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Package with information on the Canadian Pacific Railway, Canadian Pacific Steamships, and Canadian Pacific… Canadian Pacific Railway Company 1955

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HISTORY    The Dominion of Canada was created in 1867 when the then
separate colonies of Upper and Lower Canada, Nova Scotia
and New Brunswick united as iprovinces * under one government.
Of those which joined later the far western province of
British Columbia made it a condition of entering this confederation (which it did in 1871) that a transcontinental
railway would be constructed linking the Pacific Coast with
Eastern Canada.
Such a railway was begun as a government project, but for
various reasons it was later decided to turn it over to private
enterprise.  A syndicate of Canadian, British and American
railway builders and financial men signed a contract with Sir
John A. Macdonald, the prime minister, on the 21st October 188o»
This contract was ratified on the 15th February 1881, when the
Canadian Pacific Railway Company was incorporated and undertook
to complete the line in ten years.
Construction was begun at many points simultaneously.  The
last spike was driven at Craigellachie, in the Rocky Mountains
28 miles west of Revelstoke on the 7th November 1885 •  The
first transcontinental train left Montreal on the 28th June 1886
and arrived at Port Moody, near what later became Vancouver, on
the 4th July - five years ahead of the time limit.
The total Canadian Pacific track miles in 1886 was approx* 4,4o6j
today this mileage has increased to 17,072, plus 3>807 miles
owned and controlled In the United States.  Canada with a relatively small population of 15 million has about 43,000 miles of
railway track.  This mileage is exceeded only by the U.S.A.,
U^S.S.R., and India and Pakistan combined.
The gauge is the same as British Railways, 4 feet 8-| inches,
Ttie transcontinental line runs from Montreal to Vancouver 2,882
miles.  To Saint John on the Atlantic seaboard is a further
482 miles and to Halifax another 190 miles.
Leaving Montreal, the route is firstly that of the original
explorers - by the Ottawa River, with its pleasant farm lands,
its lumbering Industry and the federal capital, Ottawa.  Then
a cut across to the denser forests that lie north of Lake Huron
and on to that magnificent inland ocean, Lake Superior.  After
Fort William, where east meets west, there are forests again
until an entirely different type of country begins with the
Praries and we roll across the Red River into Winnipeg.  Then
there are eight hundred miles of prairies with their enormous
grain crops, and large herds of cattle in the footrhill country. ~2-
RDCKY      Just beyond Calgary the ascent is suddenly rapid.  The
MOUNTAINS   Rockies have begun!  Here are Banff and Lake Louise, the
Great Divide (where the track reaches its highest point,
5,337 feet) from which waters flow to the pacific and
Atlantic.  The track then drops down into the narrow
Kicking Horse pass and through two remarkable tunnels
known as the Spiral Tunnels,
SPIRAL     The track was originally laid through a Pass, but the
TUNNELS    average gradient was k+5%  (which means a rise or fall of
4| feet for every 100 ft. of track) for some three miles
which made operation very difficult and expensive, four
locomotives were sometimes required to haul trains over
this section.  By building two tunnels (1908-9) under two
separate mountains the gradient has been reduced to an
average of 2.2$.  Whilst it has increased the length of
the line by approximately 5 miles the operation of the
trains is much easier.  Going west, the track enters the
first tunnel under Cathedral Mountain, 3*255 ft* in
length, turns 291 degrees of a circle and emerges 54 ft.
lower down.  The track then turns east, crosses the
Kicking Horse River, and enters the second tunnel 2,922
ft. in length under Mb« Ogden and turning 217 degrees,
emepges 50ft. lower.
OQMAUGHT   The 125-mile stretch between Field and Revelstoke is also
TUNNEL    - famous for its magnificent scenery,.  This section
includes the Connaught Tunnel built in 1916, through Mt.
MacdonalxLto^avoid the climb over Rogers Pass, lowering
the summit attained,by the track by 552 feet.  The tunnel,
5 miles long, is double tracked 29 feet wide, 21ft. 6 ins.
high and is equipped witli^special ventilating machinery.
The track emerges from the western end of the Connaught
Tunnel at Glacier which lies at the summit of the Selkirk
range, and begins the long descent to the Pacific Coast.
From Sicamous the line runs alongside the South Thompson
River.  At Lytton the Thompson joins the Fraser and they
ther*3 begin their united course to the sea through the
magnificent Fraser Canyon and then on through fruitlands
and meadows to the pacific Coast. -3-
The Canadian Pacific's most famous train is the
DOMINION from Montreal and Toronto to Vancouver daily.
The journey takes 3^ days.
There are two ordinary classes of travel - first and
coach.  Then there is another division - into day and night
travel.  If your journey is entirely by day, a coach class
ticket would be sufficient, unless you prefer the additional
comfort of a Parlour Car.  But Canada is a country of such
vast distances that a certain amount of overnight travel is
essential, and is in fact a convenience.  In that case, if
you desire a berth in a sleeping car, the holders of first-
class tickets book for the standard sleepers as described
below.  Holders of coach class tickets can book for Tourist
Sleeping Cars (operated on certain trains only).  There is
also a Colonist class which is operated on certain trains
There are several types of sleeping cars:
STANDARD SLEEPER  This Is divided into sections on either
side of the central corridor, each section having an upper
and lower berth ranged longways down the car.  During the
day the upper berths are folded back into the roof of the
car and the lower berths become seats.
COMPARTMENTS  A private room with a lower and upper berth,
private toilet and wash basing  In day-time the lower berth
provides two seats.
DRAWING ROOMS  A larger version of the compartment.
BEDROOM CARS  Most like the British sleeper with beds
instead of berthsc
ROOMETTE  The ideal accommodation for the traveller who •
desires complete' privacy at a moderate cost.
All important Canadian Pacific trains are well provided with
lounge cars.  Known generally as }Parlor Cars1, they are
available on payment of a supplement to holders of first class
tickets, and free to those who have booked in the standard
sleeping car*  They have large windows, and comfortable arm
chairs, magazines, a library, and refreshment service.  Some
have a sight-seeing platform at the rear.
All important trains have dining cars or cafe cars. ~4-
STAFF     In charge of the locomotive is an Tengineer1 and an
... .  assistant.  In charge of the train is a 'conductor1
assisted by trainmenr.  In charge of the dining car is
a 'steward1 assisted by chefs and waiters.  In charge of
the sleeping car Is a 'sleeping car conductor' assisted
by 'porters1 who make up the beds and look after the linen.
The man who carries your bag at the station is a 'Red Cap'.
A 'Sales Agent' passes up and down the train from time to
time selling newspapers, magazines, candies and refreshments.
Platforms are built at track level, not raised as in England,
and steps are provided to allow passengers to enter and leave
the coaches.
There are over 3,000 stations on the system.
LOCOMOTIVES These are not named as in this country.
STEAM     As a matter of interest, Canadian Pacific locomotive 2850, a
4-6-4 Royal Hudson type, hauled the Royal train the entire
3,060 miles from Quebec to Vancouver when their Majesties,
the King and Queen, visited Canada in May, 1939•
All locomotives carry a bell, headlamp and whistle,
following Are some of the more famous steam types;
Type                       4-4-4
.  4-6-2
Nos.                        2910-29)
.   1200-71    )
3000-4. )
.   2200-2717)
Built                    1936-8
Driving Wheels    6'   8"
6! 3"
6' 3"
5! 3"
Engine & tender 206 tons
274 tons
290 tons
534 tons
Length                    81' 2f"
87' 5s"
90'  10"
97' 10i"
Tractive effort 26,600.lbs. 45,300 lbs. 45,300 lbs. 77,200 lbs.
The majority of Canadian Pacific 1630 steam locomotives are
black in colour with letters and number in gold on tuscan red
panels.  Some of the Jubilee, Hudson.and Selkirk types have
polished steel boiler-jackets.
LOCOMOTIVES In 1943 the Company began experimenting with the use of diesel
DIESEL    engines for yard work.  Later diesel electric locomotives were
introduced on Vancouver Island and on the Schreiber division,
north of Lake Superior.  Freight operation on the Calgary-
Revelst.ofee. division In the Rockies was begun in October 1951 and
passenger train operation in the summer of 1952.  The company
now has more than 365 diesel units in operation.  The CPR has
the longest continuous haul with diesels •- 2,239 miles Montreal
to Calgary.  This will shortly be extended to 2,881 miles Montreal to Vancouver.  Normal passenger trains are operated with
two diesel units with the assistance of a third unit in the .
Rockies. _5~
PASSENGER  The average distance travelled by the 9 million passengers
carried by the Canadian Pacific in 1953 was 140 miles.
About 78$ of all the 81,000 freight cars are of the
closed box car types.  They are considerably larger than
those used by the British Railways, over 70$ of the box type
having a capacity of 40 tons, whilst the remainder are
mostly 50 tonnerso
In 1953 the Canadian Pacific carried 29,700,000 ton-miles
(l ton hauled 1 mile) and hauled each ton an average of
447 miles..  The chief commodities were as follows:*-
Products of mines
Products of agriculture
Manufactured and
miscellaneous products
Products of forests
Less Carload freight
19,300,000 tons
18^000,000    »
15,400,000 «
5,400,000 "
1,000,000    «
The Winnipeg marshalling yards with over 300 miles of track
may handle as many as 7,000 cars a day when the movement
of wheat is at its height in the fall of each year.
In July 1950 the Company opened the first Hump retarder
marshalling yard in Canada.  Covering more than a square
mile the St. Luc yard, west of Montreal has 75 miles of
track and can handle 3,000 cars per day.
Side by side with the develbpment of the railway has grown
up a vast Canadian Pacific communications system with over
199*000 miles.of wire©  In 1886 the Canadian Pacific
inaugurated the first commercial telegraph service across
Canada.  Today the Company1s facilities contribute to the
long distance telephone and radio networks of Canada.
Further details of history and development of the Company •
may be found in "Steel of Empire11 by J.M. Gibbon, now out
of p^int, but which can be borrowed from most public
HISTORY  The Canadian Pacific first entered the steamship business-in 1884 when they
purchased the ALBERTA, ALGOMA, and ATHBASCA to operate on the Great Lakes
and to assist in the construction of the railway across the continent^ ..which
was completed in 1886.  These vessels were built in Scotland and had to be
cut in sections in Montreal in order to pass through the We Hand Canal«
Explorers and traders,had searched for a North West passage from Europe to
the East for many years without success. In 1886 the Canadian pacific
realised the commercial possibilities of such a route via its transcontinental railway and started a service across the pacific ocean by chartering
the 800~ton barque W.B. FLINT. The first cargo from China was landed at
Port Moody, B.C. on the 26th July 1886 and consisted of 17*430 half chests
of tea addressed to cities in Canada, the United States and Europe* This
was only three weeks after the first train had crossed the continent-
In 1887 the Company chartered three steamers, the ABYSSINIA, BATAVIA and
PARTHIA to operate between Vancouver, Yokohama and Hong, Kong. This, service
proved so successful that in 1891 the Canadian Pacific had three new steamers
built expressly for this service, the EMPRESS OF CHINA, EMPRESS OF INDIA and
EMPRESS OF JAPAN*  They became known as the White Empresses of the pacific,
and were famous for their speed and beauty.
In 1903. the Canadian Pacific forged the third link in the North West route to
the Orient by purchasing the Beaver line from the Elder Dempster Company and
operating these Vessels from.the U.K. to Canada thus establishing a Commonwealth route from Great Britain to Japan and China, via Canada.
While continuing to build new ships from time to time, the Company strengthened its position on the Atlantic by purchasing the Allan Line in 1916.
This company's ships first sailed to Canada from the Clyde in 1820*
HOUSE   All ships fly the Company's houseflag, the
FLAG    red and white t chequer-board!. Upper row,
white to mast, red and white to fly.
Funnels are buff-coloured, with the houseflag
painted on each side.  Cargo liners have black
hulls and the passenger liners white hulls
with a green band.
CARGOES  All vessels on the Atlantic service bring
large cargoes from Canada consisting of foodstuffs, (wheat, bacon, eggs and canned goods)
timber, paper, asbestos, copper, aluminium.
On the return voyages to Canada they carry mostly manufactured goods, woollens,
cottons, machinery,"pottery, glassware, automobiles, chemicals, iron and •
steel (sheets, rods, tubes, wheels, and tinned plates).  From Antwerp the
chief cargoes consist of textiles, glassware, machinery and Dutch bulbs. .ATLANTIC  EMPRESS OF SCOTLAND A twin screw geared turbine ship built on the Clyde in
PASSENGER 1929 by the Fairfield Shipbuilding Co. 666 feet in length, 87* 9" in breadth
LINERS    with a gross tonnage of 26,313 and a speed of 21 knots*/
She carries 660
EMPRESS OF FRANCE Twin screw geared turbine ship built on the Clyde in 1928
by J.Brown & Go, 596 feet in length, 75 feet in tireadth, with a gross tonnage
of 20,000 and a speed of 18 knots. She carries 700 passengers*
EMPRESS OF AUSTRALIA (ex De Grasse) Twin screw geared turbine built by
Cairmiell Laird of Birkenhead in 1924. 571 feet In length, 71 feet in breadth
with a gross tonnage of 20,000: She carries 663 passengers.
These passenger liners operate a regular schedule from Liverpool to Quebec
and Montreal in summer and from Liverpool to Saint John N.B., In winter.
They carry first class and tourist passengers and some cargo.  Two new
22,500 ton Empre^r, ships are at present being built, one by Fairfields and
the other by Vickers-Armstrongs e      !
BEAVERBRAE A diesel-electric single screw vessel built in 1939 of 9*000 tons,
490 feet long, 6o feet in breadth with a speed of 16 knots* At present
engaged ks  an Immigrant ship, taking passengers from Europe to Canada*
Cargo is also carried,.
CARGO    BEAVERLAKK, J3EAVERGLEN These single screw turbo-electric vessels built on
LINERS    the Clyde in 1945 by Lithgows are sister ships, 497 feet in length. 64 feet
in breadth with a gross tonnage of 10*000 and a speed of 16 knots*  They
operate a regular service from London to Montreal in summer and from London
to West Saint John N.Ba in winter*  Periodical calls are made at Antwerp*
MAPLECOVE, MAPLEDELL sister ships of the Beaverlake and Beaverglen. Their
names were changed from Beaver cove and Beaverdell in September 1952 when they
were transferred from the North Atlantic to the Pacific**  They operate from
Vancouver to Tacoma, Seattle, Yokohama, Kobe, Manila, Cebu, Hongkong and
BEAVERBURN, BEAVERF0RD These geared turbine single screw vessels were built
at Dundee in 1945 by Caladon Shipbuilding Coc as ^Empire* ships* They are
465 feet in length, 64 feet in breadth, with a gross tonnage of 10,000 and a
speed of 15 knots*
BEAVERIDDGE A geared turbine single screw vessel, built by the Furness Shipbuilding Co. of Haverton Hill on Tees in 1943 as the Empire Regent* She is
497 feet in length, 64 feet in breadth, with a gross tonnage of 9,900 and a
speed of 15 knots*
In addition to cargo these three ships also carry 12 passengers. They
operate from the U.K« to Montreal in summer and to West Saint John N*B*
in winter.
OTHER    The Company also operates steamship services In Canadian coastal waters.
SERVICES  on the Great Lakes and other Inland waters*
HISTORY  Between 1930 and 1941 the Canadian Pacific acquired several small air
services, chiefly in the northern and western areas of Canada.  In
1942 Canadian Pacific Airlines was formed to co-ordinate these services.
To-day the Canadian Pacific operates 10,723 miles -f domestic routes
and 20,676 miles of international routes*  CPAL service t' Sydney was
started on the 10th July 1949, to Hong Kong on the 18th September 1949>
and to Lima on the 24th October 1953•
This consists of Douglas DC 3s (15), DC 4s (4), DC 6Bs (6), Convair
240fs (5), Cansos (2).  Norsemen are also used where there are no
OVERSEAS From Vancouver the Canadian Pacific Empresses of the Air DC 6Bs cross
SERVICES, the Pacific to Sydney, Australia, and Auckland N.Z., 8,400 miles away
via Honolulu, and Fiji.  Another service operates from Hong Kong via
Tokyo and the Aleutians to Vancouver and then continues on to Lima via
Mexico City, 12,000 miles.  The International Date-line is crossed by
both of these services.
DOMESTIC Canadian Pacific fly closer to the Pole than any other airline.  Branch-
SERVICES ing out from Edmonton are the many lines which serve the radium country
of Great Bear Lake, the oil fields at Norman Wells, the farming country
of the Peace River, and the gold fields of Lake Athabasca, Yellowknife
and Great Slave Lake.  The route from Edmonton to Aklavik, on the shores
of the Arctic Ocean, is 1,540 miles, longest in the domestic service.
The new uranium centre of Beaverlodge is now a point of call en route
to Yellowknife from Edmonton.
From Vancouver C.P.A.L. routes fan northward to Queen Charlotte Islands
and Prince Rupert on the coast, to Fort St. John, connecting with
another route from Edmonton, and on to Whitehorse, Dawson City and
Fairbanks.  Eastward from Vancouver a route to Calgary serves the
Okanagan Valley and Kootenay district of British Columbia.
In Saskatchewan, there is a passenger run from Regina tc Moose Jaw,
Saskatoon, Prince Albert, North Battleford, Uoydminster and Edmonton.
Out of Winnipeg C.P.A.L. has a daily service from The Pas to Churchill,
Manitoba*s sea port on Hudson1 s Bay.
In eastern Canada, Canadian Pacific air services are centered on Montreal.
Several trips are made daily between Montreal and Quebec City, and the
"industrial and resort centres of Lake St. John, Saguenay and north shore
of the St. Lawrence are covered.  The route leaving Montreal for the
North has been extended recently, and travellers now call at Val d!0r,
Rouyn-Noranda, Earlton and thence to Toronto.  This new route is
proving a most important factor in the development of this rich mining area.
In 1953 the Canadian Pacific Airlines carried more than 2^ million
pounds of airmail and more than 7 million pounds of freight.  They also
carried more than 200,000 passengers and flew over 9 million miles to
do this job.
January 1955


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