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Manitoba, the Canadian north-west : a record of the results of the harvest of 1887 Canadian Pacific Railway Company Feb 29, 1888

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 '?r-
Manitoba
m
ITHE
Canadian North-West
A RECORD OF THE RESULTS OF THE
HARVEST OF 1887
With Maps and valuable information respecting the country
and its  lands; advice how and when to settle upon and
cultivate them; capital required, &c.,. &c,
Compiled from Letters ftom Actual Settlers.
Pebi«aat*y, 1888.
rm HOW TO PURCHASE RAILWAY LAUDS.
Regulations for the Sale of Lands of the Canadian Pacific Railway Company.
The Canadian Pacific Railway Company offer for sale some of the finest Agricultural Lands
in Manitoba and the North-West The lands belonging to the Company in each Township within
the Railway belt, which extends twenty-four miles from each side of the main line, will be
disposed of at prices ranging
FROM $2.50 PER ACRE UPWARDS.
DETAILED  PRICES OF LANDS CAN  BE OBTAINED FROM THE LANE  COMMISSIONER AT WINNIPEG.
{These Regulations are substituted for and cancel those hitherto in force.)
TERMS   OF   PAYMENT.
If paid for in full at time of purchase, a Deed of Conveyance of the land will be given;
but the purchaser may pay one-tenth in cash, and the balance in payments spread over nine
years, with interest at six per cent, per annum, payable at the end of the year with each instalment. Payments may be made in Land Grant Bonds, which will be accepted at ten per cent.
. premium on their par value, with accrued interest. These bonds can be obtained on application
at the Bank of Montreal, or at any of its agencies in Canada or the United States.
GENERAL   CONDITIONS.
All sales are subject to the following general conditions:
1. All improvements placed upon land purchased to be maintained thereon until final payment has been made.
2. All taxes and assessments lawfully imposed upon the land or improvements to be paid
by the purchaser.
3. The Company reserve from sale, under these regulations, all mineral and coal lands;
and lands containing timber in quantities, stone, slate and marble quarries, lands with water-
power thereon, and tracts for to. | sites and railway purposes.
4. Mineral, coal and timber lands and quarries, and lands controlling water-power, will
be disposed of on very moderate terms to.persons giving satisfactory evidence of their intention
and ability to utilize the same.
Liberal rates for settlers and their effects will be granted by the Company over its Railway.
For further particulars apply to
L. A. HAMILTON, Land Commissioner, Canadian Pacific Eailway Co., Winnipeg.
SOUTHERN   MANITOBA   LANDS.
The completion of the Manitoba South-Western Colonization Railway to Deloraine, a point in the neighborhood
of Whitewater Lake and to Glenboro, has made available for homesteading a large area of excellent land, which has
hitherto been undesirable in only one particular—the absence of railway communication.
For those desirous of purchasing, the LAND GRANT of the MANITOBA SOUTH-WESTERN COLONIZATION
RAILWAY COMPANY, only now placed on the market, offers special attractions. It consists of over 1,000,000 acres
of the choicest land in America, well adapted for grain growing and mixed farming, in a belt 21 miles wide, immediately north of the International Boundary, and from range 13^westward. That portion of this grant lying between
range 13a,nd the western limit of Manitoba is well settled, the homesteads having been long taken up. Purchasers
will ah once have all the advantages of this early settlement, such as schools, churches and municipal organization.
The fertility of the soil has been amply demodstrated by the splendid crops that have been raised from year to year
in that district. The country is well watered by lakes and streams, the principal of which are Rock Lake, Pelican
Lake, Whitewater Lake, and the Souris River and its tributaries, while never-failing spring creeks take their rise in
the Turtle Mountain. Wood is plentifulffiBK&Jjamber suitable for building purposes is manufactured at Desford,
Deloraine and Wakopa, and may be purchay&d ^treasonable prices. At the two latter points grist mills are also in
operation.
The terms of purchase of the -^Sj^pba South-Western Colonization Railway Company are
the same as those of the Canadian I^ccific Railway Company.
J FARMING  IN   MANITOBA.
EXPERIENCE  OF ACTUAL  SETTLERS.
INTRODUCTORY  REMARKS.
Circulars asking information drawn from personal experience in agriculture, and
calculated to be useful to persons intending to settle in the Canadian North-West, were
lately addressed to a large number of the farming residents of that Province. These
farmers were known to he men of intelligence and probity, desirous of aiding, to the
hest of their ability, anyone thinking of making for himself a new home on the prairies.
Of the circulars referred tos which contained no less than forty-four questions, a large
number have "been returned, fully replied to. The information they contain is circumstantial, exact, and of the utmost utility j and the earliest opportunity has "been taken to
put it into print.
In arranging the contents of these circulars foT this publication, similar questions
have been grouped into classes* under which have been collated the accompanying
answers. This avoids confusion, and enables the reader to get, all at once, the testimony
in reference to a particular subject, without having to mix with it what relates to a
different topic.
This book is only a first instalment; and, it must be remembered, relates wholly to
the Province of Manitoba. As additional answeru|ji|\3 received they will be published
and distributed. ■:
(*■ I.—SOIL AND CAPITAL.
It will be noticed in the first of the replies to the following questions that the
majority of those furnishing answers have been only half a dozen years in the country.
Many of them had nothing at all beyond the bare land when they began, and some were
in debt; yet these seem to have done about as well,—that is, have increased the value of
their property by as large a percentage,—as have the more fortunate men who had con-
' siderable capital to begin with. This shows conclusively that in the Canadian North-
West the chances are relatively as good for the poor man as for his richer neighbor.
There seems to be some ambiguity in some cases as to whether the correspondents, in
answering the third question, have included the value of their improvements in their
estimates, or have given only the value of the land alone.
In the description of the soil there is great uniformity; and it appears that Manitoba
everywhere has a thick, almost black, top-soil of clayey (sometimes sandy) loam, underlaid
with a great depth of gravels and clays.
Questions j
1. When did you settle in Manitoba t
2. How much capital had you ?
3. What do you consider the present value, of your farm ?
4. What is the general nature and depth of soil on your farm f
Answers :
Name and Address.
Manitoba.
hen
ettled.
pital.
-go a
Character of Soil.
£«
ci
Ph      o
John J. Cochrane, Deloraine...
1879
$  100
$ 2,000
Black clay loam, 18 in. deep, with heavy
clay subsoil.
W. J. Helliwell, Ralphton...
1878
45
1,500
Black sandy loam, two feet deep.
Albert E. Philp, Brandon ...
1881
700
2,000
Dark sandy loam, mixed with clay.
John Q. Sumner, Arnaud	
1878
500
2,500
Black loam, 4 in. deep; clay subsoil.
William Corbett, Springfield.
1870
500
5,000
Black clay, 2 or 3 ft. deep.
Agenor Dubuc, Lorette	
1874
100
5,000
Loam, 3 to 4 ft. deep.
Thomas A. Sharpe, Adelpha...
1877
None
7,000
Btafk loam, underlaid by yellow clay.
W. B. Thomas, Cypress River..
1871
None
2,000
Black sandy loam, 1\ ft. deep, with clay
subsoil. p
Name and Address.
T3
«8
fl <D fl
Character of Soil.
Manitoba.
t>DQ
Geo. Forbes & Sons, Treherne.
1882
$3,500
$6,500
From 2£ to 3 ft. of black soil, as rich as I
have ever seen in a garden in Ontario.
F. W. Stephenson, Hill View..
1$83
5,000
12,000
Six in. to 1 ft. of loam, with clay subsoil.
S. W. Chambers, Wattsview...
1879
None
6,000
A part is rich loam, 18 in. deep, overlying a
clay subsoil, and part a sandy loam.
Nokris Fines, Balmoral	
1878
None
2,000
Sandy loam.
Geo. G. Downie, Crystal City...
1880
None
2,500
Alluvial deposit 3 ft. deep.
W. B. Hall, Headingly	
1858
300
10,000
Black clay loam, 1 to 2 ft. deep.
James R. Routley, Carberry...
1882
20
2,200
Clay loam, 3\ ft. deep, with stiff clay bottom.
Alfred Pickering, Austin	
1880
None
2,000
Sandy loam, 2 ft. deep.
R. Dunsmore, Bridge Creek...
1880
None
2,000
Black loam, 18 in. deep.
Harold Elliot, Morden	
1880
400
2,000
Level prairie, sandy soil.
Thos. D. Perdue, Richlands....
1881
800
1,600
Clay loam, 2 ft. deep.
R. S. Conklin, Sunny side......
1876
None
3,000
Heavy black loam, 16 in. to 4 ft. deep.v
B. R. Hamilton, Neepawa	
1880
None
2,000
Rich black loam, 18 in. deep, with clay subsoil.
Black mould 2\ ft. thick, with clay subsoil.
Alf. Walker, Shepardville	
1882
500
3,000
D. D. Buchanan, Griswold	
1880
None
1,200
A heavy dark, sometimes mixed with sand.
S. F. Burgess, Seeburn	
1882
1880
200
None
2,000
10,000
One ft. of black loam with clay subsoil.
J. G. Elliott, Shadeland	
Black clay loam, from 2 to 7 ft. deep.
Chas. Findlay, Shoal Lake....
1879
200
6,000
Black loam, 1 to 2 ft. deep.
P. J.McNaughton, Raven Lake.
1882
150
2,500
Black loam, about 18 in. deep; clay sub-soil.
John George, Nelson	
1877
None
3,000
Deep clay loam.
James Laidlaw, Clearwater...
1881
800
!  4,000
Deep black clay loam.
Blackloam, 2 ft. deep, with clay subsoil.
Andrew Johnston, Mowbray...
1880
2,000
5,000
Alex. Naismith, Millford	
1880
1.500
4,000
Black loam, 1 to 2 ft. deep, overlying clay.
George M. Yeomans, Dalton...
1873
2,000
12,000
Surface, mellow, rich and black; subsoil,
porous clay.
Charles C Oke, Fairwood	
1882
100
3,500
About 16 in. of rich black loam; the hills
are gravelly.
William Thompson, Holland..
1882
1,000
5,000
Sandy loam, of great depth.
Thos. Frame, Virden	
1882
800
6,000
Clay loam, with sandy clay subsoil.
Thos. Hagyard, Pilot Mound..
1878
300
4,000
Black clay loam.
Richard Brown, Langvale	
1882
800
4,800
Soil varying from light to heavy, and from
12 to 24 in. in depth.
C. Wheatland, Donore	
1880
500
3,000
Heavy black clay loam.
18 in. of black sandy loam.
18 in. of black loam.
Henry Last, Stonewall	
1872
150
1,500
2,000
Stephen Birks, Bamsley	
1882
None
F. S. Menarey, Cartwright	
1885
400
1,000
Sandy loam, 2 ft. deep.
Albert McGuffin, Melgund...
1881
None
3,500
Black sandy loam, over clay.
Wm. Walton, Marring hurst...
1885
None
3,000
A " quick " soil, varying in composition.
A. H. Carroll, Carrollton	
1882
1,600
5,000
Heavy, clayey, black loam.
F. P. West wood, Pendennis...
1880
300
3,200
Light; some clay and some sandy subsoil;
from 8 to 24 in. deep.
William Smith, Beaver Creek..
1880
1,(G>
2,000
Black loam.
W. S. Wallace, SheUmouth....
.1881
150
1,000
Sandy loam, 18 in. deep. Name and Address.
Manitoba.
c 2 8
Character of SoiL
Alex. Stewart, Casileavery..
Joseph. Tees, Manitou	
'Geo. Gillespie, Greenwood....
R. Armstrong, Silver Spring..
CrotoNxMcGuire, Boissevain..
Wm. Summerville, Montefiore.
George U. White, Foxton....
James Muir, Douglas	
L. Wilson, Stockton	
D. W. Grimmett, Elm Valley.
William J. Brown, Melita	
George G. Nagy, Rosser	
Alvah Gilbert, Wakefield....
R. B. Wetherington, Douglas
W. H. Bridgeman, Wellwood.
T. H. Jackson, Minnedosa...
Victor Major, St. Boniface...
John Duncan, Austin	
Wm. A. Doyle, Beulah ,
1882
1879
1873
1879
1879
1883
1874
1880
1881
1882
1881
1879
1884
1879
1883
1878
1859
Matthew Kennedy, Lothair..
Geo. Bowders, Balmerino	
John A. Mair, Souris	
M. G. Abey, Chater	
William Lindsay, Emerson....
James Drury, Rapid, City :
James Little, Oak River	
J. Connell & Son, Creeford...
A. Davison, Green Ridge	
John Skencer, Emerson.....	
F.   A. /Brydon,   Portage  La\
Praifie...\	
Thos. McCartney	
Roland McDonald, Lowestoft.
Wm. H. Wilson, Deloraine...
1878
1874
1882
1877
1880
1879
1880
1879
1882
1871
1881
1875
1878'
1879
1882
500
None
1,000
1,500
3,000
800
1,200
1,000
100
None
1,000
500
40
None
100
3
100
1,000
None
3,000
450
None I
600 j
150 j
1,000 !
1,500
200
1,000 |
750
None
1,800 |
300 I
2,000
2,500
3,000
2,000
6,000
6,000
2,000
3,000
4,500
1,000
1,500
2,400
2,000
3,000
1,600
6,500
5,000
4,000
5,000
4,800
4,000
5,000
3,500
4,000
1,700
5,000
3,000
5,000
2,500
Black loam and hay land.
Black loam, 10 to 20 in. deep, with shale
subsoil.
Fine sandy loam, with clay subsoil.
Deep black loam, with good clay underneath.
Black loam, 2 ft. deep.
Black loam.
Black loam, 1 ft. deep.
From 12 to 18 in. of black, heavy soil, and
then a subsoil of clay.
Black loam 12 in. deep, with clay subsoil.
Black and heavy clay loam.
Black clay loam, with clay subsoil.
A heavy soil about 4 ft. deep; level plain
and hayland.
Sharp, light sandy loam.
Partly sandy loam, and the rest heavy black
clay, about 4 ft. deep.
Deep black loam, with sandy subsoil.
Black loam, 6 to 27 in. deep.
Heavy black loam.
Sandy and clayey loam.
Sandy loam and heavy clay, 1 to 10* ft. of
good soil.
Sandy loam, 18 to 24 in. deep.
Black loam, with clay subsoil of great depth.
Clay loam, 18 in. deep.
Heavy clay loam.
Black soil, 2 to 4 ft. deep.
(Thick black loam, on clay subsoil.
Two ft. of very rich black loam.
Black loam, overlying clay.
Rolling prairie of black loam; clay sub-soil.
Heavy black loam, very deep.
6,000 Heavy clay, with 2 ft. of loam on top.
8,000 Loam, 2 to 3 ft. deep.
3,000 Sandy loam, 3 ft. deep.
5,000 Clay loam 18 in. deep, with clay subsoil. II.—beginni
The next group of questions refers to the beginning of a farm.    The general opinion
soon as the sod is well decomposed ; the process of decomposition apparently takes abou
then harrowing only.    It appears that oats, barley, roots and wheat will yield a fair cro
•a crop vary with the locality, and also with the amount of timber or scrub encumbering
observing the answers following.
Ques
1. When is the best time for breaking and back-setting ?
2. Do you consider that a partial crop can be obtained the first year, off " breaking;" and if so,
3. What is the cost per acre of breaking to a farmer doing his own work t
4. What do you consider the cost per acre of preparing new land and sowing it with wheat, including
5. What kind of fencing material do you use, and what is its cost per rod f
Name and Address.
Manitoba.
Date
Breaking.
of
Back-setting.
John K. Ross, Deloraine	
Early spring	
James McConechy, Virden	
Early spring	
July 15	
July 15	
July 15	
W. J. Helliwell, Ralphton	
Mav to June 15	
George H. Halse, Brandon	
John Cumming, Minnedosa	
May to July 7	
Agenor Dubuc, Lorette	
June 15 to Aug. 1	
June	
W. B. Thomas, Cypress River	
Robert Renwick, Carberry	
Robert Campbell, Bridge Creek	
September	
Thomas D. Perdue, Rxchlands	
B. R. Hamilton, Neepawa	
Fall	
D. D. Buchanan, Griswold	
September	
Early fall	
y
Fall
Charles Findlay, Shoal Lake	
J. G. Elliott, Shadeland -..
A. H. Scouten, Raven Lake	
William Thompson, Holland	
George E. Yeomans, Dalton	
Fall	
Richard BrowN, Langvale	
Before June 15	
After July 15	
Cornelius Wheatland, Donore. ,	 ng a farm.
is, that the breaking of new land should be done in May or June, and back-setting as
two months. Many correspondents express preference for deep ploughing at first, and
on.land first ploughed, the same spring. The statistics as to cost of breaking and raising
the land.    These circumstances also affect the amount of a day's work, as will be seen by
TIONS :
what is the best seed to sow f t
seed and harvesting f
Can Crop be Taken off
Breaking.
Potatoes, turnips, oa+s and flax do
well
No,
Oats do fairly well	
Got 10 bu. wheat and 75 bu. potatoes
first year	
Not here	
Six to 10 bu. wheat	
Oats, potatoes or turnips	
No.
Wheat or oats	
Good wheat and barley	
Never succeeded	
Oats, potatoes or wheat in a moist
season 	
Do not advise it	
If broken early and shallow; oats—
I have grown 45 bu., but it spoilsl
the land	
Potatoes and turnips only	
It spoils the ground	
Half a crop in a moist season	
Yes—flax, barley and potatoes	
Not around Portage La Prairie, but|
does well westward	
Cost per
acre
breaking.
$2 50
1 50
1 25
2 00
2 00
3 00
1 50
2 00
1 50
2 50
1 50
2 50
2 00
2 50
4 00
1 85
1 50
$1 50
$6.80, including   !
board of one man
6 50
|5 00, without help
Total cost
per acre
including
Harvesting.
9 00
7 00
7 00
7 20 first crop
6 00 to 7 00
8 00
5 00
Poles, 20c. •
Wire, 18c.    .
Wire, 18c.
Wire and top rail, 40c.
Wire, 14c.
6 75
6 65
7 00
10 00
5 00
7 00
00 to 8 00
Fencing and cost
per rod.
Wire, 25c.
|Two wires, 20c.
Wire, 25c.
Rails and wire
Rails, 10c.; wire, 20c.
Wire
Wire
Wire. 25c.
Wire, 16c.
Wire
Wire
Poles', 15c.
Wire
Sometimes, %here sod is not too)
dense	
2 50
00
Three Wires, 25c. Name and Address.
Manitoba.
Stephen Birks, Barnsley	
T. S. Menarey, Cartwright.	
A. H. Carroll, CarroUton	
William S. Wallace, SheUmouth..
Alexander Stewart, Castleavery..
Joseph Tees, Manitou..........	
J. R. Routley, Carberry..
Oswald Bowie, Morden..
Geo. C Wright, Boissevain	
W. J. Brown, Melita	
Robert B. Witherington, Douglas.
G. R. Black, Wellwood .	
Gjeo. Jackson, Neepawa....	
John Duncan, Austin ,	
Wm. A. Doyle, Beulah	
John A. Mair,Souris	
James Drury, Rapid City	
J, Connell & Son, Creeford	
E. D. Young, Brandon	
James Muir, Douglas	
Peter Campbell, Campbettville	
M. G. Abey, Chater	
Wm. H. Wilson, Deloraine .....
Roland McDonald, Lowestoft	
F. A. Brydon, Portage La Prairie.,
John Spencer, Emerson	
D. W. Grimmett, Elm Valley	
Andrew Davison, Green Ridge	
L. Wilson, Stockton	
R. S. Conklin, Sunny side	
George U. White, Foxton	
James Little, Oak River.......
William Lindsay, Emerson..
Walter Gray, Chater	
Matthew Kennedy, Loihair..
A. T. Tyerman, Loihair..
Victor Major, St. Boniface....
John S. Martin, Rapid City..
George G. Nagy, Rosser	
Wm. S. Moody, Rounthwaite..
June	
June and July..
Early spring....
Spring	
May and June..
June.....	
May or June.,
June	
Date  of
Breaking.
Before July	
May and June..
May and June..
June	
'June	
June	
June	
June	
June	
June	
June	
June	
June	
June	
May	
Before July 12..
June	
June	
June	
June	
Early spring
June and July..
May and June..
June ,
May	
June	
June-
June..
June..
June..
June..
Back-setting.
May	
September	
When ready..
Fall	
September	
October	
Early fall	
After harvest-
When ready	
August	
August	
When ready	
September „.
October	
October	
When ready	
August	
August	
August	
August	
September	
Early fall	
Before harvest..
September	
When ready	
August ,
Fall.
Fall..
July.
Fall	
When ready.,
July	
August	
August.
August.
October.
August.. Can crop be Taken off
Breaking.
Oats	
Wheat or peas	
Oats	
Oats sometimes succeed ,
Oats ; as good as after back-setting..
Wheat and oats may succeed, but
not advised ,
Peas or potatoes ,
Oats will do, but spoils the land for
two years ,
It can; oats or wheat	
In a wet season; flax, oats or wheat-
Half a crop on light land	
Not here	
Twenty to 35 bushels	
Not profitable	
Yes—but oats and roots only ,
Never done here	
Oats and potatoes	
Have known 40 bushels of oats.......
Not advisable	
Not advisable	
Not advisable	
A partial crop of almost anything..,
Not advisable	
Better not try	
Not here	
Oats, plowed in.; or flax, on breaking, do well	
No	
Yes; flax or oats ,	
Ten or 15 bushels Red Fyfe wheat..
I have seen 30 bushels of flax	
Good on bushy land; white Fyfe
wheat ,
Oats and potatoes ploughed in	
Have had 25 bush, in a wet season..
Not desirable	
Nothing except roots, and only in a
wet season ,
Nothing except roots, and only in a
wet season  '
Haifa crop of wheat or oats ,
Ten to 12 bushels of oats or barley.,
No; soil requires too much workin
In a wet year oats or flax '.
Cost per
acre
Breaking.
1 50
2 00
1 75
1 00
2 50
2 50
2 50
3 00
2 50
2 50
2 00
2 00
2 50
2 00
2 00
2 00
2 00
1 75
1 50
3 00
1 00
3 00
$2 00
2 50
3 25
2 00
2 00
1 00
1 75
1 25
2 25
Total Cost
per acre,
includrng
Harvesting.
Fencing and Cost
per rod.
6 00
7 00
4 25
5 00
6 00
9 00
10 00
7 50
6 00
8 50
7 30
11 00
6 00
5 50
8 00
7 00
7 50
5 50
5 25
6 00
10 40
6 85
9 00
7 00
6 00
8 00
4 00
8 00
$8 50
6 00
8 00
6 00
8 00
7 60
5 00
7 75
6 50
9 50
Wire, 30c.
None needed
Wire
Wire and top rail
Rails
None
Rails and wire, 25c.
Wire
Poles
Two wires, 25c.
|Two wires, 30c.
Two wires, 22c.
One wire, 8£c.
Rails, 25c.
Two wires, 28c.
Wire, 35c.
None used
Wire, 20c.
None used
Wire, 20c.
Wire
.None used
Wire, 65c.
|Wire, 35c.
None used
Wire
Wire, 25c.
Two wires, 20c.
Rails or wire
None used
Wire, 20c.
Two wires, 28c.
Wire, 35c.
Two wires, 30c.
Wire
Two wires, 32c. 10
Name and Address.
Manitoba.
Date of
Breaking.   «►              Back-setting.
J. Paynter, Beulah                	
June	
September	
William Somerville, Montefiore	
Early	
R. Armstong, Silver Spring	
After seeding	
When ready	
Donald J. McQuish, Morden	
June	
September	
Fall	
William MacDonald, Virden	
George Gillespie, Greenwood	
Fall	
Donald Fraser, Emerson	
July	
R. E. Hopkins, Beresford....
Early fall	
William Smith, Beaver Creek	
June	
August	
F. T. West wood, Pendennis....                     	
William Walton, Marringhurst	
May	
When ready	
J. E. Stirton, Cartwright	
Henry Last, Stonewall	
John Hopper, Middlechurch	
Thomas Hagyard, Pilot Mound	
Thomas Frame, Virden	
Alex. Naismith, Millford	
When ready	
When ready	
When ready	
August	
Andrew Johnston, Mowbray	
. J une	
James Laidlaw, Clearwater	
P. J. MacNaughton, Raven Lake 4	
June	
S. F. Burgess, Seeburn	
August	
July	
Alfred Walker, Shepardville	
Harold Elliot, Morden	
John Q. Sumner, Arnaud	
Early Fall	
Henry McLeod, Carberry	
Alfred Pickering, Austin	
W. B. Hall, Headingly ■	
April	
Mav ...
George G. Downie, Crystal City	
Samuel W. Chambers, Wattsview	
June	
June	
Early fall	
Charles Wilson, Treherne	
Fall
J. J. Cochrane, Deloraine	
June	
June	
Inly or August	
Spring or Fall	
William Corbett, Sprinafield	 11
Can Crop be Taken off
Breaking.
In a wet year oats or flax	
Bad policy	
Not as arule	
Wheat, barley and oats	
Not to be trusted	
Yes; of oats, potatoes and turnips...
A three-quarters crop if started early
Haifa crop of oats....	
No.
Not profitable.,
No.
Cost per
acre
Breaking.
Roots do well	
Only in exceptionally wet seasons...
Average crop in favorable weather-
Good crop of oats	
Oats, but do not recommend it	
Spoils the land	
Spoils the land	
Haifa crop on light land	
Fair crop of oats and flax	
Not advisable	
Wheafrdoes well; barley better	
Good crop of oats on light land	
Yes—flax	
Oats or turnips yield well in a rainy
season	
Doesn't, pay |
A fair crop of oats	
Oats or wheat if the season is wet...
A scanty crop on sandy loam, wheat
or barley	
In loose soil and a damp season	
Oats	
Yes; but not advisable	
Certainly; oats or roots	
Oats or potatoes j
Not advisable ; but potatoes do bestj.
2 00
0 75
2 00
2 50
3 00
2 00
2 00
1 75
2 50
2 50
1 50
2 00
2 00
3 00
3 00
2 50
2 00
3 00
2 50
2 00
1 50
2 50
2 50
2 25
2 50
1 50
$1 50
2 50
2 50
2 50
2 00
2 00
2 50
2 00
Total cost
per acre
including
Harvesting.
6 50
7 00
6 00
8 25
9 00
12 50
6 00
10 50
8 50
10 00
5 75
6 00
7 70
6 00
6 50
3 25
8 00
6 00
7 00
6 00
7 50
7 00
6 50
7 00
8 00
$6 50
8 00
10 00
5 20
7 70
11 00
7 50
7 00
11 00
Fencing and Cost
per rod.
None used
None used
Three wires, 32c.
Rails
Two wires, 32c
Rails
Thick wire
None used
Wire, 40c.
Four wires, 40c,
Poles
Wire and rail
Wire
Wire, 35c.
Wire
Two wires, 20c
Wire, 17c.
Wire, 15c.
Two wires, 12c
Wire, 50c
Wire
One wire, 10c
Wire
Wire, 20c
Wire
Wire.
Rails, 40c
Wire, 75c
Three wires, 35c
Wire
None used
Poles, 20c 12
III. statistics
We have here statistics in regard to their principal crops, from about 125 farmers, in
that very few crops of wheat' averaged less than 25 bushels to the acre, and quite half
per acre, and a few from 40 to 46. These are not the products of small patches under
bushels an acre, from 80 acres, will be noticed, as an example.
average of 60 to 80 bushels, and barley of 50 bushels. These are good crops, but equally
as a rule, and sometimes much more; turnips, 1,000 bushels in some cases; carrots, 400
flax, which is extensively raised in all parts of the province, but especially toward the
Hops, also, do exceedingly well, though no statistics in regard to them are presented here,
zone grows in Manitoba luxuriantly, reaching a size, in manp cases, quite unheard of
flowers, too, a matter of no little concern to the wives and daughters of the colonists, and
Ques
1. How many acres have you under cultivation, including this year's breaking f
2. How many acres had you under the following crops this season, and the average yield per acre:
3. What was your average yield per acre, in bushels, of the following crops this season: Potatoes,
4. What is your experience in raising vegetables, and what varieties have you grown f
Name and Address.
Total
acres
Cultivated.
Acreage and average of the following crdps:
Manitoba.
Wheat.
Oats.
Barley.
Geo. H. Halse, Brandon	
120
160
45
75
200
52
120
55
50 acres, 30 bus.
60 acres, 25 bus.
3 acres, 35 bus.
12 acres, 30 bus.
60 acres, 34 bus.
9 acres, 35 bus.
35 acres, 32 bus.
 25 bus.
25 acres, 40 bus.
12 acres, 45 bus.
13 acres, 45 bus.
22 acres, 40 bus.
50 acres, 60 bus.
16 acres, 45 bus.
 46 bus.
W. J. Helliwell, Ralphton	
! -^
Thos. A. Sharpe, Adelpha	
12 acres, 45 bus.
JohnCumming, Minnedosa	
G. G. Downie, Crystal City	
 60 bus.
.;. 25 bus.
 40 bus.
9 acres, 50 bus.
28 acres, 35 bus.
 35 bus.
T. D. Perdue, Richlands	
30
185
15 acres, 30 bus.
85 acres, 30 bus.
Chas. C. Oke, Fairburn	
13 acres, 30 bus. 13
OF production.
all quarters of Manitoba, as furnished by the yield of the season of 1887. It will be seen
reached or approached an average of 30 bushels. A score or so report 35 or more bush els
especially favorable conditions, but general results upon large farms. One record of 45
Similar statistics are given for oats and barley. Oats, it will be seen, often yield an
good ones are reported in the list of roots : potatoes, it appears, yielding 300 to 400 bushels
to 800 ; peas and beans, 20 to 50; and cabbages, 500. Onions make a grand crop, and
south, yields from 12 to 25 bushels of seed to the acre, and furnishes an excellent fibre.
As for vegetables, it is only necessary to say that every kind suitable to the temperate
elsewhere. The generous soil and climate reward bountifully any effort to cultivate
one to which most men are not indifferent.
TIONS:
Wheat—oats—barley t
turnips, carrots, peas, beans, flax f
Average yield, in bushels.
Vegetables.
Potatoes.
Turnips.
Carrots.
Peas.
Beans.
Flax.
Heavy
200
Asparagus, lettuce, radishes, parsnips, cabbage, cauliflower, beans,
melons, citrons, beets, onions,
green peas, carrots, rhubarb and
sweet corn have all done very well.
I have raised nearly all usually
grown in Canada.
All, including the less hardy sorts,
like vegetable oysters,flourish here
Cabbages, tomatoes, cucumbers, etc
My experience has been very satisfactory with all kinds.
Never saw better.
300
250
150
1000
300
12
320
300
200
No trouble to raise any vegetable.
Soil well suited to them.   I saw potatoes this year weighing 4^ pounds.
Nearly all kinds.
Very successful.
All garden sorts with much success.
300
200
400
350
150
600 14
I
Name and Address.
Manitoba.
Total
acres
Cultivated.
S. W. Chambers, Wattsview	
F. W. Stevenson, HUlview	
W. D. Thomas, Cypress River..
W. B. Hall, Headingly	
G. Forbes & Sons, Treherne	
A. Pickering, Austin	
D. A. Buchanan, Griswold	
Alfred Walker, Sheppardville..
R. S. Conklin, Sunny side	
Alex. Naismith, Milford	
Wm. Thompson, Holland	
Thos. Hagyard, Pilot Mound...
Richard Brown, Langdale	
Geo. M. Yeomans, Dalton	
Jas. Laidlaw, Clearwater	
John George, Nelson j
P. J. McNaughton, Ramn Lake\
Chas. Findlay, Shoal Lake	
J. G. Elliott, . Shadeland	
S. F. Burgess, Serburn	
Wm. Walton, Marringhurst	
T. S. Menarey, Cartwright	
Henry Last, Stonewall I
John Hoppe&, Middlechurch j
Cornelius Wheatland, Donore\
Wm. Smith, Beaver Creek ,
Wm. S. Wallace, Shellmouth.
Alex. Stewart, Castleavery..
, 200
330
80
100
130
64
50
85
30
220
130
156
100
500
140
100
140
13,6
200
70
160
23
80
20
100
75
43
15
Acreage and average of the following crops:
Wheat.
70 acres, 35 bus.
240 acres, 25 bus.
50 acres, 25 bus.
14 acres, 30 bus.
70 acres, 44 bus.
39 acres, 30 bus.
25 acres, 27 bus.
49 acres, 28 bus,
19 acres, 33 bus,
160 acres, 35 bus.
80 acres, 32 bus.
108 acres, 22 bus.
40 acres, 29 bus,
.... acres, 32 bus,
40 acres, 26 bus.
42 acres, 34 bus,
25 acres, 37 bus,
5 acres, 36 bus
130 acres, 28 bus.
28 acres, 27 bus,
110 acres, 31 bus,
20 acres, 30 bus,
6 acres, 18 bus.
30 acres, 27 bus.
48 acres, 33 bus.
30 acres, 20 bus,
5 acres, 25 bus.
Oats.
25 acres, 60 bus
80 acres, 40 bus
20 acres, 40 bus.
7 acres, 55 bus.
29 acres, 70 bus.
4 acres, 30 bus.
8 acres, 50 bus.
12 acres, 60 bus.
5 acres, 75 bus.
50 acres, 65 bus.
25 acres, 56 bus.
28 acres, 40 bus.
13 acres, 72 bus.
A., acres, 71 bus.
30 acres, 50 bus.
15 acres, 45 bus.
15 acres, 16 bus.
33 acres, 60 bus.
42 acres, 45 bus.
8 acres, 40 bus.
40 acres, 43 bus.
Barley.
.... acres, 54 bus.
20 acres, 30 bus.
20 acres, 30 bus.
16 acres, 47 bus.
> acres, 50 bus.
10 acres, 40 bus.
10 acres, 35 bus.
7 acres, 20 bus.
8 acres, 30 bus.
6 acres, 22 bus.
1 acre, 40 bus.
10 acres, 38 bus.
12 acres, 50 bus.
20 acres, 30 bus.
10 acres, 42 bus.
13 acres, 35 bus.
22 acres, 52 bus.
10 acres, 40 bus.
12 acres, 34 bus.
6 acres, 54 bus.
6 acres, 30 bus.
4 acres, 36 bus. 15
Average yield, in bushels.
Vegetables.
Potatoes.
Turnips.
Carrots.
, Peas.
Beans.
Flax.
360
800
Very successful;   onions,  cabbage,
400
cauliflower,  tomatoes, corn, peas,
beans, carrots, parsnips, squash,
citrons, cucumbers.
Very little trouble to raise them.   I
300
200
600
cultivate the Early Rose potato
and Swede turnip.
They do well.
250
350
300
20
20
12
Very successful in all kinds. I have
had 225 bus. of tomatoes to theacre.
Grow to perfection, but insect pests
have given me some trouble.
With sufficient rain Manitoba vege
300
400
400
350
tables  can equal the best.
In small quantities,. the cabbage,
pea, pumpkin, squash, cucumber,
beet, carrot, onion and rhubarb
all do well here ; but tomatoes and
Indian corn do not succeed.
Can heartily recommend the pra-
rie for cabbages and onions.
Best soil I ever saw, but grubs are
troublesome.
Not had good luck with them.
250
200
30
400
300
600
700
800
10
Have raised nearly every sort.
350
300
All do well.
350
I had  2,000 rhubarb roots in full
350
bearing; many roots yielded 10
lbs. at a single picking.
All do remarkably well.
They do exceptionally well.
Have never seen better.
400
	
600
400
200
150
All sorts of garden produce.
All kinds, including some delicate
350
520
500
40
ones.
300
All kinds.
300
200
20
All very easilv raised.
300
15
jAll very easily raised.
250
350
200             150
Fair         Good.
250
Good.
	
temperate zone flourishes here.
! All kinds. II
16.
Name and Address.
Manitoba.
R. E. Hopkins, Beresford	
Donald Fraser, Emerson	
Joseph Tees, Manitou	
Andrew Johnston, Mowbray	
Oswald Bowie, Morden	
William McDonald, Virden	
William S. Moody, Rounthwaite
S. R. Henderson, Kildonan	
Wm. Somerville, Montefiore	
G. C. Wright, Boisevain	
J. R. Routley, Carberry	
T. M. Kennedy. Menota	
R. Armstrong, Silver Spring	
John H. Martin, Rapid City	
F. B. Witherington, Douglas...!
G. R. Black, Wellwood	
S. D. Barr, Neepawa	
A. F. Tyerman, Loihair	
J. H. Mair, Souris	
T. H. Jackson, Minnedosa	
Geo. Bowders, Balmerino	
M.  G. Abey, Chater	
Wm. Lindsay, Emerson	
Jas. Little, Oak River	
J. Connell & Son, Creeford	
G. M. White, Foxton	
Jos. Charles, Oakland	
Wm. H. Wilson, Deloraine	
R. McDonald, Lowestoft	
F. Bryden, Portage la Prairie..!
John S. McKay, Rapid City	
E. J. Paynter, Beulah	
Total
acres
Cultivated.
100
300
100
85
6T>
500
150
40
200
200
105
75
130
100
160
230
80
200
270
220
65
200
200
120
100
45
50
90
110
200
40
56
47 acres, 29 bus.
16 acres, 30 bus.
60 acres, 27 bus.
45 acres, 30 bus;
22 acres, 22 bus.
160 acres, 33 bus.
75 acres, 30£ bus|
15 acres, 25 bus.
'180 acies, 27 bus.
90 acres, 25 bus.
Acreage and average of the following crops:
Wheat.
36 acres,
50 acres,
48 acres,
45 acres,
75 acres,
[100 acres,
40 acres,
93 acres,
33 bus.
28 bus.
23 bus.
31 bus.
38 bus.
42 bus.
27 bus.
32 bus.
[150 acres, 27 bus.
80 acres, 45 bus.
30 acres, 35 bus.
68 acres, 38 bus.
[100 acres, 30 bus.
30 acres, 40 bus.
30 acres, 30 bus.
10 acres, 46 bus.
29 acres, 30 bus.
50 acres, 31 bus.
74 acres, 20 bus.
125 acres, 25 bus.
10 acres, 30 bus.
28 acres, 23 bus.
Oats.
12 acres, 40 bus.
45 acres, 47 bus.
25 acres, 40 bus.
30 acres, 45 bus.
10 acres, 40 bus.
70 acres, 52 bus.
25 acres, 55 bus.
25 acres, 50 bus.
30 acres, 55 bus.
15 acres, 40 bus.
28 acres,
10 acres,
18 acres,
20 acres,
20 acres,
33 acres,
15 acres,
45 acres,
35 bus.
50 bus.
40 bus.
50 bus.
75 bus.
87 bus.
55 bus.
40 bus.
40 acres, 55 bus
30 acres, 80 bus
12 acres, 60 bus,
29 acres, 58 bus
70 acres, 58 bus,
40 acres, 60 bus,
17 acres, 35 bus,
15 acres, 52 bus.
6 acres, 50 bus,
14 acres, 15 bus.
25 acres, 48 bus.
26 acres, 57 bus.
6 acres, 40 bus.
14 acres, 29 bus,
Barley.
4 acres, 30 bus.
35 acres, 36 bus.
10 acre, 40 bus.
4 acres, 25 bus.
10 acres, 40 bus.
5-acres, 28 bus.
10 acres, 35 bus.
6 acres, 40 bus.
14 acres, 33 bus.
8 acres, 30 bus.
6 acres, 30 bus.
6 acres, 42 bus.
15 acres, 35 bus.
12 acres, 50 bus.
20 acres, 50 bus.
6 acres, 40 bus.
5 acres, 30 bus.
20 acres, 45 bus.
45 acres, 60 bus.
12 acres, 30 bus.
10 acres, 40 bus.
6 acres, 30 bus.
1 acre, 60 bus.
5 acres, 30 bus.
14 acres, 41 bus.
2\ acres, 30 bus. 17
Average yield, in bushels:
Vegetables.
Potatoes.
Turnips.
Carrots.
Peas.
Beans.
Flax.
220
250
400
600
Occasional grubs are the only hindrance to complete success.
All kinds.
400
20
18
400
!
All the hardier kinds grow finely.
Nearly all varieties.
300
250
400
200
200
200
All vegetables, including celery, tomatoes, and all kinds of vines.
Everything succeeds.
I have always been fortunate.
Vegetables grow beautifully.
All do well.
200
300
200
|       200
300
300
[ i.-   ""...""   r
170
150
250
25
30
20
I have raised 500 bus of* caboages
and 200 bus. of onions to the acre;
Gardens thrive.
Very fair.
All kinds do well.
350
275
23
250
100
All kinds successful.
300
All kinds successful.
300
900
500
All kinds successful.
300
All kinds successful.
300
700
400
Never saw the equal.
All kinds do well.
300
250
Never saw the equal.
All successful, including pumpkins,
melons, chicory, etc.
All kinds do well.                   ■%';  '•
200
500
300
200
200
18
300
Do well.
200
Celery, cucumbers, citron, and all
230
320
the more common sorts.
Every kind, and in splendid crops.
Have raised almost every variety
with success.
All kinds do well.                          '|Sa
275
300
400
500
50
20
250
This part of the province is excellent
for root crops and garden stuff.
Cabbages, cauliflowers, onions, tomatoes,  .citrons, cucumbers, etc.
Have succeeded well.
300
400
500
15
Good success some years. 18
IV. THE SEASONS A
Tt appears that everywhere in Manitoba ploughing and seeding may begin early in
the southern border harvesting has begun by July 15. Therf is a constant difference of
yince. Winter may be said to open with the perm anent freezing of the ground, which
ao that ploughing may often be begun before the first of April. Really cold weather
between the northern and southern parts of the province is, of course, noticeable, in favor
None of the correspondents report any serious hardship or loss from the climate in
All are busy hauling grain to market, getting fuel, caring for stock, or in the paid
with either business or pleasure.    " Better than the East," is the opinion of many old
The fuel used is principally wood, which is scattered plentifully over all the province,
districts j but coal is plentiful and can be obtained at any of the stations of the railway
Summer frosts are spoken of as " exceptional" by nine out of ten farmers in all
north the settler makes his home the more liable he is to an occasional visitation of this
Manitoba.
The testimony to the healthfulness of the climate is unanimous.
Ques
1. Please state earliest and latest date in which you began ploughing, seeding and harvesting ?
*2. What time does winter set in and when does it end ?
3. Have you suffered any serious hardship or loss from the climate in winter f
4. What fuel do you use, and is it difficult to obtain f
5. Are summer frosts prevalent f
«6. Do you consider the climate healthy f
Name and address.
Manitoba.
Wm. Corbett, Springfield	
John Cumming, Minnedosa....
J. Q. Sumner, Arnaud	
CrBO. H. Halse, Brandon	
J. K. Ross, Deloraine	
.Jas. McConechy, Virden	
W. J. Helliwell, Ralphton..
Thos. Sharpe, AdelpJia	
Agejcor Dubuc, Lorette.,
Dates of Farm Operations.
Ploughing.
Earliest.     Latest.
March 20.
April 4....
April 3-
April 6-
April 20.
May 1.
April 7..
Seeding.
Earliest.     Latest.
April 1...
April 2-
April 16
April 5-
April 6-
Second w'k
April 6.
March..
April 20.
May 2..
May 3	
April 8...
of April.
May-
Harvesting.
Earliest.     Latest.
July 11	
August 13.
July 15	
August 2...
July 27	
Second w'k
August 18.
August 1...
August 15.
August 22.
August 15.
of August..
V- 19
ND THE CLIMATE.
April, and harvesting generally begins at least by the second week of August, while along
several days in all these dates between the southern and the northern parts of the pro-
* takes place about the middle of November, as a rule, and it ends-with the close of March,
does not " settle down," however, before Christmas, as a rule. Here, too, a difference
of the latter.
. winter, which everyone seems to regard as an enjoyable and exceedingly healthy season,
service of wealthier neighbors, and the cold weather is not allowed, or able, to interfere
settlers.
This will become scarcer, of course, and is already thin, in some of the more populous
at a small advance on the cost of production.
parts of the province, and particulars are given which confirm this opinion.    The farther
kind, but summer frosts of a damaging character are extremely rare in any part of
TIONS :
Winter.
Winter.
Fuel.
Summer
Frosts.
Begins.
Ends.
Hardship
or Loss.
Is the
Climate healthy.
Late Nov..
Late Nov..
Early Ap'l
None	
None	
None	
None	
None	
None	
None	
Wood, easily obtained	
Wood, easily obtained-—
Poplar, easily obtained...
Wood, easily obtained	
Wood, easily obtained	
Wood, becoming scarce...
Exceptional
Exceptional
Exceptional
Exceptional
Exceptional
Exceptional
Yes; decidedly.
Yes; decidedly.
Yes; decidedly.
Yes; decidedly.
Yes; decidedly.
Yes; decidedly.
Yes; decidedly.
Winter better than on
Lake Erie.
Late Nov-
Late Nov..
Nov. 15	
Dec. 1	
Dec 1	
April 10...
April 5	
March 20-
March 31-
April 1	
MTarch 15-
Late Mar-
Dec. 15	
None	
None	
Poplar and oak on the
Exceptional
Exceptional
Nov. 15	
Wood, easily obtained	
Better climate than that
of Quebec. 20
Name and Address.
Manitoba.
F. W. Stevenson, Hill View...,
S. W. Chambers, Wattsview	
Norris Fines, Balmoral	
Geo. G. Downie, Crystal City.,
W. B. Hall, Headingly	
Henry McLeod, Carberry	
Robert Campbell, Bridge Creek
Harold Elliot, Morden	
ThOs. D. Perdue, Richlands	
R. S. Conklin, Sunny side	
Alfred Walker, Sheppardville.
S. F. Burgess, Seeburn ,
S. R. Henderson, Kildonan	
Wm. Summerville, Montefiore..
Thos. M. Kennedy, Menota ,
R. B. Wetherington, Douglas.
J. H. Martin, Rapid City ,
John Plant, .Rossburn....	
S. D. Barr, Neepawa	
Date of Farm Operations.
Ploughing.
Earliest.     Latest
April 1....
March 23.
April 14..
. Oct. 20..
April 5....
April 15.,
April 20.,
April 26.
April 10... May 13,
April 10... April 28..
April 2 1	
April 20.
George Nagy, Rosser April 7....
Wm. J. Brown, Melita March 28-
J. W.Newton, Wellwood \ April 3.
Seeding.
Earliest.     Latest.
April 1.....
March 23-
April 20...
April 12..
April 12.,
April 6-.,
April 8...,
April 6...,
April 15..
April 5-..
April 6....
April 10..
April 2....
April 3....
April 6....
March 26.
August 9...
July 28.
April 28..
John Duncan, Austin April 15.
R. Armstrong, Silver Spring	
("roton Maguire, Boissevain April 13.,
J. Connell, Creeford	
Walter Gray, Chater ,
.John A. Muir, Souris	
Geo Bowders, Balrrierino.,
April 5-
April 9-
April 20... April 6-
 April 1..
M. Kennedy, Loihair	
Gilbert Rowan, Parkissimo..
Wm. A. Doyle, Beulah	
Geo. F. Slade, Gladstone	
Jos. Charles, Oakland	
J. G. Elliott, Shadeland	
Chas. Findlay, Shoal Lake..
April 1.,
April 1..
April 5-
April 3..
April 10.
May 20...
April 13.
April 5-
April 12.
April
April
May 3..
April 1-
April 1-
April 6-
Harvesting.
Earliest.      Latest.
July 29....
July 30....
August 8.
August 1.
July 28....
August 1.
April 17
May 13 August 1
 August 10.
April 22... July 31	
May 1 July 24	
May 1 August 20.
April 5-
May 2...
April 20..
April 18..
April 6....
April 10...
May	
April 16...
May 8......
August 1..
August 13
Juty 23-
August 15,
Aug. 1	
Aug. 11..
Aug. 20..
July 29-
July 30-
July 27-
July 25..
Aug	
Aug. 2...
July 29-
August 27
Sejpt. 7	
August 15.
August 25.
August 15.
August 20.
August 15.
Sept. 30....
August 22.
August 15.
Sept. 1.
Sept. 1.
Aug. 1...
Aug.'21-
Oct.1...,
Sept. 3..
L Winter.
Begins.
Nov. 1...
Nov. 20-
Nov. 5...
Dec 1...
Nov. 15-
Nov. 1...
Nov. 15.
Nov. 20.
Dec. IV.
Nov. IV.
Nov'mb'r..
Dec 1..
Nov. 15.
Nov. 10.
Nov. 15.
Nov. 5..
Dec 1..
November
Nov. 15.
Dec. 1.....
Nov. 15....
Novemb'r
Early Nov
Nov. 15,
Dec. 15..
Nov	
Dec	
Nov. 20-
Nov	
Nov	
Nov	
Nov. 15.
Nov	
Nov. 15..
Nov. 20-
Dec 1...
Ends.
March 20.
April 5....
April 15..
March 25.
April 10..
April 1....
March 31.
March 15.
March 15.
Late Mar.
March 15.
April 1....
March 31.
March 25.
April 1....
March 15.
March- ..
March 31.
March 15.
April 1....
March 31.
April	
March 31.
March 31,
March- ..
March 31,
March 31,
March 31.
March....
March....
March 15.
April 1 None
Winter.
Hardship
or Loss.
None.
None,
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
April 6.
March 25-
None.
None.
None.
The wood is nearly gone-
Wood, in plenty on farm,
Wood, in plenty on farm
Wood, rather difficult....,
Wood, in plenty ,
Wood, easily obtained....
Fuel
Wood, hauled 3 miles	
Wood, hauled 7 miles	
Wood, hauled 3 miles	
Wood, hauled 5 miles	
Wood, from Turtle Mountain	
Wood, hauled 4 miles....,
Wood, plentiful	
Wood, hauled 4 miles..—
Wood, easy to get	
Poplar, in plenty	
Wood, easy to get	
Poplar, abundant	
Wood, supply myself in a
week	
Wood, no difficulty	
Wood, becoming scarce..
Poplar, plentiful and ex
cellent.	
Wood, plentiful	
Wood	
Wood, easily obtained....
Poplar, drawn 18 miles..
Wood, easy to get	
Wood, very scarce here..
Wood, in plenty	
Wood, in plenty ,
Wood, in plenty	
Wood, in plenty	
Fire-killed poplar, plentiful	
Wood and straw	
Wood, easy to obtain......
Wood, easy to obtain ,
Summer
Frosts.
Is the
Climate   healthy.
Exceptional Perfectly so.
Exceptional Healthiest I know of.
Exceptional Yes.
Exceptional Best in the world.
Exceptional Yes.
Exceptional I suffer less than in Ontario.
Exceptional Particularly so.
Exceptional I Yes.
Exceptional Very.
Prevalent... Exceedingly.
Exceptional Especially so for asthmatic persons.
Exceptional Yes.
Exceptional Certainly.
Exceptional Decidedly.
Prevalent... Yes.
Prevalent... I do.
Exceptional Yes.
Yes.
Exceptional
Exceptional
Exceptional
Exceptional
Very.
Very.
Yes.
Better than in Ontario.
Exceptional Very.
Exceptional Yes; winter not so bad
as it is reported.
Exceptional Yes.
Exceptional Very.
Exceptional Certainly.
Exceptional Yes.
Prevalent... Finest winter climate in
the world.
ExceptionallYes.
Exceptional Yes.
Prevalent...Exceedingly so.
Exceptional Certainly.
Exceptional Yes.
Triennial ... Nothing equal to it.
Exceptional Family   never  need   a
I    physician. 22
Name qzid Address.
Manitoba.
Date of Farm Operations.
Ploughing.
Earliest I   Latest.
Seeding.
Earliest I   Latest
Harvesting.
Earliest. \  Latest.
P. J. McNaughton, Raven Lake
S. A. Ward, Clandeboye	
A. H. Scouten, Raven Lake	
Wm. Thompson, Holland	
Andrew Johnston, Mowbray...
John George, Nelson	
James Laidlaw, Clearwater	
April 21.
April 7...
Mar. 22...
April 1.
March 30-|
March 29.
May 5....
April 15.
April 3-
April 23.
April 1-
April 1-
April 20.
Aug. 5...
Aug. 10-
July 15-
July 26-
Aug. 1...
Sept. 9..
Aug. 20..
Alex. Naismith, Millford	
Thos. Hagyard, Pilot Mound....
Cornelius Wheatland, Donore
Thos. Adair, Treherne	
John Hopper, Middlechurch	
Henry Last, Stonewall	
Wm. Walton, Marringhurst	
April 19...
April 10...
Mayl	
April 15...
April 15... |
April 1.
April 28...
May 1....
April 25 .
April 6...,
April 6....
April 10..
April 10.,
Aug. 15-
July 30-
Aug. 10-
May 1..
May 24-
Aug. 15-
Sept 15..
Sept 2.,
F. S. Westwood, Pendennis...
Richard Brown, Langvale...
Chas. C. Oke, Fairburn	
Thos. Frame, Virden	
George M. Yeomans, Dalton
Geo. Gillespie, Greenwood...
Wm. Smith, Beaver Creek	
W. C. Wallace, Shellmouth..
R. E. Hopkins, Beresford	
Alex. Stewart, Castleavery..
Donald Fraser, Emerson	
Joseph Tees, Manitou	
Alfred Pickering, Austin...
Wm. Irvine, Almasippi	
James Muir, Douglas	
James Little, Oak River	
Roland Macdonald, Lowestoft^
M. G. Abey, Chater	
April 12.
April 15.
April 6-
April 3„
April 3-
April 5-
I April 21.,
May 4.....
April 15.,
April 5...,
July 29-
Aug. 28..
Aug. 22..
Nov. 5	
April 10 .
April 5...
April 15.
[April 6...
April 5...
April 21...
July 25..
Aug. 1...
Aug. 20-
August 20.
Oct 30.,
April 30..
ApriV'io!!
F. A. Brydon, Port, la Prairie..
John Spencer, Emerson	
D. W. Grimmett, Elm Valley ....
Andrew Davison, Green Ridge\
L. Wilson, 'Stockton	
J. W. Bridge, Carman	
Peter Campbell, Campbellville
April 10..
April 15..
April 15.,
[April 5-.,
April 5...
April 8...
April 15.,
April 1...,
April 5...,
April 5...
April 6...
April 6....
March 24.
March 31.
April 3....
April 5-..
April 3....
April 10..
April 20..
April 13.,
Aprii'27!!
Aug. 4...
[July 15-
May 7..
April 10..
April 15.!
August 1..
August 15
August 15,
[July 25....
July 28	
August 7...
August 1...
August 25.
August 1...
August 23.
August 12.j
August 1—1
August'
Sept. 1.,
August 10.
[Sept. 25	
August 30. 23
Winter.
Begins.
Dec. 1	
Dec 1	
Dec. 1	
Nov. 1	
Nov. 20	
Nov. 15	
Late Nov.
Nov. 1...
Nov. 1...
Nov. 5...
Dec. 1...
Nov. 15-
Nov. 10-
Dec 20-
March 31.
March 20.
March 20.
April 1....
March 20.
March 31.
Late Mar.
March 31.
April L...
April 1....
Nov. 20	
Nov. 10	
Nov. 25	
Nov. 25	
Dec. 1	
Oct. 15	
Early Nov.
Nov. 15	
Nov. 15	
Novemb'r
Nov. 10	
Dec. 1	
Nov. 15	
Nov'mb'r..
Nov. 15	
Nov'mb'r..
Nov. 10	
Nov. 15	
Nov. 10....
Nov. 1	
Nov'mb'r.
Nov. 15-..
Nov'mb'r.
Nov'mb'r.
Ends.
April 1...
April 1...
April 20.
March 31.
March 31.
March 31.
March 31.
March 31.
March 31.
Early Apr'
March 31.
April 15..
April	
April 10...
March 1..,
March 25.
April	
March 15.
March	
March 31.
March 25.
Winter.
Hardship
or Loss.
None .
None .
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
None .
11 None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
March 31..|
April 1-..
April	
March 31
April...
March.
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
None,
None.
Wood ....
Wood, growing scarce-
Wood, growing scarce..
Wood, in plenty.........
Wood, in plenty	
Oak, in plenty	
Wood, on the farm	
FueL
Summer
Frosts.
Wood, hauled 7 miles,
Wood, difficult to get...
Wood, plentiful..*	
Wood, costs $1 a cord ~
Wood, very plentiful ...
Wood, easily obtained..
Wood, easily obtained	
Wood, easily obtained	
Poplar, hauled 6 miles ...
Wood, hauled 4 miles.:...
Wood, in plenty,...,	
Wood, in plenty	
Wood, hauled 6 miles	
Wood, in abundance	
Wood, mixed with coal...
Poplar, no difficulty	
Wood, no difficulty	
|Oak and poplar in plenty
Poplar, in plenty andgood|
Poplar and oak	
Wood; plenty of coal here,
Wood, easily obtained.....
Wood, hauled 12 miles...
Wood, hauled some distance *
Wood, hauled 10 miles ...
Wood, growing scarce- ...
Elm and maple wood	
Wood....	
Wood, hauled 2 miles—
Wood,-scarce	
Wood, in plenty	
Exceptional
Prevalent...
Exceptional
Exceptional
Exceptional
Exceptional
Exceptional
Exceptional
Exceptional]
Usual
Exceptional!
ExceptionaljVery.
Exceptional
Is the
Climate   healthy.
Healthiest in the world-
Yes.
Yes.
None more so.
None healthier.
Yes.
Better for me than Ontario's.
Very healthy.
Decidedly.
Very.
Yes.
Better  in   many  ways
than England's.   '
Yes.
Yes.
Very.
Never had better health..
Extraordinarily so.
Very,
Very.
Extremely so—bracing-
[Yes.
Exceptional]
Exceptional-
Exceptional]
Exceptional
Exceptional
Exceptional
Exceptional
Exceptional
Exceptional
ExceptionallYes.
ExoeptionaitYes.   .
ExceptionallYes.
Exceptional Yes.
Exceptional Healthiest in the world.
Exceptional More so than. Ontario.
Exceptional Yes.
Exceptional Very.
ExceptionarVery.
 lYes.
Exceptional Very.
Exceptional If you take care.
ExceptionalflExceedingly so.
ExceptionallYes.
ExceDtionalfExceedingly so. u
Y.—THE CARE AND AD
This filth group of questions refers to the raising and care of livestock in Mani-
sometimes amounting to considerable herds,'#nd including a largejproportion of thorough-
jf they are properly cajred for, and they will thrive with even very little care. The uni-
anywhere, and that animals pastured upon the prairies thrive as well or better than those
The fact that almost all farmers maintain small herds of cattle and horses is itself an
have to be housed during the winter, depends upon the cost of feed, and the few cases
haul hay many miles, or where, for some other reason,, feed is expensive. These in-
cattle raising, within certain limits, will not form a profitable accompaniment of farming
creases with the further settlement of the province, the price of beef will rise corres-
The fourth question will be found answered at considerable length in most cases. It
the winter y the older animals should be kept in warm, but not close, stables, and fed an
have in Ontario. Bran is given only to milking cows, or when calving. Young cattle
be allowed to run on the prairie in fine weather. Only horses get any grain, as a rule,
that live stock thrive everywhere in Manitoba with much less care than this, but the
Sheep are kept only here and there in the province. There is no doubt that sheep
particularly well suited to their health, and the total of flocks in the province is steadily
1. How many head of horses and cattle have you, and how do they thrive in winter f
2. How do cattle thrive on the wild grasses of the prairies t
3. Is stock-raising profitable where cattle have to be housed during winter f
4. How do you wi/nter your stock f
5. Do sheep thrive and are they profitable ?
Ques
Name and Address.
Manitoba.
No. of Cattle and Horses,
and How they Winter.
[How do Cattle Thrive on
Prairie Pasturage.
J. S. McKay, Rapid City Two horses, 10 cattle; thrive well..
J. E. Paynter, Beulah Thirteen; very well indeed	
First rate...
[Splendidly.,
S. R. Henderson ( KUdonan Eight horses, 35 cattle; well, if fodder Do well
is sufficient	
Wm. Somerville, Montefiore.... Forty-four; excellently	
J. B. Stibton, Cartwright Eight; splendidly	
Fatten very rapidly	
Better than on timothy or
clover	
Stephen Birks, Barnsley Six horses, 12 cattle; well jFirst rate.. VANTAGE OF CATTLE.
toba.    It appears that almost all farmers keep a certain number of horses and cattle,
bred stock.    There is no difficulty in keeping these in good condition during the winter
versal testimony is that the wild grasses of the prairie afford as good feed as can be found
living upon the cultivated pastures of eastern Canada.
affirmative answer to the third question.    The profitableness of stock raising, where cattle
where a correspondent has answered " no" occur in localities where it is necessary to
stances are very rare.    There is no reason to suppose that the time will ever come when
in Manitoba, especially in the northern part of the province, since, as the cost of feed in-
pondingly.
appears that all the live stock kept upon the farm ought to be given good shelter during
allowance of prairie hay and oat chaff or roots,—just such keeping, in short, as they.would
are stabled only at night, but should have free access to the straw stack all day, or may
and this only when working.    All the animals should have plenty of water.    It appears
better care that is taken of them the larger are the returns to be expected.
thrive well on the natural pasturage of the prairies, whose dry climate and pure water are
growing larger.
TIONS :
Is Stock-raising
Profitable.
4. How do you winter your stock ?
Do Sheep Thrive.
Yea	
Some stabled and some in an open shed	
Stable and feed prairie hay	
They do well.
Thrive   excellently   and
Safest »and  best  paying
branch of farming	
Yes, where hay is plentiful	
Keep them in log stables, well roofed, warm
will be profitable when
a good market for mutton rises.
Thrive and are profitable.
Fairly so	
By stabling during the severest weather	
In a " bank " stable, on prairie hay and well
watered	
Thrive and are profitable.
Would  pay better  than
Yes, if stables are warm.
If not too many are kept.
wolves. 26
Name and Address.
Manitoba.
No. of Cattle and horses,
and How they Winter.
How do Cattle Thrive on
Prairie pasturage.
Thos. M. Kennedy, Menota..
' Geo. E. Nagy, Rosser	
Six; they do well	
Fifty.six; very well..
T. McCartney, Port. La Prairie
Roland McDonald, Lowestoft.
Wm. H. Wilson, Deloraine.
Tfcree horses, 40 cattle.,
Eight horses, 18 cattle..
Five horses, 5 cattle	
Wm. S. Moody, Rounthwaite...
Geo. C. Wright, Boissevain^
Wm. J. Brown, Melita	
Ten; they do well.,
Matthew Smith, Minnedosa.
S. D. Barr, Neepawa ,
John Plant, Rossburn	
Joseph Charles, Oakland	
E. W. Grimmett, ElmValley.
John Spencer, Emerson	
Geo. U. White, Foxton..
Wm. Irwine, Almasippi	
P. Campbell, Campbellvitte..
J. W. Bridge, Carman ,
L. Wilson, Stockton	
A. Davison, Green Ridge..
John A. Mair, Souris..
Walter Gray, Chater..
Wm. Lindsay, Emerson	
J. Connell & Son, Creeford..
Sixteen; nicely....
Eight; very well.,
Ten horses, 20 cattle; do well-
Ten; do well ,
Three horses, 20 cattle.
Twenty-one	
Seven; very well	
Twenty ; thrive well with care..
Four horses, 75 cattle ; splendidly-
Two	
Eight horses, 80 cattle ; well-
Five ; fairly well	
Five; splendidly	
Very well..
Very well..'
Very well..
Very well :....
Remarkably well-
Remarkably well	
Feed on it exclusively..
First rate	
Grow fat	
Remarkably well	
Best I ever saw ,..
Better  than on  Ontario
meadows	
Very well	
Will fatten on it..
As well as on cultivated
grasses	
Could not do better	
Could not do better	
Very well if the grasses
are selected	
They grow fat	
Three horses, 25 cattle ; well, if fed and
attended to	
Seven horses, 33 cattle..
Five ; very well	
Twenty-two; well..
Eleven	
They grow fat..
Splendidly	
Grow fat	
Better than in Ontario..
Excellently	
Oswald Bowie, Morden Two horses, 16 cattle; very well Well 27
Is Stock-raising
Profitable.
Howdo you winter your stock?
Do Sheep Thrive.
Yes	
An open question; I say
yes	
Yes	
Yes, where hay is cheap-
Yes, where hay is cheap.
Yes, where hay is cheap,
Yes	
Yes.,
Yes—expense little	
I find it so	
Yes; because climate
dry, straw - covered)
sheds and banked-up|
stables answer all purposes and cost little,
and wild hay is cheap.
Yes.....	
As soon as freight rates
are lower	
Yes	
Yes..
Yes..
Not at present prices...
If one has hay and help]
of his own	
Reasonably so	
Yes...
Yes*.
House them and feed well	
Stable them and feed prairie hay and oat|
straw	
Milking cows are stabled and fed hay;|
young cattle live in sheds	
House them	
fctows stabled at night and given plentiful]
feed; young cattle do not pay for extra
care, but should have a shed..:	
I stable them, and feed hay, oat-straw, oats,
bran and flax; water twice daily	
In an adobe stable	
[Stable them, and feed prairie hay and oat-
straw	
Housed at night and fed hay; run to straw
stack in the daytime	
In a good stable, feeding plenty of wild hay.
Feed hay	
Well stabled.   I never lost a co*W or calf.	
Yes.
Very profitable.
Yes.
Yes.
I have 68; most profitable
stock on the farm
I keep 200
In a dugout stable, feeding prairie hay	
In stables at night; loose in yards by day..
I house all my stock	
Stable them and feed prairie hay	
[Straw until Jan. 1; prairie hay morning and
evening till spring	
Stable them and feed hay	
Stable them, feeding horses hay and oats;
cattle, hay and straw	
Let them feed at the straw stacks in fine
weather, and stable them at night and
feed hay	
[Cows and calves in stable, feeding prairie
hay and straw; young cattle run out.
Pays very well [Shelter most of time, and feed hay and straw.
Yes |ln stables, feeding prairie hay, straw andl
chopped grain; with oats regularly to
the horses	
Yes |Feed with hay and roots
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Most   certain    and   remunerative stock
[Thrive well
[Thrive, but not profitable 28
Name and Address.
Manitoba.
D. D. Young, Brandon..
Three horses, 16 cattle.,
John Duncan, Austin	
A. T. Tyerman, Loihair...
Geo. F. Slade, Gladstone..
Thirty-five..	
Five horses; thrive well..
Thirty....	
John George, Nelson	
A. H. Soouten, Raven Lake..
James Laidlaw, Clearwater..
Twenty; very well.	
Ten; well	
Thirty-three; as well as in Ontario..
Henry McCleod, Carberry..
Four horses, 4 cattle..
Robert Campbell, BridgeCreek
Harold Elliot, Morden	
R. 8. Conklin, Sunny side..
Alfred 'WA.hKiSB,Sheppardville
D. D. Buchanan, Griswold..
Norris Fines, Balmoral..
W. B. Hall, Headingly ..
Albert E. Philp, Brandon.
Geo. Forbes & Sons, Treherne..
W. A. Evans, Rosser	
Robt. Renwiok, Carberry	
Matthew Kennedy, Loihair..
No. of Cattle and Horses,
and How they Winter.
How do Cattle Thrive on
Prairie pasturage.
Fifteen; all very well.,
Five horses, 11 cattle; do well...
Two horses, 25 cattle; first rate..
Three; well.
Nine	
Seven horses, 15 cattle; very well.,
Thirty.five; very well	
Wrell..
As well as on timothy..
Splendidly ,
Well	
First rate	
Well	
They get fat.
They get fat.
Twenty-six horses; all go through the
winter in good shape	
Six horses, 28 cattle.,
Three horses, 25 cattle; very well.,
Seven horses,6 cattle; well	
'Five horses, 10 cows; very well	
Well.
Get fat enough for butcher
ing in two months	
As well as on timothy	
Splendidly....
All they get.
Well.
Well.
Splendidly-
I have two steers, coming
three years old, which
would dress 700 lbs.,
and have never been
in a stable	
Keep healthy and fat	
Grandly ....
Splendidly..
x — 29
Is Stock-raising
Profitable.
How do you winter your stock?
Do Sheep Thrive.
Yes..
As well as grain growing.
Yes, with mixed farming.
Yes, especially with high]
grade stock	
Yes	
Yes	
Yes, if the stock are good]
Yes.
More than grain growing]
Yes.
More profitable than thej
crops	
.Yes, when hay is cheap.
Put them in a warm stable, fat, at the beginning of winter, feed on hay and barley straw, and water regularly; feed
turnips and hay to milking cows. They
come out fat in the spring	
Cows stabled at night; young cattle run inl
sheds	
Principally on straw; cows have a little hay
and grain	
[By feeding hay. Hardy cattle will maintain their condition if liberally fed and
watered once, or, better, twice a day	
I generally house them, though many do not
I stable them	
stable cows and calves and feed straw]
about half the time; young stock winter]
around the straw stacks	
House them and feed oat and wheat straw, j
with a little bran and shorts. They
always come out fat	
I stable all my cows and give them plenty
of prairie hay; young cattle run to the
stacks	
I stable only at night, or on stormy days ;|
at other times they feed on the prairie..
jStable at night and feed hay	
Yes
Thrive exceedingly well
Dogs and wolves are the
only drawbacks
Yes
Yes
[I have 33 wintered in a
shed
Most profitable branch of [
farming here	
Yes	
Yes	
Yes.
Yes
Feed hay, giving the cows a little meal to- Yes
ward spring; they maintain a fine con-|
dition	
In a warm stable, with plenty of hay, roots|
and gram	
We stable our cows only	
Feed oats and barley principally for cattle,
and hayfor horses	
I keep my horses in " bank" stables, feeding them principally straw, with a little
; bran and chopped feed	
Cows, calves and oxen are housed, and get
hay night and morning, with some chop
or oats; young cattle can live mainly at
the straw stack	
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes.
Yes.
Yes.
Cattle will keep fat on prairie hay, with a
little bran and shorts when calving	
Feed oat straw and a little grain..	
[Yes.
Stabled, and fed a little hay and oat straw.
[They thrive, and mutton
sells well 30
Name and Address.
Manitoba.
Agenor Dubuc, Lorette '
Geo. Bowders, Balmerino	
Gilbert Rowan, Parkissimo ..
R. B. Wetherington, Douglai
W. H. Bridgeman, Wellwood..
Andrew Johnston, Mowbray..,
F. W. Stevenson, Hillview	
Wm. Thompson, Holland	
Robt. Armstrong, Silver Spring
R. E. Hopkins, Beresford....
Alex.'Stewart, CasUeavery.
Donald Fraser, Emerson....
Joseph Tees, Jtfanitou	
'George Gillespie, Greenwood..
Wm. Macdonald, Virden	
Cornelius Wheatland, Donore
Thos. Adair, Treherne	
John Hopper, Middlechurch...
Henry Last, Stonewall	
Wm. Walton, Marringhurst...
A. H. Carroll, Carrollton	
F. T. West wood, Pendennis	
Wm. Smith, Beavex Creek	
Wm. S. Wallace, Shellmouth..
George M. Yeomans, Dalton...
Thos. Hagyard, Pilot Mound...
J, Gordon Elliott, Shadeland
Fifteen; do well	
Twenty; very well, indeed..
Eight horses, 5 cattle	
Forty-three; remarkably well-
Eleven horses, 12 cattle; well..
Four horses, 20 cattle; finely...
Three horses, 8 cattle; well, with care.
Two horses, 28 cattle	
Ten horses; 30 cattle; generally well..
No. of Horses and Cattle,
and How they Winter.
How do Cattle Thrive on
Prairie pasturage.
Twenty; very well	
Four horses, 15 cattle.
Eleven horses, 40 cattle; well	
Seven; pretty well	
Thirty.six; thrive well if kept warm..
Thirty-two; well	
Twenty; they do well.
Five horses; 35 cattle .
Five horses, 62 cattle; very well ,
About 60 ; well	
About 367; thrive splendidly .
Three horses, 12 cattle; well..
Twenty; well	
Eleven; keep in good condition	
Ten horses, 80 cattle; always well-
Thirty; well, with care	
Twelve horses, 8 cattle; well	
Very well-
Grandly ...
Well.
Well.
Well	
Splendidly	
Become fat by July..
Never saw better pasture
They do well	
Excellently	
Keep fat all winter..
Very well	
Very well	
Splendidly in summer-
Very well	
Well	
Always keep fat.
Well	
Well.
Well.
Excellently.
Splendidly...
First rate	
Exceedingly well..
Always do well...
Well	
I cannot say	 31
Is Sstock-raising
Profitable.
4. How do you winter your stock?
Do Sheep Thrive.
Yes	
Yes; more so than range|
cattle	
With a limited number
. If properly conducted...,
They keep in good con-|
dition	
Where hay is plentiful
Yes, because food is un-|
limited	
Yes, with proper care
Yes	
Yes, if hay is near ...
Yes	
Not very; in southern]
Manitoba, where hay is]
scarce	
Horses pay better than]
cattle	
No	
Thoroughbred stock is]
profitable; grade stock
is good fer milk; every
farmer should keep a
few ,
Yes, if hay alone is fed.
Yes	
The easiest way to make]
money ,
Yes	
Not if grain is fed ....
Doubtful	
Yes	
Certainly ,
Yes	
Where hay is cheap,
No.o ,
Stable them at night, and let them go to thejYes
straw stacks by day	
Feed hay night and morning, and let them|Yes
pick up straw	
Stable, and feed hay and oat straw	
Housed; plenty of hay. and water, but little]
grain	
In warm stables, feeding prairie hay, straw
turnips and grain	
Milch cows I house; young cattle run in the]
sheds and about the stacks	
Stable some, and let others run out, sheltered
by sheds	
House all the stock in "bank" stables.
[On prairie hay and straw	
House at night; feed hay principally, with
plenty of water	
House them in a stable, warm, but not too|
close	
Part tied in the stable, part loose in sheds...
Fairly so
Yes
Yes
Yes
Pay better than pigs, and
less trouble
Yes
House them only at night, and feed prairie
hay, straw, oats, chopped feed and bran
In stables, on prairie hay	
In warm stables, feeding hay and chopped]
feed	
Thrive, but not  always
profitable
Would   be,   except   for
wolves
[Thrive, but do not pay
well here
In stables, feeding hay, bran, etc., to cows
I stable them at night and feed hay ,
In stables. Let them out once a day fori
water, but if the weather is cold return]
them at once	
[Stable them and feed hay	
Stable them in severe weather and let them
roam on pleasant days, feeding straw]
and some hay	
In stables, on straw and hay	
Feed horses with straw, hay and oats; thej
cattle run out most of the time	
[Just as I would do in Ontario	
Stable them and feed hay	
Hay and water	
Stable them and feed hay	
Let them rnu to the straw stack	
No sheep in this district
Yes
Yes
Thrive well if attended to
Yes
Yes Name and Address.
Manitoba.
No. of Horses and Cattle,
and How they Winter.
How do Cattle Thrive on
Prairie pasturage.
Wm. Smith, Souris..
Five; well.
Better than in Ontario-
C. C. Oke, Fairburn .
Three horses, 17 cattle; well.
Grandly
Alex. Naismith, Millford .
S. F.
i, Seeburn.
Charles Findlay, Shoal Lake^.
P. McNaughton, Raven Lake.
Albert McGuffin, Melgund.
Thos. A. Sharpe, Adelpha....
W. B. Thomas, Cypress River.
S. W. Chambers, Wattsview...,
Four; horses get into the best condition
and cattle hold their own	
Twenty; my cattle are mainly recorded
shorthorns, and thrive well if fed
enough	
Ten; well......... 	
Twenty-three; thrive when housed..
John Kemp, Austin	
Wm. Corbett, Springfield....
John Cumming, Minnedosa.,
. Q. Sumner, Arnaud..
Geo. H. Halse, Brandon	
W. J. Helliwell, Ralphton ...
Jas. McConechy, Virden	
Five horses, 13 cattle; well, if you give
them plenty to eat	
Nine; excellently
Splendidly.
Well.
Forty-seven; very well.
It is all they get.
Fourteen horses, 6 cattle; well.
Six cattle; better than in Ontario..
Seventy-five; very well	
Twenty-three; unusu ally well	
Seven horses, 6 cattle; well.
Thirteen cattle; do well	
Eighteen; very well if properly cared
for	
Very well	
They grow fat on it..
Very well	
Splendidly..
Get fat	
Could not be better..
First rate	
Very well	
First rate..
Well	
Excellently	
Fatten on it alone.,
Wh 33
Is Stock-raising
Profitable.
Yes.
Hot by itself here.,
With a limited number..
Yes	
Yes	
Yes	
Yes, and it will be necessary to keep up the lane.
Yes	
Certainly; the manure]
alone is worth the]
trouble	
Yes	
Quite so	
Of course it is	
Yes, as feed is cheap	
Yes, counting in the manure	
Yes	
Within certain limits	
In warm stables, feeding hay and oats
Cattle can run at the stacks most of the]
winter. To horses we feed hay and
oats, with a little bran when working]
them 	
Milking cows should have hay three timesj
a day, with an oat-sheaf twice a day.
Young cattle will thrive on good oat
straw. They should go out only on
warm days	
House them, and feed straw and hay with]
a good share of turnips ,
How do you winter your stock?
Let them out during the day, when they[
pick up straw and chaff. Put them in]
stables at night and feed hay	
House them and feed prairie hay; they will]
come out fat in the spring	
Thrive well on hay, and
are more profitable than
cattle
Yes
Remarkably so
Stabled at night; they will do well without|
any shelter	
Feed on prairie hay, oat straw, etc	
This dry region is highly
.   suitable for sheep, and
they are profitable	
Yes
Stable them and feed hay, straw, roots anc
good grain	
Stabled at night, and running to the stacks!
by day ,
House all stock, and feed regularly prairie
hay and a little grain ,
In log stables, fed with wild hay at night...
On hay, straw and roots	
On hay, with a little grain to the young sone
and to cows giving milk	
On hay. I have my grain threshed as closely as possible to the stables, and the]
cattle are turned to the straw stacks]
when the weather is not stormy	
On cut feed, two parts oat straw with bran
Some I stable, others go to the straw stacks|
in a sheltered place:	
Cows and oxen get nothing but hay, and dol
well on it in a sod stable ,
Do Sheep Thrive.
Profitable where wolves
are not numerous
Yes
Yes, very profitable
Yes
Yes
Yes; I have 20
Yes 34
MIXED FARMING,  DA
As has been foreshadowed by the answers to one of the questions in the last section, .
bine stock-raising with grain-growing.    The ordinary dictates of prudence, " on the prin- *
this direction.    The only dissentient voices come from some limited districts, generally
' where.
Closely connected with this is the subject of dairying; but here the answers, while
pasturage, and purity of air and water, are divided as to the question of profit. The
of the milk given by cows feeding on the prairie is so high, and Manitoba butter and
dairying will become a leading industry there.
Water seems to be plentiful everywhere at a depth of a few feet below the surface,
farm.
The list of wild fruits of Manitoba is a long one, as will be seen below, and these
transplanted and cultivated with good effect, while the small fruits of the garden grow to
thrive amazingly. Along the southern border of the province, the less hardy apples,
quite as far advanced toward fruit-growing as could be expected of her, and there is every
experimentally, will become adapted to the local conditions and generally grown.
Ques
1. What is your opinion of mixed farming, i.e., stock raising and grain growing combined ?
2. What is your opinion of Manitoba as a dairying country t
3. Have you plenty of water on your farm, and if so, how obtained ?
4. Give the name of wild and cultivated fruits grown f
Name and Address.
Manitoba.
J. E. Stirton, Cartwright	
Stephen Birks, Barnsley	
J. K. Ross, Deloraine	
Jas. McConechy, Virden	
W. J. Helliwell, Ralphton ....
Albert McGuffin, Melgund....
J. J. Cochrane, Deloraine	
The most profitable in this part of
the province	
Mixed Farming.
Stock raising and grain growing certainly ought to go together	
It pays best	
Just the thing'.
Dairying.
It has a better climate than
Ontario for making cheese-
It will be the leading dairying
country of the world	
Dairying will   pay   where
plenty of native hay can be
obtained	
Excellent	
The only successful way Just the thing	
Pays better than grain alone	
Most profitable jFar ahead of Ontario..
r— 35
IRYING AND  FRUIT.
there are few farmers in Manitoba who do not believe that it is far the best way to com-
ciple of not putting all your eggs in one basket," as one correspondent expresses it, point in
in the extreme southern part of the province, where pasturage is not so abundant as else-
altogether affirmative as to the extraordinary suitability of Manitoba in climate, natural
difficulty seems to be. that the home market is limited; nevertheless, the quality
'cheese have proved themselves so superior, that there is no question that in a short time
while springs, running streams or sloughs are accessible to the live stock of almost every
native berries and tree-fruits are abundant and luxuriant. In many cases they have been
perfection in Manitoba, and cherries, plums of various kinds, and the hardier apples,
grapes and the like, are rapidly being acclimatized and made successful. Manitoba is
reason to believe  that before many years a large variety of fruits now cultivated only
TIONS :
Water.
Abundance 4 feet below the surfac
From a depth of 122 feet	
Plenty from wells 20 feet deep...,
Well, 16 feet deep..
Fruits: a, Wild; b, Cultivated.
Plenty; 10 to 15 feet	
Souris River and a well 24 ft deep..]
Plenty from wells 10 to 15 ft. deep..|
Wild—Plums, gooseberries, currants, strawberries, raspberries and cherries. Cultivated—Strawberries, currants,,
gooseberries.
[Strawberries, raspberries, blueberries, plums, cherries,.
saskatoons and nuts.
Wild—Saskatoons, cranberries, strawberries, plums, raspberries, currants. Cultivated—Red, black and white currants.
Wild—Saskatoons, cranberries, strawberries, plums, raspberries, currants. Cultivated—Red, black and white cui>
rants.
Wild—Cherries, high-bush cranberries,  plums, currants
gooseberries.    Cultivated—All small fruits.
Wild—Plums, currants, gooseberries and cranberries.
Apples and all the small fruits are grown. 30
Name and Address.
Manitoba.
mGeo. H. Halse, Brandon ,
J. Q. Sumner, Arnand	
John Cummings, Minnedosa..
Thos. A. Sharpe, Adelpha...
Agenqr Dubuc, Lorette..
John Kemp, Austin	
W. B. Hall, Headingly.
Wm. Corbett, Springfield..
Mixed Farming.
The only successful way	
Makes success sure	
Ought to be followed here jit is a good place
Dairying.
A good place; but milking
cows require extra food in
the fall	
Can't be beaten -	
Only way to continue prosperity..
It pays best in Provencfifcr county.
The only profitable way.,
The best plan	
Excellent dairying region..
Generally good	
Could not be bettor .
Very good	
The proper way .
'Geo. G. Downie, Crystal City...
Foundation of success here..
Norris Fines, Balmoral..
S. W. Chambers, Wattsview*.
Generally practised here.
Just the thing	
W. B. Thomas, Cypress River..
Chas. Wilson, Treherne...	
F. W. Stevenson, Hill View~..
Harold Elliot, Morden	
Robt. Campbell, Bridge Creek..
Henry McCleod, Carberry.....
Well adapted to it in all its
departments	
Cannot be beaten..
Every farmer should do so..
The best way	
The true way	
W. A. Evans, Rosser	
P. J. McNaughton, Raven Lake
^Charles Findlay, Shoal Lake..
J. G. Elliott, Shadeland..
S. F. Burgess, Seeburn.*,..
Surest way to get ahead	
It pays best where the farm is
adapted to both	
With moderate capital it is undoubtedly the safest and most
profitable	
Pays better than grain alone .
The proper mode	
Every farmer in Manitoba should
follow it	
The best way	
The best way	
Just the place	
Splendid place, as cows fed on
the native grasses yield a
large quantity of very rich
milk	
Very good	
Could not be beaten	
None better; cows make more
butter here than in Ontario
Just suited to dairying	
None better	
Best place in the Dominion...
Can't be beaten	
Eminently suiied to datrying
First class	
|Good for that purpose.. 37
Water.
Fruits : a, Wild; 6, Cultivated.
Yes, from a well 30 feet deep	
All I can use, from a well 63 feet
deep, made with a 14 inch augur;
cost, $35 [
Well, 18 feet deep !
Plenty from springs..
Seine River and an artesian well...
Well, 12 feet deep..
Aussiniboine River..
Plenty from a well 40 feet deep	
River and deep well	
Well, 8 feet deep	
Spring at the house and creek for farm
Wild—Cherries, high-bush cranberries, plnms,   currants,.
gooseberries.    Cultivated—All small fruits.
Wild—Plums, strawberries, grapes, blueberries.
Wild—Strawberries, currants, raspberries, saskatoons, cranberries. Cultivated—Currants, gooseberries, raspberries*,
strawberries.
Wild—Strawberries, currants, raspberries, saskatoons j cranberries. Cultivated—Currants, gooseberries-, raspberries,
strawberries.
Wild—Pears and all the other fruits mentioned above.
None cultivated.
Same lists as given above.
Wild—Plums, saskatoons, blueberries, cranberries (12
varieties), strawberries and raspberries. Cultivated—
Plums (3 varieties), currants, two raspberries and strawberries.
Wild—Plums, saskatoons, blueberries, cranberries (12
varieties), strawberries and raspberries. Cultivated—
Plums (3 varieties), currants, two raspberries and strawberries.
[Currants and gooseberries principally.
Two cultivated crab apples, and other small fruits as above..
AU the small fruits.
Pond, and well 12 feet deep..
Well 13 feet deep	
Plenty ; well 12 feet deep	
Constant spring	
Abundance from wells 19 feet deep,
sunk in two days	
Plentiful well, 15 feet....
Shoal Lake	
Wells 9 to 16 feet deep..
A creek	
Plenty ; wells 20 feet deep..
All the small fruits.
All the small truits..
All the small fruits.
All the small fruits.
All the small fruits.
[Currants and gooseberries are the principal fruits cultivated-
Wild fruits in plenty, but few cultivated.
Lists as above.
[Cranberries, black currants and saskatoons.
Lists as above.
Lists as above. 38
Name and Address.
Manitoba.
Alex. Naismith, Millford ...
D. D. Buchanan, Griswold..
Alf. Walker, Sheppardville.
R. S. Conklin, Sunny side	
B. R. Hamilton, Neepawa.....
Thos. D. Perdue, Richlands...
Andrew Johnston, Mowbray.
Thos. Frame, Virden	
Geo. M. Yeomans, Dalton	
Wm. Smith, Souris	
John George, Nelson	
S. A. Ward, Clandeboye.
C Wheatland, Donore...
Thos. Hagyard, Pilot Mound.
C. C. Oke, Fairburn	
Wm. Thompson, Holland.,
F. T. Westwood, Pendennis....
A. H. Carroll, Carrollton	
Jas. Muir, Douglas	
G. U. White, Foxton	
John S. Mackay, Rapid City..
S. R. Henderson, Kildonan....,
Jos. E. Paynter, Beulah	
Wm. Somerville, Montefiore ...
Thos. M. Kennedy, Menota.,..,
T. McCartney, Port, la Prairu
Andrew Davison, Green Ridgi
L. Wilson, Stockton	
Wm. J. Brown, Melita	
W. S. Moody, Rounthwaite	
Mixed Farming.
Pays if hay is convenient.
Much the best way	
Will pay well	
The only way for a small farmer....
It pays	
Safest and easiest system	
Safe and profitable	
Any person of moderate means
. would be foolish to trust to grain
growing alone, for in case of failure he has nothing to fall back
upon	
It always does well under efficient
management	
Most successful way	
Best way	
Best way	
I could not farm in any other way
Most profitable course
It pays to keep 25 or
horses	
The only profitable method.
The only profitable method.
Just the thing	
No success otherwise	
No success otherwise. ,
Best way, where possible	
Dairying
Best in the world, because in
June and July the prairie
grass remains green and the
nights are cool	
This locality is not suited to
it—too many weeds	
Especially adapted to it	
Best I ever heard of	
Good	
Very suitable	
None better	
Some parts of the Province
;annot be beaten for dairv-
Dairying will not pay now, if
it is necessary to hire help-
Grass and climate both favorable	
Hard to surpass it	
Hard to surpass it	
Good; the <
year	
)ws saved us last
0 cattle and Certainly ; first rate on the
Turtle Mountains	
Good, where you have good
water	
Good	
Splendid	
Good	
Good	
The milk of three cows for
four months made $103.35
worth of cheese	
Unsurpassed	
Unsurpassed	
Unsurpassed	
Unsurpassed	
Best way, where possible	
Best way, where possible	
Best way, where possible	
Best way, where possible.	
Best system.   It keeps you in wort
and gives something to fall backlGood	
The only safe plan Very good	
The best way Cannot be beat
The best way Cannot be beat
The best way I  •
j 39
Water.
Never failing wells of good water 201
feet deep ,
Big slough for stock and well forjLists as above,
the house	
Excellent water at 22 feet	
Excellent water at 22 feet ,
Excellent water at 22 feet	
A spring ,
I have a well 28 ft. deep, but in summer cattle generally get water in]
sloughs	
Lists as above.
Lists as above.
Lists as above.
Lists as above.
Abundance from wells 12 to 20 ft.
deep	
River and well	
Well 15 feet deep..
Plenty at 24 feet...
Well, 50 feet deep.
Lists as above.
All the small fruits.
Crab apples and various small fruits.
[Strawberries, raspberries, black and red currants.
Plums and currants.
Wells, in shale, 20 feet [Lists as heretofore.
Wells, 18 feet deep Lists as heretofore; apples, mulberries, &c, do not thrive.
Springs, open all winter-
River and well	
Easily obtained	
Springs and wells	
Slough, and a well 15 feet deep .
Red River and a well .
Well 12 feet deen	
Well 16 feet deep	
Plenty from a well 12 feet deep.
Well 20 feet deep	
Well 20 feet deep	
Creek on the farm	
Creek, and well 18 feet..
Lists as heretofore.
Lists as heretofore.
Lists as heretofore.
All the wild berries can be cultivated.
All the wild berries can be cultivated.
Lists as heretofore.
Lists as heretofore.
Lists as heretofore.
Lists as heretofore.
Lists as heretofore.
Lists as heretofore.
Lists as heretofore.
Lists as heretofore,
jists as heretofore.
Plum, cherry, Saskatoon. 40
Name and Address.
Manitoba.
' Joseph Charles. Oakland..
G. C Wright, Boissevain..
Jas. Little, Oak River	
Jas. Drury, Rapid City	
Wm. Lindsay, Emerson ........
Walter Gray, Chater....	
Roland McDonald, Lowestoft.
Q. R. Black, Wellwood	
R. E. Hopkins, Beresford	
Henry Last, Stonewall	
John Hopper, Middlechurch...
Geo. Gillespie^ Greenwood	
Joseph Tees, Manitou	
Alep. Stewart, Castleavery	
Wm. Irwine, Almasippi	
Thos. A. Jackson, Minnedosa..
George Bowders, Balmerino..
Wm. Walton, Marringhurst...
Wm. S. Wallace, Shellmouth.
Wm. Smith, Beaver Creek....
Robt. Armstrong, Silver Spring
Robt. Dunsmore, Bridge Creek.
J. W. Bridge, Carmen	
P. Campbell, Campbellville	
R. B. Witherington, Douglas
J. H. Martin, Rapid City	
John Plant, Rossburn	
A. G. Wakefield, Rossburn...
Geo. G. Nagy, Rosser	
Matthew Kennedy, Lothair..
Wm. A. Doyle, Beulah ,
Mixed Farming.
Gives work for all the boys and
girls of a large family; and cattle
form a crop that grows summer
and winter. But for young men
homesteading, grain growing is
best .....
The best way	
The best way	
The best way ,
Most remunerative and certain,
Only sure way	
Only way if your market is distant
The proper way	
The proper way	
Safest and easiest plan.	
Best way	
The only profitable way	
Should be practiced wherever hay
can be got	
Absolutely necessary	
The best way	
Best adapted to the country	
On the plan of never having all your
eggs in one basket, mixed farming should always be carried on-
Most suitable for northwestern part
of Manitoba ,
Dairying.
The milk is far richer than
that of the cows in Ontario
The   pasture   produces    an
abundant flow of rich milk
Good	
Good	
Good	
Good	
Fairly good; little done here
Good	
None better	
Very good	
Pays where hay is plentiful-
Pretty good	
None better	
Dairying is profitable	
Very profitable	
Well suited to it	
One of the best in the world-
Good	
Better than either stock raising or
grain growing alone	
Works especially well on a small
farm	
The only way that will pay	
The only way that will pay	
Absolutely necessary..
The best way	
The best way	
The best way	
The best way	
The best way	
The best way.,
The best way.,
Unsurpassed. The water in
springs and wells is ice-
cold, and the nights are
always cool	
Fine	
Good	
Can't be beaten for butter	
Very well  suited to it, but
prices are low	
Well suited to it	
Very good	
Very good	
Very good	
Better than New York State..
The milk produced here is
rich and in great quantity..
Unsurpassed	
Unsurpassed	 Water.
Well 14 feet deep gives plenty of
water ,
All the wild fruits known in Manitoba grow here. All
the hardy kinds can be cultivated. The Canadian bine-
berry might, and ought to be, added.
Abundance; two wells Lists as heretofore,
Well and springs	
Well 15 feet deep	
Plenty at 18 feet	
Poor well, 18 feet deep	
Plenty; well 100 feet deep	
Plenty at 40 feet	
Abundant; well 23 feet deep-
Wells 70 feet deep	
Inexhaustible well, 58 feet....
Well 46 feet deep	
Creek and well	
Wells 26 feet deep	
Cultivated fruits do well.
Lists as hitherto.
Wild—Grapes and plums.
Cultivated—All sorts.
Plenty in shallow wells	
Well 18 feet deep	
Wells 10 and 30 feet	
Abundance of excellent spring
water all along the slope of Pembina Valley	
River, unfailing springs and wells...,
The usual lists.
The usual lists.
Lists as heretofore.
Lists as heretofore.
Lists as heretofore.
Lists as heretofore.
Lists as heretofore.
Wild: Plums, grapes, saskatoons and various berries.
[Lists as hitherto.
Wells 14 feet deep..
Well 22 feet deep lists as hitherto.
All the wild fruits; none cultivated.
I have filled my garden with the wild berries and small
fruits; they do well under cultivation.
The wild fruits are so various and plentiful that there is no
need to cultivate any.
Lists as hitherto.
Scarce here - Lists as hitherto.
Water at 10 feet. Lists as hitherto.
The Boyne River Lists as hitherto.
A well, 13 feet deep Lists as hitherto.
Scarce Lists as hitherto.
Plenty, in wells Lists as hitherto.
Birdtail Creek [Lists as hitherto.
Plenty at 27 feet	
Spring and creek..
Spring and creek..
Lists as hitherto.
Lists as hitherto. 42
GENERAL
In answer to the question as to the best time for a settler to arrive in Manitoba, there
land as soon as the season -opens. It will be observed, however, that several writers
on their own account, in order to familiarize themselves with the new and peculiar methods
Colonists from Great Britain are urged to bring nothing with them except clothing
carried in one's trunks.    House* furnishings and fanning implements of all sorts can be
General satisfaction with the present and future of Manitoba; hearty commendation of
to the third and fourth questions of the appended list, to which special attention is directed.
Ques
1. When, in your opinion, is the best time for a settler to come to this country to start at farming ?
2. What would you recommend a settler ccming from Great Britain to bring with him in the
3. Are you satisfied with the country, the climate, and your prospects f
4. General remarks.
Name and Address.
Manitoba.
Best Time to Come.
What to Bring.
S. F. Burgess, Seeburn	
J. G. Elliott, Shadeland.......
Chas. Findlay, Shoal Lake	
A. H. Scouten, Raven Lake....
John George, Nelson	
Wm. Smith, Souris	
Stephen Birks, Barnsley	
J. E. Stirton, Cartwright	
D. J. McQuish, Morden	
Wm. Somerville, Montefiore..
April or May	
In the spring	
March	
Early in April	
In the spring	
In March, so as to get settled
and begin breaking by May
In March, so as to get settled
and begin breaking by May
May or September	
A good supply of warm clothing	
A good supply of warm clothing	
Clothing, but no furniture, which
can be got cheaper here	
Clothing, but no furniture, which
can be got cheaper here	
Cheaper to buy here than pay freight
Cheaper to buy here than pay freight
April 1	
Early spring..
Nothing but wearing apparel.,
Bedding and clothing only ,
\k 43
ADVICE.
seems only one answer—early spring. By this is meant, in time to begin to break his
advise new comers to work for an experienced farmer one year before beginning farming
demanded by prairie agriculture.
and bedding, and many add that of these only so much should be brought as can be
got in Manitoba more cheaply, and of a kind better adapted to the region.
. the soil and weather; and sensible instructions to beginners, will be found in the answers
TIONS.
of clothing and house furnishing t
Satisfaction with Prospects.
I like the country	
Pretty well satisfied..
I am •
Yes.
General Remarks.
We can grow in Manitoba from 30 to 50 bushels of wheat
to the acre, and from 40 to 60 of barley, and from 50 to
100 of oats; and we can raise horses, cattle and sheep
upon the natural grasses for next to nothing. What
other new country can offer such inducements with as
few drawbacks ?   I say none.
Yes, generally speaking
Yes, generally speaking
Certainly	
Yes; I don't want a better land or|
climate	
Well satisfied	
None should come but those able and willing to work.
I would recommend oxen instead of horses for the first
year, as they require no grain, and will do nearly as
much breaking as horses if properly handled. Wood
is scarce in most places, but coal of a good quality is
plentiful, and will be cheap as soon as local mines are
opened.
Yes*; I have great faith in Mani-j
toba's future	
If this'should reach any of my Highland friends in the Old
Country, and if they want any information and will
write to me, I will give them any that I can. 44
Name and Address.
Manitoba.
Wm. Gibbs, Selkirk	
J. K. Ross, Deloraine ,
John Hopper, Middlechurch ..
W. J. Helliwell, Ralphton ..
Thos. Hagyard, Pilot Mound.%.
Thos. Adair, Treherne	
Henry Last, Stonewall	
Croton, Maguire, Boissevain...
R. Armstrong, Silver Spring..
J. R. Routley, Carberry	
Geo. Gillespie, Greenwood	
Joseph Tees, Manitou	
Thos. M. Kennedy, Menota....
C. C. Oke, Fairburn	
Richard Brown, Langvale	
Geo. H. Halse, Brandon	
Best time to come.
Early spring..
Early spring
Early spring..
Early spring..
About May 1
Early spring..
Middle of May-
March.
March.
March......	
Early spring..
Early spring..
Early spring..
Clothing and bedding.,
|Cheaper to buy here than pay freight
Plenty of strong clothes (no knee
breeches), woollen blankets and
such articles.....	
Bedding and strong clothing only...
A year's clothing only	
What to bring.
Woollen clothing only.,
Very little..
Clothing and bedding-
Clothing and bedding-
Nothing	
Clothing, boots and bedding-
Clothing, boots and bedding-
As little as 1
March or April; then the set-|Clothing but no house furnishings...
tier can get early to work.,
March or April; then the settler can get early to work...
March or April	
Clothibg and bedding.. 45
Satisfaction, with Prospects.
Yes.
•Yes; would not go back..
Yes; would not go back..
Manitoba is the best place for the • tenant farmers of England, who have some capital, to come to, the homesteading laws being liberal, and a return from labor
almost certain the first year.
I have a good home, and would
not go back for a good deal	
Yes, and prospects are bright..
Yes, and prospects are bright..
For laborers able and willing to work on a farm, Manitoba
affords a good opening.   During eight months of the
year $30 per month will be paid, and those who have .
$2,000 capital can purchase a farm and soon become
independent.
We want able-bodied men and women who are not afraid
of hard work. Let the croaker and drone stay away.
We have no room for such, but the former is sure to succeed.
Yes; perfectly.
Yes; perfectly.
Yes; but no place for a lazy man.
Well satisfied	
Well satisfied.
Yes; though it is cold. Manitoba
is to be the ruling province of the
Dominion	
Well pleased with present and future
Well pleased with present an&futurej
Yes*..
General  Remarks.
Manitoba is the best place for the tenant farmers of England, who have some capital, to come to, the homestead
laws being liberal, and a return from labor almost certain the first year	
A settler coming to this country must not expect anything
smooth for the first year or two, but if he makes up his
mind to work, I think in five years he may be quite
independent. I, myself, began on $150, and now am
worth $3,000 or $4,000.
[Settlers coming to Manitoba should abandon the idea of returning to their native homes in two or three years,
after they have made their fortunes, but come to stay.
I have been in Australia, New Zealand and California, and
farmed in Ontario, and have learned that for a man
with small capital Manitoba offers the best advantages,
as he can start on less capital.
Young, healthy women can find good homes and plenty of
work.   We are short of young women.
I would just say that any man who wants to work and is
not afraid of roughing it for a few years, and who has
a little capital, can do well here.
We are subject to hail storms and frosts. But we run risks
in all countries. In Ontario they have rust, weevil,
midge and other things, and I would twice as soon
live in Manitoba as in Ontario.
Would advise those with money to buy improved farms. 46
Name and Address,
Manitoba.
C Wheatland, Donore...
Geo. M. Yeomans, Dalton,
Thos. Frame, Virden	
A. Johnston, Mowbray....,
Wm. Thompson, Holland.
Robt. Dunsmuir, Bridge Creek
Wm. Walton, Marringhurst ..
A. H. Carroll, Carrollton	
W. S. Wallace, SheUmouth....
Alex. Stewart, Casileavery....
J. J. Cochrane, Deloraine	
Best time to come.
March or April; then the settler can get early to work...
March or April; then the settler can get early to work...
March or April; then the settler can get early to work...
March or April; then the settler can get early to work...
If one has capital, in the fall
if not, in the spring	
Spring	
Early spring-
Early spring..
July or August, in time to cut
hay and put up stables...
Middle of May, so as to select
his location comfortably
March .
What to Bring.
Bedding only	
Clothing only	
Nothing	
Nothing; but all the money he can
collect	
Change of clothes	
As little as he can	
As little as he can	
Abundance of bedding and clothing,
but ho house furnishings	
Blankets and warm underclothing-
Clothing only	
1^ 47
Satisfaction, with Prospects.
Well pleased with present and future
Well pleased with present and future
Well pleased with present and future
I am..
I am..
I am.
Yes.
Ytfs.
We have prospered in a way we
never could hope for had we remained at home	
Yes	
Yes	
Anyone with a small capital to start with should do well in
Manitoba, if he has energy. ' I would advise renting a
farm the first year.
I have seen farming from Ontario to Australia, and say,
without hesitation, there is no country to equal Manitoba for the steady, industrious farmer.
A settler can generally rent a piece of land that has been
cultivated, and secure a crop the first year, much
better than by sowing on the new sod.
If many of our friends in Ontario, or the Old Country, knew
how easily they could make a comfortable living here,
I am sure none of them would hesitate to come. Land
is cheap and easily cultivated; labor brings good returns, and the necessaries of life are easily obtained.
I know all about Ireland, have been in England, through
the Southern States and in Ontario, and I am satisfied
that Manitoba is ahead of them all for farming.
This is the country for any man not afraid to work. I got
burnt out two years ago last spring, and lost everything,
but after all I am not discouraged. After I took up
land I had to work out to earn money to get along. I
was sick for over a year before coming here, and now
can work like a man.
An excellent country for all who are not afraid to work, and
are ready to give up the conventionalities of older
countries, also for those who wish to start their families
in a free, independent life at but a small cost.
A grand agricultural country for any who feel disposed to
work. There are many near here who began five years
ago with nothing who to-day are quite comfortable, in
fact, they are the ones who succeed.
A colonist whose means are limited, should not hope to
work a farm single-handed; if he has help in his
family, good; if not, he should try to be accompanied
by a friend, or settle near some one with whom he can
exchange work. In new settlements here hired labor
is expensive and cannot be employed with profit.
Manitoba is just the country for industrious young men
with small or large capital; and for good laboring men
who do not mind work, as in a little while they may
have farms of their own.
To those with capital and who have no previous experience
of farming, I would recommend the buying of an improved farm and they will save money; taking care
that the houses and stables are good and comfortable,
wi+h a good well and a good sized slough or lake near
by for the cattle in summer, with plenty of hay land. 48
Name and Address.
Manitoba.
F. T. Westwood, Pendennis.
Early spring..
J, Q. Sumner, Arnaud..
May .
S- R. Henderson, Kildonan...
G. C. Wright, Boissevain.,
Wm. J. Brown, Melita..
Geo. G. Nagy, Rosser...
S. D. Bare, Neepawa.,
J. E. Paynter, Beufafi......
J. W. Newton, Wellwood..
A. G. Wakefield, Rossburn....
G. R. Black, Wellwood..
John A. Martin, Rapid City..
R. B. Witherington, Douglas.
Wm. A. Doyle, Beulah	
G. Rowan, ParMssimo....
John Spencer, Emerson^.
Best time to come.
March.
April..
April or May.
March	
March.,
March-
April....
March-
May or June..
April...
April-
March.
Spring...
In May.
As little as he can .
Little or nothing-
Nothing but clothing-
Woollen clothing and bedding..
Woollen clothing and bedding..
Woollen clothing and bedding..
Woollen clothing and bedding-
What to bring.
Nothing..
Clothing-
Nothing but the cook-
Nothing..
Underclothing	
Clothing only	
Underwear, bedding and boots.
Warm clothing only..,
Clothing and bedding.. 49
Satisfaction, with prospects.
If I can't get along here I would
have a poor chance elsewhere
General remarks.
Fully There is an increasing demand, at good wages, for young
men and women servants. Having travelled all over
this province, I find Southern Manitoba the best land
and the best climate in the province.
I Manitoba is a place where a man or woman can make a
comfortable home and lay by a considerable sum to
enable them to live without working when old age
comes. But they must come with the determination
of working, not as a good many do come, to shoot and
fool away time and expect to grow rich in that way.
Yes The crops this year show that Manitoba stands first   New
settlers should try to get close to a good market, like
Winnipeg.
yes I believe this soil capable of supporting 12 persons on each
quarter-section.
I am not 'I would recommend southwestern Manitoba.
yes 'I advise newcomers to hire themselves to farmers the first
year.
Well satisfied Any person coming to Manitoba, who is willing to work,
can do well farming, if he does not go too fast for his
means.
I know no better place	
Yes.
Very well satisfied.
I am; I would not return East-
Anyone with a small capital and willing to work need have
no fear of coming to Manitoba, where, upon a free grant
of 160 acres, he can in a very short time acquire the
independence he never could obtain in the Old Country.
A man with energy can get along here; a man coming to
this country must make up his mind that he has to
work, if he intends to make a home for himself.
I find Manitoba much better than several localities in tl
United States which I have tried.
Yes ...
I am.,
Yes...
Pretty well..* ...
Prospects are brighter than formerly
Taking into account its infancy and isolation from tne
world's markets, this Province has made more rapid
strides than any country in the world, and its agriculturists have more to show for their labor than +hose of
any part of America; but drones will starve even in
this hive.
I have been in a good many of the Western States and I
don't think any of them offer the same inducement to a
settler of limited means that Manitoba does.
I think Manitoba as fine a country as any one could wish
to settle in for farming; a man who is able and willing
to work cannot help but get on. I would strongly advise settlers from England to settle togethe- ss much
as possible. 0r
K
Name and Address.
Manitoba.
¥'. Brydon, Portage la Prairie.
Wm. Corbett, Springfield	
Spring. ,
jSpring.,
A.JT. Tyerman, Loihair..
Peter A. Lease, Virden.
Spring-
[Spring..
James Drury, Rapid City..
April.
W. W. Grtmmett, Elm Valley..\
J. Connell & Son, Creeford.
D. D. Young, Brandon	
Wm. Lindsay, Emerson	
Walter Gray, Chater.	
G. W. White, Foxton	
James Muir, Dooglas	
Gpo. Bowders, Balmerino	
Joseph Charles, Oakland	
Best Time to Come.
April.
Early spring-
Early spring..
Clothing only..
Clothing only.,
Nothing. One will know better what
he needs after he gets here	
[Only personal luggage	
March	
April or May	
Early spring	
Early spring	
Early spring IClothing and bedding
What to Bring.
Clothing only :
Bed clothing and stockings..
Plenty of warm clothing, blankets,
household utensils and such furniture as can easily be packed,
books, pictures, carpets and curtains, but no china or glassware...
Woollen clothes and blankets	
Clothing and bedding	
Flannel and substantial clothing..
Early spring; in time to break
and backset	
Nothing	
Bedding and clothing. ,
A wife and the old family Bible;
nothing more. Children are all
wanted here, and especially grown
girls, for wives are scarce	
V 51
"^*
Satisfaction, with Prospects.
Yes ...
Quite-
Yes.
Yes.
Yes..,
Yes .'	
Perfectly	
I am; would be sorry to leave it-
Yes .
Yes.
Well satisfied -
Yes; prospects are good-
Yes.
Yes; more than satisfied-
General Remarks.
There is no better country for a poor farmer.
I would advise incomers to largely discount their previous
experience, and strongly recommend intending farmers
to spend«*at least one year with a farmer here before
starting for themselves.
Wish I had come earlier. I struggled hard in Ontario, but
did not make half as much progress as here.
[Since I started in 1883, besides breaking 350 acres of my
father's syndicate farm in Ontario, I have broken 150
on my own place. I cut and stocked 300 acres with the
help of one man. I have 4,000 bushels of wheat, 3,000
of oats and 500 of barley plowed and put in with the
same help. Where is there a country in the world can
beat that ?
Any man desirous of possessing land of his own cannot do
better than come out here ; the climate is healthy, soil
cannot be impaired, scenery varied and picturesque,
good markets and railway facilities, also schools and
churches within reach.
Keep a close grip on your cash, buy everything good, and
profit by the experience of others. Oxen are the most
suitable for a man of moderate means.
We have bettered our condition by coming.
A man is his own master here, and with good health, plenty
of good land and a will to wTork must get on well.
Manitoba is the proper place for farmers with limited
means or large families.
If a man is steady, frugal and industrious he can make
himself comparatively independent in a few years.
[I have travelled over the four continents and have never
beheld such fields of grain as I saw this year in this
province.
I have this year about 2,000 bushels of wheat and 1,000
bushels of oats. There is improved land to buy near
here at a reasonable price.
Would strongly advise young men with limited means, or
tenant farmers, to come; there is room for all, and a
home and independence for those willing to work,
have gardened since my childhood; farmed since my
boyhood, and I am now an old man, and I Can say
that a man or boy can do four times as much work on
a farm here as he could do on the best farm I ever saw
before I came here. To the paper manufacturers of
England there is a boundless market, in the middle of
a continent, with railroads from sea to sea, and with
straw, reeds, rushes and prairie hay for almost nothing. 52
Name and Address.
Manitoba.
Best Time to Come.
Albert McGuffin, Melgund ... Early spring; in time to break
and backset	
What to Bring.
Clothing, furs and bedding. .
F. W. Stevenson, Hill View.... |Early spring; in time to breaklPilot cloth coats and bedding.,
and backset	
S. W. Chambers, Wattsvie'
Geo. G. Downie, Crystal City...
W. B. Hall, Headingly	
T. McCartney, Port, la Prairi
, R. S. Conklin, Sunny side	
April .Clothing only	
Spring Plenty of clothing only.,
Robt. Campbell, Bridge Creek\
Walter A. Evans, Rosser..
Alfred Pickering, Austin..,
Henry McCleod, Carberry .
Alf. Walker, Sheppardville.. March
In spring.
April	
Spring	
Early spring-
Early spring-
Early sprii g-
. Clothing only..
Only clothing	
[Buy everything in Winnipeg.
Clothing and bedding only .
Clothing and bedding only.
Plenty of clothes and bedding-
One change of clothes	
[Clothing and bedding.. S3
Satisfaction,  with Prospects.
Yes.   No desire for
and my prospects
a better climate,
are bright-
Yes	
Yes ; in every way-
Yes ; decidedly.
Yes.....	
Yes.
o
Very well
I am	
Prospects bright.
Fully	
I am.
General  Remarks.
In a few years a settler can become very comfortable, owning a large farm free from incumbrances, considerable
stock and comfortable buildings.
There is no healthier country, nor any country in the world
where a steady, industrious man can sooner become
independent.
To the man ready to work, and who knows, or is apt to
learn, something of farm work and management, Manitoba offers a competence in a very few years. It is in
every way a splendid agricultural country and eminently suitable for successful settlement.
Manitoba offers to beginners the best advantages for the
least outlay of capital, and I regard it as the best agricultural country in the world.
After nearly thirty years experience I can safely recommend this country <o the intending emigrant. Persevering industry and a capital of a few hundred dollars
will ensure success.
A settler should arrive early and rent a piece of cultivated
land to put a crop in, and if he takes up a homestead
he can go on and break for next year.
I think this is the best country in the world for a poor man
to get a start in, if he is only industrious and steady.
The settlers in this country are always willing to help
a man if he is willing to help himself. This is the oldest
and most prosperous municipality in Manitoba, yet
there is plenty of .room.
Any man that has health and a good share of strength and
energy, and means enough to make a start on a farm,
need have no fear about getting along here.
I do not think that this country can be beaten, as it is good
for all kinds of farming and it is healthy. My mother
(age 75), who came out with me, has not had a day's
sickness yet, although in each of the last three winters
before coming out she had had a severe attack of bronchitis, and had she not come out would not have lived
another^ winter.
Manitoba can beat the world in growing grain, and anyone
with good health and willing to work is bound to succeed.
If people would plough more in the fall, sow earlier in the
spring, and cut the grains a good deal greener than they
do, especially wheat, the samples would be even better,
and less complaints of loss by frost. I had 2,400 bush,
this year.
I can heartily recommend life on the prairie to young men
with a little capital and plenty of perseverance. 54
Name and Address.
Manitoba.
Matt. Kennedy, Loihair
RolaIstd McDonald, Lowestoft.
. Early spring	
. May or June; as he can get
some land broken and good
Wages for the after part of
the year	
Albert E. Philp, Brandon April or May	
Best Time to Come.
Plenty of warm clothing ,
Serviceable clothing	
G. Forbes & Sons, Treherne..
Wm. H. Wilson, Deloraine ..
M. G. Abey, Chater	
As early as possible-
March or Bpril.
March or April.
D. D. Buchanan, Grisivold May or June.-
Wm. Irwine, Almasippi..
L. Wilson, Stockton
April-
March
Warm clothing only..
Not much.
What to Bring.
Nothing-
Warm bedding only-
Clothing, bedding and house linen,
and by all means a box of carpenter's tools	
Corduroy and moleskin clothes	
i 55
Satisfaction, with Prospects.
I am |A good place for farmers with little money.
Yes ■. I can make an easier living here, with a small capital, than
in Ontario.
Yes ; would not change The man who is willing to work, and can bring $2,000 with
him to this country, can be independent in five years
if he will profit by the experience of those around him
and leave behind him his former ideas of farming.
Yes A newcomer ought to work out the first year and learn the
ways of the country. I have bettered the condition of
my family more in five years here than during 30 in
Ontario.
Yes j^climate healthy and prospects Agriculturally speaking, the country cannot be excelled,
bright	
lam |l reached Winnipeg, April 13, 1880; was in debt then and
worked in service for about two years; commenced
farming in 1882 on a homestead; purchased 160 acres
for $800, deeded to me in March; cost of horses and implements $1857. Now I have over $500 in bank to my
credit, and the greater part of the past season's crop unsold.   So much for agriculture in Manitoba.
Yes This is the country for young and healthy men.   Stock
raising will be more profitable than wheat growing, if
prices of wheat and labor remain as at present. Farmers
can live as easily here as in any country in the world.
Yes; highly satisfied and hopeful... I would not live or work in the old country now.
Perfectly, and intend to stay-
Settlers coming early and remaining here will soon find
themselves in good circumstances. They need not fear
the climate ; this invigorating air will be a grand surprise even to the healthy. Let them bring out their
wives and daughters.	 56
concluding remarks.
Since the foregoing has been put in type large numbers of letters have been
received. They are generally of a very encouraging character, and fully bear ont the
statement that no other known country affords better opportunities for successful farming
than the Canadian Northwest. A few of these are appended, and will be read with
interest.
FROM EGAN BROTHERS, ROSSER.
Winnipeg, December 21st, 1887.
J. H. McTAVISH, Esq.,
Land Commissioner, C,P.R., Winnipeg.
Dear Sir,-—It may be interesting to you to know the result of our farming operations during
the past season, upon land in the vicinity of Winnipeg, which is so often reported to be valueless and non-productive as farming land.
On the 24th of May we purchased 430 acres of land near Rosser Station, within 15 miles
from Winnipeg, in a district in which there has hitherto been very little or no cultivation. We
paid $7,500.00 for the property, the buildings on it alone (erected by an English " gentleman
farmer," whose funds gave out) being worth that amount, consequently the land itself stands
us nothing. The farm had not been cultivated, with the exception of 70 acres, for several
years, and was consequently in a nearly wild state, having grown up to weeds, etc.
On the 27th of May last we commenced ploughing, following up at once with the seeders,
sowing at a rate of 6\ bushels per acre of wheat and 3 J bushels per acre of oats.
Of the 380 acres broken by us, the following division of crops was made:—
36 acres Wheat
94    "     Barley
250    I    Oats
In addition to the above, our vegetables were put in a piece of land containing 32 acres,
which had been cultivated, the acreage for each variety being:—
14 acres Potatoes
16    "     Turnips
-.     „ p /Beets
 \ Cabbages
r Onions
1    "     < Carrots
( Radishes
Our returns upon the above acreage were as follows:—
Wheat    900 bush, sold in Winnipeg, at $0 57 per bush. $ 513 00
(Graded No. 1 hard)
Barley  1900   " 0 40       " 760 00
(Sold to brewery for malting)
Oats 12750   " 0 25       " 3187 50
Potatoes  3000   " 0 25 750 00 57
Beets      50 bush, sold in Winnipeg, at $0 50 per bush. $ 25 0©
Onions      50   " 1 25       " 62 50
Carrots      50   " 0 50      " 26 00
Radishes      50   f 0 40       " 20 00 *
Turnips.  6000   " 0 12£     " 750 00
(Retained for our own use)
Cabbages  1600 head 0 03 each 48 00
(Retained for our own use)
Hay    300 tons 4 00 per ton      1200 00
(Cut alongside farm)
$7341 00
We would particularly call your attention to the very late date upon which we began our
work, our harvest having been done during the first week in August, a little over two months
after seeding.
Yours truly,
(Signed) Egan Bros.,
Per Edward Egan,
Corner Graham and Garry streets, Winnipeg.
P.S.—You are doubtless aware that this is our first attempt at farming, our business being
railway contracting, and, considering this fact, I feel that we have done remarkably well, as,
barring our own work (we did not hire any labor), we realized enough from one crop to pay the
original price of the land, and have now the valuable property to the good, and our success this
year has decided us to adopt farming in Manitoba as our future calling.
Tell this, if you like, to the suffering farmers of Ontario, and if your story is doubted refer
them to me and my brothers.
E.E.
FROM THE   BRANDON DISTRICT.
" Kemnay, January 16th 1888.
" I take great pleasure in giving a correct statement of all the crop I had on my farm, which
is situated on the main line of *he Canadian Pacific Railway, seven miles west of the city of
Brandon. I had 145 acres of wheat, from which the total yield the past season was 6,840
bushels. One piece of 45 acres of summer fallow gave 2,240 bushels, being an average of 52
bushels per acre, and 100 acres averaged 45 bushels per acre. I had also 45 acres of oats, which
yielded 3,150 bushels, an average of 70 bushels per acre. Off 6 acres of barley I had 387
bushels. I planted about | of an acre potatoes and had 225 bushels good dry mealy potatoes.
The yield of roots and garden vegetables was large and of good quality. In conclusion, I would
say that previous to coming to Ontario, Canada, I had farmed in one of the best agricultural
districts of Germany, and after coming to Canada I farmed twelve years in the county of
Waterloo, Ont    I removed to Manitoba in March, 1884; that summer I broke 190 acres, off I
58
which I reaped in 1885 a fine crop of wheat, fully as good as this year.   My two sons have farms
joining mine and their crops yielded equally as large as mine.
" I must say that farming has paid me better in this province than in Ontario or the
Fatherland.
"(Signed), Christian Senkbeil."
tFROM moosomin, n. w. t.
Moosomin, N. W. T.
" Range 30 and 31, Township 14, 4 miles from station   Came to the country in 1883, and
settled in present location.    Amount of capital $12,000.    Acreage now owned 4,000.    Under
crop in 1887, 600 acres, present capital $40,000.    Yield per acre 1887, 30 bushels average.   Live
stock, 14 horses.
" 1 am pleased to give my experience since I came to this country. My success has been
far beyond my expectations. I am fully convinced for extensive farming, wholly grain, or
mixed farming, it cannot be surpassed. I think Moosomin district is equalled by few and surpassed by no other point in Manitoba or the North-West Territories.
" Moosomin is a first-class grain market and is growing rapidly in importance.
" (Signed), J. R. Neff."
EXTRACTS FROM OTHER LETTERS.
W. Govenlock—S. 27, T. 11, R. 23, near Griswold. Had 60 bushels of wheat per acre on
5 acres, and 37 bushels per acre on 250 acres.
Samuel Hanna—S. 7, T. 10, R. 22, near Griswold. Had an average of 40 bushels of wheat
per acre on 250 acres.
John Young—S. 1, T. 10, R. 23.   Had 75 bushels of wheat from one acre.
Alex. Johnston—Near Elkhorn.   An average of 41 bushels wheat per acre on 14 acres.
Geo. Freeman—Near Elkhorn.   An average of 37$ bushels of wheat per acre on 50 acres.
Thos. Wood—10 miles north of Virden. Had an average of 63 bushels of wheat on 5
acres,   (315 bushels of wheat from 5 acres.)
Richard Tapp—South of Virden.   Had an average of 51 bushels of wheat on 20 acres.
Thos. Bobier—Half a mile north of Moosomin—Had forty acres of wheat, averaging 38
bushels to the acre.
J. R. Neff-—Three miles north of Moosomin. Had 115 acres lof wheat, averaging 37
bushels to the acre.
G. T. Cheasley—Four miles north-east from Alexander. Had an average of 45 bushels
per acre on 100 acres of wheat.
A. Nichol—Four miles north-east of Alexander. Had 150 acres wheat, averaging 40
bushels per acre.
H. Touchbourne—Four miles north-west of Alexander. Had an average of 40 bushels
per acre on 100 acres of wheat. 59
W. Watt—South-west of Alexander. Had 80 acres wheat with an average of 40 bushels
per acre.
Robt. Rogers—Near Elkhorn.   Had 10 acres of wheat averaging 40 bushels per acre.
Wm. Wenman, from Kent, farmer, Plum Creek; came 1881; capital about $1,000; took up
homestead and pre-emption for self and two sons, 960 acres in all; has over 8000 bushels wheat
this year; three teams of horses worth $1200; eight colts worth $1000; cattle worth $500;
implements, etc., $1000.   His real estate at present is worth at least $8000.
H. Selby, from Leicester, office clerk, 23 years old, came 1883, took up homestead and preemption ; capital nil; has this year 1200 bushels wheat, some oats and barley; yoke cattle and
implements worth $400; real estate worth $1200.   (This is a worker.)
Michael Creedan, carpenter, from Cork, came 1882 with wife and six children, arrived at
Plum Creek in debt £80; has now good plastered house and two lots in Souris town; 160 acres
good land; four cows in calf, three heifers, pigs and fowl; no debts; real estate worth $800 ;
cattle worth $300.
Daniel Connolly, plasterer, from Cork, came 1883; brought out wife and seven children;
has now good plastered house, in Souris town worth $600; cash at least $500; no debts.
James Cowan, Irish, arrived in Manitoba 1882 without a dollar; hired out until he could
earn enough to buy a yoke of oxen; owns now 320 acres, of which 200 are under cultivation; ?
comfortable frame house, two teams of horses, eight cows, and everything necessary for carrying on a large farm; also a wife and two children; has 9000 bushels of grain this year.
Stephen Brown came out in 1882; was hired out until 1885 ; saved enough to buy a team
of horses and make payments on land; broke land in 1885 and had his first crop in 1886; got
his brother to come out, who also had a team and bought land alongside, so that they worked
together; have each 160 acres and good house and s+ock; raised their second year 7000 bushels
of grain.
Morgan and Thomas Powell, Welsh miners, came in 1882, £80 capital; last year brought
out their wives and families; have each about 4000 bushels of grain this year.
Patrick Buckley came out in 1882; has worked on a farm, hired ever since; has £300 in
the bank.
Phillips Brant, a Guernsey carpenter, £200 capital; has 320 acres, 60 head of cattle, and
three sons settled within four miles, all on their own farms of 320 acres, and raising large crops.
Donald Sutherland and Thomas Stewart came from Scotland in 1882; bought each a yoke
of oxen and went to work breaking their land, their wives meanwhile erecting sod houses, in
which the families lived for two years. They are now independent; good frame houses, a
quantity of stock and large crops. I FREE  GRANTS, PRE-EMPTIONS,  &c.
How to obtain them in the Canadian North-West.
DOMINION    LANDS   REGULATIONS.
■ Jnder the Dominion Lands Regulations, all Surveyed- even-numbered sections, excepting 8 and.26, in Manitoba
an North-West Territories, which have not been homesteaded, reserved to provide wood lots for settlers, or
o disposed of or reserved, are to be held exclusively for homesteads and pre-emptions.
HOMESTEADS.—Homesteads may be obtained upon payment of an Office Fee of Ten Dollars, subject to the
£j? ."% conditions as to residence and cultivation :        *       v
-  ..;i'i-the "Mile Belt Reserve," that is the even numbered sections lying within one mile of the Main Line or
' - Jff**''  «»f the Canadian Pacific Railway, and which are not set apart for town sites or reserves made in connection
■•," ~ <ntes, railway stations, mounted police posts, mining and other special purposes, the homesteader shall
-    u;il residence upon his homestead within six months from the date of entry, and shail reside upon and make
•    :-oid his home for at least six months out of every twelve months for three years from the date of entry; and
MsaiJ, within the first year after the date of his homestead entry, break and prepare for crop ten acres of his home-
..! .Ydd quarter section; and shall within the second year crop the said ten acres, and break and prepare for crop fifteen
...t:'S additional; making twenty-five acres; and within the third year after the date of his homestead entry, he
?JhaM-crw   he said twenty-five acres, and break and prepare for crop fifteen acres additional—so that within three
; ears of the date of his homestead entry, he shall have not less than twenty-five acres cropped, and fifteen acres
additional broken and prepared for crop,
Land, other than that included in Mile Belt, Town Site Reserves, and Coal and Mineral Districts, may be
homesteaded in either of the three following methods:—
1. The homesteader shall begin actual residence on his homestead and cultivation of a reasonable portion
thereof within six months from date of entry, unless entry shall have been made on or after the 1st day of September,
ia which case residence need not commence until the first day of June following, and continue to live upon and
cultivate the land for at least six months out of every twelve months for three years from date of homestead entry.
2. The homesteader shall begin.actual residence, as above, within a radius of two miles of his homestead, and
rtonV nue to make his home within such radius for at least six months out of every twelve months for the three years
"Ipfcsj'■■- ucceeding the date of homestead entry, and shall within the first year from date of entry break and prepare
..u*<"*np ten acres of his homestead quarter section; and shall within the second year crop the said ten acres, and
Land prepare for crop fifteen acres additional—making twenty-five acres; and within the third year after the
date of his homestead entry he shall crop the said twenty-five acres, arid break and prepare for crop fifteen acres
- 'Mitional, so that within three years of the date of his homestead entry, he shall have not less than twenty-five acres
?>ped, and shall have erected on the land a habitable house in which he shall have lived during the three months
preceding his application for homestead patent.
3. The homesteader shall commence the cultivation of his homestead within six months after the date of entry,
r v the entry was obtained after the first day of September in any year, then before the first day of June following;
bu.«,ll-within the first year break and prepare for crop not less than five acres of his homestead; shall within the
^-.'.#nSd year crop the said five acres, and break and prepare for crop not less than ten acres in addition—making not
'.^.^an fifteen acres in all; shall have erected a habitable house on the homestead.before the expiration of the
'id year, and on or before the commencement of the third year shall have begun to reside in the said house, and
U have continued to reside therein and cultivate his homestead for not less than three years next prior to the date
».<     s application for patent.
Ti, the event of a homesteader desiring to secure his patent within a shorter period than the three or five years,
case may be, he will be permitted to purchase his homestead, or homestead and pre-emption, as the case may
. on furnishing proof that he has resided on tbe homestead for at least twelve months subsequent to date of entry,
|P$1>;Lu case entry was made after the 25th day of May, 1883, has cultivated thirty acres thereof.
PRE-EMPTIONS.—Any homesteader may, at the same time as he makes his homestead entry, but not at a
;?*- date, should there be available land adjoining the homestead, enter an additional quarter section as a pre-
■  j Joij, on payment of an office fee of ten dollars.
The pre-emption right entitles a homesteader, who obtains entry for a pre-emption, to purchase the land so
-empted on becoming entitled to his homestead patent; but should the homesteader fail to fulfil the homestead
ditions he forfeits all claim to his pre-emption.
The price of pre-emptions, not included in Town Site Reserves, is two dollars and fifty cents an acre. . Where
d is north of the northerly limit of the land grant, along the main line of the Canadian Pacific Railway, and is
within twenty-four miles of any branch of that Railway, or twelviesmles of any other Railway, pre-emptions may
jDtaine"d for two dollars per acre.
Payments for land may be in cash, scrip, or Police or Military Bounty warrants.
TIMBER.—Homestead settlers, whose land is destitute of timber, may, upon payment of an office fee of fifty
. s, procure from the Crown Timber Agent a permit to cut the following quantities of timber free of dues; 30 cords
ood, 1,800 lineal feet of house logs, 2,000 fence rails and 400 roof rails. %%&£''
In cases where there is timbered land in the vicinity, available for the purpose, the homestead settler, whose
j. is without timber, may purchase a wood lot,not exceeding in area 20 acres, at the price of five dollars per acre cash.
Licenses to cut timber on lands within surveyed townships may be obtained.   The lands covered by such
inses are thereby withdrawn from homestead and pre-emption entry, and from sale.
INFORMATION.—Full information respecting the land, timber, coal ond mineral laws, and copies of the
. ?ulations, may be obtained upon application to The Secretary op the Department op the Interior, Ottawa,
Ontario; The Commissioner op Dominion Lands, Winnipeg, Manitoba; or to any of the Dominidn Land Agents in
Manitoba or the North-West Territories.
A. M. BURGESS', Dep. Minister of Interior. F
OR the comfort and convenience of settlers going to the CANADIAN NORTH-WEST, the
-»» CANADIAN  PACIFIC  RAILWAY B
Provides a Special Form op Passenger Equipment, known as
COLONIST   O^IRS
&5^w»'.»iiO<.sy.^«i,y.s5
KX^TO^JTSK^nW^SrSSKOnCXSC?^^^
Which are run through to MANITOBA and BRITISH COLUMBIA on 4he regular Express
Train leaving MONTREAL each week day. They are really "Sleeping Cars," modelled after
the style of the first-class "Pullman,'' with upper and lower berths, closets, lav atones, &c, Ac./'
the only difference being that the seats and berths are not upholstered. Occupants may supply*
their own bedding, or can purchase of the Company's Agents at QUEBEC, MONTREAL, or
TORONTO, a mattress, pillow and blanket for $2.50 (10 shillings), which they can retain at the
end of their journey.
The accompanying cut shows the interior of a Colonist Car, with a portion of the berths
made up for sleeping purposes.      m*;
; Holders of COLONIST or SECOND-CLASS TICKETS are allowed FREE USE OF THESE
CARS FROM THE BEGINNING TO THE END OF THEIR JOURNEY OVER THE
(ANADIAN PACIFIC RAILWAY.

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