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Eastward across Canada by CP Rail Canadian Pacific Railway Company 1970

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 Eastward
Across Canada
BY
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Vancouver, end of steel for the world's first transcontinental railway, is Canada's gateway to the
Orient, South Pacific and, by air, Europe. CP Air
serve five continents . . . link Canada with Japan
— Hong  Kong — Hawaii — Australia — Mexico
— South America — Europe. Vancouver's golf
courses, parks, fine buildings, sea beaches and
pleasant climate attract visitors from many countries. Fast "Princess" liners, serve pleasant Vancouver Island via Nanaimo, mainland British
Columbia ports and Alaska.
Vancouver
to ALASKA
NANAIMO
□■■■O
VANCOUVER
VICTORIA
\
SEATTLE
Princess liner near Victoria
Victoria, temperate capital of British Columbia, is
the entrance to the year-round playground of
Vancouver Island. Here The Empress, westernmost
of CP Hotels chain from sea to sea, set in its own
garden facing the harbour, close to business and
shopping centres, is the focal point of local society,
headquarters for visitors. Golf, motoring, tennis,
sailing, fishing, swimming, riding, picturesque parks
and scenic drives are the background of a holiday
life that includes shopping for woollens, china,
silverware, linens and many other imports.
The Empress Hotel,  Victoria Across Canada by CP Rail
TORONTO
MONTREAL
t0SAl»Tj0HN
* Halifax
Travel, even the luxurious travel of today in the
comfort of "The Canadian" Scenic Domes, is an
adventure. Travel, the CP Rail way from tidewater
to tidewater across the wide provinces of British
Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario and Quebec, is an adventure in which the
traveller of today retraces the trails blazed in a
glorious past through the promise of a boundless
future.
The CP Rail transcontinental main line parallels in
this 20th Century the routes of many brave and
pious explorers of the 17th Century. It retraces
the journeyings of such heroes as Thompson, Fraser,
Mackenzie, Joliet, LaSalle, Radisson, Pere Marquette, Champlain, Nicolet and Dulhut, whose
names are imprinted indissolubly upon the histories
of Canada and the United States.
Explorers of the river routes that first opened
the Great Lakes and the rivers to the Gulf of
Mexico; discoverers of the great prairies that
sweep majestically upward from lake level to
the Rockies; pioneers who traced mighty streams
through the mountain barriers to the Pacific Ocean,
all led the builders of the world's first transcontinental railway. These great men of the past lead
you, who sit in the air-conditioned comfort of a
high-level Scenic Dome, beside roaring streams
that point their silver arrows through the mountain
passes, between great wheat fields, beside inland
seas along the edge of the rich pre-Cambrian
Shield, through lake-lands and forests, through
gentle farm lands. Back over the trail of the
explorers you see through the picture windows on
four sides of you: mines, mills, factories; great
cities, Vancouver, Calgary, Medicine Hat, Swift
Current, Moose Jaw, Regina, Brandon, Winnipeg,
Fort William-Port Arthur, Sudbury, North Bay,
Ottawa, Toronto, Montreal; the pleasure lands of
the British Columbia coast, Lake Louise, Banff,
Lake of the Woods, the North Shore of Lake
Superior,   French   River,  Muskoka,  the   Gatineau.
"Across Canada by CP Rail", prepared for riders
of the longest "Dome" route in the world, is based
upon the railway practice of dividing  the  track
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Vancouver-China Bar  Page 4
North Bend-Drynoch  Page 5
Spence's Bridge-Tranquille   .... Page 6
Kamloops-Tappen  Page 7
Salmon Arm-Three Valley     .... Page 8
Revelstoke-Moberly  Page 9
Golden-Field  Page   10
Cathedral-Castle Mountain .... Page  11
Banff-Sunalta     .   . ■  Page  12
Calgary-Reddiff  Page   13
Medicine Hat-Boharm  Page   14
Moose Jaw-Kemnay  Page   15
Brandon-Keewatin  Page   18
Kenora-West Fort William     .... Page   19
Fort William-Regan  Page 20
White River-Sudbury  Page 23
Romford-Toronto Pages 24-25
Romford-Montreal      .....     Pages 26-28
Montreal  Page 29
into Sub-Divisions. While the timetable shows the
distance between Vancouver and Montreal as
2,878.7 miles and between Vancouver and Toronto
as 2,703.7, the "Mileage Boards" found on telegraph poles along the right of way start afresh
at the eastern boundary of each sub-division. For
instance, Pembroke, 216.6 miles from Montreal, is
indicated on the track side by Mileage Board 93
of the Chalk River Sub-Division. In order to pinpoint points of interest in the scenery for ready
location from a moving train, reference is made
throughout this book to the nearest mileage board
and each sub-division traversed is named at its
start. Following the operational practice of dividing the line from east to west, these pages divide
the CP Rail transcontinental main line—the "Scenic
Dome" route—from Vancouver to Montreal and
Toronto. At the side of each page a yellow plan
map bears the names of all stations on that page.
Because the CP Rail main line travels generally
in an east-west direction "north" is used throughout
the book to indicate scenes and places on the
left, just as north always is indicated by the top of
a map.
Front cover shows "The Canadian" crossing Stoney Creek Bridge in the Canadian Rockies. VANCOUVER
BARNET
PORT MOODY
COQUITLAM
PORT HAMMOND
HANEY
MISSION CITY
NICOMEN
HARRISON MILLS
AGASSIZ
RUBY CREEK
KATZ
CHOATE
YALE
SPUZZUM
Cascade For a few miles, the eastward run
Sub-Division of the world's longest Scenic Dome
ride, the Canadian Pacific transcontinental main
line, is at sea level. The factories and docks that
characterize Vancouver, the piers, drying nets,
deep-sea fishing craft, fishing shacks, the many
activities of a busy harbour line Burrard Inlet and
spell the last sight of sea level for more than 2,880
miles until it is reached again at Montreal. In
between stand the barriers of the Coast Range, the
Monashee Mountains, the Selkirks, the towering
Rockies and the long, steady slope eastward across
the Great Plains to Winnipeg. Port Moody, at
mileage 116.1 was the original Pacific terminus of
CP Rail, world's first transcontinental railway. At
mileage 115, Burrard Inlet ends. Coquitlam, still
at sea level, is named for the nearby Indian
Reservation and the Coquitlam River is spanned
at 112.3. At mileage 109.7 the Pitt River, almost
the last tidewater, is crossed by a long bridge and
the track points northeast to the mighty Fraser
River and Port Hammond.
CHINA BAR
Breezes bear the tang of the Pacific Ocean
across the meadows and ahead the apparently
impassable barrier of the Coast Range looms
heavily. Mission City, noted for pleasant homes,
junction with the Mission Sub-Division, is a busy
centre for this fruit growing and dairy country and
from your Scenic Dome vantage point, you can see
40 miles south in the State of Washington, snow-
topped Mount Baker. The mighty Fraser south of
the track waters the Chilliwack Valley, noted for
its fine dairy herds, reached by the bridge at
Agassiz, market town and site of a Government
Experimental Farm and station for Harrison Hot
Springs. Along the way activities are divided
between sawmills and packing plants to which
strings of trucks bring fresh gathered crops, for
this is the heart of the fruit and dairy lands. Ruby
Creek, mileage 48, owes its name to garnets found
in the neighbourhood. The gentle, domesticated
pattern of the land begins to change as the stark
grandeur of the mountains approaches ever closer.
At mileage 31.2, Emory Creek is bridged on its
way to the Fraser, still navigable but much faster
than in its broader reaches back on the level valley.
Yale was once head of navigation on the Fraser
and a look at the river here will show that stalwart
steamship captains had to contend with as they
brought the miners and freighters to the beginnings
of the Cariboo Waggon Road. Built, 1862-5,
under the orders of Governor James Douglas
of British Columbia, this 400-mile road was
used by thousands of miners to carry millions
in treasure from the famous Cariboo Gold Field.
Earlier than that, in 1848, it was the site of a
fur brigade trading fort. Now the Fraser, once so
placid, hemmed in the canyon that took it countless
Hell's Gate
aeons to flume out, torments itself into twisting
eddies and backwaters. Between mileages 23
and 22, look for a giant rock in the middle of the
river which still withstands the heavy pounding.
Simon Fraser, discoverer of the river, tells of making
his way down the canyon on a series of ladders
built by the Indians. He little knew that 19th Century
engineers would use his route for a transcontinental
railway. The Spuzzum River is bridged at mileage
17.1. At Spuzzum, 15.5, where a steel and concrete
bridge spans the Fraser, is sited a bench noted by
Fraser in his diary as a resting place. The present
bridge is located where the first suspension bridge
west of the Rockies, built by Joseph Trutch, was slung
on wire cables, woven at the site, on wooden
towers. Long before the railroad came to Spuzzum,
the great Hudson's Bay Company established a
trading post there. Many rivulets and creeks find
their way to the Fraser on both sides: White's
Creek is crossed at mileage 9.7 and Williams Creek
at 9.2. Just above this, a spinning whirlpool is
known as "The Devil's Wash Basin". It is caused
by a narrow rock formation between mileages
8 and 7 aptly christened "Hell's Gate". Conservationists particularly will be interested in the
series of basins beside cascades by which salmon
"Friendly Folk"
Ever notice how friendly railway men are? You see
crews of passing trains wave to each other. Section
men miles away from anywhere stop work and
wave as the train goes by — and you wave in
return. This is friendliness, but it is more than that.
Everyone on the Canadian Pacific is concerned
with the welfare of your train and the hands flung
high in greeting tell a story to the crew of your
train. Watch a little more closely and you will see
that section men divide forces as you pass, one to
each side of the track. They have been keeping a
watchful eye on the running gear of the train and
the "highball11 is an assurance that everything is in
order on both sides. This combination of efficiency
and friendliness spreads beyond the railway
family and trainmen can tell you of many instances
where residents near the track "check the train11
and give the proper signals. evade the rapids as they swim up-river during the
spawning season. A notable example is at mileage
5.5 where the Scuzzy River flowing from north of
the track enters the Fraser and the "salmon elevator" climbs up under the railway bridgev Although the average gradient between North Bend
and Vancouver is a little less than four feet in a
mile, the climb between Katz and North Bend has
been 300 feet in 45 miles and the speed and
turbulence of the Fraser makes this readily apparent. The gradual climb, together with the
abrupt change from wide valley to narrow canyon
emphasizes its stark beauty — graphically comparable with the equally stark history of its early
development. North Bend, junction of the Cascade
and Thompson Sub-divisions, is mainly a railway
town noted for its rich foliage and flower-filled
gardens.
"Sv/c/c/e Rapidsff
Thompson Eastward from North Bend the
Sub-Division Canadian Pacific transcontinental
main line climbs along gradually narrowing bench
lands. The rise of the land is noticeable although, at
Chaumox, Indian translation of "too hot", the
altitude is as yet only 548 feet above sea level.
Tiny gardens and orchards, some in Indian Reservations, replace the broader fields of the coastal
plain. At mileage 113 the Salmon River is bridged.
To the south is Kanaka Mountain. Skow Wash
Creek is crossed at mileage 106.3 and Kwoiek
Creek, named for the peak north of the line, at
104.6. Once worked by Hawaiian labourers, the
old, placer mining bar across the river gives its
name to Kanaka. Between mileages 102.7 and
101.2 the track rests on a ledge hewn from the
rock and passes through three tunnels. In contrast
the old Cariboo Road toiled high above the river.
At mileage 94.9, on the left, can be seen the confluence of two great rivers, the Fraser and Thompson. Sharply defined, the two waters, drab in the
case of the Fraser, clear because — like the St.
Lawrence where it is joined by the Ottawa, 2,500
miles to the east — it is filtered through lakes, the
Thompson. Lytton, the town where the rivers join,
was  a   well-established   Indian   community  when
For Camera Fans
In general, the precautions you take in shooting
through windows should be observed in making
photographs from the "Scenic Dome11.
For colour transparencies of the various popular
makes, colour compensating filter No. CC30-R is
advised with exposure increases as recommended
for this filter on Daylight Type film. In order to
get exposures, either with colour or black and
white film, the use of an exposure meter is recommended, readings being taken from within the
"Scenic Dome11. Where no meter is available, an
exposure increase through top or side windows of
one full camera stop is general practice.
Either the front or rear seats offer the best opportunities for pictures but please remember that
receding scenery sets up focusing problems. It is
generally considered that the best way to avoid
reflections is to expose as close to the glass as
possible and, of course, avoid halation by shooting
away from the sun. Train movement effects are
lessened considerably for lateral photographs by
using a 45° angle.
NORTH BEND
Simon Fraser first came upon it, centuries after its
foundation. Traders, using both rivers for their
highways, gave Lytton importance, and, during the
gold rush it came into its heyday. At mileage 95
the plateau begins to narrow. The Fraser turns
northward, the Thompson points to the east. Following the water level, the Canadian Pacific
parallels the Thompson River into a canyon noted
for the colourful rocks and earth that line its sides.
Across the river, at mileage 93.5, Botanie Crag, a
green granite crest that overhangs the clear water,
takes its name from a creek that enters here. The
Painted Canyon, mileage 91, lives up to its name.
Sagebrush, dwarf jack-pine, poplar and some
bull-pine grow in this area. The rushing river at
mileage 87.5 spills out through the aptly named
gorge —"Jaws of Death" — the modern highway
follows the route of the old Cariboo Road. At 84.6
the Nicomen River is bridged by the railway
which passes under the highway at 81.4. Drynoch
CHAUMOX
KEEFERS
KANAKA
LYTTON
GLADWIN
THOMPSON
The Thompson River near Spence's Bridge
DRYNOCH SPENCE'S BRIDGE
TOKETIC
BASQUE
ASHCROFT
SEMLIN
The Thompson River
WALHACHIN
SAVONA
TRANQUILLE
is named for the seat of the Clan Macleod on the
island of Skye and the Canadian Pacific follows
the river closely as the canyon widens into a
gentler contour. Once known as Cook's Ferry —
for obvious reasons, Spence's Bridge marks the
junction with the Princeton Sub-division, a line
that runs southward to Penticton on the Canadian
Pacific route through the southern rockies. The
Nicola River is crossed at mileage 71 and the next
station, Toketic, is well named, "Pretty Place".
Pimainus Creek is bridged at mileage 67 and
Pukaist Creek near mileage 65. Glossy Mountain,
south of the track, rears bald contours to a peak
of 6,500 feet, and the river narrows to squeeze
through Black Canyon, mileage 52.5, in a roaring
boil of hissing, foaming white against the rock
formations. Ashcroft, named for the birthplace in
England of a legendary early settler, was a
gold-rush town. Today it is noted for the quality of
its potatoes and tomatoes — a long way from the
Cariboo days! Walhachin, once more euphoniously
"Wallacheen", meaning "land of plenty", has
a tragic history. Here was the scene of an early
experiment in irrigation. A group of Englishmen
watered an orchard and brought fine apples to
bearing. Then the bugles of 1914 blew. They
crossed the Atlantic to war — and none returned!
A few trees, unkempt and untended, still bear
lonely fruits. Savona  got its name from an early
Italian immigrant who operated a ferry across
the western end of Kamloops Lake in 1861. As the
Thompson widens into Kamloops Lake the countryside takes on a more domesticated pattern. Here is
some of the finest ranching land in Canada —
look for ranch and farm houses of sturdy, picturesque logs. Cherry Creek, named for the stream
crossed near the station, serves this prosperous
area. Between mileages 13.8 and 8.5 the train
passes through six tunnels — five of them in a mile
and a quarter — driven through the glacier-
scarred rock. North, across the lake, at mileage 11,
red-stained Battle Bluff was the scene of fierce
Indian struggles years ago that are still recalled
in tribal song and legend. Tranquille station, and
the river crossed at mileage 6.5, take their names
from an early Indian chief who was thus nicknamed
by French traders because of his gentle disposition.
History remembers better, though, James Huston's
discovery of gold here in 1856 or'57 — the prime
start of what developed into the Cariboo gold
rush. Kamloops Lake narrows again and by mileage
4 has taken on the characteristics of a river.
Historians are certain that David Thompson, the
famous explorer and map-maker, never saw the
river that is his flowing monument, and feel reasonably sure that he never knew that Simon Fraser had
given it his name. Now, as the outskirts of Kamloops are reached, from almost true north the waters of
the North Thompson enter the Thompson which,
from this point eastward, becomes the South
Thompson. Kamloops, junction of the Shuswap and
Thompson Sub-Divisions, is an important trading
centre. The city was founded as a Hudson's
Bay Company post in 1812. Fort Thompson was
built in 1813 by the North West Company and
named for David Thompson, explorer of the Kootenay District and Columbia River — probably when
Simon Fraser named the Thompson River. Today's
name comes from the Indian "Kumeloops", meaning
meeting of the waters. Cattle, forest products,
canning, fruit and vegetable shipping and registered seed are the major local industries. Many
lakes and streams in this district are well-stocked
with game trout. You will see many irrigated farms
and broad cattle ranches and this countryside also
contains gold, copper and base metal mines.
Shuswap Between    Kamloops    Station    and
Sub-Division mileage 126 sites of prehistoric,
semi-subterranean houses built by Indians have
been discovered in the area that divides the track
and the South Thompson River. Local historians
offer no origin for the name Monte Creek, perhaps
"three-card monte" was a popular pastime in
railway construction days! Except for one 500-foot
hump at Notch Hill, the line is fairly level for the
next 80 miles with an average altitude of 1,160
feet. This is a prosperous mixed farming and fruit
belt. The Canadian Pacific transcontinental main
line parallels the South Thompson River and the
Ptarmigan Hills, to the south, though gentle in
slope, begin to give promise of greater heights in
the Monashee, Selkirk and Rocky Mountains
ahead. Chase Creek is spanned at mileage 93.5.
Squilax, "sheep" in the Indian tongue, is on the
southern shore of Little Shuswap Lake which
broadens, at mileage 84, into the western tip of
Shuswap Lake itself. The big lake is credited with
containing more varieties of trout and other game
fish, including steel-head salmon trout and salmon
from the Pacific than any other fresh water in
British Columbia. The land slopes gently upwards
to the north. Weaving between Mount Hilliam,
Black and Squilax Mountains to the south and
Notch Hill to the north, the line turns to parallel
White Creek (north) between Carlin and Tappen,
named respectively for a lumber operator and
early contractor. The Salmon River is bridged at
mileage 64.8. The Shuswap Lakes are the reservoir
on which the South Thompson River, traced from
Kamloops to Salmon Arm by the Canadian Pacific,
draws heavily. They, and the river, important to
the economy of British Columbia, are examples of
the far-reaching effect of the North West Company. Simon Fraser discovered them early in the
19th Century. Salmon Arm, so aptly named, deals
in dairy products, feed, poles, boxes, packing and
lumber. Oddly-named Canoe is a farmers' exchange, warehousing and lumbering centre. Wild
duck have made the lake — averaging a mile wide
between Salmon Arm and Sicamous — a favourite
feeding and breeding area. South of the track
lies Larch Hills Provincial Forest. To the north
Shuswap Lake, of which Salmon Arm, paralleling
the line is the south side, is a three-sided rectangle
almost surrounding Vella and Bastion Mountains
behind which White Lake has a fabulous reputation  amongst anglers.  Sicamous,  lake-head  port
KAMLOOPS
MONTE CREEK
PRITCHARD
CHASE
SQUILAX
NOTCH HILL
CARLIN
Orchards like  this  earn  British  Columbia's  apple  reputation.
TAPPEN SALMON ARM
CANOE
ANNIS
SICAMOUS
CAMBIE
MALAKWA
CRAIGELLACHIE
TAFT
THREE VALLEY
for mail, is the junction with the Canadian Pacific
Okanagan Sub-division. The word means "places
cut through". This is great duck country and the
wild migrants become tame enough to paddle
close for bread thrown on the quieter backwaters.
At mileage 44.4 the main line crosses the eastern
end of Shuswap Lake at Sicamous Narrows and
starts its long, magnificently scenic climb towards
the height of land, breasting the course of the
twisting Eagle River which it will cross eleven times
in 28 miles. The first crossing is made at mileage
43.8. Solsqua, Indian word for bear, may have
been an apt choice of name once, but few have
been seen recently. It is in scenery such as this
that the Scenic Dome comes into its own. Watching
eyes are rewarded on all sides. At mileage 40.4,
37.1 and 32.8, the Eagle is spanned again.
Malakwa is Indian for mosquito — and fishermen
in the local waters will understand its choice as
Automatic Block Signals
While the red, yellow and green lights that you see
from the "Scenic Dome11 are welcome because they
add colour to the journey by day or night, they
have more serious business to do. These are the
lights of the Automatic Block Signal System — an
intricate series -of electrical sections called "blocks11,
into which the transcontinental main line is divided.
Entrance of the train into each block is governed
by the colour light signal which tells the engineman
whether he may enter the block or if he must stop.
More complicated than highway traffic signals,
but governed by easily interpreted rules, block
signals sometimes require two or more colour
lights to convey their full meaning.
Many miles of main line are governed by an even
more intricate system known as centralized traffic
control (CTC). The train dispatcher is kept informed
of the exact location of each train on his territory
by means of a series of coloured lights on a
control panel. By using the buttons and toggle
switches on the panel he can control the track
switches and signals at each siding, or junction,
so as to route trains in the most efficient manner.
Many times, at a siding on signal track, trains will
"meef" without either train being required to stop.
The complex electronic circuits prevent the dispatcher from making a mistake.
a station name. Another crossing of the Eagle is
made at 31.3. North of the track at Craigellachie
(mileage 28) a simple cairn marks the spot where
the "last spike", driven November 7, 1885, completed the world's first transcontinental railway.
Here westbound and eastbound construction gangs
met. The spike was a good, workable one — not
silver or gold as some legends claim! Threading
its way between the Hunter and Shuswap Ranges,
the line crosses the Eagle three times between
mileage 24.6 and 26.3. Near mileage 22, beautiful Kay Falls are seen, and, also to the south Mount
Griffin (7,075') of the Hunter Range. The Gold
Range (7,000') rise to the north. Three more
bridges within the three miles between 18.5 and
15.4 complete the crossings of the Eagle. At obviously named Three Valley, Wap Creek flows
from the south into Three Valley Lake. Snowsheds,
encountered at mileage 13.5, are a reminder of
Eagle Pass
railroading difficulties to be surmounted, and three
short tunnels momentarily obstruct the view of
Eagle Pass and Summit Lake between mileage 9.5
and 9. A lofty overhead bridge carries the highway above at mileage 8.6.
The grassland areas that marked the western
end of the Shuswap Sub-division have gradually
given way to Douglas fir, the inevitable lodge-pole
pine and Ponderosa pine that are common to this
country, variously described as the Fraser Uplands,
or Fraser Plateau. Northeastward Mount Revelstoke
commands the view and to the south are the Tonka-
watla River, Mount Macpherson (7,962') and
Mount Begbie (8,956'). At mileage 1.7 the Canadian Pacific meets and crosses the mighty Columbia
River. Of the Columbia River's 1,150 miles, the 459
miles in Canada drain an area of 40,000 square
miles, serve the lumber industry and generate
millions of horsepower. From its source at Canal
Flats in the East Kootenay area to the south, and
augmented by the great 1,600 square mile Columbia Ice Field north of Lake Louise, this mighty
waterway makes its way at varying speeds through
mountains and flatlands north, west and south
on its way to the Pacific beyond Portland, Oregon.
David Thompson traced the Columbia from its
source to its mouth. In 1807, he made his way to
the Icefield via the Saskatchewan and in the
following years explored the river, evading hostile
Piegan Indians who had attacked Lewis and Clarke
in 1805, to the point where the American expedition had struck the Columbia and followed it to its
mouth. His is still the sole comprehensive survey
of the entire river. Southward, the Columbia
broadens into the Arrow Lake system, served for
many years by that most romantic of all vessels,
the "stern-wheeler", S.S. "Minto".
Revelstoke is an important lumbering centre
and junction of the Mountain and Shuswap Subdivisions. Mount Revelstoke summit is reached by
car for a magnificent view of the Columbia Valley
and the winter sports area famous amongst the
ski fraternity for the championship jump. Revelstoke National Park is a game preserve and outdoor playground.
8 Amherst—Baron Jeffery, Field Marshal (1717-97),
Commander in Chief in North America 1758, Governor of Virginia 1763.
Brebeuf—(1593-1649), born in France, Jesuit
Missionary to the Hurons, martyred by the Iroquois
1649.
Brule — Etienne, born end of 16th Century, reached
Canada as a boy in 1608, accompanied Champlain
1615. In 1618, explored south through Pennsylvania
to Chesapeake Bay. Died 1633.
By—John (1781-1836), military engineer, 1826
constructed Rideau Canal. Bytown (now Ottawa)
named after him.
Champlain — Samuel  de  (1567-1635),  first visit to
America  1598, founded  Quebec 1608.
du Lhut — or Duluth, Daniel G. (1640-1710), born in
France, explored Sioux country 1681. Duluth, Minnesota, is named for him.
Fraser—Simon (1776-1862), born in New York,
partner in North West Company, explored Fraser
and Thompson Rivers.
Joliet — Louis (1645-1700), born in Quebec, co-
discoverer with Marquette of the Mississippi.
LaSalle—-Rene Robert Cavelier (1643-87), born in
France, Seigneur of Laehine, explored Ohio River,
Lake Michigan and Upper Illinois searching for China;
reached Texas by sea.
La Verendrye—Pierre Gaultier de Varennes (1688-
1749), born Three Rivers, Que., fur trader and explorer.
Macdonald—Sir John Alexander (1815-1891), born
in Scotland, lawyer and statesman in Upper Canada,
first Prime Minister of the Dominion, considered "Chief
Architect of Confederation".
Marquette—(1637-75), born in France. 1666, Jesuit
missionary to Canada, shared discovery of Mississippi with Joliet.
Nicolet — Jean (1598-1642), born in France, came to
Canada 1618, explored Lake Michigan as far as
Green Bay, senior official of Company of One
Hundred Associates.
Radisson—Pierre Esprit (1636-1710), born in Paris,
reached Canada 1651, explored Great Lakes,
credited with foundation of Hudson's Bay Company.
Strathcona — Lord (1820-1914), Sir Donald Alexander Smith, bom in Scotland, became resident governor of Hudson's Bay Co. in Canada; one of the
founders of the Canadian Pacific Railway, later
President of the Bank of Montreal and Canadian
High Commissioner in Great Britain.
Thompson — David (1770-1857), 1808-9 explored
Columbia River; 1816-26 surveyed Canada U.S.
boundary.
Trail Riders, Alberta
Mountain Vast  power  development  on  the
Sub-Division    Columbia will change the face of
this Sub-division which includes manyrniie^or
arduous gradients as the line climbs towards the
Continental Divide, and line re-locations will result.
A huge dam at Castlegar will back the Columbia
to the outskirts of Revelstoke and inundate the
Arrow Lakes Sub-division which CP Rail already
has abandoned. Another large-scale dam at Mica
Creek, 90 miles north of Revelstoke, will back the
Columbia to the vicinity of Redgrave, 69 miles
east and more than 1,000 feet higher than Revelstoke. Designed to provide additional millions of
kilowatts of electrical power to industries throughout British Columbia and neighboring American
states, the Columbia is being harnessed on an
international scale to the lasting benefit of the two
nations involved. Our guide eastward is the Illecillewaet River rushing headlong to the west as
our powerful diesels take us eastward. Greeley
Creek, named for the famous editor, is crossed at
118.8, Twin Butte marks the narrowing of the
valley. The great Albert snowfield lies to the
south. From mileage 109 can be seen the eastern
slope of Albert Peak (10,008'). Between mileage
103 and 102 Albert Canyon, north and below the
track, is a narrow 150-foot gorge through which
the river has forced its way.
Glacier Park's boundary is crossed at mileage
95.5. Engineering problems that confronted the
pioneers are indicated by the snow sheds and
tunnels, mileage 94-96, and by the fact that 10
crossings of the Illecillewaet River have to be made.
Now the climb becomes sharper—1,500 feet between Albert Canyon and Glacier, the station for
Glacier National Park, 521 square miles in area.
In this area sharp-eyed watchers may spot mountain goats and bighorn sheep just below the snow
line and those with binoculars should scan the
slides and burns for grizzly bear. To the south,
midway between mileages 83.5 and 84.5, up the
slope of Mount Abbott sturdy bridge piers show
where the line once toiled up over Loop Brook to
Rogers Pass.
South, as you approach Glacier, look up
the valley ahead for the Illecillewaet Glacier outlet
for the snowfield, as it forces its way between
Perley Peak and Lookout Mountain, and Mount
Sir Donald, its 10,818-foot tip piercing the blue
sky. This whole area, with Mount Macdonald
(9,492') stolidly across the line, is a challenge to
the senses with its magnificent panorama of peaks,
precipices and glaciers. To avoid Mount Macdonald the first line was built through Rogers Pass,
compelling a climb of 500 feet in five miles and
needing, for its protection from slides, more than
four and a half miles of snow sheds, some of which
and the piers of old bridges can be seen to the
north. In 1916, by the boring of the Connaught
Tunnel, the climb was cut in half, the distance was
shortened by four and a third miles and curves
equal to seven circles were done away with. A mile
of solid rock roofs the concrete Connaught
Tunnel, five miles long, twenty-nine feet wide
and twenty-one and a half feet high. Fresh
air is forced through by giant ventilating fans at
the western end. At mileage 80.2 the train emerges
from the tunnel, high on the side of the valley of
REVELSTOKE
GREELY
TWIN BUTTE
ALBERT CANYON
ILLECILLEWAET
FLAT CREEK
GLACIER
STONEY CREEK
ROGERS
BEAVERMOUTH
DONALD
MOBERLY GOLDEN
GLENOGLE
PALLISER
LEANCHOIL
OTTERTAIL
FIELD
the Beaver River. Wide flats through which the
river winds are filled with the skeletons of long-
gone inundations to the south. North of the line
steep, tree-covered slopes march down to the
valley. Backwards to the north the old route
through Rogers Pass may be traced. Camera fans
who want pictures of the train should ready themselves at Stoney Creek station. East of the station
Stoney Creek is crossed by an arch bridge, the
western end of which is slightly curved to meet the
contour of the land. The engineers probably never
thought of it, but this location as the train crosses
270 feet above the foaming stream is ideal for
photographers to snap the whole train on the
curve. Between Stoney Creek and mileage 74
another interesting bridge spans Surprise Creek.
No bigger at its greatest height than a pencilled
line, this purling stream cuts its way through a gorge
spanned by a truss bridge and foams, noisily
and picturesquely to the river bed 170 feet below.
Raspberry Creek is bridged at 73.7 and Mountain
Creek three miles to the east. Mileage 70 marks
the boundary of Glacier National Park.
The Selkirks are left behind, to the north is
Mount Rogers (10,546/) and, at Rogers (67.8)
named for Major Rogers, discoverer of the pass,
the downhill run —1,200 feet since Glacier —
ends. Also to the north is Cupola Mountain, last
peak in the Selkirk Mountains. At mileage 64.5
the Canadian Pacific transcontinental line crosses
the Beaver River and at Beavermouth (63) meets
the Columbia River, about to swing northward in
the gigantic "Big Bend". The line parallels The
Columbia for nearly 30 miles, travelling through a
level country noted for large numbers of deer and
moose. But it takes a keen observer to spot them
through the heavy growth. The big river is crossed
at mileage 52.5, a mile west of Donald, named for
Sir Donald Smith (later Lord Strathcona), where
the canyon is left behind. To the north is Willow-
bank Mountain. The Dogtooth Mountains, south of
the track and the sharp spurs of the Van Horne
Range to the north, give rise to a succession of
fast-running, picturesque creeks and rivers, the
largest of which is the Blaeberry which enters the
Columbia at mileage 44.8. Look north between
mileage 35 and Golden for the cluster of typically
Swiss chalets — the village of Edelweiss — built
by the Canadian Pacific for the Swiss guides who
climb the Rockies with mountaineers.
The valley of the Columbia now is fairly broad,
its lands fertile and well tended. Golden is the
junction for the Windermere Sub-division which
connects, through the Columbia River valley, with
the Canadian Pacific route through the southern
Rockies. Now the grade really begins to steepen.
Between Golden and Hector, a little over 46 miles,
the altitude changes from 2,583 feet to 5,213 feet,
an average of more than 57 feet per mile. Southward lies the Kootenay River, to the north, at
mileage 35, is Moberly Peak (7,73T). At mileage
31.7, 500 feet above the Canadian Pacific main
line is the Trans-Canada highway, looking as if
it were built on stilts. Near mileage 30 scan the
south wall of the lower Kicking Horse Canyon
which  we  share  with  the  river that  gives  it  its
name, for "The Old Man of the Mountain", a
quirk of nature's sculpture. Between mileages 33
and 21.4 the line crosses the Kicking Horse five
times. It is crossed itself by the highway at mileage
26.5. Foaming and churning, the river speeds
endlessly past, headed west. Mileage 19.2 marks
the boundary of Yoho National Park.
The Beaverfoot Range (9,0000 is skirted for
several miles, and, at mileage 15.3 the track
turns sharply. Southward, near mileage 13, look
south for Mount Vaux (10,8910 and beyond this
peak to the glacier between Mounts Allan and
Hanbury. North and south the flanking ranges now
are the Van Horne and the Ottertail, followed by
Mount Duchesnay, (9,602') and Mount Dennis
(8,336') on the south. To the north sweeps a broad,
divided valley formed by Otterhead Creek and
the Amiskwi River. Ever-present, the lodge-pole
pine climbs to timber-lirje, with here and there on
the lower slopes, stands of poplar, marked at
grazing level by the teeth of countless winter-feeding elk. The Kicking Horse River is north of the
track, less hurried, briefly, while it meanders
through the widened valley in which Field nestles.
Field, in Yoho National Park, junction of the
Mountain and Laggan Sub-Divisions, is also the
junction of the Mountain and Pacific Time Zones.
Eastbound travellers advance their watches one
hour. Bears are sometimes seen near railway
stations in the mountains. No matter how pathetically they look at you, don't yield to temptation
and feed them. They are as tame as any wild
animal accustomed to human beings can be,
but they have no manners and do not know
how sharp a supplicatory paw can be. Also, there
is a heavy fine imposed for feeding wild animals
— this is for your own protection. Take all the
pictures you like — from a reasonable distance.
Across the river, well-engineered motor roads lead
up the scenic Yoho Valley to Takakkaw Falls
and westward past the "Natural Bridge", bored
through solid rock by the Kicking Horse River,
then north through the valley of the Emerald River
to Emerald Lake.
Map of the Spiral Tunnels
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10 Sure-footed bighorn sheep
Laggan A long shoulder of Mount Stephen
Sub-Division juts into the valley on the south, the
highway bridge points due north as it spiders its
way across the washed pebble-strewn flats, the
diesels brace themselves for their climb across the
backbone of Canada, and across the lazy river as
your train gently gathers strength the highway
ambles off to the Yoho Valley. At mileage 133.6,
in sharp contrast with the sylvan scene a base
metals concentrator high up the cliff processed lead
and zinc from shafts nearby, and, across the river,
in Mount Field. Ahead lies the thrill of climbing
1,260 feet in less than an hour by means of the
most ingenious railroad feat in North America, the
Spiral Tunnels. As first constructed in 1882-83, the
line between Field and Hector climbed laboriously
up the heavy grade, parts of which now form the
highway crossed by today's line, which was relocated 1907-08 when the Spiral Tunnels were
driven through the solid rock. The upper spiral
tunnel, for the statistically minded, is 3,255' long,
its curvature is 288 degrees; the lower, 2,922',
its curvature is 226 degrees and it emerges 50.4'
above its entrance. To the north Mount Field
(8,655') and Mount Wapta (9,116') guard the
entrance to Yoho Valley. Beyond them are Burgess
Pass and Mount Burgess (8,473'). The Kicking
Horse River parallels the line.
Northward is the Yoho Valley. Near mileage 133 upward to the south can be seen the
exits of the upper tunnel and at mileage 1 31.3 the
lower tunnel is entered. A thousand yards later
and 50 feet higher you can look down, north, on
the track you have just climbed. As you climb
westward the Kicking Horse is crossed at mileage
130.6 and at 129.7 the second tunnel is entered.
Three-fifths of a mile later and almost completely
turned around the train leaves the tunnel at
mileage 129.1, 55f7\ higher up Cathedral
Mountain (10,464') and heads east again. Now,
to the north, the Yoho Valley is seen, and between
mileages 1 27.5 and 1 27, northward and down can
be seen the adit and exit of the lower tunnel.
From mileage  126 Mount Ogden and the Yoho
Valley on the north balance the southward views
of Cathedral Crag (10,081') and Vanguard
Peak. Paget Peak (8,417') and Mount Bosworth
(9,093') farther north, and Wapta Lake, reservoir
of the Kicking Horse River, beside the line reflect
Hector Station, named for Sir James Hector,
surgeon and geologist on the Palliser Expedition.
In the next 2.8 miles the line climbs 119 feet to
reach the highest railway altitude in Canada,
5,332 feet — a mile and 52 feet! Southward
stand Pope's Peak and Narao Peak, Summit and
Sink Lakes to the north mark the eastern end of the
Kicking Horse Pass. Seventy-three yards east of
Stephen station is the Continental Divide, which
also marks the boundary of Yoho and Banff
National Parks. Watch, south of the track, for a
rustic sign, "The Great Divide", which marks the
boundary between Alberta and British Columbia,
the peak of the watershed. Beneath this sign a
small brook becomes two smaller streams that
find their way, westward to the Kicking Horse
River, the Columbia and the Pacific; eastward to
the Bow River and eventually Hudson's Bay and
the Atlantic. Nearby mountains, south, are Mount
Niblock (9,764'), Mount St. Piran (8,691') and The
Beehive, round which the line curves northward to
the broad Bow Valley and Lake Louise station.
From Lake Louise station motor roads lead:
to Chateau Lake Louise a thousand feet higher;
Moraine Lake Lodge in the Valley of the Ten
Peaks; the Columbia Icefield eighty-five miles
to the north where the Athabaska, Dome and
Saskatchewan Glaciers combine to form 150
square miles of ice.
The   Chateau,   on   the   shore   of   the   glacial
lake for which it is named turns its sun-drenched
wings to one of the world's most beautiful scenic
spots,   the   Victoria   Glacier.   Its   deeply   wooded
mountain trails are favourites with riders. There is
boating   on   the   lake,   outdoor   swimming    in    a
sheltered, warmed pool and many miles of Alpine
flower trails around the lake and surrounding hillsides for nature  lovers.  The  magnificent Victoria
Glacier, overhanging  Lake Louise — first sight to
greet visitors to the Chateau, sheds its waters into
the  Lake  and  through  Louise  Creek, to the  Bow
River just east of Lake Louise Station. South of the
line,   from   Lake   Louise   to   mileage   112   Mount
Victoria   (11,365'),   Mount   Aberdeen   (10,340'),
Fairview,   Haddo  (10,073'),  Sheol   (9,118')   and
Saddle Mountain; to the north are Ptarmigan Peak
(10,070'),  Redoubt Mountain   (9,520')   and   Protection Mountain. Tallest of all, four miles to the
south, is Mount Temple (11,636'). The cluster of
mountains   surrounding    the   Valley   of   the   Ten
Peaks    includes    the    ten    Wenkchemna    Peaks,
snow-covered   Mount   Babel   (10,175'),   Quadra
(10,410')   and   Bident  (10,109').   Between  these
monsters   and   Storm   Mountain,   to   the   south   at
mileage   106,  whose   10,372   foot  peak  usually
lives up to its name, the water's edge to the north
should be scanned closely for beaver lodges and
other   signs   of   the   wild   life   with   which   Banff
National  Park is lavishly supplied.  North of the
track, east of mileage   102, for eight miles the
CATHEDRAL
PARTRIDGE
STEPHEN
LAKE LOUISE
CASTLE MOUNTAIN
11 BANFF
ANTHRACITE
CANMORE
EXSHAW
GAP
KANANASKIS
SEEBE
OZADA
MORLEY
RADNOR
COCHRANE
BEARSPAW
SUNALTA
scene is dominated by Mount Eisenhower. Formerly
known as Castle Mountain, this tremendous formation, battlemented like a medieval castle, was
renamed to honour General of the Army Dwight D.
Eisenhower, brilliant Supreme Commander of the
Allied Forces in Europe, six years before his
election to the Presidency of the United States.
Copper Mountain, south of the track just beyond
the eastern outpost of Mount Eisenhower, points
north to the junction of Johnston Creek with the
Bow River. Between this canyon-bound stream and
Redearth Creek to the south Mount Ishbel on the
north and Pilot Mountain directly south of mileage
93 mark the narrowing of Bow Pass. Now the downward, eastward, flow of the rivers is emphasized.
Mount Massive (9,790') and Mount Bourgeau (9,615') farther south are balanced to
the north by Mount Edith and between mileage , 84 and 83, the huge cave known as
"Hole in the Wall" high up the mountainside.
In the meadows that flank the track between
Lake Louise and Banff elk and deer frequently
browse and occasionally a bear — sometimes
with her cubs — may be seen begging for "handouts" on the highway north of the track. Near
mileage 88 to the north are the Vermilion Lakes,
feeding grounds for moose and beaver and
beyond them Mount Norquay. To the south the
Bourgeau Range and Sulphur , Mountain loom,
and, near mileage 82, a mile south can be seen
the turrets of Banff Springs Hotel.
Headquarters of the national park are located
at Banff, a detachment of the Royal Canadian
Mounted Police, hospital, movie theatre. Hotels,
boarding houses and tourist bungalows cater to
thousands of visitors every year. Beyond the town,
where the Spray and Bow Rivers meet between
the 1st tee and fairway of the championship golf
course, the valleys enclosed by Sulphur, Rundle
and Tunnel Mountains are dominated by Banff
Springs Hotel — built of stone quarried locally —
massive and hospitable as a baronial castle in
Scotland. This Canadian Pacific resort, one of the
holiday wonders of the world, fits the keynote of
gracious living into the outdoor symphony of cascades, rapids, mountain trails and scenic grandeur
played by the Canadian Rockies. Natural sulphur
springs provide medicinal bathing; buses and cars,
mountain ponies and bicycles are available for
sightseeing. Scenic chair-lifts on nearby peaks
open incredible vistas. The Alpine Club of Canada
maintains a headquarters on the slope of Sulphur
Mountain.
Banff School of Fine Arts, an extension of the
University of Calgary, opens from mid-June till
early September each year a summer school of art,
drama, handicrafts and music, culminating in an
annual festival. Make a note now, if you're going
right through this time, to come back to Banff for
a visit. In winter and spring the skiing is unexcelled,
too. North of the track, in the shadow of Cascade
Mountain, the National  Parks Department main
tains a paddock for buffalo, rocky mountain goats
and bighorn sheep. Here too, is the permanent
summer camp of the Royal Canadian Army Cadet
Corps. To the south Tunnel Mountain hides the
Bow River from view. Cascade Creek, named for
the 9,836 foot mountain, is bridged and to the
south peculiar sandstone formations known as
"Hoodoos" march with the track. Mount Rundle
(9,675') named for an early missionary, to the
south, points its razor crest eastward. North of the
track Inglismaldie (9,725'), Girouard (9,825') and
Peechee (9,625') rear their heads. Carrot Creek,
bridged near mileage 72, flows from the Fairholme
Mountains to the north. Near mileage 71, north of
the line, the eastern boundary of Banff National
Park is marked by a gateway on the highway. In
the 2,500 square miles of the park, all living things
— birds, animals, wild flowers and trees, are protected by the Government of Canada, and many
travellers, delighted with the sight of "tame" wild
animals from passing trains, have blessed the wise
statesmen who marked out this great sanctuary. As
a tribute to the conservationists, the Canadian
Pacific selected names of national and provincial
parks to designate 18 Scenic Dome Lounge
Sleeper cars in its transcontinental service. A
favourite with photographers, the triple-peaked
mountain, "Three Sisters", stands south of mileage
63. Canmore, named for Malcolm Canmore, early
Scottish king, is a picturesque town. Its major
industry is coal mining. The Bow River is forced
into a bend by a shoulder, north of the track,
known as The Gap. This geological formation is a
shoulder of the Fairholme Mountains and on its
slopes, near mileage 62, sharp eyes may detect
bighorn sheep. Now the river slows its headlong
speed as it widens into Lac des Arcs, frequented by
Canada   geese   and   mallard   in   their   seasons.
Kananaskis, named by Captain Palliser for a
legendary Indian, produces lime products. The
Bow River is crossed at mileage 53.1 and at
Seebe — Indian word for "river" — are the Kananaskis and Horseshoe dams and power plants.
Ozada, an Indian word meaning "forks of the
river" well describes the confluence of the Bow
and Kananaskis rivers at that point. Morley is
headquarters of the Stoney Indian Reservation.
Its Indian School, with an average of 60 in attendance, has a staff of 10. Traditional designs in
leather, bead and quilt work are a specialty of
the Sfoneys, who take part each year in Banff's
"Indian Days", at which, in addition to outdoor
demonstrations of dances, riding, roping, etc., the
lovely work is shown in competition for prizes.
Radnor, site of the Ghost Dam, was named for
Wilma, daughter of the Earl of Radnor, and wife
of Lord Lathom. At mileage 25.7 the Bow River,
which has paralleled the line on the north side for
28 miles, crosses to the south. With the high
mountains receding, the land has taken on the
rolling  aspect of   foothill   country  and   Cochrane,
12 mileage 22.8, serves a mixed ranching and farming community that extends eastward. The Bow
Valley, born in the grandeur of the mountains,
has become a wide depression, barely defined in
the general eastward slope and the Bow River is
crossed again at mileage 7.7, to lose itself from
view in the outskirts of Calgary, junction of the
Laggan and Brooks Sub-Divisions on the main
transcontinental line.
Brooks Calgary, founded as a North West
Sub-Division   Mounted   Police   post   called   Fort
Brisebois in 1875, became Fort Calgary later  in
honour of Calgary on the Isle of Mull. Its location at
the confluence of the Elbow River and Nose Creek
with the important Bow River, was a natural one.
For years its principal interest was the surrounding
cattle ranching, greatly accentuated by the advent
of   the   railway.   Later,   discovery   of   the   Turner
Valley oilfields and the more recent "strikes" to
the north, gave the big western city great importance to the oil industry. "Cowtown" traditions are
kept  alive  by  the  annual  "Calgary Stampede"
when the whole city decks itself in "chaps", sombreros and spurs to celebrate the riding, "bronco-
busting" and chuck-wagon races in which famous
riders, men and women, compete. The Palliser with
426 outside newly-decorated rooms each with TV
and radio, is a Canadian Pacific hotel of distinction. Nearby, in  Palliser Square, the new Husky
Tower rises 626 feet above street level and 4,028
feet above sea level. A landmark visible for 50
miles, the Husky Tower may be seen on conducted
tours while "The Canadian" stops in Calgary; its
outstanding features are the revolving restaurant
at the top, seating 200, and the observation terrace above it with cocktail lounge and snack bar
accommodating 300 sightseers at a time. Industries
include: oil-drilling specialties; meat products; sash
and doors; structural steel; castings; fertilizers and
chemicals; concrete blocks;  pre-fabricated  buildings;   leather;   oil-refining;   cereals;   sheet   metal;
paper   products;   pipe   castings   and   explosives.
Dinosaur Park on St. George's Island is notable
for life-size models of pre-historic animals found
in the region. The city stands 3,438 feet above sea
level. From Calgary, Canadian Pacific passenger
services connect with  Edmonton, terminus of the
northern trans-prairie line. Now begins the long,
gradual descent to sea level, so gradual that it is
imperceptible.  Ogden,   its   principal   industry  the
"Ogden  Shops" of the Canadian  Pacific,  marks
the eastern fringe of the variously, according to
stages of history, and affectionately named "Cowtown", "Foothills City" and "Oil  City". Shepard
is the junction with  the Strathmore Sub-division.
For a few miles yet occasional cowboys may be
seen,   but,   generally,   stock-ranching   now   gives
way to agriculture — to highly specialized irrigation farming. Near the junction of the Third Prairie
Plain with the foothills of the Rocky Mountain System,  the   land   contours  here   are   more  sharply
marked than on the central and eastern prairies.
Valleys   are   deeper   and   wider,   rivers   flow   at
greater speeds and still have some evidence of the
glacial silt they carry from the moraines that clog
Chuck-waggon race
their icy sources. Climatic conditions are affected
by the proximity of the crags and peaks to the west
and "The Chinook" a wind that seems almost
fabulous to non-residents, in the winter frequently
raises temperatures from sub-zero readings to
thaws in a matter of minutes. Ranching in this area
had its start in 1874 with the importation of range
cattle from the United States. In 1882 government
regulations allowed the leasing of tracts up to
100,000 acres and for the next 20 years the industry expanded. At the turn of the century the
historical pattern of agricultural settlement asserted
itself and larger ranches began to disappear with
the encroachment of farmlands on the ranges.
Today average ranches are of about 2,000 acres
owned by the rancher and 8,000 acres of provincial land under lease. The first irrigation ditch
recorded was dug in 1879 and seven years later
79,000 acres were under irrigation. Canadian
Pacific irrigation work started in 1906 and the
company, which pioneered the Eastern and
Western Irrigation Districts, had spent more than
$25,000,000 by 1917 when the districts were
formed. Indus, mileage 158.8, was named for the
great river that irrigates once arid areas of
Western Pakistan. Gleichen, a flour milling point,
serves an area with 12,000 irrigated acres and is
headquarters of the Blackfoot Reserve. Near mileage 122, the track crosses a tributary of the Bow
River. Cluny was the name of an Indian chief.
Crowfoot, too, commemorates a famous chief of
the Blackfoot tribe, who with the Sarcees, Bloods
and Piegans were early inhabitants of these plains.
Bassano, junction of the Irricana and Bassano Subdivisions is named for an Italian construction engineer. At mileage 96.6 the line crosses a canal of
the Canadian Pacific Railway irrigation district
established to aid farmers. Lord Lathom, director
of an early ranching company, is remembered at
the next station. At mileage 87.6 lakes break the
landscape to the north and at 76, to the south.
CLUNY
CROWFOOT
BASSANO
LATHOM
CASSILS
BROOKS
TILLEY
ALDERSON
SUFFIELD
BOWELL
REDCLIFF
13 MEDICINE HAT
DUNMORE
PASHLEY
IRVINE
WALSH
CUMMINGS
HATTON
KINCORTH
MAPLE CREEK
CARDELL
PIAPOT
SIDEWOOD
TOMPKINS
CARMICHAEL
GULL LAKE
ANTELOPE
WEBB
BEVERLEY
SWIFT CURRENT
BAIRD
WALDECK
RUSH LAKE
HERBERT
MORSE
ERNFOLD
UREN
CHAPLIN
VALJEAN
SECRETAN
PARKBEG
MORTLACH
CARON
BOHARM
At Cassils, where 4,200 acres are irrigated, the
Cassils Sub-division starts. Brooks is headquarters
of the Eastern Irrigation District which supervises
167,000 acres watered from the Bow River. Its-
industries include canning, commercial fishing and
seed. Pheasant and duck and geese are hunted
in the area. Sir Leonard Tilley, early statesman,
lends his name to a grain shipping point with
25,000 irrigated acres at mileage 53.4. Alderson
bears the name of a commander of Canadian
troops in 1915-16. At Suffield, where the Suffield
Sub-Division branches, there is a Defence Research
Board experimental station. One of the many
irrigation canals that supply this thirsty area is
bridged at mileage 19.5. Bowell commemorates
an early Canadian statesman and Redcliff, its
name set by the colour of the nearby river bank,
is a market town that also makes glass, chinaware,
and bricks. The 1,000-foot wide Saskatchewan
River is spanned at mileage 0.3. In the 175.8 miles
between Calgary and Medicine Hat, junction of
the Brooks and Maple Creek Sub-Divisions, the
Canadian Pacific main line has been lowered by
1,257 feet.
Maple Creek Medicine Hat, famous "Gas City",
Sub-Division claims natural gas, chinaware, clay
products, porcelain, brick and tile, concrete, fertilizer, and flour milling amongst its activities. Here
the Maple Creek and Brooks Sub-Divisions join.
Originally called Saamis — Indian for the tepee of
a medicine man — Medicine Hat is built on the
fertile terraces of the South Saskatchewan
River at its junction with Ross and Seven Persons
Creeks. Industries, homes and a number of large
greenhouses are heated by natural gas. At mileage
146.2 Seven Persons Creek is crossed. This river
owes its somewhat peculiar name to an Indian fight
farther south in which seven Blackfoot warriors
were killed by warring Assiniboines. Between
Irvine, named for Colonel Irvine of the Royal North
West Mounted Police, and Mackay Creek, mileage
115.7, four creeks are spanned. Ross Creek flows
south of Irvine, where the creek is bridged.
Walsh, mileage 115.2, is the last station in Alberta,
the boundary with Saskatchewan coming midway
between it and Hatton, Sask., junction with theHatton
Sub-Division. Box Elder Creek is crossed at mileage
112. Maple Creek, grain shipping point for the
surrounding territory, takes its name from the river
spanned by the Canadian Pacific main line at
mileage 84.9. At Hay Lake, 80.4, and an unnamed
lake at mileage 75.5 wild fowl are frequently
spotted. Piapot on the eastern slope of the long,
shallow bowl of which Medicine Hat is the low
point, commemorates an Indian chief of the 1880's.
Between mileages 39-38 Whitegull Lake parallels
the line and near Gull Lake station the Gull and
Antelope Rivers are crossed. North of the line, between Webb and Beverley, Gander and Goose
Lakes, a few miles apart, attest the migration of
the great Canada Geese every spring and fall.
Antelope is named for the river crossed at mileage
29. The transcontinental line now passes through
the "Dry Belt", rendered, as you have seen, considerably less arid by irrigation projects and the
Mounted Police train at Regina
advancing techniques of modern farming. At Swift
Current the Maple Creek and Swift Current Subdivisions join.
Swift Current Swift Current, in Saskatchewan,
Sub-Division altitude 2,432 feet, handles grain
creamery products, tanning and castings. Time
changes here at the meeting of Central and
Mountain time zones. Eastward travellers advance
watches by one hour. The city's tree-lined streets
and parks are in direct contrast to the dry surrounding hills which lend themselves to the study
of soil and crop problems of semi-arid areas,
carried out at the Dominion Agricultural Experimental Station. Saskatchewan's 252,700 square
miles, extending northward to the 60th parallel of latitude, enclose many different types
of country. From the central part of the province
northward, a land of lakes and forests forms ideal
holiday country. In the Saskatchewan River delta
muskrat is especially plentiful. There, other fur-
bearing animals are mink, weasel, squirrel and
beaver. The northern area is a range for barren
land caribou, deer, elk, moose and antelope —
all carefully protected by closed seasons and
hunting regulations. Ducks breed in the northern
country, too. Lumbering is carried on in the Porcupine and Pasquia Hills regions and the Torch River
area. The Alkali lakes seen from time to time
through southern Saskatchewan yield sodium sulphate for paper mills in Ontario and Quebec
and the copper-nickel refineries at Sudbury, Ont.
At mileage 109.5, a 130-foot bridge takes the
train across Swift Current Creek, a tributary of
the South Saskatchewan River, which parallels
the track to the north as far as mileage 99.
The sloughs of Saskatchewan are of immense
interest to wild life conservationists and hunters, as
they serve as feeding and breeding places for
green-neck mallard, black duck, pintail, canvas
back, widgeon, teal. Also seen in this part of the
country are the California gull and Franklin's gull,
prairie chicken, sharp-tailed grouse, Hungarian
partridge, snipe, ptarmigan. A local slough, Death
Lake, by a combination of the French "mort" and
14 Indian "lach" names the station, Mortlach. Caron
gets its name from a former Canadian Minister of
Militia, Sir Adolphe C. Caron. It is another grain
shipping point. Boharm, named for Lord Strathcona's
home in Scotland, with an altitude of 1,802 feet
above sea level, shows that the long slope to the
east continues steady, but subscribers to the theory
that the prairies are flat are in for an awakening
in the miles ahead. Moose Jaw, junction of the
Swift Current and Indian Head Sub-Divisions, sets a
halt to the downgrade.
Indian Head Moose Jaw, trading centre and
Sub-Division junction of the Swift Current and
Indian Head sub-divisions, is Saskatchewan's third
largest city. At the confluence of Moose Jaw
River and Thunder Creek, Moose Jaw flouts the
prairie tradition with the lake for boating and
swimming you see just south of the track. The city
busies itself with elevators and milling, cold storage,
meat products, oil refining, insulation, dairy products, machinery, furs and hides, sash and doors,
bags, blankets, seeds, rubber products and a number of smaller industries. The location was first
chosen by Captain Palliser in September, 1 857,
the first settlers arriving in the spring of 1882 a
few months before the Canadian Pacific line was
built. The city's water supply is brought 1 2 miles
by canal from Buffalo Pound Lake. Moose
Jaw's 16 parks total 256 acres. Pasqua, the
Indian word for Prairie, is the junction ot the transcontinental main line with The Soo Line connection
with Minneapolis, St. Paul and Chicago. Regina,
originally enjoyed the name of "Pile of Bones",
a translation of "Wascana" which still applies to
attractive Wascana Lake within the city limits*.
Distinguished as the capital of Saskatchewan
and seat of the Provincial Legislature which, like
the Canadian Pacific Hotel Saskatchewan, stands
high above the town as a landmark for miles across
the prairie, Regina is the western training headquarters of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police
and the original headquarters of the force which
was first known as the North West Mounted Police.
The "Head End"
It takes power with a capital "P" to pull The
Canadian eastward and westward across Canada
by Canadian Pacific. At the "head end" of the
train as many diesel units as needed generate
thousands of horsepower to pull the train, light it,
supply the kitchens with cooking heat and operate
the air-conditioning.
Known as "A" units, the "7 400 series", have cabs
for the engineman, fireman and head end brake-
man. "B" units, "1900 series", are coupled as
needed for additional power. Each develops 1,750
h.p., consumes 1,500 gallons every 1,000 miles
and is re-fueled every 450 miles. Average top
speed is 89 m.p.h., average weight 129 tons.
"A's" are 54'8", "BV 50 feet long and cost
$250,000. Each has a steam generator for train
heating.
In case you haven t a sub-teen boy to explain it
more scientifically, a diesel-locomotive, by generating its own electricity, has all the advantages of
an electric locomotive independent of a stationary
power distributing system. It converts mechanical
energy to electrical energy which is reconverted
by motors and driving wheels to the mechanical
energy that moves the train at the engineman's
command.
Choice of the present name was made by Lt.-Gov.
Dewdney in honour of Queen Victoria, when the
city   was   chosen   as   capital   of   the   Northwest
Territories.   Meat packing,  brewing, oil  refining,
tanning, wood working, metal manufacturing, milk
products, tanks, agricultural implements, sand and
gravel are amongst Regina's industries.  The original  chapel  of the  North  West Mounted   Police,
training establishment barracks in use today and
Regina  Fair Grounds are visible from the train.
The    next   station    name,    Pilot    Butte,   once
you  note  the  low  elevation  north  of the  track,
becomes obvious—many an ox-waggon train must
have used it for a landmark.  To McLean, altitude
2,294, goes the distinction of being the apex of
the prairies. It forms the "hump" referred to earlier,
the downward progression being practically constant to Lydiatt, Man., the theoretical eastern limit
of the prairie belt. History does not seem to record
who  called   who  when   Qu'Appelle  was  named.
Indian Head is the location of a forest nursery station, experimental farm and entomological laboratory. This country forms part of "Palliser's Triangle",
an area surveyed by Captain John Palliser for the
Colonial Office of Great Britain, 1 857-60. His expeditions took him from Lake Superior to beyond the
Canadian Rockies. Actually, the triangle was a five-
sided, irregular area, the southern part, which the
Canadian   Pacific   traverses,   being   classified   as
"arid". Look at it today! Thanks to later reports,
which stressed the summer rainfall, cereal experiments were made and the prairies came into their
own as a great wheatland. Plant breeders, under the
direction of the Department of Agriculture, developed  rust-resistant,  quick-ripening  "hard"  wheat
today grown on 25,000,000 acres.   Attractively
named   Summerberry  takes  for  its  title   a   local
synonym for the Saskatoon Berry and botanically
minded travellers may expect to see in this part of
the prairies, aspen, black poplar, high bush cranberry,  dogwood   and  some  bur oak.    Flowering
plants   include   plains   cinquefoil,   anemone,   milk
vetch, baneberry, sweet and golden peas.   Oakshela,  Indian  for  "child", shows the  geographic
trend, with an altitude of 1,959 feet.
Broadview Broadview is the junction of the
Sub-Division Indian Head and Broadview Sub-
Divisions. Wapella is an Indian word for "white
snow", Red Jacket is thought to commemorate the
Mounted Police, and Moosomin takes its name from
an early Indian chief. Fleming, easternmost station
in Saskatchewan, commemorates Sir Sandford
Fleming, former engineer-in-chief of the Canadian
Pacific Railway, originator of Standard Time and
surveyor of two passes through the Canadian
Rockies. Mileage 74.7 marks the boundaries of
Saskatchewan and Manitoba. Kirkella is the westernmost Manitoba point. Elkhorn's name calls to
local minds a find of top specimen antlers when the
line was surveyed. Virden, marketing area, junction with the Neudorf Sub-division and centre for
flour, feed and dairy products, boasts oil wells be-
(Continued on page 18)
MOOSEJAW
PASQUA
BELLE PLAINE
PENSE
GRAND COULEE
REGINA
PILOT BUTTE
BALG0NIE
McLEAN
QU'APPELLE
INDIAN HEAD
SINTALUTA
WOLSELEY
SUMMERBERRY
GRENFELL
OAKSHELA
BROADVIEW
PERCIVAL
WHITEWOOD
BURROWS
WAPELLA
RED JACKET
MOOSOMIN
FLEMING
KIRKELLA
ELKHORN
HARGRAVE
VIRDEN
OAK LAKE
GRISW0LD
ALEXANDER
KEMNAY
15 I
CP Rail
CPAir
CP Ships
CP Hotels
Land, sea and air services of CP Rail, CP Ships,
CP Air and CP Hotels show global extent of
Canadian Pacific's systems for movement. BRANDON
DOUGLAS
CARBERRY
MELBOURNE
SIDNEY
AUSTIN
MACGREGOR
i
BAGOT
PORTAGE LA PRAIRIE
HIGH BLUFF
POPLAR POINT
MARQUETTE
MEADOWS
ROSSER
WINNIPEG
NORTH TRANSCONA
OAKBANK
HAZELRIDGE
CLOVERLEAF
LYDIATT
MOLSON
WHITEMOUTH
DARWIN
RENNIE
TELFORD
INGOLF
LOWTHER
LACLU
KEEWATIN
(Continued from page 1 5)
tween mileages 48-47, derricks stand north of the
track. Oak Lake, proud of the tourist resort to the
southwest, takes its name from the lake; Griswold
is an Indian Reservation. At Brandon the Broadview and Carberry Sub-divisions meet.
Carberry Brandon, fine prairie city, is noted
Sub-Division for petroleum products, lumber and
sash, electrical goods, brick, wooden pumps,
furnaces, seed and dairy products. This mid-
prairie city also houses an Experimental Farm,
Mental Hospital, Indian School, Provincial Exhibition and Brandon University. At mileage 131.3, on
the eastern outskirts of the city, the line crosses the
Assiniboine River, significant to the history of
western exploration of Canada and the United
States by early French and Canadian expeditions.
Douglas, its roads sometimes martial in appearance,
is close to Shilo Military Camp. Hughes is named for
General Sir Sam Hughes, Canada's Minister of
Militia, 1914-18. MacGregor, junction with the
Varcoe Sub-Division, was named for the doctor
with Governor-General The Marquess of Lome on
an early visit. Famed in history, Portage la Prairie,
junction with the Minnedosa Sub-Division, a marketing, manufacturing and dairy centre, owed its
first settlement to Pierre Gaultier de Varennes,
Sieur de la Verendrye, Canadian-born explorer
who, with his sons Jean, Pierre, Louis and Francois,
established Fort la Reine there in 1731, the first
white men to reach the prairies. Paddling from
Montreal by way of the Ottawa, Lake Huron,
Lake Superior, Pigeon River (west of Fort William),
the Lake of the Woods, the Red and Assiniboine
rivers, they discovered that only 15 miles separated
the new fort from Lake Manitoba and established
the portage which opened a route via Lake Winnipeg and the Hayes or Nelson Rivers to Hudson
Bay. Further explorations from this base included
the Saskatchewan River and, south and west, to
the Missouri River.
After  their   father's   death,   Pierre   and   Louis
became   the   first   white   men   to   see   the   Rocky
Mountains,   probably   somewhere   in    Wyoming.
Pierre,   North   Dakota,   named   for  the   explorer,
was the spot selected by him for the burial of a
memento, which was unearthed in 1913. South of
the line, the Assiniboine River which bore the canoes
of the traders and, later, the York boats of Hudson's
Bay Company factors, parallels the railway from
Brandon   to  Winnipeg.  Ox-waggon   trails  across
the trackless prairie in the early 19th Century may
actually have traced the rail's path from Winnipeg
at least as far as Portage la Prairie before slanting
north   and   west   towards   the   fur   country.   Busy
Stevenson Airport, Winnipeg's international field
is south of the line at mileage 5.7.
Winnipeg, junction of Carberry and Keewatin
Sub-Divisions, ends the Second Prairie Plain, a
granary of magnificent proportions! Its settlement
and development were directly traceable to the
building of the Canadian Pacific Railway in the
1 880's and the interrelation of grain and transportation are nowhere more clearly demonstrated
than in the great marshalling yards through which
transcontinental trains all pass west of Winnipeg
station. To many westbound travellers the first
sight of the prairies comes as a shock — thanks to
graphic descriptions of "flat, treeless plains"
common to early geographies and school books.
The "grasslands" so adversely reported on by early
surveyors have today become a pattern of wheat-
lands divided into farms ranging from 320 to
480 acres in extent, mostly provided with trees
for wind-breaks around buildings, water holes and
in strategic places to guard against soil erosion.
From the elevation of the air-conditioned all-
around windowed Scenic Dome the widened field
of vision has shown the gently rolling character of
the landscape not easily seen from ground level.
Lord Selkirk, who measured land in his treaty
with the Indians by "as far as a horse can be seen
across the prairie" could have widened his boundaries if the chiefs had had today's air-conditioned
point of vantage.
Keewatin The real settlement of the Winnipeg
Sub-Division of today, capital of Manitoba, began with the building of Fort Gibraltar by men
of the North West Company in 1806. Further
development came five years later when the Earl
of Selkirk bought control of the Hudson's Bay Company in order to obtain a grant of 100,000 square
miles of Red River lands for colonization. Driven
off three years later by North West traders, the
colony soon regained its feet and Winnipeg has
developed ever since. Financial and commercial
headquarters for Western Canada, Winnipeg's
industries include slaughtering, meat packing, flour
and feed, printing, publishing, general manufacturing, clothing, brewing, baking and transportation. Fort Garry, a stone building established
by the Hudson's Bay Company, is maintained
today, and a relic of early Canadian Pacific
days, the earliest locomotive, "The Countess
of Dufferin", may be visited while the transcontinental train is in the station. Here are the magnificent
Manitoba Parliament Buildings and, of course, the
confluence of the Red and Assiniboine Rivers that
made the site so attractive for settlement. La Verendrye established the first known settlement at
Winnipeg by building a post he named Fort Rouge
in 1738.
Lydiatt, altitude 825 feet, is looked upon geographically as the western boundary of the belt
of marshland that separates the prairies from the
"Central Coniferous Region" of Canada. At Molson
the Lac du Bonnet Sub-division joins the main line.
Whitemouth, a prosperous business centre, serves
a well-populated district. The Whitemouth River is
crossed at mileage 71.3 and the Bog River at 69.
This area really shows the transitional marsh fringe
that separates prairie and coniferous regions, its
approximate boundaries being mileage 90 and 50.
At Rennie, mileage 52.1 the track enters the 940
square mile Whiteshell Park, established by Manitoba as a game preserve and playground, and
follows through the park to the Manitoba-Ontario
border at mileage 33.4. Laclu is a French contraction of Lake Lulu. Keewatin, Ojibway Indian word
18 for "Home of the Northwest Wind", is an attractive
resort town, starting point for tourist expeditions to
the Sturgeon River and Black Sturgeon Lake areas.
At Kenora the Keewatin joins the Ignace Subdivision.
Ignace Originally named Rat Portage be-
Sub-Division cause of the muskrat crossing seen
by La Verendrye after the establishment of his
fort on the west shore of the Lake of the Woods,
Kenora, a Canadian Pacific Division Headquarters,
on the route of the La Verendrye expeditions to
the headwaters of the Missouri River, played an
important part in the early history of North American exploration. In 1899, the nearby village of
Norman was united with Rat Portage and the new
name, taken from KE for Keewatin, NO for Norman
and RA for Rat Portage, was established. Today,
grown to a sizeable town, this newsprint, commercial fishing centre on the northern tip of the
Lake of the Woods, is the tourist entrance to a
great holiday land famous for its thousands of
wooded islands ideal for boating, swimming and
fishing. Island Lake's southern tip is crossed at
mileage 139 and the lake visible to the south of
Scovil station is Scovil Lake. The tip of Eagle
Lake appears south of the track at mileage 88
and Eagle River station serves a hunting and
fishing centre whose river feeds the lake. Beaver
Creek, one of the many of this name, crossed by the
Canadian Pacific transcontinental main line between
east and west tidewaters, is spanned at mileage
77.4. Minnitaki, mileage 75.3, is an Indian invitation to "take a drink" — a rather more robust
name than that of Aubrey Creek, bridged at
mileage 75. Oxdrift, a shipping point for high-
grade clover seed, owes its unusual name to the
fact that a herdsman reported to railway construction engineers that oxen missing from his tally
had "drifted away". Dryden, was named for
the late Hon. John Dryden, Minister of Agriculture.
Dryden is known as "The Paper Town". The Dryden
Paper Company has expanded steadily through
the years and is the principal industry, producing
large quantities of Kraft paper.
At mileage 53 the line passes between
Thunder Lake to the north and Wabigoon Lake, an
inlet of which it bridges at mileage 50. To the
south, Dinorwic Lake connects with Wabigoon Lake.
Dinorwic, a Hudson's Bay Post in the days of the
fur trade, marks the junction of a former trail
known as the North Highway with the Trans-
Canada Highway. Dyment is a shipping point
for farms, lumber camps and a gold-mining area.
Tourist camps on both sides of Raleigh Lake,
south of the track, point to the sporting importance
of Raleigh station, named after the famous Sir
Walter, as a centre for trout and pickerel. Osaquan
takes its name for the river crossed at mileage 6.
The fact that today's short-cut across Canada by
Canadian Pacific follows in the main the routes of
early explorers is emphasized again by the naming of Ignace, junction of the Ignace and Kaministiquia Sub-Divisions.
Kaministiquia South of Ignace lies Azimik Lake
Sub-Division and mileage 138 marks the crossing of the swift Gulliver River. Bonheur, an easy
guess, is named for the famous French painter of
animals. South, the track is bordered at mileage
128 by Raven Lake. The Megikons River, the east
branch of which is bridged at mileage 126, indicates its namer's nationality, as do Scotch River,
mileage 112, and English River, close to the station
of the same name. Ornithologists will scan the
skies above Hawk Lake, south at mileage 108 and
naturalists the banks of Beaver River (mileage 100).
Niblock Station recalls a former railway superintendent. Fishermen will take hungry looks at
Firesteel River, spanned at mileage 88.5, and the
long lake south of the line at mileage 86.5. The
hardy voyageurs who made the early trips through
this beautiful, but rugged, land of forests, lakes and
streams, would have had it easier had fire-
watchers' towers — like that north of the track at
mileage 85, been in existence. An odd name —
remember your French lessons? — Lac des Milles
Lacs titles the water the line crossed at mileage 71,
actually the northeast arm of the "Lake of a
Thousand Lakes". "Savannah" — an Indian word
for "level tract of land" — suffered a slight translation at Savanne, mileage 71.3, a tie, pulp and
cordwood shipping point where the north branch
of the Savanne River is bridged. The main river
is visible, to the south, at mileage 58. McGhie
Lake is seen southward from mileage 51.5.
Between here and mileage 48.5 several
tributaries of the Oskondaga River are crossed.
Buda is a shortening of Budapest and Finmark
perpetuates the name of an early settler. Sunshine
Creek is bridged at mileage 32. The Matawan
River is crossed twice, at mileage 25.5 and, two
miles east, at Kaministiquia, graphically chosen
Indian word for "twisting water". Farming and
mink ranching keep this area busy. Vegetation
here, as across the Great Lakes, includes sumach,
hawthorn, raspberry, blackberry, honeysuckle and
thimbleberry bushes in addition to conifers. At
mileage 23 Strawberry Creek, a tributary of the
Kaministiquia River is spanned, and five miles
east the historic river can be seen to the south.
Murillo, mileage 12.5, bears the name of the
famous Spanish artist, and at mileage 7.6 the
Keebing River is visible to the south. The first
trading post at the mouth of the Kaministiquia
River was built by French settlers in 1678, but the
city owes its name to the fort constructed by
William McGillivray of The North West Company
in 1801-3. Surrounded by 15-foot palisades, the
fort buildings included a metal-roofed powder
magazine and the famous Great Hall which was
parchment-windowed, hung with paintings — including King George III, Lord Nelson and the Battle
of the Nile. David Thompson's great map, now in
the Ontario archives in Toronto, held one place of
honour,  a  bust of Simon  McTavish, head  of the
KENORA
MARGACH
SCOVIL
HAWK LAKE
PINE
EDISON
VERMILION BAY
GUNNE
EAGLE RIVER
MINNITAKI
OXDRIFT
DRYDEN
EARLPITT
WABIGOON
DINORWIC
DYMENT
TACHE
RALEIGH
OSAQUAN
IGNACE
NOTMAN
BONHEUR
MARTIN
ENGLISH RIVER
NIBLOCK
UPSALA
SAVANNE
ARGON
RAITH
OSKONDAGA
BUDA
FINMARK
KAMINISTIQUIA
MURILLO
WEST FORT WILLIAM
L
19 FORT WILLIAM
PORT ARTHUR
MACKENZIE
LOON
HURKETT
company, the other. From the great fort explorers
and traders, by canoe and portage, pioneered the
route now approximated by the Canadian Pacific
main line. They saw, but not as well as modern
travellers from their Scenic Domes, Mount McKay
(south), travelled the Kaministiquia River, which is
bridged near West Fort William. Their names
included La Verendrye, Lord Selkirk, Alexander
Henry, Cadotte, Colonel Wolseley, and rugged
though the territory may seem to railway travellers,
to them, threading their way from lake to lake it
was really gruelling travel. Fort William, junction
of the Kaministiquia and Nipigon Sub-Divisions,
is the western limit of the Eastern Standard Time
Zone. Watches are advanced one hour.
to Isle St. Ignace, and all sailors' landmarks in
Nipigon Bay, are Grant Point, Mountain Bay,
Rainboth Point, Gravel Bay, Crow Point and Pays
Plat Bay. The Pays Plat River is bridged at mileage
22.4. Schreiber is the junction of the Nipigon and
Heron Bay Sub-divisions.
RED ROCK
NIPIGON
SCHREIBER
TERRACE BAY
JACK FISH
COLDWELL
MARATHON
HERON BAY
STRUTHERS
MOBERT
REGAN
20
Nipigon Between Fort William and Schrei-
Sub-Division ber the Canadian Pacific main
transcontinental line follows the contours of Lake
Superior's rocky north shore, leaving the coast from
time to time by short cuts across promontories. Fort
William, at the mouth of the Kaministiquia River,
continues the tradition of transportation service in
which history gives that city an honoured place.
The twin cities of Port Arthur and Fort William,
originally fur trading posts, are important in the
shipping of grain, iron ore and other bulk commodities. Grain elevator capacity has grown to
110 million bushels but the cities, now joined, are
important centres for chemicals, timber treating,
pulp and paper production, shipbuilding, railway
car, air-frame and motor bus manufacturing, and
as distributing points for a growing area. Southward, the great natural harbour of Thunder Bay,
sheltered by Thunder Cape and Pie Island, is still
in sight at mileage 123. Thunder Cape, known to
water-borne travellers as "The Sleeping Giant",
extends north-eastward from its craggy promontory for 24 miles as a wild-life sanctuary. Loon
station, named for Loon Lake, north of mileage
101, is the stop for the sanctuary, Sibley Provincial
Park — selected for decoration of the Mural Lounge
of the Scenic Dome Lounge Sleeper that bears
the park's name. The Coldwater (mileage 84) and
Wolf (83) Rivers both intersect the main line on
their way southward to Lake Superior. At Hurkett,
a centre for woods operations and commercial
fishing, the track cuts across a 15-mile-wide peninsula to Red Rock, crossing the Black Sturgeon
River at mileage 73.9. Red Rock, named for the
local rock formation, centres around a wood-pulp
board, container and paper industry. An arm of
Nipigon Bay is crossed near mileage 65. Mileage
62.4 marks the Nipigon River and the name, meaning "clear, fast water", well describes this summer
holiday area. Ground wood pulp, fishing camps,
summer resorts and a hydro-electric development
on the southern tip of Helen Lake (north) are the
local industries. Well-named waters, noted for
sporting fish enliven the next 20 miles. Notable
among them are the Jackfish River (53.5), Kama
Bay, mileage 50, Jack Pine River, mileage 45.4
and Big Gravel River at mileage 33.2. Facing south
Heron Bay Schreiber, named for the noted en-
Sub-Division gineer, Sir Collingwood Schreiber,
in 1887, was formerly known as Isbester's Landing.
Terrace Bay, once known as "Black", takes pride
in its pulp mill operated from the Ontario Hydro-
Electric power plant at the mouth of the Aquasa-
bon River. A 3,500 foot tunnel under the track
from Hayes Lakes to the power house at the lakeside provided the water which creates the electrical
energy. At mileage 102.7 a monument marks the
meeting of eastern and western railway construction gangs in this district in 1885. The attention-
holding sight of the line's curve around Jack Fish
Bay keeps all eyes south. But at the apex of the
horseshoe note the still water north of the causeway. This whole area is popular with wild-fowl and
many a flotilla of little ducks, paddling in formation with the parent may be seen in breeding time.
At Jack Fish mighty Lake Superior stretches south
as far as eye can see. Steel River is spanned at
mileage 94.8, Prairie River at mileage 80 and Little
Pic River nine miles east. Highway bridges are
seen here. Neys, and Coldwell, a commercial
fishing village perched on the lip of the deeply-
indented rock-bound "North Shore of Lake Superior", are starkly picturesque. Marathon, formerly
known as Peninsula, a planned town, takes its
name from pulp mills that produce 500 tons of
sulphate pulp per day. Wood for the mill is driven
down the Pic River to Lake Superior and towed to
Peninsula Harbour where large rafts are frequently
seen. Lake Superior is hidden from view after a
last sight at mileage 56.4. Heron Bay, named for
the Jesuit missionary Pere Heron, is a commercial
fishing centre. At mileage 54.4 the Big Pic River,
sometimes filled with logs for Marathon, is bridged,
and Little Black River at 50.4. Visible from the
Scenic Dome East of Heron Bay are the flumes
down which logs are sluiced, after barking, to
Heron Bay harbour. Cache Lake is crossed at
mileage 40.5 and continues south of the line to
mileage 39 where Cache Creek enters it. North,
from mileage 36 is Cedar Lake, fed near mileage
35.5 by Cedar Creek. Between mileages 33.9 and
32.9 Cedar River is bridged twice by the tracks.
The White River is spanned at mileage 24.7. At
Mobert, a contraction of Montizambert, the Hudson's Bay Company post, established before the
Canadian Pacific was built, still operates. There is
an Ojibway Indian settlement here. Tumbling rap-
(Continued on page 23) Topped by the famous "Golden
Boy" statue, the dome of the Manitoba Legislature is visible for miles
around Winnipeg. The building is
magnificently sited on the Assiniboine River and with its surrounding
greensward, to be enhanced by a
wide mall, is the outstanding architectural feature of Canada's "Gateway to the West".
The rugged beauty of the Aguasabon
River is typical of the region north of
Lake Superior, where The Canadian's
'North Shore Route' provides an unequalled opportunity to view this wild
and magnificent terrain.
The Aguasabon River
21 Fishing in French River
Typical of the lovely holiday country
for which Ontario is famous, the pictures on this page are clues to its
popularity. In the various seasons fishing, hunting, boating, canoe trips,
photography and painting attract
visitors from all over the world.
The Lake of the Woods
Kakabeka Falls, Fort William
22 {^onrmuea from page zuj
ids and fast white water to test paddlers' skill to the
utmost abounds in this country. Amyot is the supply
point for local woods operations. Pulpwood cut
in this area is driven down the White River to Lake
Superior for rafting to Sault Ste. Marie. An arm
of White Lake is crossed at mileage 19, and at
15.3 the line spans the Bremner River. At mileage
12.2, the White River is crossed and it continues
south of the line eastward to mileage 6. White
River, obviously named, is the meeting point of the
Heron Bay and White River Sub-divisions.
White River Still in the coniferous belt, with
Sub-Division jack pine as the most important
source of pulpwood, White River is a meteorological reporting station which frequently registers
very low temperatures. More crossings of the White
River, at mileages 129.2 and, after bridging the
Pickerel at 122.6, at 117.6 emphasize the importance of this stream to the territory. From mileage
115 Lake Negwazu parallels the track to Amyot,
a tourist centre. The Magpie River is bridged at
mileage 88.2. A mile east, to the south a power
dam is visible and at mileage 87 an arm of Esnagi
Lake is spanned. Sounds of a crossover at mileage
81.4 draw attention to Franz, junction with the
Algoma Central and Hudson Bay Railway. Leaving
Franz, look south for Hobon Lake. Lochalsh is
hard enough to pronounce but it seems simpler
when you look north for Wabatongushi Lake. The
Scottish settlers who named this part of the country
were responsible for the Lochlomond River, mileage
64.2 and Lochalsh River at 61.6. Missanabie,
Indian for "big water", was a station on the old
fur route by water from James Bay to Lake Superior.
Dog Lake is crossed at mileage 57. Carry Lake,
south, and a creek that serves Pickle Lake to the
north, are marked by mileage 46. North of the
track, too, at mileage 44 lies Lake Ogawisi. The
line crosses Goldie Lake near mileage 32. Lakes,
on both sides of the track at mileage 3, continue
to offer glimpses of wild-life to the alert watcher.
Herring and ring-billed gulls are common and
sharp eyes will identify robins, cardinals, catbirds, bobolinks, red-winged blackbirds. The track
now follows the southern boundary of the Chapleau
Game Preserve. Chapleau, junction of the White
River and Nemegos Sub-Divisions, as well as being
an educational and banking centre has district
headquarters of the Ontario departments of Lands
and Forests, and Game and Fisheries. On the station lawn a monument commemorates Louis Hemon,
author of the Canadian classic "Maria Chapde-
laine", who died there. The Kebsquasheshing River
flows through here.
Nemegos To generalize a little, the Canadian
Sub-Division Pacific main line between Cartier
and Kenora penetrates the "Great Lakes Forest
Region" and there are many evidences of lumbering
to be seen. Such woods as white, red and jack
pine; tamarack, hemlock, balsam fir, white spruce;
sugar, red and silver maple; red, bur and white
oak; yellow birch; white elm; white and black ash;
white elm and hazel are seen. The Nebskwashi
River marks mileage 135 and at Nemegos, the
Nemegosanda River is bridged. Claims have been
staked out in the country north of here for titanium,
phosphate and iron. We cross an arm of Nemegos
Lake at mileage 120 and the Kinogama River for
the first time at mileage 11 1.7, the Aspiskanagama
at 107.5 and the Kinogama again at 105.5.
To the north from Ridout Station the line is
paralleled by the Ridout River which is crossed
twice near mileage 99. There are so many lakes
and rivers in this game-filled area that only a few
have names. At Sultan the saw and planing mill
handles pulpwood, pitprops, ties and lumber.
Wakamagasing River is crossed at mileage 95.
The fast-flowing water north of the line is the
Woman River, which gives its name to the station
at mileage 86.2. Turnbull Lake lies south of the
line now and the river of the same name is crossed
at mileage 80. Cavell Lake is the open water south
of mileage 78. Biscotasing, another Indian word,
means "body of water with long arms"—another
example of the picturesque tongue that named so
much of Canada ! The lake is crossed at mileage 54
and another arm of Biscotasing Lake at 52.5.
Metagama, Indian for "river flows out of the lake"
is famous as a starting point for hunters and
fishermen. From mileage 30 the Spanish River
flows north of the track to mileage 28, and for the
next two miles—on the south—is Pogamasing Lake.
Pogamasing River is spanned at mileage 25. The
station of the same name serves woods operations
on the river. The Spanish River, scene of many a
log run, parallels the line to the south at mileage
17.5. North of the track near Geneva station is
Geneva Lake and on the same side, a mile and a
half east, Hess Lake. At Cartier the Nemegos and
Cartier  Sub-Divisions  meet.
Cartier From Cartier the line heads east-
Sab- Division ward still towards the mining belt
of northern Ontario. The lake south of mileage
104.5, generally rough due to prevailing winds,
gives its name to Windy Lake station. Levack, busy
market area, serves nickel mines in its locality
and is the junction with a mine railroad. The Vermilion River, crossed at mileage 97, shows that
red war-paints were as popular among the Woods
Indians of the east as the Plains Indians of the
west. Larchwood, named by a lumber developer,
is a cue to the preponderance of this timber in the
district. Chelmsford, near the crossing of the
Whitson River, was named for a town in Essex
County, England. South of the track, near mileage
89, is Whitewater Lake. Azilda station honours the
memory of the first woman settler in the mining
country. At mileage 81.5 workings of nickel and
copper mines show to the north and huge stacks to
the south indicate a smelter. South of the line
Ramsey Lake, handy terminus for bush airplanes,
faces the headquarters of the Sudbury Division
of the Canadian Pacific and junction for the Nickel
and Webbwood Sub-Divisions. Incorporated as a
WHITE RIVER
AMYOT
FRANZ
LOCHALSH
MISSANABIE
DALTON
BOLKOW
NICHOLSON
CHAPLEAU
NEMEGOS
KINOGAMA
K0RMAK
SULTAN
WOMAN RIVER
RAMSEY
BISCOTASING
METAGAMA
POGAMASING
STRALAK
CARTIER
WINDY LAKE
LEVACK
LARCHWOOD
CHELMSFORD
AZILDA
SUDBURY
23 ROMFORD
WANUP
BURWASH
SERVOS
RUTTER
BIGWOOD
PICKEREL
PAKESLEY
BRITT
NAtSCOOT
PTE. AU BARIL
SHAWANAGA
NOBEL
PARRY SOUND
BRIGNALL
LAKE JOSEPH
city in 1930, Sudbury was established in 1883 when
the railway was built and copper ore, economic
foundation of the city's early prosperity, was uncovered. Today, in addition to nickel and copper
mining, smelting and refining, this city of diverse
industries deals in rough and dressed lumber,
concrete, glass and paint, brick and cement
blocks, steel fabrication, concentrators, mining
equipment, tile, building products, ties and smaller
industries.
Parry Sound At Romford, first station east of
Sub-Division Sudbury, Toronto-bound trains
leave the Cartier Sub-Division to head southward
through cuts blasted out of the strange geological
formation of striated rock, tilted by some ancient
upheaval. The uneven effects of the explosive
charges show the difficulties faced by the builders
of the railway. At mileage 120.5, north of the
track can be seen the big smelter at Coniston,
seen again through broken country from mileage
117.5. Lonesome in the surrounding bush at mileage
116, a small farm gives faint promise of lush agriculture ahead. The Wanapitei River is crossed at
mileage 112.9. Pot lakes—with no apparent source
or outlet — characterize this rocky country and
there are many in the Sudbury Game Preserve
between mileage boards 110 and 104. Kakaki-
waganda Lake is crossed near mileage 103.
Between mileages 98 and 95 beaver lodges are
visible in lakes both sides of the line and deer and
occasional elk are seen from time to time. The
French River, famous in history as the route of
early explorers of Canada and the west and
southern states, is crossed on its way from Lake
Nipissing to Georgian Bay (see the pages from
Romford to Montreal for fuller particulars), followed by the equally scenic Pickerel River, at
mileage 81. The Pickerel parallels the line for half
a mile, north of the track, the Key River is bridged
at mileage 72.6.
Trim white buildings, radio antenna and
flag-pole south at mileage 68 designate the
Still River Detachment of the Ontario Provincial
Police and at mileage 65.5 a steel arch and
concrete bridge carries a highway above the
railway and the Still River. Britt, a typical Ontario
town, is a lake port, unloading large cargoes of
oil from United States lake ports destined to
Northern Ontario. Byng Inlet, named for Lord
Byng of Vimy, former Governor-General of Canada, marks the mouth of the Magnetawan River,
crossed by a bridge nearly 300 yards long. At
mileage 55 the Naiscootyong River is crossed.
The tourist resort to the south is not far from the
"Naiscoot", or Burnt Point, which commemorates a
legendary fire that destroyed Indian hunting
grounds. A typical beaver pond north at mileage
51 may reward sharp eyes with a sight of beavers
at work. Pointe au Baril, originally identified by a
barrel on a pole, at the apex of a narrow inlet
of Georgian Bay, is a popular summer resort
south of the line well seen from the high bridge at
mileage 49. Between mileages 46 and 45 a chain
Muskoka Lakes area, Ontario
of lakes lies between the track and Georgian Bay,
and at 44.5 the Shawanaga River is crossed.
South, again, at mileage 40, the buildings of
Shawanaga Indian Reserve attest Canada's interest in the aboriginal tribes. Keep your eyes on
the alert for deer and other small game around the
many lakes, large and small, both sides of the track.
Nobel, Mileage 29.8, is named for the famous
Swedish scientist who is renowned as the donor of
the Nobel Peace prize, won, among others, by
Canada's former Prime Minister, the Right Honorable Lester B. Pearson. From the same window, at
mileage 28, a glimpse of Georgian Bay is gained.
At 27.5 Portage Lake (north) connects with the
Seguin River and Mill Lake, and mileage 26 rewards a southward look with a good view of
Georgian Bay. Parry Sound, long established,
deals in forest products, dressed lumber, wood
products and boat building, is a gateway to
Georgian Bay and noted fishing and hunting
centre. The high railway bridge across the Seguin
River gives an excellent view of Seguin Falls in
the north and the town lying picturesquely in the
valley. At mileages 22.6 and 20 the Seguin and
Boyne Rivers are bridged on their way to Georgian
Bay, and at mileage 17, the line crosses Otter
Lake Narrows.
In defiance of the major land characteristics,
a farm, sited on a lake north of the line enlivens
the scene at mileage 15. Rosseau Road perpetuates
the old stage route to Rosseau Village and Lake
Joseph, to the north at mileage 3.5, and Lake
Stewart at 1.2, two of the famed Muskoka Lakes,
introduce a holiday atmosphere into the countryside. The transition to farm land through wooded
holiday lakes from the Ontario forest has taken
place between Romford and MacTier, eastern end
24 of the Parry Sound Sub-Division in a way marked
by the changing scenery that unrolled on all sides
for the sightseer in his comfortable seat in a Canadian Pacific Scenic Dome. Game, less evident in
cleared land except for occasional red-fox and
ground hog, includes deer, beaver, porcupine,
skunk, mink and muskrat. The Canadian Shield
toward the western limit thinned out through rocks,
pot lakes and coniferous trees to the more open
country between Muskoka and Lake Ontario. At
MacTier the Parry Sound and MacTier Sub-
Divisions join.
MacTier Sandwiched between the Muskoka
Sub-Division   Lakes north of the track and Georgian Bay on the other side, this countryside is an
ideal holiday area filled with lakes, rivers, gentle
woodland   and   meadows.   Bala,   marked   by  the
Moon and Mishkosh Rivers, by Bala Falls, south of
the   Canadian   Pacific   transcontinental   line, and
Lake Muskoka to the north, is the entrance to the
Muskoka Lakes area. A pot lake at mileage 113
and   a   long   finger-lake   pointing   north   at   111.5
freshen the scene. Lovering still shows evidence of
the Canadian Shield in outcroppings of rock, but
meadows   to   the   south   mitigate   its   harshness.
Father Brebeuf, travelling via the Ottawa, Mattawa  and  French  Rivers in   1626,  explored  this
area, to return later with Lalemant, Jogues and
Danielle. Near Port McNicoll, The Martyrs' Shrine
commemorates   the   four,   two   of   whom   were
tortured   and   killed   at   St.   Louis,   not   far   from
Medonte.   At   mileage   77   a   saw   mill,   reminiscent of the country behind, is an outpost on the edge
of a reforestation area that extends on both sides
of the line. The high bridge at mileage 68, gives
a  fine view of the project which is administered
locally   from    Midhurst.   The    Ontario    Provincial
Forestry Station at mileage 66, south of the line,
is the operational headquarters. Memories of the
west will be stirred at mileage 65.5, south of the
track, where log farm buildings are still in use. On
the   same   side,   mileage   62.5,   a   lake   suggests
summer sport. Ypres, named for a famous Canadian
battle of World War I is the junction for Camp
Borden,  a   large  Canadian  Armed   Forces  base.
Its  50  square   miles   includes  training   centres  or
detachments of almost every branch of army and
air force. Alliston, tree shadowed, trim and well-
kept, is famous as the birthplace of Sir Frederick
Banting, co-discoverer of insulin.  Rows of drying
sheds lining the fields around here indicate a major
crop, tobacco. Beeton was named for a  pioneer
family,   Tottenham   for   the   northern   suburb   of
London,   England.   Sam   Bolton,   another   pioneer,
left his  name  to  his village  and   Kleinburg  was
established by Miller Klein, builder of the second
grist mill recorded on the Humber River. Wood-
bridge, also on the Humber, has textile factories
and a famous Fall Fair. Originally called Burwick,
for Rowland   Burr, who settled  there  in  1837, it
owes today's name to a  bridge built by a man
named  Wood. Now farmlands are infringed  by
suburban developments.
Weston makes aircraft, agricultural machinery,
truck   bodies,   cameras,   castings,   bicycles,  floors
and woodwork. Toronto, a city of homes, extends
widely in a suburban area north, east and west.
Although the city fronts on Lake Ontario it has
even extended south to include the islands of the
bay in its residential area. Today this progressive
capital of Ontario, visited by Champlain and
Brule in 1615, is the centre of Canada's most
highly industrialized area; a cultural centre whose
universities, museums, theatres, parks, art galleries,
are enjoyed by more than 2,000,000 citizens.
Toronto is also the site of the Canadian National
Exhibition, world's largest annual exhibition, and
its ancillary, the Royal Winter Fair, largest of
Canada's agricultural exhibitions. CP Hotels 1,600
room Royal York is the largest hotel in the Commonwealth and is connected by tunnel to Union
Station and Toronto's expanding and efficient
subway system.
Cartier Montreal-bound travellers have an
Sub-Division historical ride ahead of them from
Romford east to Canada's great bilingual metropolis. Between Romford, where the Vancouver-
Toronto transcontinental line branched south, and
Coniston the line was blasted in many places
through the iron-hard solid rock of the Canadian,
or pre-Cambrian shield. At Coniston, named for
the novel by American author, Winston Churchill,
are a matte smelter, four blast-type furnaces,
sintering plant and concentrator. The river, bridged
at mileage 67.3, gives its name to Wanapitei
station. Between mileages 58.6 and 57.4 the line
crosses the middle branch of the Veuve River five
times and the North Veuve River just west of Mark-
stay, a pulpwood and lumber point named for an
English village. Stag Creek, mileage 41.5, and
Bear Creek, mileage 39, give clues to early
denizens of this area.
Verner, cheese and creamery centre, owes
its name to the proprietor of a grocery store
there before the Canadian Pacific was built.
Cache Bay gets its name from its use by Indians as
a hiding place for supplies before the white man
came. Sturgeon Falls, named for the cataract on
the Big Sturgeon River, crossed just west of the
station, makes barrel and keg staves and wood-
pulp board — using many woods of no other value.
Founded in 1885, the town's name was obvious to
fishermen. At mileage 12.9 the line crosses Meadow
Creek, named for the nearby pastureland of
Meadowside. Beaucage opens the western view
of Lake Nipissing, an historic water that comes into
sight to the south near mileage 5. The land between
MACTIER
RODERICK
BALA
LOVERING
MEDONTE
CARLEY
CRAIGHURST
MIDHURST
ESSA
YPRES
ALLISTON
BEETON
TOTTENHAM
PALGRAVE
HUMBER
BOLTON
KLEINBURG
W00DBRIDGE
WESTON
WEST TORONTO
PARKDALE
TORONTO
25 ROMFORD
CONISTON
STINSON
MARKSTAY
WARREN
VERNER
STURGEON FALLS
BEAUCAGE
NORTH BAY
BONFIELD
RUTHERGLEN
EAU CLAIRE
MATTAWA
HODGSON
DEUX RIVIERES
STONECLIFFE
MOOR LAKE
WYLIE
CHALK RIVER
PETAWAWA
PEMBROKE
MEATH
SNAKE RIVER
COBDEN
26
railway and lake from Sturgeon Bay to mileage 2
is an Indian Reservation. Here also were the sites
of forts built by the Hudson's Bay and North
West Companies. North Bay is the junction of the
Cartier and North Bay Sub-Divisions.
North Bay       North Bay, historically a stopping
Sub-Division   place for Champlain in   1615,   is
an important centre. Diamond drilling equipment,
lumber and Luilding products, commercial explosives, castings, dairy products, dressed lumber and
forest products, boat-building, hardboard and operating  headquarters  of  the  provincially-owned
Ontario Northland Railway to Hudson Bay make
this market for 120,000 acres of general farming
land a busy place. Islands visible to the south mark
the westward channel of the explorers, and four
miles south along the coast is the site of a post of
great importance in the days of the fur trade. Near
Corbeil, an arm of Lake Nipissing known as South
Bay explains the naming of the busy centre just left
behind. Near here the famous Dionne quintuplets
were born in 1934. Their advent led to the naming
of the siding passed at mileage 104. All sidings
have names but few are as interesting as "Carney"
— the initials of the five girls — Cecile, Annette,
Marie, Emilie and Yvonne. Lake Nosbonsing, between mileages 102.5 and 98.5, is known for bass,
pickerel   and   maskinonge   fishing.   North   of   the
track   at   mileage   98   are   Bonfield   Falls,   their
name   having   been   given   to   the   next   station,
formerly  known  as  Callander.   Between  Bonfield
and Rutherglen, at mileage 94, look north for a
glimpse of Lake Talon, one of the chain of lakes
that formed the early canoe route to the west and
south.  The  lakes,  south  of the  Canadian  Pacific
transcontinental main line at Eau Claire are beaver-
filled, look for lodges on the banks. Trout are caught
in the Amable du Fond River, crossed at mileage
83. There is little doubt that Radisson, Marquette,
Nicolet,   LaSalle   and   other   pioneer   discoverers
fared well during their arduous journeys to judge
by the beaver lodges seen in lakes at mileages
79  and 77 and the promise of fish from Earl's
Lake, at mileage 74.5.  North, a  bridge carries
the Timiskaming Sub-Division across the Ottawa.
Mattawa, populous town, a forest products centre,
marking the junction of the Mattawa and Ottawa
Rivers, is aptly named  by the Indian word  for
meeting   of  waters.   Here  Champlain   ended   his
first journey of exploration and here, two years
later, he started up the Mattawa to Lake Nipissing,
the French River, Georgian Bay and Lake Huron, a
route  that  was  followed   many  years   by   early
explorers.   Mattawa   has   been   a   trading   post
since 1784.
More beaver dams and lodges, north of the
track at mileage 63, illustrate the industry of
Canada's national animal and at mileage 61, on
islands in the Ottawa River, have been found
traces of camp sites of the early explorers whose
route to the west still parallels the Canadian
Pacific main line. At mileage 50.5 indications of
man's harnessing of nature to produce power are
seen. The line takes a curve of almost 90°, and
from the track diversion necessitated by the dam
ming of the Ottawa River, the original main line
can be seen under water on the north side. At
Deux Rivieres the Magnassippi River enters the
Ottawa, the two rivers being responsible for the
station's name. The surrounding marsh land at
mileage 44.5 rewards keen watchers with signs of
beaver. Rapids, falls and lakes between mileages
40 and 39 interest fishermen and near Bissett,
at mileage 38, the transcontinental line crosses a
bridge once featured by Ripley. Three bridges
cross each other and Bissett Creek, the C.P.R. at
the top, the highway dnd a local road.
Here the Ottawa River comes in sight again,
swelled to greater width by the Des Joachims
dam a few miles downstream. Between mileages 32 and 31 the old line is visible again
on the north side and, between 31 and 30, another
90° curve brings the whole train in sight. Grant's
Creek is crossed and again, between mileage 28,
just east of Stonecliffe and mileage 26.5 the
widened Ottawa covers the old roadbed. At
mileage 22.4 a sawmill in a backwater of the big
river indicates the country's character. Look north
near mileage 19 for a good view of the Laurentian
Mountains across the river. The wooded landscape
is broken at mileages 18 and 16.5 by lakes south
and north respectively. At mileage 14, Moor Lake
lies south of the track. Moor Lake Station serves the
hydro-electric power station opened at Des
Joachims in 1950. The Canadian Pacific main line
track diversions you have travelled permit dams for
this new development which generates 480,000
h.p. Between mileages 13 and 12, Hart Lake is
renowned for good pickerel fishing, but Bass Lake
(mileage 9) is said to have been given its name in
derision. The stretch between mileages 14 and 7
is looked upon by hunters as good deer territory.
All told, the country covered by the North Bay Sub-
Division is characterized by geographical qualities
of equal interest to industrialists and fishermen.
Historians, too, find it a treasure trove. Chalk
River marks the junction of the North Bay and
Chalk River Sub-Divisions.
Chalk River Chalk River is served by the Chalk
Sub-Division River, for which it is named.
At Deep River, five miies from here, is Canada's
atomic energy plant, specializing in the production of atomic energy for peacetime purposes.
To the south lies Algonquin Provincial Park, a
wild-life sanctuary and holiday area established
by the government of Ontario. At mileage 106.5
the land both sides of the track begins to show the
scars of heavy armoured vehicles. To the south is
the artillery range of one of Canada's large army
training centres through which the line passes for
several miles. The entrance to Petawawa Military
Camp, called Montgomery's Crossing after Viscount Montgomery, famous World War II Field
Marshal, is located north of the line at mileage 105.
Many arms train here, but as the country testifies,
the emphasis is on mechanization. At Petawawa
the railway serves both civilian and military. Obvious signs of reforestation between mileage 101
and 98.5 will delight conservationists, Pembroke,
county seat of Renfrew, gateway to hunting country, marks the limit of Champlain's 1613 explora- tion of the Ottawa River. This busy city, named for
Pembroke in Wales, makes box shooks, match
blocks, matches, office furniture, pulp, lumber,
veneer and electrical appliances.
The hills in this area, especially north of the
track, are noted for the nesting of eagles. Separated from the Ottawa by a narrow range of hills
the Muskrat River, crossed at mileage 93.6, in a
country in which rivers flow east and south, reverses
this direction when seen at mileage 84.4. Snake
River station marks the crossing of Snake River by
the railway. At mileage 79 the spring and fall
migrations of Canada geese are a sight to remember, and, at mileage 74, Muskrat River justifies its
name. Cobden is a livestock centre named for the
19th Century British statesman, Haley's serves magnesium mines and the Chenaux Falls plant of the
Ontario Hydro-Electric Power Commission. At Payne,
junction is made with the Eganville Sub-Division to
the south. The West Bonnechere is bridged at mileage 59.8. Renfrew is noted for manufacturing
castings, woodworking, refrigerators, airplane engine parts, plastics, flour, feed and textiles. Sand
Point, a bar jutting into Chats Lake, to the north,
faces Norway Bay. Arnprior industriously devotes
itself to textiles, boat-building, electronics, dairy
products, lumbering and construction. Its name,
like that of Braeside, where the Ottawa River is
visible south of the track for the last time for 40
miles, is Scottish in origin. At mileage 40 the Mada-
waska River is crossed. It parallels the line to the
south as far as mile 39. Pakenham, marked by
attractive falls south of the railway, commemorates
General Sir E. M. Pakenham, killed at the Battle of
New Orleans in 1815. Wide meadows and well-
tended grain and root crops characterize this part
of Ontario. Not as large, well-travelled or well-
known as its counterpart, Canada boasts a Mississippi River which is spanned at mileage 32.4 and
17.6. Almonte is a textile centre. Note, south of
track, the clever use of mill tailraces of the Mississippi River in landscaping of gardens. Junction of
the Chalk River and Carleton Place Sub-Divisions
is made at Carleton Place.
Carleton Place Carleton Place is a manufacturing
Sub-Division and market centre serving a fine
farm area. From here to Ottawa the main line
leaves the river and takes a shorter route than
that of Pere Marquette, who with fur-trader Louis
Joliet, his co-explorer of the Mississippi, Ohio,
Arkansas, Illinois and Chicago Rivers, paddled up
the Ottawa River to Mattawa 350 years ago.
Since re-location of Ottawa's Union Station the
Carleton Place subdivision follows a direct route
through Stittville and Nepean to Bells Junction,
mileage 7.5, where it joins the new Ottawa Sub-
Division to enter the station.
M.  & O. The   Carleton   Place   Sub-division
Sub-Division joins the new Ottawa Sub-division
at Bells Junction, mileage 7.5, and proceeds over
a new route to mileage 3.89, Ottawa Sub-division,
to enter Ottawa's dramatically-new CP-CN Union
Station opened on July 1st, 1966. Removed from
its old site in the heart of the city, this modern new
Ottawa, showing the Rideau Canal, Confederation Square and
Parliament Buildings
rail terminal, built at a cost of $10 million, won an
award for architectural design and resulted from
Ottawa's continuing beautification program. Visible in the distance are the gothic towers of
Canada's Houses of Parliament, and beautiful
homes and imposing office structures are in the
vicinity. The area was first seen by Champlain de
Vigneau and Brule. First called Bytown, the city
was started by Colonel By, builder of the Rideau
Canal, in 1827, incorporated as "Ottawa" in 1854
and chosen as capital of Canada in 1858. The
line joins the Montreal and Ottawa (M. o\ O.) Subdivision at mileage 85.4 and follows a route
through picturesque farmlands and villages north
of the Ottawa River which is visible at several
places. Bourget, once known simply as "The
Brook", was named for Bishop Bourget, an early
head of the Roman Catholic diocese of Montreal.
Plantagenet, settled in 1798, wears an English
royal name, the South Nation River is crossed at
mileage 50.1, and Alfred, also settled in 1798, was
named for the son of George III. Vankleek Hill,
called after Simeon Vankleek — a Loyalist from
Dutchess County, N.Y., serves a rich farming area.
A century ago these farmlands were forests
that made many fortunes. Between St. Eugene
and Rigaud, mileage 21.6, the boundary between Ontario and Quebec is crossed. Rigaud,
where the Rigaud River is bridged, has a large
Seminary. In addition to industries and religious
institutions there is strange geological formation
known as "The Devil's Garden" here. The Ottawa
widens soon into the "Lake of the Two Mountains"
and the line passes through early established Como,
where, across the lake, the gleaming spire of Oka
Church marks the site of an early Hudson's Bay
Post which J. G. McTavish, who went to the relief
of David Thompson, the mapmaker and explorer,
in 1811, operated as factor. Isle Cadieux, a flag
station, marks Point Cavagnal where an early
missionary, Pere Garreau, was martyred by
Iroquois Indians in 1656. To the north, across the
flat, long farmlands the Ottawa heads for its
confluence   with   the   St.   Lawrence at Vaudreuil,
HALEY'S
PAYNE
RENFREW
MAYHEW
CASTLEFORD
SAND POINT
BRAESIDE
ARNPRIOR
PAKENHAM
SNEDDEN
ALMONTE
CARLETON PLACE
ASHTON
STITTVILLE
NEPEAN
BELLS JUNCTION
OTTAWA
BLACKBURN
NAVAN
LEONARD
BOURGET
PLANTAGENET
ALFRED
CALEDONIA SPRINGS
27 VANKLEEK HILL
STARDALE
ST. EUGENE
RIGAUD
DRAGON
CHOISY
ALSTONVALE
HUDSON HEIGHTS
HUDSON
COMO
ISLE CADIEUX
VAUDREUIL
Dorion
ILE PERROT
Terrace
STE. ANNES
Ste. Anne
de Bellevue
BAIE D'URFE
BEAUREPAIRE
BEACONSFIELD
POINTE CLAIRE
CEDAR PARK
LAKESIDE
VALOIS
STRATHMORE
PINE BEACH
DORVAL
GROVEHILL
LACH1NE
MONTREAL WEST
WESTMOUNT
WINDSOR STATION
MONTREAL
28
junction   of  the   M.   &   O.   and   Winchester  Sub-
Divisions.
Winchester Vaudreuil-Dorion, played a part
Sub-Division in the war of 1776, when de
Lorimier captured an invading American force. On
both sides of the island the Ottawa River flows into
the St. Lawrence — greatest river draining to the
Atlantic coast of North America. Its 1,900 miles
drains 359,000 square miles of Ontario, Quebec
and the north-eastern United States. He Perrot,
across the west channel of the Ottawa River, was
Lord Jeffery Amherst's camp in 1760 before the
capitulation of the French. Across the railway bridge
from lie Perrot is Ste. Anne de Bellevue. Below the
tracks are the locks used by vessels navigating
up and down the Ottawa. To the north a
veterans' hospital is close to the site of Du Lhut's
defeat of the Iroquois in 1690. Golf links and
bright new housing developments line the railway
now and there is increasing evidence that the long
journey from tidewater to tidewater — the longest
"Dome" ride in the world — is coming to an end.
North of the track, mileage 5.5, sprawls the international airport of Montreal, Dorval, followed by
the great Cote St. Luc marshalling yard of the
Canadian Pacific. Directly south is the industrial
suburb of Laehine, nostalgically so named for
LaSalle's dream of a route to China west of the
rapids.
Founded in 1642, Montreal is a city on an island
surrounded by the waters of the mighty St.
Lawrence which flows 1,000 miles to the sea, and
has become the world's largest inland seaport.
Terminus of CP Rail and CP Ship routes, CP Air
also links Montreal with other important cities in
Canada and to destinations in Mexico, South
America, Europe, Japan, China and Australasia.
Through more than three centuries, while growing from a fur-trading outpost to Canada's
metropolis, Montreal has retained its stimulating
Gallic flavour, reflected in hundreds of large and
small intimate restaurants blending Old World
culinary skills with those of the New World. Scores
of art centres, museums, new and beautiful theatres for the performing arts; recreation parks,
sports arenas and night clubs reflect the cosmopolitan tastes of a great world centre.
SIGNALS
Montreal's skyline has been made exciting by
new high-rise commercial structures and apartment houses and by new hotel complexes including
CP Hotel's magnificent Le Chateau Champlain, on
Place du Canada. Expo '67 focussed the eyes of
the world on Montreal.
..*..<
See page 8 for brief description of
automatic block signals*
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7
An artist's sketch of Place du Canada—38-storey Le Chateau
Champlain luxury hotel... 28-storey modern office building —
new Canadian Pacific complex in the heart of downtown Montreal.
iTnTrrTiTmT'
I Efflnnrmir
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■Ii Glass, steel and concrete towers create a new mid-town Montreal between mountain and i
travel
the Canadian
See more of Canada in 72 hours
than most people see in a lifetime.
Bcp
Rail
29 EASTWARD
Across Canada by CP Rail
THE MAIN LOUNGE
Tranquil pastel shades, harmonious as your own home
decoration; soft, clear lighting; luxuriously comfortable
chairs — moveable for chummy groupings; wall-to-wall
carpeting sympathetic in pattern to the decorative scheme;
wide picture windows — these
characterize the Main Lounge
of the CP Rail Scenic Dome
Lounge Sleeper.
1
7   *&
THE MURAL LOUNGE
Named for famous national
and provincial parks, the new
cars are disc-braked for
smooth starts, smooth running,
smooth stops. The Mural
Lounge, snugly ensconced below the upper level Scenic
Dome of CP Rail's smart, new
Lounge Sleeper Car, is original. Intimate as an exclusive
club, each Mural Lounge of
the 18 "Park" cars on the
transcontinental route has an
original mural of the national
or provincial park for which
the car is named, covering
two walls, signed by a member of the Royal Canadian
Academy of Arts. Banquette
seats, thoughtfully arranged,
and an etched-glass third wall
enhance these unique rooms. THE SCENIC DOME
Scenery along the world's
longest "Dome" ride, across
Canada from tidewater to
tidewater, is enjoyed most
from the upper level "Scenic
Dome". Vision all-around and
as high as the sky is provided
by glare-proof picture-windows. Twenty-four seats,
spaced for comfort and upholstered for ease, fitted with
individual ash trays and armrests are points of vantage in
air-conditioned spaciousness.
THE COFFEE SHOP
Deluxe Scenic Dome Coaches
are the ultimate in luxurious
economy for transcontinental
travellers who go the CP Rail
way. The "Skyline" coaches
feature a Coffee Shop for
economical meals in addition
to the 24-seat upper-level
Scenic Dome and 26 reserved
seats with adjustable full-
length leg rests for travel
comfort by day or night.
Wide, picture windows, decorator design and wall-to-wall
carpets add to their economical luxury.
The World's Longest Dome Ride
31 Travelling is for wining and dining,
relaxing and reading, and looking at
the scenery. Travelling is ...
The Canadian. Choose from a wide
range of accommodation at attractively-priced Faresaver Plan fares.
B
CP
Rail

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