald Alexander Smith, born in Scotland, became resident governor of Hudson's Bay Co. in Canada; one of the
founders of the Canadian Pacific Railway, later
President of the Bank of Montreal and Canadian
High Commissioner in Great Britain.
Thompson — David (1770-1857), 1808-9 explored
Columbia River; 1816-26 surveyed Canada U.S.
boundary.
Trail Riders, Alberta
Mountain Twenty feet in a mile doesn't seem
Sub-Division like much of a climb, but by the
time the 125.7 miles of this sub-division are complete
the line will be 2,578 feet higher. Our guide
eastward is the llleciliwaet River, rushing headlong
to the west as our powerful diesels take us eastward. A taste of the scenery to come is given by
rocky Box Canyon (mileage 123). Greely Creek,
named for the famous editor, is crossed at 118.8,
Twin Butte marks the narrowing of the valley. At
113.4, Twin Butte Creek is spanned and, on the
north side, bounded at the east by Woolsey Creek,
sprawls Mount Revelstoke Park. The great Albert
snowfield lies to the south. From mileage 109
can be seen the eastern slope of Albert Peak
(9,998'). Between mileages 103 and 102 Albert
Canyon, north and below the track, is a narrow 150-foot gorge through which the river
has forced its way. The slow passage of the train
gives you a good view of this fern-wreathed gully.
Glacier Park's boundary is crossed at mileage 95.5. Engineering problems that confronted
the pioneers are indicated by the snow sheds
and tunnels, mileage 94-96, and by the fact
that 10 crossings of the llleciliwaet River have
to be made. Mount Green (8,860') to the south
is the western portal of the Valley of Flat Creek
which opens a vista to the south at mileage 91.
North and south from mileage 88 are Cougar
Mountain and Ross Creek. Now the climb becomes
sharper —1,500 feet between Albert Canyon and
Glacier, the station for Glacier National Park, 521
square miles in area. In this area sharp-eyed
watchers may spot mountain goats and bighorn
sheep just below the snow line and those with
binoculars should scan the slides and burns for
grizzly bear. To the south, midway between
mileages 83.5 and 84.5, up the slope of Mount
Abbott sturdy bridge piers show where the line
toiled up over Loop Brook to Rogers Pass.
South, as you approach Glacier, look up
the valley ahead for the llleciliwaet Glacier, outlet
for the snowfield, as it forces its way between
Perley Peak and Lookout Mountain, and Mount
Sir Donald, its 10,808-foot tip piercing the blue
sky. This whole area, with Mount Macdonald
(9,483') stolidly across the line, is a challenge to
the senses with its magnificent panorama of peaks,
precipices and glaciers. To avoid Mount Macdonald the first line was built through Rogers Pass,
compelling a climb of 500 feet in five miles and
needing, for its protection from slides, more than
four and a half miles of snow sheds, some of which
and the piers of old bridges can be seen to the
north. In 1916, by the boring of the Connaught
Tunnel, the climb was cut in half, the distance was
shortened by four and a third miles and curves
equal to seven circles were done away with. A mile
of solid rock roofs the concrete Connaught
Tunnel, five miles long, twenty-nine feet wide
and twenty-one and a half feet high. Fresh
air is forced through by giant ventilating fans at
the western end. At mileage 80.2 the train emerges
from the tunnel, high on the side of the valley of
the Beaver River. Wide flats through which the
river winds are filled with the skeletons of long-
REVELSTOKE
GREELY
TWIN BUTTE
ALBERT CANYON
GLACIER
STONEY CREEK
ROGERS
BEAVERMOUTH
DONALD
FORDE
MOBERLY GOLDEN
LEANCHOIL
FIELD
gone inundations to the south. North of the line
steep, tree-covered slopes march down to the
valley. Backwards to the north the old route
through Rogers Pass may be traced. Camera fans
who want pictures of the train should ready themselves at Stoney Creek station. East of the station
Stoney Creek is crossed by an arch bridge, the
western end of which is slightly curved to meet the
contour of the land. The engineers probably never
thought of it, but this location as the train crosses
270 feet above the foaming stream is ideal for
photographers to snap the whole train on the
curve. Between Stoney Creek and mileage 74
another interesting bridge spans Surprise Creek.
No bigger at its greatest height than a pencilled
line, this purling stream cuts its way through a gorge
spanned by a truss bridge and foams, noisily
and picturesquely to the river bed 170 feet below.
Raspberry Creek is bridged at 73.7 and Mountain
Creek three miles to the east. Mileage 70 marks
the boundary of Glacier National Park.
The Selkirks are left behind, to the north is
Mount Rogers (10,525') and, at Rogers (67.8)
named for Major Rogers, discoverer of the pass,
the downhill run —1,200 feet since Glacier —
ends. Also to the north is Cupola Mountain, last
peak in the Selkirk Mountains. At mileage 64.5
the Canadian Pacific transcontinental line crosses
the Beaver River and at Beavermouth (63) meets
the Columbia River, about to swing northward in
the gigantic "Big Bend". The line parallels The
Columbia for nearly 30 miles, travelling through a
level country noted for large numbers of deer and
moose. But it takes a keen observer to spot them
through the heavy growth. The big river is crossed
at mileage 52.5, a mile west of Donald, named for
Sir Donald Smith (later Lord Strathcona), where
the canyon is left behind. To the north is Willow-
bank Mountain. The Dogtooth Mountains, south of
the track and the sharp spurs of the Van Horne
Range to the north, give rise to a succession of
fast-running, picturesque creeks and rivers, the
largest of which is the Blaeberry which enters the
Columbia at mileage 44.8. Look north between
mileage 35 and Golden for the cluster of typically
Swiss chalets —the village of Edelweiss—-built
by the Canadian Pacific for the Swiss guides who
climb the Rockies with mountaineers.
The valley of the Columbia now is fairly
broad, its lands fertile and well tended. Golden
is the junction for the Lake Windermere Sub-
Division which connects, through the Kootenay River
valley, with the Canadian Pacific route through the
southern Rockies. Now the grade really begins to
steepen. Between Golden and Hector, a little over
46 miles, the altitude changes from 2,583 feet
to 5,213 feet, an average of more than 57 feet
per mile. Southward lies the Kootenay River, to
the north, at mileage 35, is Moberly Peak (7,721').
At mileage 31.7, 500 feet above the Canadian
Pacific main line is the highway, looking as if it
were hanging precariously on stilts. Near mileage
30 scan the south wall of the lower Kicking Horse
Canyon which we share with the river that gives it
its name, for "The Old Man of the Mountain", a
quirk of nature's sculpture. Between mileages 33
and 21.4 the line crosses the Kicking Horse five
times. It is crossed itself by the highway at mileage
26.5. Foaming and churning, the river speeds
endlessly past, headed west. Mileage 19.2 marks
the boundary of Yoho National Park.
The Beaverfoot Range (9,000') is skirted for
several miles, and, at mileage 15.3 the track
turns sharply. Southward, near mileage 13, look
south for Mount Vaux (10,881') and beyond this
peak to the glacier between Mounts Allan and
Hanbury. North and south the flanking ranges now
are the Van Horne and the Ottertail, followed by
Mount Duchesnay, (9,592') and Mount Dennis
(8,326') on the south. To the north sweeps a broad,
divided valley formed by Otterhead Creek and
the Amiskwi River. Ever-present, the lodge-pole
pine climbs to timber-line, with here and there on
the lower slopes, stands of poplar, marked at
grazing level by the teeth of countless winter-feeding elk. The Kicking Horse River is north of the
track, less hurried, briefly, while it meanders
through the widened valley in which Field nestles.
Field, in Yoho National Park, junction of the
Mountain and Laggan Sub-Divisions, is also the
junction of the Mountain and Pacific Time Zones.
Eastbound travellers advance their watches one
hour. Bears are sometimes seen near railway
stations in the mountains. No matter how pathetically they look at you, don't yield to temptation
and feed them. They are as tame as any wild
animal accustomed to human beings can be,,
but they have no manners and do not know
how sharp a supplicatory paw can be. Also, there
is a heavy fine imposed for feeding wild animals
— this is for your own protection. Take all the
pictures you like — from a reasonable distance.
Across the river, well-engineered motor roads lead
up the scenic Yoho Valley to Takakkaw Falls
and westward past the "Natural Bridge", bored
through solid rock by the Kicking Horse River,
then north through the valley of the Emerald River
to Emerald Lake, site of the Canadian Pacific
resort, Emerald  Lake Chalet.
Map of the Spiral Tunnels
10 Sure-footed big horn sheep
Laggan A long shoulder of Mount Stephen
Sub-Division juts into the valley on the south, the
highway bridge points due north as it spiders its
way across the washed pebble-strewn flats, the
diesels brace themselves for their climb across the
backbone of Canada, and across the lazy river as
your train gently gathers strength the highway
ambles off to the Yoho Valley. At mileage 133.6,
in sharp contrast with the sylvan scene a base
metals concentrator high up the cliff processed lead
and zinc from shafts nearby, and, across the river,
in Mount Field. Ahead lies the thrill of climbing
1,260 feet in less than an hour by means of the
most ingenious railroad feat in North America, the
Spiral Tunnels. As first constructed in 1882-83, the
line between Field and Hector climbed laboriously
up the heavy grade, parts of which now form the
highway crossed by today's line, which was relocated 1907-08 when the Spiral Tunnels were
driven through the solid rock. The upper spiral
tunnel, for the statistically minded, is 3,255' long,
its curvature is 288 degrees; the lower, 2,922'.
Its curvature is 226 degrees and it emerges 50.4'
above its entrance. To the north Mount Field
(8,645') and Mount Wapta (9,106') guard the
entrance to Yoho Valley. Beyond them are Burgess
Pass and Mount Burgess (8,463'). The Kicking
Horse parallels the line.
Northward is the Yoho Valley. Near mileage 133 upward on the south can be seen the
exits of the upper tunnel and at mileage 131.3 the
lower tunnel is entered. A thousand yards later
and 50 feet higher you can look down, north, on
the track you have just climbed. As you climb
westward the Kicking Horse is crossed at mileage
130.6 and at 129.7 the second tunnel is entered.
Three-fifths of a mile later and almost completely
turned around the train leaves the tunnel at
mileage 129.1, 55f7" higher up Cathedral
Mountain (10,454') and heads east again. Now,
to the north, the Yoho Valley is seen, and between
mileages 127.5 and 127, northward and down can
be seen the adit and exit of the lower tunnel.
From  mileage  126  Mount Ogden  and  the Yoho
Valley on the north balance the southward views
of Cathedral Crags (.10,071') and Vanguard
Peak. Paget Peak (8,407') and Mount Bosworth
(9,083') farther north, and Wapta Lake, reservoir
of the Kicking Horse River, beside the line reflect
Hector Station, named for Sir James Hector,
surgeon and geologist on the Palliser Expedition.
In the next 2.8 miles the line climbs 119 feet to
reach the highest railway altitude in Canada,
5,332 feet — a mile and 52 feet! Southward
stand Pope's Peak and Narao Peak, Summit and
Sink Lakes to the north mark the eastern end of the
Kicking Horse Pass. Seventy-three yards east of
Stephen station is the Continental Divide, which
also marks the boundary of Yoho and Banff
National Parks. Watch, south of the track, for a
rustic sign, "The Great Divide", which marks the
boundary between Alberta and British Columbia,
the peak of the watershed. Beneath this sign a
small brook becomes two smaller streams that
find their way, westward to the Kicking Horse
River, the Columbia and the Pacific; eastward to
the Bow River and eventually Hudson's Bay and
the Atlantic. Nearby mountains, south, are Mount
Niblock (9,754'), Mount St. Piran (8,681') and The
Beehive, round which the line curves northward to
the broad Bow Valley and Lake Louise station.
From Lake Louise station motor roads lead:
to Chateau Lake Louise a thousand feet higher;
Moraine Lake Lodge in the Valley of the Ten
Peaks; the Columbia Icefield eighty-five miles
to the north where the Athabaska, Dome and
Saskatchewan Glaciers combine to form 150
square miles of ice; Lake Wapta Lodge; Yoho
Valley  Lodge;  Emerald   Lake   Chalet  and   Field.
The Chateau, on the shore of the glacial
lake for which it is named turns its sun-drenched
wings to one of the world's most beautiful scenic
spots, the Victoria Glacier. Its deeply wooded
mountain trails are favourites with riders. There is
boating on the lake, outdoor swimming in a
sheltered, warmed pool and many miles of Alpine
flower trails around the lake and surrounding hillsides for nature lovers. The magnificent Victoria
Glacier, overhanging Lake Louise-—first sight to
greet visitors to the Chateau, sheds its waters into
the Lake and through Louise Creek, to the Bow
River just east of Lake Louise Station. South of the
line, from Lake Louise to mileage 112 Mount
Victoria (11,355'), Mount Aberdeen (10,340'),
Fairview, Haddo (10,073'), Sheol (9,118') and
Saddle Mountain; to the north are Ptarmigan Peak
(10,050'), Redoubt Mountain (7,510') and Protection Mountain. Tallest of all, four miles to the
south, is Mount Temple (11,626'). The cluster of
mountains surrounding the Valley of the Ten
Peaks includes the ten Wenkchemna Peaks,
snow-covered Mount Babel (8,590'), Quadra
(10,420') and Bident (10,109'). Between these
monsters and Storm Mountain, to the south at
mileage 106, whose 10,309 foot peak usually
lives up to its name, the water's edge to the north
should be scanned closely for beaver lodges and
other signs of the wild life with which Banff
National Park is lavishly supplied. North of the
track,  east of  mileage  102,  for eight  miles the
HECTOR
STEPHEN
LAKE LOUISE
CASTLE MOUNTAIN
11 BANFF
CANMORE
EXSHAW
KANANASKIS
SEEBE
OZADA
MORLEY
RADNOR
COCHRANE
GLENBOW
BEARSPAW
ROBERTSON
scene is dominated by Mount Eisenhower. Formerly
known as Castle Mountain, this tremendous formation, battlemented like a medieval castle, was
renamed to honour General of the Army Dwight D.
Eisenhower, brilliant Supreme Commander of the
Allied Forces in Europe, six years before his
election to the Presidency of the United States.
Copper Mountain, south of the track just beyond
the eastern outpost of Mount Eisenhower, points
north to the junction of Johnston Creek with the
Bow River. Between this canyon-bound stream and
Redearth Creek to the south Mount Ishbel on the
north and Pilot Mountain directly south of mileage
93 mark the narrowing of Bow Pass. Now the downward, eastward, flow of the rivers is emphasized.
Mount Massive (7,990') and Mount Bourgeau (9,517') farther south are balanced to
the north by Mount Edith and between mileage 84 and 83, the huge cave known as
"Hole in the Wall" high up the mountainside.
In the meadows that flank the track between
Lake Louise and Banff elk and deer frequently
browse and occasionally a bear — sometimes
with her cubs — may be seen begging for "handouts" on the highway north of the track. Near
mileage 88 to the north are the Vermilion Lakes,
feeding grounds for moose and beaver and
beyond them Mount Norquay. To the south the
Bourgeau Range and Sulphur Mountain loom,
and, near mileage 82, a mile south can be seen
the turrets of Banff Springs Hotel,
Banff which has a winter population of
2,500, swells to 8,000 in the summer. Headquarters of the national park are located here, a
detachment of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police,
hospital, movie theatre. Hotels, boarding houses
and tourist bungalows cater to thousands of visitors every year. Beyond the town, where the Spray
and Bow Rivers meet between the 1st tee and
fairway of the championship golf course, the
valleys enclosed by Sulphur, Rundle and Tunnel
Mountains are dominated by Banff Springs Hotel
-—built of stone quarried locally — massive and
hospitable as a baronial castle in Scotland, This
Canadian Pacific resort, one of the holiday
wonders of the world, fits the keynote of gracious
living into the outdoor symphony of cascades,
rapids, mountain trails and scenic grandeur
played by the Canadian Rockies. Natural sulphur
springs provide medicinal bathing; buses and cars,
mountain ponies and bicycles are available for
sightseeing, a scenic chair-lift on Mount Norquay
opens incredible vistas. The Alpine Club of Canada
maintains a headquarters on the slope of Sulphur
Mountain and The Trail Riders and Trail Hikers
of the Canadian Rockies, both with international
membership rosters, at Banff Springs Hotel.
Banff School of Fine Arts, an extension of
the University of Alberta, opens from mid-June
to mid-August each year a summer school of art,
drama, handicrafts and music, culminating in an
annual festival. Make a note now, if you're
going right through this time, to come back to
Banff for a visit. In winter and  spring the skiing
is unexcelled, too. North of the track, in the
shadow of Cascade Mountain, the National Parks
Department maintains a paddock for buffalo,
rocky mountain goats and bighorn sheep. Here,
too, is the permanent summer camp of the Royal
Canadian Army Cadet Corps. To the south Tunnel
Mountain hides the Bow River from view. Cascade
Creek, named for the 9,826 foot mountain, is
bridged and to the south peculiar sandstone
formations known as "Hoodoos" march with the
track. Mount Rundle (9,655') named for an early
missionary, to the south, points its razor crest
eastward. North of the track Inglismaldie (9,715'),
Girouard (9,875') and Peechee (9,615') rear
their heads. Carrot Creek, bridged near mileage
72, flows from the Fairholme Mountains to the
north. Near mileage 71, north of the line, the eastern
boundary of Banff National Park is marked by a
gateway on the highway. In the 2,500 square
miles of the park, all living things — birds, animals,
wild flowers and trees, are protected by the
Government of Canada, and many travellers,
delighted with the sight of "tame" wild animals
from passing trains, have blessed the wise statesmen who marked out this great sanctuary. As a
tribute to the conservationists, the Canadian
Pacific selected names of national and provincial
parks to designate 18 Scenic Dome Lounge
Sleeper cars in its transcontinental service. A
favourite with photographers, the triple-peaked
mountain, "Three Sisters", stands south of mileage
63. Canmore, named for Malcolm Canmore, early
Scottish king, has a population of 1,400. Its major
industry is coal mining. The Bow River is forced
into a bend by a shoulder, north of the track,
known as The Gap. This geological formation is a
shoulder of the Fairholme Mountains and on its
slopes, near mileage 62, sharp eyes may detect
bighorn sheep. Now the river slows its headlong
speed as it widens into Lac des Arcs, frequented by
Canada    geese   and    mallard    in   their   seasons.
Kananaskis, named by Captain Palliser for a
legendary Indian, produces lime products. The
Bow River is crossed at mileage 53,1 and at
Seebe — Indian word for "river" —- are the Kanan»
askis and Horseshoe dams and power plants.
Ozada, an Indian word meaning "forks of the
river" well describes the confluence of the Bow
and Kananaskis rivers at that point. Morley, with
a population of 30 whites and 700 Indians, is
headquarters of the Stoney Indian Reservation,
Its Indian School, with an average of 60 in attendance, has a staff of 10. Traditional designs in
leather, bead and quilt work are a specialty of
the Stoneys, who take part each year in Banff's
"Indian Days", at which, in addition to outdoor
demonstrations of dances, riding, roping, etc., the
lovely work is shown in competition for prizes.
Radnor, site of the Ghost Dam, was named for
Wilma, daughter of the Earl of Radnor, and wife
of Lord Lathom. At mileage 25.7 the Bow River,
which has paralleled the line on the north side for
28 miles, crosses to the south. With the high
mountains receding, the land has taken on the
rolling   aspect of   foothill   country  and   Cochrane,
12 mileage 22.8, serves a mixed ranching and farming community that extends eastward. The Bow
Valley, born in the grandeur of the mountains,
has become a wide depression, barely defined in
the general eastward slope and the Bow River is
crossed again at mileage 7.7, to lose itself from
view in the outskirts of Calgary, junction of the
Laggan and Brooks Sub-Divisions on the main
transcontinental line.
Brooks Calgary, founded as a North West
Sub-Division Mounted Police post called Fort
Brisebois in 1875, became Fort Calgary later in
honour of Calgary on the Isle of Mull. Its location at
the confluence of the Elbow River and Nose Creek
with the important Bow River, was a natural one.
For years its principal interest was the surrounding
cattle ranching, greatly accentuated by the advent
of the railway. Later, discovery of the Turner
Valley oilfields and the more recent "strikes" to
the north, gave the city of 127,001 great importance to the oil industry. "Cowtown" traditions are
kept alive by the annual "Calgary Stampede"
when the whole city decks itself in "chaps", sombreros and spurs to celebrate the riding, "bronco-
busting" and chuck-waggon races in which famous
riders, men and women, compete. The Canadian
Pacific hotel, named for Captain Palliser, pinpoints
downtown Calgary. Industries include: oil-drilling
specialties; meat products; sash and doors;
structural steel; castings; fertilizers and chemicals;
concrete blocks; pre-fabricated buildings; leather;
oil-refining; cereals; sheet metal; paper products;
pipe castings and explosives. Dinosaur Park on
St. George's Island is notable for life-size models
of pre-historic animals found in the region. The
city stands 3,438 feet above sea level. From
Calgary, Canadian Pacific passenger services
connect with Edmonton, terminus of the northern
trans-prairie line, and Fort MacLeod, junction with
the Crowsnest-Coquihalla route through the southern
Rockies. Now begins the long, gradual descent
to sea level, so gradual that it is imperceptible.
Ogden, its principal industry the "Ogden Shops"
of the Canadian Pacific, marks the eastern fringe
of the variously, according to stages of history,
and affectionately named "Cowtown", "Foothills
City" and "Oil City". Shepard is the junction with
the Strathmore Sub-Division, For a few miles yet
occasional cowboys may be seen, but, generally,
stock-ranching now gives way to agriculture — to
highly specialized irrigation farming. Near the
junction of the Third Prairie Plain with the foothills
of the Rocky Mountain System, the land contours
here are more sharply marked than on the central
and eastern prairies. Valleys are deeper and
wider, rivers flow at greater speeds and still have
some evidence of the glacial silt they carry from
the moraines that clog their icy sources. Climatic
conditions are affected by the proximity of the,
crags and peaks to the west and "The Chinook"
a wind that seems almost fabulous to non-residents,
in the winter frequently raises temperatures from
sub-zero readings to thaws in a matter of minutes.
Often spoken of in this country, but never photographed, was the sleigh equipped with runners
in the front and  wheels  at the  rear, with which
Chuck-waggon race
farmers outran the following Chinook! Ranching in
this area had its start in 1874 with the importation
of range cattle from the United States. In 1882
government regulations allowed the leasing of
tracts up to 100,000 acres and for the next 20
years the industry expanded. At the turn of the
century the historical pattern of agricultural settlement asserted itself and larger ranches began to
disappear with the encroachment of farmlands on
the ranges. Today average ranches are of about
2,000 acres owned by the rancher and 8,000
acres of provincial land under lease. The first
irrigation ditch recorded was dug in 1879 and
seven years later 79,000 acres were under irrigation. More than 10 times that area is now irrigated in Alberta alone. Canadian Pacific irrigation
work started in 1906 and the company, which
pioneered the Eastern and Western Irrigation
Districts, had spent more than $25,000,000 by
1917 when the districts were formed. Indus, mileage
158.8, named for the great Indian river used as
an irrigation source, sets the pattern. Gleichen, a
flour milling point, serves an area with 12,000
irrigated acres and is headquarters of the Blackfoot Reserve, Near mileage 122, the track crosses
a tributary of the Bow River. Cluny was the name
of an Indian chief. Crowfoot, too, commemorates a
famous chief of the Blackfoot tribe, who with the
Sarcees, Bloods and Piegans were early inhabitants of these plains. Bassano, junction of the
Irricana and Bassano Sub-Divisions, named for an
Italian construction engineer, has 1,000 acres of
irrigated farm lands. At mileage 96.6 the line
crosses a canal of the Canadian Pacific Railway
irrigation district established to aid farmers. Lord
Lathom, director of an early ranching company, is
remembered at the next station. At mileage 87.6
lakes break the landscape to the north and at 76t
to the south. At Cassils, where 4,200 acres are
irrigated, the Cassils Sub-Division starts. Brooks,
population 2,500, is headquarters of the Eastern
CALGARY
OGDEN
SHEPARD
INDUS
DALEMEAD
CARSELAND
STRANGMUIR
GLEICHEN
CLUNY
CROWFOOT
BASSANO
LATHOM
CASSILS
BROOKS
TILLEY
ALDERSON
SUFFIELD
BOWELL
REDCLIFF
13 MEDICINE HAT
DUNMORE
PASHLEY
IRVINE
WALSH
|   HATTON
KINCORTH
MAPLE CREEK
CARDELL
CROSS
PIAPOT
SIDEWOOD
TOMPKINS
CARMICHAEL
GULL LAKE
ANTELOPE
WEBB
BEVERLEY
SWIFT CURRENT
AlKlNS
WALDECK
RUSH LAKE
HERBERT
MORSE
ERNFOLD
UREN
CHAPLIN
SECRETAN
PARKBEG
MORTLACH
CARON
BOHARM
Irrigation District which supervises 167,000 acres
watered from the Bow River. Its industries include
canning, commercial fishing and seed. Pheasant
and duck are hunted in the area. Sir Leonard Tilley,
early statesman, lends his name to a grain shipping
point with 25,000 irrigated acres at mileage 53.4.
Alderson bears the name of a commander of
Canadian troops in 1915-16. At Suffield, where the
Suffield Sub-Division branches, there is a Defence
Research Board experimental station. One of the
many irrigation canals that supply this thirsty area
is bridged at mileage 19.5. Bowell commemorates
an early Canadian statesman and Redcliff, its
name set by the colour of the nearby river bank,
with a population of 1,700 makes glass, china ware,
and bricks. The 1,000-foot wide Saskatchewan
River is spanned at mileage 0.3. In the 175.8 miles
between Calgary and Medicine Hat, junction of
the Brooks and Maple Creek Sub-Divisions, the
Canadian Pacific main line has been lowered by
1,257 feet.
Maple Creek Medicine Hat, population 18,285,
Sub-Division claims natural gas, chinaware, clay
products, porcelain, brick and tile, concrete and
flour milling amongst its activities. Here the Maple
Creek and Brooks Sub-Divisions join and a line
branches south for the Canadian Pacific route
via Fort MacLeod through the southern Rockies,
the Crowsnest Pass and Coquihalla Canyon.
Originally called Saamis — Indian for the tepee of
a medicine man —Medicine Hat is built on the
southern terraces of the South Saskatchewan
River at its junction with Ross and Seven Persons
Creeks. Industries, homes and a number of large
greenhouses are heated by natural gas. At mileage
146.2 Seven Persons Creek is crossed. This river
owes its somewhat peculiar name to an Indian fight
farther south in which seven Blackfoot warriors
were killed by warring Assiniboines. Between
Irvine, named for Colonel Irvine of the Royal North
West Mounted Police, and Mackay Creek, mileage
115.7, four creeks are spanned. Ross Creek flows
south of Irvine, where the creek is bridged.
Walsh, mileage 115.2, is the last station in Alberta,
the boundary with Saskatchewan coming midway
between it and Hatton, Sask., junction with theHatton
Sub-Division. Box Elder Creek is crossed at mileage
112. Maple Creek, grain shipping point for the
surrounding territory, takes its name from the river
spanned by the Canadian Pacific main line at
mileage 84.9. At Hay Lake, 80.4, and an unnamed
lake at mileage 75.5 wild fowl are frequently
spotted. Piapot on the eastern slope of the long,
shallow bowl of which Medicine Hat is the low
point, commemorates an Indian chief of the 1880's.
South of mileage 59 a lake enlivens the scene, as
do two others north of Sidewood. Between mileages
39-38 Whitegull Lake parallels the line and near
Gull Lake station the Gull and Antelope Rivers are
crossed. North of the line, between Webb and
Beverley, Gander and Goose Lakes, a few miles
apart, attest the migration of the great Canada
Geese every spring and fall. Antelope is named
for the  river crossed   at mileage  29. The  trans-
"Mounties" train at Regina
continental line now passes through the "Dry Belt",
rendered, as you have seen, considerably less
arid by irrigation projects and the advancing
techniques of modern farming. At Swift Current the
Maple Creek and Swift Current Sub-Divisions join.
Swift Current Swift Current, population 8,000,
Sub-Division altitude 2,432 feet, handles grain
creamery products, tanning and castings. The city's
tree-lined streets and parks are in direct contrast
to the dry surrounding hills which lend themselves to
the study of soil and crop problems of semi-arid
areas, carried out at the Dominion Agricultural
Experimental Station. Saskatchewan's 252,700
square miles, extending northward to the 60th
parallel of latitude, enclose many different types
of country. From the central part of the province
northward, a land of lakes and forests forms ideal
holiday country. In the Saskatchewan River delta
muskrat is especially plentiful. There, other fur-
bearing animals are mink, weasel, squirrel and
beaver. The northern area is a range for barren
land caribou, deer, elk, moose and antelope —
all carefully protected by closed seasons and
hunting regulations. Ducks breed in the northern
country, too. Lumbering is carried on in the Porcupine and Pasquia Hills regions and the Torch River
area. The Alkali lakes seen from time to time
through southern Saskatchewan yield sodium sulphate for paper mills in Ontario and Quebec
and the copper-nickel refineries at Sudbury, Ont.
At mileage 109.5, a 130-foot bridge takes the
train across Swift Current Creek, a tributary of
the South Saskatchewan River, which parallels
the track to the north as far as mileage 99.
The sloughs of Saskatchewan are of immense
interest to wild life conservationists and hunters, as
they serve as feeding and breeding places for
green-neck mallard, black duck, pintail, canvas
back, widgeon, teal. Also seen in this part of the
country are the California gull and Franklin's gull,
prairie chicken, sharp-tailed grouse, Hungarian
partridge, snipe, ptarmigan. A local slough, Death
Lake, by a combination of the French "mort" and Indian "lach" names the station, Mortlach. Caron
gets its name from a former Canadian Minister of
Militia, Sir Adolphe C. Caron. It is another grain
shipping point. Boharm, named for Lord Strathcona's
home in Scotland, with an altitude of 1,802 feet
above sea level, shows that the long slope to the
east continues steady, but subscribers to the theory
that the prairies are flat are in for an awakening
in the miles ahead. Moose Jaw, junction of the
Swift Current and Indian Head Sub-Divisions, sets a
half to the downgrade.
Indian Head Moose Jaw, population 26,000,
Sub-Division headquarters of the Saskatchewan
District of the Canadian Pacific, is Saskatchewan's
third largest city. At the confluence of Moose Jaw
River and Thunder Creek, Moose Jaw flouts the
prairie tradition with an active aquatic club seen
from the train just south of the track. The city
busies itself with elevators and milling, cold storage,
meat products, oil refining, insulation, dairy products, machinery, furs and hides, sash and doors,
bags, blankets, seeds, rubber products and a number of smaller industries. The location was first
chosen by Captain Palliser in September, 1857,
the first settlers arriving in the spring of 1882 a
few months before the Canadian Pacific line was
built. The city's water supply is brought 12 miles
by canal from Buffalo Pound Lake. Moose
Jaw's 16 parks total 256 acres. Pasqua, the
Indian word for Prairie, is the junction of the
transcontinental main line with The Soo Line connection with Minneapolis, St. Paul and Chicago.
Regina, population 74,000, originally enjoyed the
name of "Pile of Bones", a translation of "Was-
cana" which still applies to attractive Wascana
Lake within the city limits. Capital of Saskatchewan
and seat of the Provincial Legislature which, like
the Canadian Pacific Hotel Saskatchewan, stands
high above the town as a landmark for miles
across the prairie, Regina is the training headquarters of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police
and the original headquarters of the force which
was first known as the North West Mounted Police.
Swordfish Club, Moose Jaw
Choice of the present name was made by Lt.-Gov.
Dewdney in honour of Queen Victoria, when the
city was chosen as capital of the Northwest
Territories. Meat packing, brewing, oil refining,
tanning, wood working, metal manufacturing, milk
products, tanks, agricultural implements, sand and
gravel are amongst Regina's industries. The original Mounted Police chapel, Regina Fair Grounds
and airport from which Canadian Pacific Airlines
serve central and north-western Saskatchewan are
all visible from the train. Pilot Butte's name, once
you note the low elevation north of the track,
becomes obvious—many an ox-waggon train must
have used it for a landmark. To McLean, altitude
2,294, goes the distinction of being the apex of
the prairies. It forms the "hump" referred to earlier,
the downward progression being practically constant to Lydiatt, Man., the theoretical eastern limit
of the prairie belt. History does not seem to record
who called who when Qu'Appelle was named.
Indian Head, population 1,500 has a forest nursery
station,experimental farm and entomological laboratory. This country forms part of "Palliser's Triangle",
an area surveyed by Captain John Palliser for the
Colonial Office of Great Britain, 1857-60. His expeditions took him from Lake Superior to beyond the
Canadian Rockies. Actually, the triangle was a five-
sided, irregular area, the southern part, which the
Canadian Pacific traverses, being classified as
"arid". Look at it today! Thanks to later reports,
which stressed the summer rainfall, cereal experiments were made and the prairies came into their
own as a great wheatland. Plant breeders, under the
direction of the Department of Agriculture, developed rust-resistant, quick-ripening "hard" wheat
today grown on 25,000,000 acres. Attractively
named Summerberry takes for its title a local
synonym for the Saskatoon Berry and botanically
minded travellers may expect to see in this part of
the prairies, aspen, black poplar, high bush cranberry, dogwood and some bur oak. Flowering
plants include plains cinquefoil, anemone, milk
vetch, baneberry, sweet and golden peas. Oakshela, Indian for "child", shows the geographic
trend, with an altitude of 1,959 feet. Broadview is
the junction of the Indian Head and Broadview
Sub-Divisions.
Broadview Another time zone is entered at
Sub-Division Broadview. Here eastbound travellers, leaving the Mountain Time Zone, set watches
ahead one hour to Central Standard Time. Wapella
is an Indian word for "white snow", Red Jacket is
thought to commemorate the Mounted Police, and
Moosomin takes its name from an early Indian
chief. Fleming, easternmost station in Saskatchewan,
commemorates Sir Sandford Fleming, former
engineer-in-chief of the Canadian Pacific Railway,
originator of Standard Time and surveyor of two
passes through the Canadian Rockies. Mileage
74.7 marks the boundaries of Saskatchewan and
Manitoba. Kirkella, westernmost Manitoba point, is
the junction with the McAuley Sub-Division. Elk-
horn's name calls to local minds a find of top
specimen antlers when the line was surveyed.
Virden, population 1,760, junction with the Neudorf Sub-Division and centre for flour, feed and
(Continued on page 18)
MOOSEJAW
PASQUA
MADRID
BELLE PLAINE
PENSE
GRAND COULEE
REGINA
PILOT BUTTE
BALGONIE
McLEAN
QU'APPELLE
INDIAN HEAD
SINTALUTA
WOLSELEY
SUMMERBERRY
GRENFELL
OAKSHELA
BROADVIEW
PERCIVAL
WHITEWOOD
BURROWS
WAPELLA
RED JACKET
MOOSOMIN
FLEMING
KIRKELLA
ELKHORN
HARGRAVE
VIRDEN
ROUTLEDGE
OAK LAKE
GRISW0LD
ALEXANDER
KEMNAY
15  BRANDON
CHATER
DOUGLAS
HUGHES
CARBERRY
MELBOURNE
SIDNEY
AUSTIN
MACGREGOR
BAGOT
BURNSIDE
PORTAGE LA PRAIRIE
HIGH BLUFF
POPLAR POINT
REABURN
MARQUETTE
MEADOWS
ROSSER
BERGEN
WINNIPEG
NORTH TRANSCONA
OAKBANK
HAZELRIDGE
CLOVERLEAF
LYDIATT
MOLSON
JULIUS
SHELLEY
WHITEMOUTH
DARWIN
RENNIE
TELFORD
INGOLF
LOWTHER
BUSTEED
LACLU
KEEWATIN
(Continued from page 1 5)
dairy products, boasts oil wells between mileages
48-47, derricks lie north of the track. Oak
Lake, proud of the tourist resort to the southwest, takes its name from the lake; Griswold is an
Indian Reservation. At Brandon the Broadview and
Carberry Sub-Divisions meet.
Carberry Brandon,    population    21,214,    is
Sub-Division noted for petroleum products, lumber and sash, electrical goods, brick, wooden
pumps, furnaces, seed and dairy products. This
mid-prairie city also houses an Experimental Farm,
Mental Hospital, Indian School, Provincial Exhibition and Brandon College. At mileage 131.3, on
the eastern outskirts of the city, the line crosses the
Assiniboine River, significant to the history of
western exploration of Canada and the United
States by early French and Canadian expeditions.
Douglas, its roads sometimes martial in appearance,
is close to Shilo Military Camp. Hughes is named for
General Sir Sam Hughes, Canada's Minister of
Militia, 1914-18. MacGregor, junction with the
Varcoe Sub-Division, was named for the doctor
with Governor-General The Marquess of Lome on
an early visit. Portage la Prairie, population 8,500,
junction with the Minnedosa Sub-Division, a marketing, manufacturing and dairy centre, owed its
first settlement to Pierre Gaultier de Varennes,
Sieur de la Verendrye, Canadian-born explorer
who, with his sons Jean, Pierre, Louis and Francois,
established Fort la Reine there in 1731, the first
white men to reach the prairies. Paddling from
Montreal by way of the Ottawa, Lake Huron,
Lake Superior, Pigeon River (west of Fort William),
the Lake of the Woods, the Red and Assiniboine
rivers, they discovered that only 15 miles separated
the new fort from Lake Manitoba and established
the portage which opened a route via Lake Winnipeg and the Hayes or Nelson Rivers to Hudson
Bay. Further explorations from this base included
the Saskatchewan River and, south and west, to
the Missouri River.
After their father's death, Pierre and Louis
became the first white men to see the Rocky
Mountains, probably somewhere in Wyoming.
Pierre, North Dakota, named for the explorer,
was the spot selected by him for the burial of a
memento, which was unearthed in 1913. South of
the line, the Assiniboine River which bore the canoes
of the traders and, later, the York boats of Hudson's
Bay Company factors, parallels the railway from
Brandon to Winnipeg. Ox-waggon trails across
the trackless prairie in the early 19th Century may
actually have traced the rail's path from Winnipeg
at least as far as Portage la Prairie before slanting
north and west towards the fur country. Busy
Stevenson Airport, Winnipeg's international field
from which Canadian Pacific Airlines serve Churchill
on Hudson Bay is south of the line at mileage 5.7
Winnipeg, junction of the Carberry and Keewatin
Sub-Divisions, ends the Second Prairie Plain, a
granary of magnificent proportions! Its settlement
and development were directly traceable to the
building of the Canadian Pacific Railway in the
1880's and the interrelation of grain and transportation are nowhere more clearly demonstrated
than in the great marshalling yards through which
transcontinental trains all pass west of Winnipeg
station. To many westbound travellers the first
sight of the prairies comes as a shock — thanks to
graphic descriptions of "flat, treeless plains"
common to early geographies and school books.
The "grasslands" so adversely reported on by early
surveyors have today become a pattern of wheat-
lands divided into farms ranging from 320 to
480 acres in extent, mostly provided with trees
for wind-breaks around buildings, water holes and
in strategic places to guard against soil erosion.
From the elevation of the air-conditioned all-
around windowed Scenic Dome the widened field
of vision has shown the gently rolling character of
the landscape not easily seen from ground level.
Lord Selkirk, who measured land in his treaty
with the Indians by "as far as a horse can be seen
across the prairie" could have widened his boundaries if the chiefs had had today's air-conditioned
point of vantage.
Keewatin The real settlement of the Winnipeg
Sub-Division of today, capital of Manitoba with
a population of 354,069 in its metropolitan area,
began with the building of Fort Gibraltar by men
of the North West Company in 1806. Further
development came five years later when the Earl
of Selkirk bought control of the Hudson's Bay Company in order to obtain a grant of 100,000 square
miles of Red River lands for colonization. Driven
off three years later by North West traders, the
colony soon regained its feet and Winnipeg has
developed ever since. Financial and commercial
headquarters for Western Canada, Winnipeg's
industries include slaughtering, meat packing, flour
and feed, printing, publishing, general manufacturing, clothing, brewing, baking and transportation. Fort Garry, a stone building established
by the Hudson's Bay Company, is maintained
today, and a relic of early Canadian Pacific
days, the earliest locomotive, "The Countess
of Dufferin", may be visited while the transcontinental train is in the station. Here is the Canadian
Pacific Royal Alexandra Hotel, the magnificent
Manitoba Parliament Buildings and, of course, the
confluence of the Red and Assiniboine Rivers that
made the site so attractive for settlement. La Verendrye established the first known settlement at
Winnipeg by building a post he named Fort Rouge
in 1738.
Lydiatt, altitude 825 feet, is looked upon
geographically as the western boundary of the
belt of marshland that separates the prairies from
the "Central Coniferous Region" of Canada. At
Molson the Lac Dubonnet Sub-Division which links
Great Falls to the north with Winnipeg, via Tyndall,
crosses the main line. Whitemouth, a prosperous
business centre, serves a district population of
3,000. The Whitemouth River is crossed at mileage
71.3, and the Bog River at 69. Darwin bears the
name of the famous scientist and author of "The
Origin of Species". This area really shows the
transitional marsh fringe that separates prairie
and coniferous regions, its approximate boundaries being mileages 90 and 50. The bridge at
mileage 35.5 spans Caddy Lake and at mileage
33.4 the  boundary of Manitoba  and  Ontario is
18 crossed. Anglers will be tempted by the lake at
mileage 19 and by Deception Lake which is
crossed at mileage 15. Laclu is a French contraction
of Lake Lulu. Keewatin, Ojibway Indian word for
"home of the north-west wind", population 1,634,
mills 12,000 barrels of flour a day and processes
lumber. It is the starting point for tourist expeditions
to the Sturgeon River and Black Sturgeon Lakes
area. At Kenora, the Keewatin and Ignace Sub-
Divisions join.
ignace Originally named Rat Portage be-
Sub-Division cause of the muskrat crossing seen
by La Verendrye after the establishment of his
fort on the west shore of the Lake of the Woods,
Kenora, a Canadian Pacific Division Headquarters,
on the route of the La Verendrye expeditions to
the headwaters of the Missouri River, played an
important part in the early history of North American exploration. In 1899, the nearby village of
Norman was united with Rat Portage and the new
name, taken from KE for Keewatin, NO for Norman
and RA for Rat Portage, was established. Today,
with a population of 9,103, this newsprint, brewing,
commercial fishing centre on the northern tip of the
Lake of the Woods, is the tourist entrance to a
great holiday land famous for its thousands of
wooded islands ideal for boating, swimming and
fishing. Here the Canadian Pacific established
Devil's Gap Lodge, a holiday and fishing resort.
Island Lake's southern tip is crossed at mileage 139 and the lake visible to the south of
Scovil station is Scovil Lake. The tip of Eagle
Lake appears south of the track at mileage 88
and Eagle River station serves a hunting and
fishing centre whose river feeds the lake. Beaver
Creek, one of the many of this name, crossed by the
Canadian Pacific transcontinental main line between
east and west tidewaters, is spanned at mileage
77.4. Minnitaki, mileage 75.3, is an Indian invitation to "take a drink" — a rather more robust
name than that of Aubrey Creek, bridged at
mileage 75. Oxdrift, a shipping point for high-
grade clover seed, owes its unusual name to the
fact that a herdsman reported to railway construction engineers that oxen missing from his tally
had "drifted away". Dryden, population 3,000,
was named for the late Hon. John Dryden, Minister
of Agriculture. In addition to being a popular
tourist centre, Dryden, where the Wabigoon River
is crossed, makes wood-pulp, paper and paper
bags.
At mileage 53 the line passes between
Thunder Lake to the north and Wabigoon Lake, an
inlet of which it bridges at mileage 50. To the
south, Dinorwic Lake connects with Wabigoon Lake.
Dinorwic, a Hudson's Bay Post in the days of the
fur trade, marks the junction of a former trail
known as the North Highway with the Trans-
Canada Highway. Dyment is a shipping point
for farms, lumber camps and a gold-mining area.
Tourist camps on both sides of Raleigh Lake,
south of the track, point to the sporting importance
of Raleigh station, named after the famous Sir
Walter, as a centre for trout and pickerel. Osaquan
takes its name for the river crossed at mileage 6.
The fact that today's short-cut across Canada by
Canadian Pacific follows in the main the routes of
early explorers is emphasized again by the naming of Ignace, junction of the Ignace and Kaministiquia Sub-Divisions.
Kaministiquia South of Ignace lies Azimik Lake
Sub-Division and mileage 138 marks the crossing of the swift Gulliver River. Bonheur, an easy
guess, is named for the famous French painter of
animals. South, the track is bordered at mileage
128 by Raven Lake. The Megikons River, the east
branch of which is bridged at mileage 126, indicates its namer's nationality, as do Scotch River,
mileage 112, and English River, close to the station
of the same name. Ornithologists will scan the
skies above Hawk Lake, south at mileage 108 and
naturalists the banks of Beaver River (mileage 100).
Niblock Station recalls a former railway superintendent. Fishermen will take hungry looks at
Firesteel River, spanned at mileage 88.5, and the
long lake south of the line at mileage 86.5. The
hardy voyageurs who made the early trips through
this beautiful, but rugged, land of forests, lakes and
streams, would have had it easier had fire-
watchers' towers — like that north of the track at
mileage 85, been in existence. An odd name-—
remember your French lessons? -— Lac des Milles
Lacs titles the water the line crossed at mileage 71,
actually the northeast arm of the "Lake of a
Thousand Lakes". "Savannah" — an Indian word
for "level tract of land" — suffered a slight translation at Savanne, mileage 71.3, a tie, pulp and
cordwood shipping point where the north branch
of the Savanne River is bridged. The main river
is visible, to the south, at mileage 58. McGhie
Lake is seen southward from mileage 51.5.
Between here and mileage 48.5 several
tributaries of the Oskondaga River are crossed.
Buda is a shortening of Budapest and Finmark
perpetuates the name of an early settler. Sunshine
Creek is bridged at mileage 32. The Matawan
River is crossed twice, at mileage 25.5 and, two
miles east, at Kaministiquia, graphically chosen
Indian word for "twisting water". Farming and
mink ranching keep this area busy. Vegetation
here, as across the Great Lakes, includes sumach,
hawthorn, raspberry, blackberry, honeysuckle and
thimbleberry bushes in addition to conifers. At
mileage 23 Strawberry Creek, a tributary of the
Kaministiquia River is spanned, and five miles
east the historic river can be seen to the south.
Murillo, mileage 12.5, bears the name of the
famous Spanish artist, and at mileage 7.6 the
Keebing River is visible to the south. The first
trading post at the mouth of the Kaministiquia
River was built by French settlers in 1678, but the
city owes its name to the fort constructed by
William McGillivray of The North West Company
in 1801-3. Surrounded by 15-foot palisades, the
fort buildings included a metal-roofed powder
magazine and the famous Great Hall which was
parchment-windowed, hung with paintings — including King George III, Lord Nelson and the Battle
of the Nile. David Thompson's great map, now in
the Ontario archives in Toronto, held one place of
honour,  a   bust of Simon  McTavish,  head  of the
KENORA
MARGACH
SCOVIL
HAWK LAKE
PINE
EDISON
VERMILION BAY
GUNNE
EAGLE RIVER
MINNITAKI
OXDRIFT
DRYDEN
BARCLAY
WABIGOON
DINORWIC
DYMENT
TACHE
RALEIGH
OSAQUAN
IGNACE
BONHEUR
MARTIN
ENGLISH RIVER
NIBLOCK
UPSALA
SAVANNE
RAITH
BUDA
FINMARK
KAMINISTIQUIA
MURILLO
WEST FORT WILLIAM
19 FORT WILLIAM
PORT ARTHUR
MACKENZIE
LOON
PEARL
OUIMET
DORION
HURKETT
RED ROCK
NIPIGON
ROSSPORT
SCHREIBER
TERRACE BAY
JACK FISH
NEYS
COLDWELL
ANGLER
MARATHON
HERON BAY
HEMLO
MOBERT
REGAN
company, the other. From the great fort explorers
and traders, by canoe and portage, pioneered the
route now approximated by the Canadian Pacific
main line. They saw, but not as well as modern
travellers from their Scenic Domes, Mount McKay
(south), travelled the Kaministiquia River, which is
bridged near West Fort William. Their names
included La Verendrye, Lord Selkirk, Alexander
Henry, Cadotte, Colonel Wolseley, and rugged
though the territory may seem to railway travellers,
to them, threading their way from lake to lake it
was really gruelling travel. Fort William, junction
of the Kaministiquia and Nipigon Sub-Divisions,
is the western limit of the Eastern Standard Time
Zone. Watches are advanced one hour.
Nipigon Between Fort William and Schrei-
Sub-Division ber the Canadian Pacific main
transcontinental line follows the contours of Lake
Superior's rocky north shore, leaving the coast from
time to time by short cuts across promontories. Fort
William, at the mouth of the Kaministiquia River,
continues the tradition of transportation service in
which history gives that city an honoured place.
The twin cities of Fort William and Port Arthur,
combined population 66,000, known as "The Lake-
head" ports, handle upwards of 2,500 ships with
a tonnage of around 7,000,000 every year. Grain
elevators line the miles of waterfront, the passenger
liners "Assiniboia" and "Keewatin" sail twice
weekly during the navigation season for Sault Ste.
Marie and Port McNicoll. Other manufacturing,
grossing upwards of $75,000,000 annually, adds
to the prosperity of the great ports. Southward,
the great natural harbour of Thunder Bay, sheltered by Thunder Cape and Pie Island, is still in
sight at mileage 123. Thunder Cape, known to
water-borne travellers by Canadian Pacific Great
Lakes Steamships as "The Sleeping Giant", extends north-eastward from its craggy promontory
for 24 miles as a wild-life sanctuary* Loon station,
named for Loon Lake, north of mileage 101, is the
stop for the sanctuary, Sibley Provincial Park —
selected for decoration of the Mural Lounge of
the Scenic Dome Lounge Sleeper that bears the
park's name. Pearl takes its name from the river
spanned at 96,3. Dorion, a commercial fishing
port that once boasted lead and zinc mines, is
mineral-minded again with diamond drills at work
on the old properties* The Coldwater (mileage 84)
and Wolf (83) Rivers both intersect the main line
on their way southward to Lake Superior. At
Hurkett, a centre for woods operations and com»
mercial fishing, the track cuts across a 15-mile-wide
peninsula to Red Rock, crossing the Black Sturgeon
River at mileage 73.9. Red Rock, population 1,868,
named for the local rock formation, centres around
a wood-pulp board, container and paper industry
with a daily tonnage capacity in excess of 800.
An arm of Nipigon Bay is crossed near mileage 65.
Mileage 62.4 marks the Nipigon River and the
name, meaning "clear, fast water", is given to the
town of 2,166 population. Ground wood pulp,
fishing camps, summer resorts and a hydroelectric development on the southern tip of Helen
Lake (north) are the local industries. Well-named
20
waters, noted for sporting fish enliven the next 20
miles. Notable among them are the Jackfish River
(53.5), Kama Bay, mileage 50, Jack Pine River,
mileage 45.4 and Big Gravel River at mileage 33.2.
Facing south to Isle St. Ignace, and all sailors'
landmarks in Nipigon Bay, are Grant Point, Mountain Bay, Rainboth Point, Gravel Bay, Crow Point
and Pays Plat Bay. The Pays Plat River is bridged
at mileage 22.4. Rossport, mileage 14.3, is a
shipping point for the famous Lake Superior Trout
featured in the dining room car. Schreiber is the
junction of the Nipigon and Heron Bay Sub-Divisions.
Heron Bay Schreiber has a population of
Sub-Division 1,840. Named for the noted engineer, Sir Collingwood Schreiber, in 1887, it was
formerly known as Isbester's Landing. Terrace,
once known as "Black", population 1,597, has a
325-ton paper mill operated by power from the
Ontario Hydro-Electric Power Commission plant
on the Aguasabon River, which is crossed at mileage
110.5. The power development at 112.8 generates
53,000 h.p., a 3,500-foot tunnel leading the water
under the track from Hayes Lake to the power
house at the lake side. At mileage 102.7 a monument marks the meeting of eastern and western
railway construction gangs in this district in 1885.
The attention-holding sight of the line's curve
around Jack Fish Bay keeps all eyes south. But at
the apex of the horseshoe note the still water north
of the causeway. This whole area is popular with
wild-fowl and many a flotilla of little ducks,
paddling in formation with the parent may be
seen in breeding time, At Jack Fish mighty Lake
Superior stretches south as far as eye can see.
Steel River is spanned at mileage 94.8, Prairie
River at mileage 80 and Little Pic River nine miles
east. Neys, highway construction headquarters,
and Coldwell, a commercial fishing village perched
on the lip of the deeply-indented rock-bound
"North Shore of Lake Superior", are starkly picturesque. Marathon, formerly known as Peninsula,
population 3,000, takes its name from paper mills
that produce 325 tons of sulphate per day. Wood
for the mill is driven down the Pic River to Lake
Superior and towed to Peninsula Harbour where
large rafts are frequently seen. Lake Superior is
hidden from view after a last sight at mileage
56.4. Heron Bay, named for the Jesuit missionary
Pere Heron, is a commercial fishing centre. At
mileage 54,4 the Big Pic River, sometimes filled
with logs for Marathon, is bridged, and Little
Black River at 50.4. Visible from the Scenic Dome
between Heron Bay and Hemlo are the flumes
down which logs are sluiced, after barking, to
Heron Bay harbour. Hemlo, woods operations
centre, processes 150,000 cords annually. Cache
Lake is crossed at mileage 40.5 and continues
south of the line to mileage 39 where Cache Creek
enters it. North, from mileage 36 is Cedar Lake,
fed near mileage 35.5 by Cedar Creek. Between
mileages 33.9 and 32.9 Cedar River is bridged
twice by the tracks. The White River is spanned
at mileage 24.7. At Mobert, a contraction of
Montizambert, the Hudson's Bay Company post,
established before the Canadian Pacific was built,
(Continued on page 23) Typical Northern Ontario scenery
W7777S77
"The North Shore" describes a wild
and beautiful countryside bordering
Lake Superior, seen from the "Dome"
or from the pleasant alternative summer route by Canadian Pacific Great
Lakes liners between Port McNicoll and
Fort William via Sault Ste. Marie.
Aguasabon Fails
21 Fishing in French River
Typical of the lovely holiday country
for which Ontario is famous, the pictures on this page are clues to its
popularity. In the various seasons fishing, hunting, boating, canoe trips,
photography and painting attract
visitors from all over the world.
Ontario River in Autumn
The Lake of the Woods
At Devil's Gap Lodge
Kakabeka Falls, Fort William
22 (Continued from page 20)
still operates. There is an Ojibway Indian settlement here. Tumbling rapids and fast white water
to test paddlers' skill to the utmost abounds in
this country. Regan is the supply point for local
woods operations. Pulpwood cut in this area is
driven down the White River to Lake Superior
for rafting to Sault Ste. Marie. An arm of White
Lake is crossed at mileage 19, and at 15.3 the
line spans the Bremner River. At mileage 12.2, the
White River is crossed and it continues south of the
line eastward to mileage 6. White River, obviously
named, is the meeting point of the Heron Bay and
White River Sub-Divisions.
White River Still in the coniferous belt, with
Sub-Division jack pine as the most important
source of pulpwood, White River is a meteorological reporting station which frequently registers
very low temperatures. More crossings of the White
River, at mileages 129.2 and, after bridging the
Pickerel at 122.6, at 117.6 emphasize the importance of this stream to the territory. From mileage
115 Lake Negwazu parallels the track to Amyot,
a tourist centre. The Magpie River is bridged at
mileage 88.2. A mile east, to the south a power
dam is visible and at mileage 87 an arm of Esnagi
Lake is spanned. Sounds of a crossover at mileage
81.4 draw attention to Franz, junction with the
Algoma Central and Hudson Bay Railway. Leaving
Franz, look south for Hobon Lake. Lochalsh is
hard enough to pronounce but it seems simpler
when you look north for Wabatongushi Lake. The
Scottish settlers who named this part of the country
were responsible for the Lochlomond River, mileage
64.2 and Lochalsh River at 61.6. Missanabie,
Indian for "big water", was a station on the old
fur route by water from James Bay to Lake Superior.
Dog Lake is crossed at mileage 57. Carry Lake,
south, and a creek that serves Pickle Lake to the
north, are marked by mileage 46. North of the
track, too, at mileage 44 lies Lake Ogawisi. The
line crosses Goldie Lake near mileage 32. Nostalgically named Windermere Lake is a Forestry
headquarters. Lakes, on both sides of the track
at mileage 3, continue to offer glimpses of wildlife to the alert watcher. Herring and ring-billed
gulls are common and sharp eyes will identify
robins, cardinals, catbirds, bobolinks, red-winged
blackbirds. The track now follows the southern
boundary of the Chapleau Game Preserve.
Chapleau, junction of the White River and Nemegos
Sub-Divisions, population 3,936, is an educational
and banking centre and district headquarters of
the Ontario departments of Lands and Forests, and
Game and Fisheries. On the station lawn a monument commemorates Louis Hemon, author of the
Canadian classic "Maria Chapdelaine", who died
there. The Kebsquasheshing River flows through
here.
Nemegos To generalize a little, the Canadian
Sub-Division Pacific main line between Cartier
and Kenora penetrates the "Great Lakes Forest
Region" and there are many evidences of lumbering
to be seen. Such woods as white, red and jack
pine; tamarack, hemlock, balsam fir, white spruce;
sugar, red and silver maple; red, bur and white
oak; yellow birch; white elm; white and black ash;
white elm and hazel are seen. The Nebskwashi
River marks mileage 135 and at Nemegos, which
means "flowing water", the Nemegosanda River
is bridged. Claims have been staked out in the
country north of here for titanium, phosphate and
iron. We cross an arm of Nemegos Lake at mileage
120 and the Kinogama River for the first time at
mileage 111.7, the Aspiskanagama at 107.5 and
the Kinogama again at 105.5. To the north from
Ridout Station the line is paralleled by the Ridout
River which is crossed twice near mileage 99.
There are so many lakes and rivers in this game-
filled area that only a few have names. At Sultan
the saw and planing mill handles pulpwood, pit-
props, ties and lumber. Wakamagasing River is
crossed at mileage 95. The fast-flowing water
north of the line is the Woman River, which gives
its name to the station at mileage 86.2. Turnbull
Lake lies south of the line now and the river of the
same name is crossed at mileage 80. Cavell Lake
is the open water south of mileage 78. Biscotasing,
another Indian word, means "body of water with
long arms" — another example of the picturesque
tongue that named so much of Canada! Here are
tourist camps and a district headquarters and
woods flying base of the Ontario Forestry Service.
The lake is crossed at mileage 54 and another
arm of Biscotasing Lake at 52.5. Metagama,
Indian for "river flows out of the lake" is famous
as a starting point for hunters and fishermen.
From mileage 30 the Spanish River flows north of
the track to mileage 28, and for the next two miles
— on the south — is Pogamasing Lake. Pogamasing
River is spanned at mileage 25. The station of the
same name serves woods operations on the river.
The Spanish River, scene of many a log run,
parallels the line to the south at mileage 17.5.
North of the track near Geneva station is Geneva
Lake and on the same side, a mile and a half
east, Hess Lake. At Cartier the Nemegos and
Cartier  Sub-Divisions   meet.
Cartier From Cartier the line heads east-
Sub-Division ward still towards the mining belt
of northern Ontario. The lake south of mileage
104.5, generally rough due to prevailing winds,
gives its name to Windy Lake station. Levack,
population 2,000, serves nickel mines in its locality
and is the junction with a mine railroad. The Vermilion River, crossed at mileage 97, shows that
red war-paints were as popular among the Woods
Indians of the east as the Plains Indians of the
west. Larchwood, named by a lumber developer,
is a cue to the preponderance of this timber in the
district. Chelmsford, near the crossing of the
Whitson River, was named for a town in Essex
County, England. South of the track, near mileage
89, is Whitewater Lake. Azilda station honours the
memory of the first woman settler in the mining
country. At mileage 81.5 workings of nickel and
copper mines show to the north and huge stacks to
the south indicate a smelter. South of the line
Ramsey Lake, handy terminus for bush airplanes,
faces the headquarters of the Sudbury Division
of the Canadian Pacific and junction for the Nickel
and Webbwood Sub-Divisions. Incorporated as a
WHITE RIVER
AMYOT
FRANZ
LOCHALSH
MISSANABIE
DALTON
BOLKOW
NICHOLSON
CHAPLEAU
NEMEGOS
KINOGAMA
K0RMAK
RIDOUT
SULTAN
WOMAN RIVER
RAMSAY
BISCOTASING
METAGAMA
POGAMASING
GENEVA
CARTIER
WINDY LAKE
LEVACK
LARCHWOOD
CHELMSFORD
AZILDA
SUDBURY
23 ROMFORD
DILL
WANUP
BURWASH
PAGET
DELAMERE
RUTTER
BIGWOOD
FRENCH RIVER
WANIKEWIN
PICKEREL
PAKESLEY
BEKANON
BRITT
BYNG INLET
NAISCOOT
MANBERT
PTE. AU BARIL
SHAWANAGA
CARLING
NOBEL
PARRY SOUND
DOCKMURE
OTTER LAKE
BLACK ROAD
ROSSEAU ROAD
BRIGNALL
GORDON BAY
LAKE JOSEPH
city in 1930, Sudbury was established in 1883 when
the railway was built and copper ore, economic
foundation of the city's early prosperity, was uncovered. Today, in addition to nickel and copper
mining, smelting and refining, this city of 60,239
population deals in rough and dressed lumber,
concrete, glass and paint, brick and cement
blocks, steel fabrication, concentrators, mining
equipment, tile, building products, ties and smaller
industries.
Parry Sound At Romford, first station east of
Sub-Division Sudbury, Toronto-bound trains
leave the Cartier Sub-Division to head southward
through cuts blasted out of the strange geological
formation of striated rock, tilted by some ancient
upheaval. The uneven effects of the explosive
charges show the difficulties faced by the builders
of the railway. At mileage 120.5, north of the
track can be seen the big smelter at Coniston,
seen again through broken country from mileage
117.5. Lonesome in the surrounding bush at mileage
116, a small farm gives faint promise of lush agriculture ahead. The Wanapitei River is crossed at
mileage 112.9. Pot lakes—with no apparent source
or outlet—characterize this rocky country and
there are many in the Sudbury Game Preserve
between mileage boards 110 and 104. Kakaki-
waganda Lake is crossed near mileage 103.
Between mileages 98 and 95 beaver lodges are
visible in lakes both sides of the line and deer and
occasional elk are seen from time to time. North
and above the line at mileage 83.4 French River
Bungalow Camp perches on the rocks, a popular
tourist resort that caters to golf, fishing and boating
enthusiasts. The French River, famous in history as
the route of early explorers of Canada and the
west and southern states, is crossed on its way from
Lake Nipissing to Georgian Bay (see the pages
from Romford to Montreal for fuller particulars),
followed by the equally scenic Pickerel River, at
mileage 81. The Pickerel parallels the line for
half a mile, north of the track, the Key River is
bridged at mileage 72.6.
Trim white buildings, radio antenna and
flag-pole south at mileage 68 designate the
Still River Detachment of the Ontario Provincial
Police and at mileage 67.5 a steel arch and
concrete bridge carries a highway above the
railway and the Still River. Britt, with a population of 1,200, is a lake port, unloading large
cargoes of coal from United States lake ports
destined to Northern Ontario. Byng Inlet, named
for Lord Byng of Vimy, former Governor-General
of Canada, marks the mouth of the Magnetawan
River, crossed by a bridge nearly 300 yards long.
At mileage 55 the Naiscootyong River is crossed.
The tourist resort to the south is not far from the
"Naiscoot", or Burnt Point, which commemorates a
legendary fire that destroyed Indian hunting
grounds. A typical beaver pond north at mileage
51 may reward sharp eyes with a sight of beavers
at work. Pointe au Baril, originally identified by a
barrel on a pole, at the apex of a narrow inlet
of Georgian Bay, is a popular summer resort
south of the line well seen from the high bridge at
mileage 49. Between mileages 46 and 45 a chain
w mi
Bala Falls
of lakes lies between the track and Georgian Bay,
and at 44.5 the Shawanaga River is crossed.
South, again, at mileage 40, the buildings of
Shawanaga Indian Reserve attest Canada's interest in the aboriginal tribes. Keep your eyes on
the alert for deer and other small game around the
many lakes, large and small, both sides of the track.
Nobel, named for the Swedish scientist and philanthropist who established the Nobel Peace Prizes,
has, in addition to the explosives plant to be
expected, a test plant for airplane engines. South
of the Canadian Pacific main line between Vancouver and Toronto at mileage 29, is the model
town which houses employees of the explosives
plant. From the same window, at mileage 28, a
glimpse of Georgian Bay is gained. At 27.5
Portage Lake (north) connects with the Seguin
River and Mill Lake, and mileage 26 rewards a
southward look with a good view of Georgian
Bay. Parry Sound, population 5,000, deals in
forest products, dressed lumber, wood products
and boat building, is a gateway to Georgian Bay
and noted fishing and hunting centre. The high
railway bridge across the Seguin River gives an
excellent view of Seguin Falls in the north and the
town lying picturesquely in the valley. At mileages
22.6 and 20 the Seguin and Boyne Rivers are
bridged on their way to Georgian Bay, and at
mileage 17, the line crosses Otter Lake Narrows.
In defiance of the major land characteristics,
a farm, sited on a lake north of the line enlivens
the scene at mileage 15. Rosseau Road perpetuates
the old stage route to Rosseau Village and Lake
Joseph, to the north at mileage 3.5, and Lake
Stewart at 1.2, two of the famed Muskoka Lakes,
introduce a holiday atmosphere into the countryside. The transition to farm land through wooded
holiday lakes from the Ontario forest has taken
place between Romford and MacTier, eastern end
24 of the Parry Sound Sub-Division in a way marked
by the changing scenery that unrolled on all sides
for the sightseer in his comfortable seat in a Canadian Pacific Scenic Dome. Game, less evident in
cleared land except for occasional red-fox and
ground hog, includes deer, beaver, porcupine,
skunk, mink and muskrat. The Canadian Shield
toward the western limit thinned out through rocks,
pot lakes and coniferous trees to the more open
country between Muskoka and Lake Ontario. At
MacTier the Parry Sound and MacTier Sub-
Divisions join.
MacTier Sandwiched between the Muskoka
Sub-Division Lakes north of the track and Georgian Bay on the other side, this countryside is an
ideal holiday area filled with lakes, rivers, gentle
woodland and meadows. Bala, marked by the
Moon and Mishkosh Rivers, by Bala Falls, south of
the Canadian Pacific transcontinental line, and
Lake Muskoka to the north, is the entrance to the
Muskoka Lakes area. A pot lake at mileage 113
and a long finger-lake pointing north at 111.5
freshen the scene. Lovering still shows evidence of
the Canadian Shield in outcroppings of rock, but
meadows to the south mitigate its harshness. Tied
by its present transportation importance to the
early history of Huronia, Medonte is the junction
for Port McNicoll, terminus of Canadian Pacific
Great Lakes Steamships that ply between that
port, Sault Ste. Marie and Fort William, historic
highway to Western Canada and the central and
southern states. Father Brebeuf, travelling via the
Ottawa, Mattawa and French Rivers in 1626,
explored this area, to return later with Lalemant,
Jogues and Danielle. Near Port McNicoll, The
Martyrs' Shrine commemorates the four, two of
whom were tortured and killed at St. Louis, not far
from Medonte. At mileage 77 a saw mill, reminis
cent of the country behind, is an outpost on the edge
of a reforestation area that extends on both sides
of the line. The high bridge at mileage 68, gives
a fine view of the project which is administered
locally from Midhurst. The Ontario Provincial
Forestry Station at mileage 66, south of the line,
is the operational headquarters. Memories of the
west will be stirred at mileage 65.5, south of the
track, where log farm buildings are still in use. On
the same side, mileage 62.5, a lake suggests
summer sport. Ypres, named for a famous Canadian
battle of World War I, is the junction for Camp
Borden, largest military establishment in Canada.
Its 50 square miles includes training centres or
detachments of almost every branch of army and
air force. Alliston, population 2,186, trim and well-
kept, is famous as the birthplace of Sir Frederick
Banting, co-discoverer of insulin. Rows of drying
sheds lining the fields around here indicate a major
crop, tobacco. Beeton was named for a pioneer
family, Tottenham for the northern suburb of
London, England. Sam Bolton, another pioneer,
left his name to his village and Kleinburg was
established by Miller Klein, builder of the second
grist mill recorded on the Humber River. Wood-
bridge, also on the Humber, has textile factories
and a famous Fall Fair, Originally called Burwick,
for Rowland Burr, who settled there in 1837, it
owes today's name to a bridge built by a man
named Wood, Now farmlands are infringed by
suburban developments and south of the track
across the low hills near mileage 10 are the buildings of Toronto's Hospital for Sick Children (the
main building is in the city proper). Weston, population 8,677, makes aircraft, agricultural machinery,
truck bodies, cameras, castings, bicycles, floors and
woodwork. Toronto, a city of homes, extends
widely in a suburban area north, east and west.
Although the city fronts on Lake Ontario it has
even extended south to include the islands of the
bay in its residential area. Today this progressive
capital of Ontario, visited by Champlain and Brule
in 1615, has a population of 1,117,470 in its metropolitan area. Manufacturing centre, site of the
Canadian Pacific Royal York Hotel, connected with
the station and civic subway system by a tunnel,
the University of Ontario, Provincial Museum and
Art Gallery and some of Canada's tallest buildings;
this lakeside city is a landmark. Canadian Pacific
lines and connections link Toronto with Windsor,
Detroit and Chicago; Hamilton, Buffalo and New
York; Montreal.
S.S. "Assiniboia" and "Keewatin", Canadian Pacific passenger
liners in the Great Lakes Service, provide a steamer interlude
in the transcontinental journey between Port McNicoll and
Fort William. Picture shows arrival at Port McNicoH's flower-
gardened pier and station.
Canadian Pacific Highlights
In 1953, 95,211 people were employed by all
services of the Canadian Pacific. Canadian Pacific
Railway operated 17,003 miles of track with
1,594 steam locomotives, 365 diesel electric units.
Canadian Pacific operates 1,191 coaches, 643
sleeping, dining and parlour cars, 1,038 baggage,
mail and express cars. Canadian Pacific operates
8 inland steamships, 11 ocean steamships and 13
coastal  steamships.
MACTIER
RODERICK
BALA
SEVERN FALLS
LOVERING
MEDONTE
EADY
CARLEY
CRAIGHURST
MIDHURST
ESSA
YPRES
BAXTER
ALLISTON
BEETON
TOTTENHAM
PALGRAVE
HUMBER
BOLTON
KLEINBURG
WOODBRIDGE
WESTON
WEST TORONTO
25
PARKDALE
TORONTO ROMFORD
CONISTON
WANAPITEI
MARKSTAY
HAGAR
WARREN
VERNER
CACHE BAY
STURGEON FALLS
MEADOWSIDE
BEAUCAGE
NORTH BAY
CORBEIL
NOSBONSING
BONFIELD
RUTHERGLEN
EAU CLAIRE
MATTAWA
KLOCK
DEUX RIVIERES
BISSETT
STONECLIFFE
MOOR LAKE
BASS LAKE
WYLIE
CHALK RIVER
PETAWAWA
PEMBROKE
MEATH
SNAKE RIVER
COBDEN
Cartier Montreal-bound travellers have an
Sub-Division historical ride ahead of them from
Romford east to Canada's great bilingual metropolis. Between Romford, where the Vancouver-
Toronto transcontinental line branched south, and
Coniston the line was blasted in many places
through the iron-hard solid rock of the Canadian,
or pre-Cambrian shield. At Coniston, named for
the novel by the American author, Winston Churchill,
a population of 2,435 results from operation of a
matte smelter, four blast-type furnaces, sintering
plant and concentrator. The river, bridged at
mileage 67.3, gives its name to Wanapitei
station. Between mileages 58.6 and 57.4 the line
crosses the middle branch of the Veuve River five
times and the North Veuve River just west of Mark-
stay, a pulpwood and lumber point named for an
English village. Stag Creek, mileage 41.5, and
Bear Creek, mileage 39, give clues to early
denizens of this area.
Verner, cheese and creamery centre, owes
its name to the proprietor of a grocery store
there before the Canadian Pacific was built.
Cache Bay gets its name from its use by Indians as
a hiding place for supplies before the white man
came. Sturgeon Falls, named for the cataract on
the Big Sturgeon River, crossed just west of the
station, makes barrel and keg staves and wood-
pulp board — using many woods of no other value.
Founded in 1885, the town's name was obvious to
fishermen. At mileage 12.9 the line crosses Meadow
Creek, named for the nearby pastureland of
Meadowside. Beaucage opens the western view
of Lake Nipissing, an historic water that comes into
sight to the south near mileage 5. The land between
railway and lake from Sturgeon Bay to mileage 2
is an Indian Reservation. Here also were the sites
of forts built by the Hudson's Bay and North
West Companies. North Bay is the junction of the
Cartier and North Bay Sub-Divisions.
North Bay North Bay, population 19,891, a
Sub-Division stopping place for Champlain in
1615, is an important centre. Diamond drilling
equipment, lumber and building products, castings,
dairy products, dressed lumber and forest products;
the headquarters of the Canadian Pacific Algoma
District and |he provincially-owned Ontario Northland Railway to Hudson Bay make this market
for 120,000 acres of general farming land a busy
place. Islands visible to the south mark the westward channel of the explorers, and four miles
south along the coast is the site of a post of great
importance in the days of the fur trade. Near Cor-
beil, an arm of Lake Nipissing known as South Bay
explains the naming of the busy centre just left
behind. Near here the famous Dionne quintuplets
were born in 1934. Their advent led to the naming
of the siding passed at mileage 104. All sidings
have names but few are as interesting as "Carney"
—the initials of the five girls — Cecile, Annette,
Marie, Emilie and Yvonne. Lake Nosbonsing, between mileages 102.5 and 98.5, is known for bass,
pickerel and maskinonge fishing. North of the
track at mileage 98 are Bonfield Falls, their
name having been given to the next station,
formerly  known   as  Callander.   Between   Bonfield
and Rutherglen, at mileage 94, look north for a
glimpse of Lake Talon, one of the chain of lakes
that formed the early canoe route to the west and
south. The lakes, south of the Canadian Pacific
transcontinental main line at Eau Claire are beaver-
filled, look for lodges on the banks. Trout are caught
in the Amable du Fond River, crossed at mileage
83. There is little doubt that Radisson, Marquette,
Nicolet, LaSalle and other pioneer discoverers
fared well during their arduous journeys to judge
by the beaver lodges seen in lakes at mileages
79 and 77 and the promise of fish from Earl's
Lake, at mileage 74.5. North, a bridge carries
the Timiskaming Sub-Division across the Ottawa.
Mattawa, population, 3,300, a forest products
centre, marking the junction of the Mattawa and
Ottawa Rivers, is aptly named by the Indian word
for meeting of waters. Here Champlain ended his
first journey of exploration and here, two years
later, he started up the Mattawa to Lake Nipissing,
the French River, Georgian Bay and Lake Huron, a
route that was followed many years by early
explorers. Mattawa has been a trading post
since 1784.
More beaver dams and lodges, north of the
track at mileage 63, illustrate the industry of
Canada's national animal and at mileage 61, on
islands in the Ottawa River, have been found
traces of camp sites of the early explorers whose
route to the west still parallels the Canadian
Pacific main line. At mileage 50.5 indications of
man's harnessing of nature to produce power are
seen. The line takes a curve of almost 90°, and
from the track diversion necessitated by the dam-
,wi
Typical Ontario woodlands
26 ming of the Ottawa River, the original main line
can be seen under water on the north side. At
Deux Rivieres the Magnassippi River enters the
Ottawa, the two rivers being responsible for the
station's name. The surrounding marsh land at
mileage 44.5 rewards keen watchers with signs of
beaver. Rapids, falls and lakes between mileages
40 and 39 interest fishermen and near Bissett,
at mileage 38, the transcontinental line crosses a
bridge once featured by Ripley. Three bridges
cross each other and Bissett Creek, the C.P.R. at
the top, the highway and a local road.
Here the Ottawa River comes in sight again,
swelled to greater width by the Des Joachims
dam a few miles downstream. Between mileages 32 and 31 the old line is visible again
on the north side and, between 31 and 30, another
90° curve brings the whole train in sight. Grant's
Creek is crossed and again, between mileage 28,
just east of Stonecliffe and mileage 26.5 the
widened Ottawa covers the old roadbed. At
mileage 22.4 a sawmill in a backwater of the big
river indicates the country's character. Look north
near mileage 19 for a good view of the Laurentian
Mountains across the river. The wooded landscape
is broken at mileages 18 and 16.5 by lakes south
and north respectively. At mileage 14, Moor Lake
lies south of the track. Moor Lake Station serves the
hydro-electric power station opened at Des
Joachims in 1950. The Canadian Pacific main line
track diversions you have travelled permit dams for
this new development which generates 480,000
h.p. Between mileages 13 and 12, Hart Lake is
renowned for good pickerel fishing, but Bass Lake
(mileage 9) is said to have been given its name in
derision. The stretch between mileages 14 and 7
is looked upon by hunters as good deer territory.
All told, the country covered by the North Bay Sub-
Division is characterized by geographical qualities
of equal interest to industrialists and fishermen.
Historians, too, find it a treasure trove. Chalk
River marks the junction of the North Bay and
Chalk River Sub-Divisions.
Chalk River Chalk River is served by the Chalk
Sub-Division River, for which it is named.
At Deep River, five miles from here, is Canada's
atomic energy plant, specializing in the production of atomic energy for peacetime purposes.
To the south lies Algonquin Provincial Park, a
wild-life sanctuary and holiday area established
by the government of Ontario. At mileage 106.5
the land both sides of the track begins to show the
scars of heavy armoured vehicles. To the south is
the artillery range of one of Canada's large army
training centres through which the line passes for
several miles. The entrance to Petawawa Military
Camp, called Montgomery's Crossing after Viscount Montgomery, famous World War II Field
Marshal, is located north of the line at mileage 105.
Many arms train here, but as the country testifies,
the emphasis is on mechanization. At Petawawa
the railway serves a civilian population of 1,100.
Obvious signs of reforestation between mileage 101
and 98.5 will delight conservationists. Pembroke,
county seat of Renfrew, a city of more than 13,000,
marks the limit of Champlain's 1613 exploration of
the Ottawa River. This busy city, named for Pembroke in Wales, makes box shooks, match blocks,
matches, office furniture, pulp, lumber, veneer and
electrical appliances.
The hills in this area, especially north of the
track, are noted for the nesting of eagles. Separated from the Ottawa by a narrow range of hills
the Muskrat River, crossed at mileage 93.6, in a
country in which rivers flow east and south, reverses
this direction when seen at mileage 84.4. Snake
River station marks the crossing of Snake River by
the railway. At mileage 79 the spring and fall
migrations of Canada geese are a sight to remember, and, at mileage 74, Muskrat River justifies its
name. Cobden is a livestock centre named for the
19th Century British statesman, Haley's serves magnesium mines and the Chenaux Falls plant of the
Ontario Hydro-Electric Power Commission. At Payne,
junction is made with the Eganville Sub-Division to
the south. The West Bonnechere is bridged at mileage 59.8. Renfrew, a town of 7,069, is noted for
castings, woodworking, refrigerators, airplane engine parts, plastics, flour, feed and textiles. Sand
Point, a bar jutting into Chats Lake, to the north,
faces Norway Bay. Arnprior, population 4,500, devotes itself to textiles, boat-building, electronics,
dairy products, lumbering and construction. Its name,
like that of Braeside, where the Ottawa River is
visible south of the track for the last time for 40
miles, is Scottish in origin. At mileage 40 the Mada-
waska River is crossed. It parallels the line to the
south as far as mile 39. Pakenham, marked by
attractive falls south of the railway, commemorates
General Sir E. M. Pakenham, killed at the Battle of
New Orleans in 1815. Wide meadows and well-
fended grain and root crops characterize this part
of Ontario. Not as large, well-travelled or well-
known as its counterpart, Canada boasts a Mississippi River which is spanned at mileage 32.4 and
17.6. Almonte is a textile centre. Note, south of
track, the clever use of mill tailraces of the Mississippi River in landscaping of gardens. Junction of
the Chalk River and Carleton Place Sub-Divisions
is made at Carleton Place.
Carleton Place Carleton Place, whence the Chalk
Sub-Division River Sub-Division swings south
to Smiths Falls on the Canadian Pacific line between Toronto and Montreal, is a manufacturing
and market centre with a population of 4,700.
From here to Ottawa the main line leaves the river
and takes a shorter route than that of Pere Marquette, who with fur-trader Louis Joliet, his co-
explorer of the Mississippi, Ohio, Arkansas, Illinois
and Chicago Rivers, paddled up the Ottawa River
to Mattawa 350 years ago. At Britannia Bay, on
the north, the Ottawa — to be crossed twice in a
few minutes — comes into view again. Ottawa
West is the junction of the Carleton Place and
M. & O. Sub-Divisions.
M. & O. The   Ottawa   is   crossed   between
Sub-Division Ottawa West and Hull West with,
as a result, good views of Chaudiere Falls, the
lumbering activities on both sides of the river and
governmental Ottawa. For a little less than three
HALEY'S
PAYNE
RENFREW
MAYHEW
CASTLEFORD
SAND POINT
BRAESIDE
ARNPRIOR
PAKENHAM
SNEDDEN
ALMONTE
CARLETON PLACE
ASHTON
STITTVILLE
WESTBORO
OTTAWA WEST
HULL WEST
HULL
OTTAWA
BLACKBURN
NAVAN
LEONARD
HAMMOND
BOURGET
PENDLETON
PLANTAGENET
ALFRED
CALEDONIA SPRINGS
McALPIN
27 VANKLEEK HILL
STARDALE
ST. EUGENE
RIGAUD
DRAGON
CHOISY
ALSTONVALE
HUDSON HEIGHTS
HUDSON
COMO
ISLE CADIEUX
VAUDREUIL
Dorion
ILE PERROT
Terrace
STE. ANNES
Ste. Anne
de Bellevue
BAIE D'URFE
BEAUREPAIRE
BEACONSFIELD
POINTE CLAIRE
CEDAR PARK
LAKESIDE
VALOIS
STRATHMORE
PINE BEACH
DORVAL
SUMMERLEA
GROVEHILL
MONTREAL WEST
WESTMOUNT
WINDSOR STATION
MONTREAL
28
Ottawa, showing the Rideau Canal, Confederation Square and
Parliament Buildings
miles the line runs through the Province of Quebec
then, from Hull, junction of the Maniwaki and Lachute
Sub-Divisions, crosses Brewery Creek, scene of
ornithological studies by the Rt. Hon. Malcolm
Macdonald and the Ottawa again for another
excellent view of the Canadian Parliament Buildings, and the Rideau Locks. Ottawa, Ont., capital
of Canada, population 204,375, and Hull, Que.,
population 45,000, in addition to many other
industries, are lumbering centres. The area was
first seen by Champlain, de Vigneau and Brule.
First called Bytown, the city was started by Colonel
By, builder of the Rideau Canal, in 1827, incorporated as "Ottawa" in 1854 and chosen as
capital of Canada in 1858. Hull processes paper,
matches, textiles, cement and meat products. The
Rideau River, given its name by Champlain on an
early voyage, is crossed at mileage 85.9. Bourget,
once known simply as "The Brook", was named for
Bishop Bourget, an early head of the Roman
Catholic diocese of Montreal. Plantagenet, settled
in 1798, wears an English royal name, the South
Nation River is crossed at mileage 50.1, and
Alfred, also settled in 1798, was named for the
son of George III. Vankleek Hill, called after
Simeon Vankleek —a Loyalist from Dutchess
County, N.Y., serves a rich farming area.
A century ago these farmlands were forests
that made many fortunes. Between St. Eugene
and Rigaud, mileage 21.6, the boundary between Ontario and Quebec is crossed. Rigaud,
where the Rigaud River is bridged, has a population of 4,287. In addition to industries and religious
institutions there is a strange geological formation
known as "The Devil's Garden" here. The Ottawa
widens soon into the "Lake of the Two Mountains"
and the line passes through early established Como,
where, across the lake, the gleaming spire of Oka
Church marks the site of an early Hudson's Bay
Post which J. G. McTavish, who went to the relief
of David Thompson, the mapmaker and explorer,
in 1811, operated as factor. Isle Cadieux, a flag
station, marks Point Cavagnal where an early
missionary,    Pere    Garreau,    was    martyred    by
Iroquois Indians in 1656. To the north, across the
flat, long farmlands the Ottawa heads for its
confluence with the St. Lawrence at Vaudreuil,
junction of the M. & O. and Winchester Sub-
Divisions.
Winchester Vaudreuil-Dorion, junction with the
Sub-Division main line to Toronto, played
a part in the war of 1776, when de Lorimier captured an invading American force. On both sides
of the island the Ottawa River flows into the St.
Lawrence—greatest river draining to the Atlantic
coast of North America. Its 1,900 miles drains
359,000 square miles of Ontario, Quebec and
the north-eastern United States. He Perrot, across
the west channel of the Ottawa River, was Lord
Jeffery Amherst's camp in 1760 before the capitulation of the French. Across the railway bridge from
lie Perrot is Ste. Anne de Bellevue. Below the
tracks are the locks used by vessels navigating
up and down the Ottawa. To the north a
veterans' hospital is close to the site of Du Lhut's
defeat of the Iroquois in 1690. Golf links and
bright new housing developments line the railway
now and there is increasing evidence that the long
journey from tidewater to tidewater-—the longest
"Dome" ride in the world — is coming to an end.
North of the track, mileage 5.5, sprawls the international airport of Montreal, Dorval, followed by
the great Cote St. Luc marshalling yard of the
Canadian Pacific. Directly south is the industrial
suburb of Laehine, population 27,773, named for
LaSalle's dream of a route to China west of the
rapids. Montreal West, junction for Quebec, the
Laurentian Mountains, Saint John, Halifax, Boston
and New York brings us to a stop. Now, all semblance of suburbia is lost, Westmount serves mid-
town residents, the industrial city spreads out to
the south and Windsor Station marks the end of
the line. Montreal, 1,000 miles from the sea, the
world's largest inland seaport, is terminus for
Canadian Pacific liners in passenger and freight
service across the Atlantic. Port, manufacturing
centre, focus of the cultures of two great races,
greater Montreal —• second largest French-speaking city in the world —■ has a population of
1,395,400, is the home of two universities, McGill
and Montreal, Cardinalate of the Roman Catholic
Church and the seat of the Anglican Bishop.
Metropolitan hotels, many fine stores, theatres and
clubs attract visitors.
CLEAR SIGNAL
See page 8 for brief description of
automatic block signals. s:«aa»si»s
1111111
fc*„ afciP^
-Sr 0^:
.    • ,-    7^""€t
~ -7.  '«.      a -- sr*
Mountain scenery near Coquihalla on the Canadian Pacific
Coquihalla Canyon-Crowsnest Pass route through the southern
Canadian Rockies.
Just as Canadian Pacific crosses the prairies by
two routes, so it provides an alternative route
through the Rockies south of the main transcontinental line. From Vancouver to Odium, where the
Coquihalla Canyon-Crowsnest Pass route turns
southward across the Fraser to enter the Coquihalla Pass, the route is the same. The Canadian
Pacific southern route through the Rockies follows
the spectacular Coquihalla Pass, Okanagan Lake,
the Kettle Valley, the southern reaches of the
Columbia River, Kootenay Lake, and the Crowsnest Pass to Fort MacLeod, Alberta, whence the
main line can be rejoined at Calgary or Medicine
Hat. The "Kettle Valley" route, so named for an
early railway, shows another aspect of the Canadian Rockies noted for such engineering feats as
the 3,476-foot climb up the side of the Coquihalla
Canyon   from   Odium  to   Brookmere;  the   Belfort
loop; the bench-lands; magnificent views of Okanagan Lake as you climb from Penticton to 4,150-
foot McCulloch; water-level vistas of fast running
white water, the shore of Lower Arrow Lake —
which is really the Columbia River, Kootenay Lake,
and the last big climb to Crowsnest Pass 4,450
feet above sea  level.
This trans-mountain line serves a rich mineral and
orchard country, and is the Eastern and Western
outlet for such busy centres as Trail, Nelson,
Penticton, Cranbrook, and Fernie. Much of its
spectacular quality arises from the feats of bridge
and track engineers in the building of the line
which happily resulted in providing a number of
vantage points for the enjoyment of breath-taking
vistas. World-travellers familiar with both routes
frequently debate their relative merits. Perhaps
you'll have time to explore the "Kettle Valley"
on your return journey and decide for yourself.
^ > EASTWARD
Across Canada by Canadian Pacific
4%
THE MAIN LOUNGE
Tranquil pastel shades, harmonious as your own home
decoration; soft, clear lighting; luxuriously comfortable
chairs—moveable for chummy groupings; wall-to-wall
carpeting sympathetic in pattern to the decorative scheme;
wide picture windows—these
characterize the Main Lounge
of the Canadian Pacific Scenic
Dome Lounge Sleeper.
t s i *
THE MURAL LOUNGE
Named for famous national
and provincial parks, the new
cars are disc-braked for
smooth starts, smooth running,
smooth stops. The Mural
Lounge, snugly ensconced below the upper level Scenic
Dome of Canadian Pacific's
smart, new Lounge Sleeper
Car, is original. Intimate as an
exclusive club, each Mural
Lounge of the 18 "Park" cars
on the transcontinental route
has an original mural of the
national or provincial park for
which the car is named, covering two walls, signed by a
member of the Royal Canadian Academy of Arts. Banquette seats, thoughtfully arranged, and an etched-glass
third wall enhance these
unique rooms. THE SCENIC DOME
Scenery along the world's
longest "Dome" ride, across
Canada from tidewater to
tidewater, is enjoyed most
from the upper level "Scenic
Dome". Vision all-around and
as high as the sky is provided
by glare-proof picture-windows. Twenty-four seats,
spaced for comfort and upholstered for ease, fitted with
individual ash trays and armrests are points of vantage in
air-conditioned spaciousness.
THE COFFEE SHOP
Deluxe Scenic Dome Coaches
are the ultimate in luxurious
economy for transcontinental
travellers who go the Canadian Pacific way. The "Skyline" coaches feature a Coffee
Shop for economical meals in
addition to the 24-seat upper-
level Scenic Dome and 26
reserved seats with adjustable full-length leg rests for
travel comfort by day or
night. Wide, picture windows,
decorator design and wall-to-
wall carpets add to their
economical luxury.
The World's Longest Dome Ride
31 EASTWARD
'Jf
** QunaJUoH Gkc&c
I he dynamic policy that led to the building of the world's first transcontinental railway
seventy years ago, that inaugurated the many other "firsts" in world transportation
for which the Canadian Pacific is notable, scores another "first" in Canada with the adoption of Scenic Domes
for coach, tourist car and standard sleeping car passengers — another step in Canadian Pacific's
comprehensive modernization programme, in line with Canada's rapid growth.
After an extended investigation and study of the most modern types of passenger
equipment in service elsewhere on the continent Canadian Pacific has equipped its Diesel drawn
all-stainless-steel Streamliner, "The Canadian", and "The Dominion" with Scenic Dome Lounge Sleepers,
Scenic Dome Coffee Shop Coaches, Deluxe Coaches (featuring full-length leg-rests), "Manor" and
"Chateau" Sleeping Cars, Tourist Sleepers and Dining Room Cars — for service on the scenic and historical Canadian
Pacific route between Montreal and Vancouver, and Toronto and Vancouver via
Banff and Lake Louise. The entire "fleet" will be
in service in 1955. Light-weight and modern as tomorrow, these new cars typify the
modern thinking and forward look of the world's most complete travel system, tailored by nearly
three quarters of a century of transportation experience to the fastidious requirements
of the world's wisest travellers!
In addition to the world's longest, and Canada's only, Dome ride in the comfort of the latest word in
railway passenger equipment, Canadian Pacific invites you to enjoy the "economy of
luxury — the luxury of economy" the Empress way ... trans-Atlantic by Canadian Pacific Steamships ...
trans-Pacific by Canadian Pacific Airlines. Above Canada, Canadian Pacific Airlines fly
10,000 route miles daily. In Canada, 17 Canadian Pacific hotels and resorts from sea to sea
make business travel a pleasure, make pleasure travel their business.
Uanadian Pacific — the world's most complete travel system — has two new trans-Atlantic
liners abuilding. These new 22,500-ton streamlined "Empresses" which incorporate the newest
tested improvements research can offer will enter trans-Atlantic service in the early spring of
1956 and 1957. In the air, the Canadian Pacific Airlines fleet flies world travellers in modern aircraft
best adapted to the varying services. Between Canada and the Orient; between Canada and Hawaii,
Fiji, New Zealand and Australia; between Canada, Mexico and South America Super DC-6B's
offer speed and comfort above the weather: other specialized aircraft are operated
in the Canadian services.
tvery Canadian Pacific office in Canada, United States, United Kingdom, Europe, Australia,
New Zealand, Hong Kong, Japan, plus agencies everywhere — offers you Canadian Pacific's
complete travel service — all your travel wants in one package! Of course, every Canadian Pacific
office co-operates fully with your own travel agent. You can relax before you start when you
travel the Canadian Pacific way with every detail planned for you — rail, hotel, steamship,
and airline reservations. Go Canadian Pacific "travel relaxed — arrive refreshed."
Ike Scenic Dojue Rovre
VANCOUVER   BANFF   CALGARY  MOOSE JAW    REGINA
WINNIPEG
FORT WILLIAM
SUDBURY
TORONTO
<77A
V*Wlt^

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