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The Chung Collection

An introduction to railroading Canadian Pacific Railway Company 1950

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 o
CANADIAN   PACIFIC
" AN   INTRODUCTION
TO   RAILROADING"
:  COMMENTARY
: INSTRUCTIONS
J *»
1
0
AUDIO  VISUAL   TRAINING
Our responsibility in teaching employees and others is great.
As we realize this we find ourselves looking for the best "tools"
available to help us.  v/e are not looking for something that
will make our task easier but something that will make learning
more effective for the student.
Sometimes our words are not clear to everyone, so often the
picture created in our minds is based on past experience; since
we all have different experiences during our life, the mental
picture may vary and the main point of instruction lost.
The right filmstrip or moving picture, carefully chosen and
thoughtfully presented, will help in a \fay that words cannot.
o
By using pictures we can help the student to see things as they
really are.
By using pictures we can be sure that all students see the same
thing.
■*
■:PA(y:-
Through Audio Visuals each student is shown by picture, exactly
what we are telling him in words. What is more important, we
can be more certain that each student receives the same information*
o PROGRAMMING
OPERATION:
THE FILMSTRIP PROJECTOR AND RECORD SHOULD
BE PREPARED IN ADVANCE OF SHOWING. (Avoid
distraction with unnecessary adjustments to
controls after the film Has started.)
PREPARATION:
O
PROPERLY INTRODUCE THE FILM AND PREPARE YOUR
AUDIENCE WITH A BRIEF OUTLINE OF THE SUBJECT
MATTER. (This will help to orient and relax
the student.)
DISCUSSION:
THE IMPORTANCE OF A DISCUSSION PERIOD AFTER
SHOWING CANNOT BE OVEREMPHASIZED.
REVIEW ALL OR PART OF THE FILM IF NECESSARY
TO ANSWER THE QUESTIONS CORRECTLY.
O o
PROJECTOR OPERATION
DETAILED INSTRUCTION ON PROJECTOR OPERATION IS CONTAINED IN
OPERATORS MANUAL.
CONDENSED:
1. Turn amplifier on (Turn volume knob clockwise). Allow
amplifier to warm up for approximately three minutes.
2. Place "Manual-automatic11 switch to "automatic".  Switch
is located at rear of projector.
3. Turn lamp on.
4. Advance film to "Focus" frame, adjust lens for sharp picture,
5. Advance film to next frame (Blank).  The advance to "blank"
frame is accomplished by pressing push button on remote
control plunger.
6. Place record player pick-up arm at start of record.
Record label will indicate Side 1 or Side 2.
7#  Adjust volume as required.
FILM SYNCHRONIZING
To synchronize film and record, film must be set at "Blank" frame
immediately following "Focus" frame.
FilA will advance automatically from "silent" signal induced from
the record.
When "Change Record" frame appears on screen, simply turn the
record over to Side 2.  Place pick-up arm of record player in
position and picture will once again change automatically.
IMPORTANT:  BE SURE TO PL^CE NEEDLE AT VERY START OF RECORD.
PROJECTOR LAMP
To prolong the life of the projector lamp, DO NOT shut the fan off
until the lamp has had time to properly cool. You will notice the
lamp control switch has three positions....
1. Off   2. Fan   3. Lamp
Leave the projector on position 2 (fan) until the air from the
top of the lamp housing feels cool to the hand. o
o
AN INTRODUCTION TO RAILROADING
A. FOCUS
B. BLANK
1. CANADIAN PACIFIC PRESENTS
Railroading is complex business.  The efficiency of train
operation depends entirely on a correct understanding of the
rules, by its many train service employees. Because so much
must be learned by new men in their first few days with the
company, the Canadian Pacific Railway presents.....
2. AN INTRODUCTION TO RAILROADING
An Introduction to Railroading, designed primarily for new
men entering the service.  It will also serve as a guide for
more experienced employees.  It is not a complete breakdown of
r"V any rule, but rather a summary of important parts of many.
3. by railwaymen for railwaymen
The thought behind its production is to assist railwaymen.
We hope it fulfills that purpose.
4.  MEET JOHN SMITH
MiSiSt John Smith, just beginning his career as a railroader.
John is a very important person, for in his hands lie the
future and success of the railway industry.  John has many new
things to learn, things that as time passes, will become
commonplace and almost second nature, but in the beginning
• -
will seem strange and awkward.
5.  ASSISTANT SUPERINTENDENT GIVING RULE BOOKS
John is given instruction and rule books pertaining to his
occupation..... o
o
.'
(2)
6. THREE RULE BOOKS
Here they are, the Uniform Code of Operating Rules, The Code
of Safety Rules and Form CS 44 General Instruction pertaining
to the movement of trains engine and cars.
7. TIME TABLE COVER
The time table is the authority for the movement of regular
trains subject to the rules, it contains classified schedules
also special instructions relating to the movement of trains
and engines.
8. CANADIAN
You have elected to become a train service employee, some of
your duties will require you to meet the travelling public...
9*  TRAINMAN AT COACH DOOR
...you must wear the prescribed badge and uniform and be neat
in appearance to avoid annoyance to the public, employees and
others, authorized to transact business at stations, and on
or about trains must be'courteous, orderly and quiet.  The
use of tobacco in and around passenger stations, or in cars
carrying passengers is not permitted.  The use of intoxicants
or narcotics while on duty, or if you are subject to duty is
expressly prohibited.
10.  WORK SAFELY
Of primary concern to this company, is the development of
safe practices. Working safely around moving equipment is
essential, for your well being as well as that of your fellow
employees. o
(3)
11. TRAINMAN GETTING OFF CAR
You are cautioned to remember, that moving equipment can be
dangerous. So keep your mind on your work, and be alert at
all times.
12. SAFETY BOOK
The Code of Safety Rules is full of guides for your safety.
You must be familiar with and be governed by the company's
safety rules and instructions.
13. WRIST AND POCKET WATCH
You will be required t& carry, a reliable railway grade watch,
approved by the proper authority and for which there must be a
prescribed certificate on file, with the designated railway
officer.
14. WATCH CARD
Watch cards are supplied by the watch inspector, showing the
record of the rating of watches.  Employees required to use
railway grade watches, must unless otherwise directed, submit
them to a designated inspector for examination and record, at
intervals not exceeding ninety days.
15. CONDUCTOR WITH STANDARD CLOCK
Correct time is always critical in the operation of trains.
Watches of Conductors, Enginemen and Yard Foremen must be
compared with designated standard clock where provided, before
commencing each days work.
16. COMPARING WITH ENGINEMAN
You as a member of the crew, must compare your watch with the
Conductor or Engineman as soon as practicable after commencing
work. o
o
(4)
17. RULE, SAFETY, CS 44, T. TABLE, WATCH, WATCH CARD, SWITCH KEY
Like so many other trades, you must have the proper tools to
work with, with the railway, these are your tools of the trade*
18. I. TfiBLE, waTCH, WATCH CARD, SWITCH KEY
Your time table, watch, watch card and switch key, must be
carried on your person at all times.
19. RULE, SaFBTY aND CS 44
The Uniform Code of Operating Rules, Code of oafety Rules and
Form CS 44 must be accessible while on duty.
20. UNIFORM CODE OF OPERATING RULES
The Rule Book contains the established rules for the operation
of trains and engines.  Employees must be conversant with and
obey the rules and special instructions.  If in doubt as to
their meaning, they must apply to the proper authority for an
explanation.  This film will cover some of the fundamentals
of railroading, as they appear in the Uniform Code of
Operating Rules.
21. DEFINITIONS
Definitions are necessary to explain the terms used in the
application of the rules.  There are seventy words and phrases
defined, but because speed is so essential to all railway
operations, let us confine ourselves to the portion dealing
with speeds.
22. SLOW SPEED
Slow speed is a speed not exceeding fifteen miles per hour.
23. MEDIUM SPEED
Medium speed is a speed not exceeding thirty miles per hour. o
o
Q
(5)
24. LIMITED SPEED
Limited speed does not apply often, but when it does, it is
a speed not exceeding forty-five miles per hour.
25. RESTRICTED SPEED
Restricted speed is a speed that will permit stopping within
one-half the range of vision.  This is strictly a judgment •
situation.  The importance of restricted speed cannot be over
emphasized, because so many things depend on a proper knoxvledge
of restricted speed.  This is how it applies.
26. TWO OPPOSING MOVEMENTS
Lets assume the rules place each of these movements at restricted
speed	
27. OVERLAY OF 1000 YARDS
At the moment they see one another, the movements are 1000 ;
yards apart.
28. OVERLAY DIVIDING TWO 500 YARD PORTIONS
Getting stopped within one half the range of vision means
that their speed at the 1000 yard position, must be such, that
each movement must get stopped before it travels 500 yards.
29. OVERLAY WITH HGVEHENTS CLQSEUP
They may be close* to one another when they stop, but if
restricted speed is properly applied, contact will never be
made.  The definition of restricted speed is divided into two
parts, the second part tells us, where automatic block signal
rules, interlocking rules or signal indication require movements
at restricted speed, such movements must be made, at a speed
that will permit stopping within one half the range of vision,
this requirement is - repeated. Q
A
(6)
30. RED MAIN TRACK SWITCH
But it also tells us, the movement must be prppared to stop
short of a switch not properly lined,
31. BROKEN RAIL
Be on the lookout for a broken rail,
32. SLOW SPEED
And in no case exceeding slow speed.
33. ABS SIGNALLED TRACK
There are three different kinds of automatic signals.  The
first is automatic block signals.
34. INTERLOCKING SIGNALS
Next, is interlocking
35. SIGNAL INDICATION
And finally, signal indication.
36. CLOSEUP OF TIME TaBLE FOOTNOTES
It is not possible to determine from the signals themselves,
what rules apply*  The time table footnotes will carry
reference to mileages, between which, these three different
signal systems are in effect.  It is therefore necessary to
refer to these instructions to know what rules apply.
37. TRAINMAN AT SIDE OF CAR
One of the first things to learn, are the hand signals, used
to direct the engineman in working movements.  Hand signals
are the means of communication with one another, when verbal
communication is impossible. A
(7)
38. SIGNALS FROM GROUND OVER ENGINEMAN!S SHOULDER
You will not only learn to tell the Engineman to proceed,
back up or stop, but many other signals in connection with
your movements.
39. PROCEED HAND oIGMAL
This is a proceed signal, notice the hand or lamp is raised
and lowered vertically.
40. BACK UP SIGNAL
This is a back up signal, the hand or lamp is swung vertically
in a circle at right angles to the track.
41. STOP SIGNAL
This is a stop signal, the hand or lamp is swung at right
angles to the track.
42. END OF CiiR GIVING SIGNALS -
Remember that you are the eyes of the gngineman under many
circumstances that signals must be given from a point where
they can be plainly seen, and in such a manner that they
cannot be misunderstood.  If there is doubt as to the meaning
of a signal, or for whom it is intended, it must be regarded
as a stop signal.
4-3.  SIGNALS OUT OF bIGHT
When cars are being pushed by an engine, under control of
hand signals the disapperance from view, of the member of
the crew, or the lights by which signals controlling the
movement are being given, must be regarded as a stop signal.
\o (8)
44. SIGNALS RELAYED DIRECTLY TO ENGINEMAN
When switching is being performed, either in road or yard
operations signals should be given, or relayed, directly to
the engineman.  Conductors and yard foremen are responsible
for seeing that work is so organized, that trainmen and
yardmen are in proper position to give or relay such signals
accordingly.
45. SIGNALS CLEAR OF ADJACENT TRACK
This picture illustrates how unexpected movements can creep
up behind you.  You must expect the movement of trains,
engines or cars, at any time, on any track, in either direction.
46. PLACING MARKER LAMPS
a
Marker lamps will be displayed to the rear of every train
to indicate the rear of the train*  Marker lamps are not
lighted during the day, but must be lighted by night.
47. FIXED SIGNAL CLEAR
Crews on engines must know the indication of fixed signals,
including switches where practicable.... and members of train
crews must know the indication...
48. TRaIN ORDER SIGNAL
.. of train order signals affecting their train before
passing them.  All members of engine and train crews must
when practicable, communicate to each other, by its name,
the indication of each signal affecting the movements of
their train or engine. (9)
49. MAP OF PANADA
It is natural perhaps, to think of a railway system, as a
continuous main track, extending from one end of the country
to the other:  it is more than this, because there are many
times when trains must leave or enter the main track for
switching purposes, and other reasons.
50. YARD TRaCKS
Let us first picture the main track extending through an
area where axilliary tracks are located. ±ls  long as a movement is confined to tracks, away from the main track, Rule 105
governs.  It reads, trains or engines using other than the
main track, must proceed at restricted speed.  The point to
remember, is the main track is not a part of the yard.
51. YaRD LIMIT SIGNS
But because it is so often necessary to use the main track for
switching purposes, yard limit signs are provided.  The term
yard limits, refers to that portion of the main track or main
tracks, within limits refined by yard limit signs.  Ri&le 93
tells us that within yard limits the main track may be used,
clearing the time of first and second class trains at the
next station where time is shown in the time table.  Protection
against third class, fourth class5 extra trains, and engines
is not required.
Third class, fourth class, extra trains and engines, must
move within yard limits at restricted speed, unless the main
track is known to be clear. o
o
LJ
(10)
52. CLOSEUP OF TIME TaBLE -
If for exapple a switching movement was being performed on
the main track at Banff under protection of yard limits,
the main track at Banff must be cleared, before a first or 2nd
class train is due to leave the next station where time
is shown, which would be, the time at Anthracite for westward
trains, or the time at Sawback for an eastward train.
53. STATION LIMITS
The outer main track switches of sidings will be considered
station limits.  Rule 93 A tells us that within these
limits the same privileges are extended and the same restrictions apply as provided in Rule 93 for yard limits.
54. YARD LIMIT SIGN
Perhaps switching operations can best be summarized like
this.. If a train or other movement is restricted by the yard
limit or station limit rules, every move it makes on the
main track, must be made at restricted speed.  If contact
is made with another train engine or car the fault will
always lie with the crew in charge of the train engine or
car, which is moving, at the moment contact is made.  If for
any reason it is not possible to clear the main track before
first or second class trains are overdue, a flagman must be
sent out to stop the oncoming train.
55. RULE BOOK PAGE RULE 99
Rule 99 explains in detail how to stop a train, by the use
of torpedoes, fusees and a red flag.  Every train service
employee must know how to stop a train. o
o
r
(ID
^6.  FLAGGING KIT
This is a flagging kit.  It must be kept in good order and
ready for immediate use*
57. OPEN FLAGGING KIT
The flagging kit contains9 a red flag on a staff, at least
eight torpedoes and seven red fusees.
58. NIGHT TIME EQUIPMENT
For night time and when weather conditions obscure day signals,
a white light and a supply of matches must be added to your
flagging equipment.
59. RED FUSEE IN HaND
This is a red fusee.  The instructions for lighting it are
written on the side....they tell you to..
60. PUr', BaCK WHITE TAB
...tear back the white tab, pulling it right over the end of
the fusee.  This will expose the abrasive end of the cap...
61. cap removed from fusee
Twist the cap to remove it from the body of the fusee.  This
will expose the priming or igniting fuse.
62.  STRIKING FUSEE
Always point the fusee a^/ay from your face and body.  Draw
the abrasive cap across the priming fuse to ignite.  Strike
sharply but lightly, do not rub, grind, or obstruct the burning
end.
65.  BURNING FUSEE
Hold the fusee for five seconds, but not more than ten seconds,
this gives the fusee time to properly ignite. A simple way to
estimate this time is to count rapidly to thirty. d
o
Q
(12)
64. TORPEDO
This is a torpedo.  Notice the wire clamps on each side, that
secure it to the rail.
65. TORPEDOES IN FRONT OF ENGINE
Look closely and see how the torpedoes are clamped to each rail.
When the wheels of an engine or other equipment run over the
torpedoes they will explode, giving an audible alarm to the
crew of the train.
66. REAR OF CjjNaDIAN
Trains must be protected at all times, whether they be moving
or standing. Rule 99 tells us how this protection must be
provided. You may be the rear trainman on a passenger or freight
train, and for some reason the train may not be travelling at
its normal speed.
67. FUSEE FROM PASSENGER TRAIN
Rule 99 tells us... When a train is moving under circumstances
in which it may be overtaken by another train, lighted fusees
must be dropped off at proper intervals, and such other action
taken as may be necessary to ensure full protection.
68. FUSEE FROM FREIGHT TRaIN
Since a fusee burns for approximately ten minutes, additional
fusees must be dropped off at from five to eight minute intervals.
Watch the fusee after dropping to be sire it remains lighted.
69. BUDD CAR
The train travelling behind, may be following at 70 or 80 miles
per hour, but Rule 11 tells us... o
(13)
70. FUSEE ON TRxiCK
... that a train or engine approaching a fusee burning red, on
or near its track must stop, and then proceed at restricted
speed for 2000 yards.  Remember once again what restricted
speed is.  A speed that will permit stopping within one half
the range of vision.  Proceeding at restricted speed for more
than one mile will take time, time that will allow the protected
train to get further ahead.
71. CONDUCTOR SENDING FLaGMAN OUT
Rule 99 continues.  When a train stops under circumstances in
which it may be overtaken by another train, a flagman must
immediately go back a sufficient distance to ensure full
protection.
72. FLAGMAN WALKING uUT
The rule tells us how far back a flagman must walk under
different circumstances and conditions to ensure full protection.
73. DIAGRAM 2000 YARDS
Let us assume for illustration purposes, the flagman will walk
back the full distance of at least 2000 yards.
74. FLaGMaN LOOKING 500 YARD VIEW
The flagman must after going b*ok a sufficient distance from
the train to ensure full protection, prepare to take up a flagman's position, where there...
75. DIAGRAM 500 IARD VIEW
Will be an unobstructed view of him from an approaching train of
if possible 500 yards.  But before taking up this position, he
must first place torpedoes...
o o
o
o
(14)
76. DIAGRAM 2000 YAR-uS WITH TORPEDOES IN PLACE
Not more than 100 nor less than 50 yards apart to cause two
explosions.
77. DIAGRAM 200 YARDS
At least 200 yards beyond the flagmans position.
78. PLACING FIRST bET OF TORPEDOES
Notice how the first set of torpedoes are placed, one on each
rail in this manner.
79. FLAGMAN WALKING FURTHER
Here the flagman is walking out further, and pacing off the
distance to the second set of torpedoes.
80. SECOND SET OF TORPEDOES
Here we see the second set of torpedoes being placed inthe same
manner.  The two sets of torpedoes so placed will cause two
separate explosions when run over by an approaching train.
81. FLaGMaN RETURNING TU FLaGMANS POSITION
as soon as the torpedoes have been placed, the Flagman will
return to the flagman's position.  He must remain in this
position until recalled or relieved, and the safety of the
train will permit.
82. COMPLETE FLAGGING DIAGRAM
This shows what the flagman has done.  Notice to the left of the
picture, the rear of the train.  The 2000 yards from the rear of
the train to the flagmans position.  The unobstructed view of him
from an approaching train of 500 yards.  It shows the 200 yards
distance from the flagmans position to the first set of torpedoes,
and that the torpedoes should not be more than 100 nor less
than 50 yards apart. (15)
83. DIAGRAM OF RED FLAG
The flagman must always on  the ap roach of a train display stop
signals.  If the flagging was being done at night,, a lighted
fusee would be used in place of the red flag, and slowly moved
horizontally across the track in a stop signal.
84. FLAGMAN WITH ENGINE APPROACHING
Here we have the train approaching the flagman. The two sets
of torpedoes have already been exploded, and the engineman is
stopping the train at the flagmans position.
85. INSTRUCTIONS TO ENGINEMAN
Once the train has been stopped, the flagman must tell the
engineman why he has stopped him.  Tell him where the rear of the
protected train is located, and be sure that all instructions
are clearly understood.
86. PLEASE CHaNGE RECORD
87. ENGINEMaN SOUNDING WHISTLE
In the event the protected train is ready to proceed, the
flagman will be recalled by the engineman, who will sound the
engine whistle.  Rule 14D tells us that four long whistles will
recall the flagman from the west or south, and Rule 14E tells
us that five long whistles will recall the flagman from the
east or north.
88. PLaCING FJbEE
If recalled before another train arrives, the flagman must leave
the torpedoes, and leave a fusee, burning red, at the point from
which he returns.
o
d
89.  WALKING IN
AND WHILE RETURNING TO HIo TRAIN	 o
(16)
90. FUSEES AT INTERVALS
A fusee burning red, must be placed, at such points or times as
may be necessary to ensure full protection. Remember a fusee
burns for approximately 10 minutes, so additional fusees must
be dropped at 5 to 8 minute intervals.
91. LEAVING FUSEE AT CaBOOSE
When the flagman arrives back at his train, a proceed signal
will be given to his engineman... when the train starts to
move, a fusee burning red must be left at the point from which
the train moves.
92. RULE 102 TWO TRACK DIAGRAM
Let us look at another situation that demands a flagmans protection.  The cars of the train have become derailed, and have
caused an emergency application of the air brakes, notice the
cars in the train are foul of the adjacent track.
Rule 102 tells us, when a train is disabled or stopped suddenly
by an emergency application of the air brakes, or other causes
93. FUSEE ON BOTH TRACKS DIAGRAM
A lighted Ued fusee must immediately be displayed on adjacent
tracks at the front and to the rear of the train.
94. FLAGMAN HEADEND
Adjacent tracks as well as tracks of other railways that are
liable to be obstructed must at once be protected...
95. FLAGMAN REAR
In both directions, as prescribed by Rule 99 for outside
automatic block signal territory.
o c
(17)
96.  COMPLETE TWO TR..CK DIAGRAM
Notice the headend flagman protects the adjacent track, while
the rear flagman protects both tracks.  Protection must be
provided until it is known such tracks are safe and clear for
the movement of trains,  We have now covered only a part of
Rule 99.  Read and study this rule carefully.
97. main track switch
Except where switch tenders are stationed, conductors are
responsible for the position of switches manually operated by
them and members of their crews.  Other employees are not
relieved of responsibility in properly handling switches.
98. CLQSEUP OF SWITCH LOCKED
Switches must at all times be secured, main track switches must
be lined and locked for the main track when not in use, and
must not be left open unless in charge of a member of the crew
or a switch-tender.  Yard switches that are equipped with locks,
must be lined, and locked for normal position after having
been used.
99. MAIN TRACK SWITCH GREEN
The normal position of main track switches is when they are
set for the main track,  when set in the normal position the
target is parallel with the track and the light where provided
will show green....
100.  SWITCH POINTS
... and the switch points will be lined for the main track. o
(18)
101. MAIN TRaCK SWITCH RED
When the main track switch is set for a diverging route, the
target will be at right angles to the track and the light where
provided will show red....
102. SWITCH POINTS
... the switch points will be lined for the diverging route.
103. THROWING MaIN TR,,CK SWITCH
When throwing a switch, exert a steady pull on the lever. Make
sure other employees are clear of the switch and moving parts,
and keep yourself clear of equipment on adjacent tracks.
104. CHECKING LAMP AND TARGET
After a switch has been turned, the target or light must be
observed.......
105. CHECKING SWITCH POINTS
..... and the switch points examined to know the switch is properly lined.
106. GIVING PROCEED SIGNAL
The trainman now gives a proceed signal to his train.  Notice
the position the trainman has t alien.. the rule reads., when a
train is closely approaching or passing over a main track switch,
employees must keep not less than twenty feet from the switch
stand, and on single track must, in addition when practicable,
stand on the opposite side of the track.
107. DERAILS IN POSITION
Where derails are provided on other than the main track, they
must be known to be in proper position before signals are given
for movements on the tracks so equipped.
o (19)
108. REMOVING DERAIL
Here the derail is being removed from the rail.
109. DERAIL REMOVED
No comment.
110. DERi.IL IN POSITION
And except while such tracks are being used the derails must be
kept set in the derailing position, whether or not there are
cars on the tracks.  Employees must know where such derails are
located.
HI.  INoPi!,CTING PASSING TRAEN
The running and standing inspection of trains is of the utmost
importance.  When other duties will permit, employees in the
vicinity of passing trains must observe the condition of equipment in such trains.
112. INSPECTION DIAGRAM
Trainmen of a standing train must be in the best position on
the ground, from which a view of both sides of passing trains
can be obtained.
113. INSPECTION DIAGRAM
Notice the positions of the trainmen of the standing train.
This enables them to view both sides as required.  Attention is
also drawn to the position of the rear trainman of the passing
train.  The rule reads, the trainman at the rear of moving trains
will be in position... 114. TRAINMAN ON REAR PLATFORM
... on rear platform where provided.
Train and engine crews of moving trains must when practicable,
be on the lookout for signals given by employees, calling
attention to the condition of equipment on their train.
115. LOOKING BACK FROM ENGINE
When practicable, employees of moving trains must make frequent
inspection of their train to ensure it is in order.  This running
inspection is made from the front...
116. LOOKING AHEAD FROM CABOOSE
and from the rear of the train.
o
117. LOOKING BACK FROM CABOOSE
Trainment at the rear of trains, must frequently look back at
the track to see if there is evidence of dragging equipment.
118. TRAINMAN SEATED IN CaB
Unless otherwise directed by special instructions, on freight,
mixed and work trains, in motion between stations, conductors
and enginemen will see that trainmen are in front...
119. TRAINMAN AT REaR
... and rear of trains.  In position to observe the safe operation of trains.  Train crews when practicable, will exchange
signals when approaching and passing stations.  This exchange
of signals is always practicable when the train is equipped with
two way train radios.
D o
(21)
120. SIDESWIPED CaR
This is what occurs when cars are not handled properly during
switching operations.  This can only be caused by carelessness.
Sideswipes should never happen and the rules tell us how to
avoid them.
121. APPLYING HaLTO 3&JCE
A sufficient number of hand brakes must be applied on cars left
at any point to prevent them from moving foul of other tracks.
122. CLIMBING LADDER
When the handbrake is to be applied, use the outside ladder of
the car.
123. CLOSEUP OF FOOTING
If the car is moving, face in the direction of travel and point
your toes in that direction.
124. CROSSING OVER
Once you have reached the top of the side ladder, cross over to
the end ladder to get into position to operate the hand brake
wheel.
125. CLObEUP OF FOOTING
Notice how the feet are placed, one foot on the end ladder, the
other on the hand brake platform.  Watch where you are placing
your feet at all times..
126. POSITION OF HaNDS
Never use both hands on the handbrake wheel. Always have a firm
.handhold.  Notice this man with his left hand holding the grab
rail, while his right hand is in position to operate the hand
brake wheel,
o ~
o
(22)
127. RELEASING HaND BRAKE
Whenever you are releasing the hand brake, be sure that you are
clear of the wheel and once again, have a firm handhold.
128. CAR ON SIDING DIaGRaM
Before coupling to cars at any point, care must be taken to
ensure that cars being coupled to are properly secured....
129. CAR ON SIDING WITH ENGINE
You can visualize here, that if the car was not secured, and
the coupling did not make, the car could run foul of other
tracks.
130. DIAGRAM OF PUSHING BLIND
Another cause of mishap is pushing blindly into a track.  When
cars are pushed by an engine, except when switching or making up
trains in yards, and even then when conditions require, a member
of the crew must be on the leading car and in position from
which signals necessary to the movement can be properly given.
131. aBS MEaNS ABS
Throughout the rule book the abbreviation "aBS" means automatic
block signals.
132. BLOCK SIGNAL
This is. an automatic block signal abthe entrance to a block, to
govern movements of trains and engines entering and using the
blcok.  The block signals are actuated by an engine or car
occupying the main track.  They are also actuated by an open
switch or a broken rail.  The term block, simply refers to the
length of track between two of these signals. Q
O
b
(23)
133. RED SIGNAL DIAGRAM
When a train or movement occupies the main track, the first
signal to the rear will be red, indicating to the engineman
of a following train that the block ahead is occupied.  This  \
signal is called either a stop signal or stop and proceed
signal, depending on signal requirements.
134. APPROACH SIGNAL
The second signal to the rear will be yellow, this is called
an approach signal.
135. CLEaR DIAGRAM SIGNAL
The third signal to the rear will be green, which is called a
clear signal.
136. CLEAR BLOCK SIGNAL
What a following train will do is determined entirely by the
indication of the signals.  This is a clear signal, it indicates
the block is clear and normal speed can be maintained.
137. APPROACH bIGNiiL
This is an approach signal.  It indicates proceed, prepared to
stop at the next signal.  Trains exceeding medium speed must
at once reduce to that speed, reduction to medium speed must
commence before passing the signal.
138. STOP AND PROCEED SIGNAL
The next signal can be either a stop or stop and proceed signal.
This is a stop and proceed signal, and stop must be made before
reaching it.  Movement? may then proceed at restricted speed, and
now the definition of restricted speed in automatic block signal
territory applies.  In addition to a speed that will permit
stopping v/ithin one half the range of vision, the movement must o
D
(24)
be prepared to stop short of a switch not properly lined, be
on the lookout for a broken rail, and in no case exceed slow
speed.
139. STOP SIGNAL
In the event the signal is a stop signal, as the letter "A"
designates this signal to be, Rule 292 applies.  Because this
rule makes no provision for passing a stop signal, help is
required and unless there is a conflicting movement evident,
the train dispatcher must be contacted immediately.
140. CROSSOVER
In territory protected by automatic block signals, a train or
engine which is to foul or enter a main track, be ernes involved
in certain procedures which must be followed.
1^1•  REaDING TIME TABLE
It will be necessary to refer to the time table, and possibljT*
contact the train dispatcher, for information regarding overdue
trains.
142. PRESSING INDICATOR
Once it is established there are no overdue trains that will
affect the movement, Rule 512 tells us, where block indicators
are provided, the indicator must be observed immediately before
a main track switch is opened.
143. CLOSEUP OF INDICATOR
Here we see the block indicator button being pressed, the
indication is clear, which tells us the block is unoccupied. o
o
o
(25)
144. OPENING SWITCH
The main track switch must be opened immediately after trying
the block indicator.  It might be well to note here, that all
main track switches are electrically connected to the automatic
bbck signals, when the switch is opened, it actuates the block
signals, on the track to which the movement is being made, to
protect the movement on that track.
145. WALKING OVER CROSSOVER
Both switches of a crossover must be opened before a movement
commences. Here we see the trainman walking to the second
crossover switch.
146. OPENING SECOND CROSSOVER
The second crossover switch is opened.
147. PROCEED TO ENGINEMAN
The engineman can then be given the signal to proceed through
the crossover.
148. ENGINE CROSSING OVER
You have now seen how a crossover movement is made when the
block indicator shows unoccupied.
149. CLOSEUP RED INDICATOR
But what if the indicator shows track occupied. Rule 512 reads.,
when indication shows track occupied, the switch must not be
opened.
150. FLAGMAN WALKING OUT
Unless the movement is first protected by a flagman, as prescribed by Rule 99 for outside automatic block signal territory5
the flagman must walk out the full distance, to stop a train th^-1 :
o
b
(26)
may have passed a clear block signal, and that will he approaching at track speed.
151. CROSSOVER WITHOUT INDICATOR
Not all main track switches are equipped with block indicators.
Rule 513 covers this,  where block indicators are not provided,
or when declared out of service, a train or engine which is to
foul or enter a main track from a crossover, siding or other
track	
152. LOOKING FOR TRAINS
Must first see that the main track to which movement will be
made is clear, and that a train is not approaching.
153. THROWING SWITCH
... and then throw the switch...
154. WATCH IN HAND
And must wait a full three minutes, after the main track switch
has been opened before moving foul.
1*55.  LOOKING FOR TRAINS
While waiting the three minutes, the trainman must be on a
continuous alert, watching in the direction from which a train
would be approaching.
156.  TRAIN APPROACHING
Should a trc.in appear, the switch must be closed immediately.
The approaching train may have already passed a clear block
signal, which permits it to travel at track speed. This fact
alone should emphasize the importance of the movement be
executed in a correct and safe manner. ?
(27)
157. RELINING SWITCH-
Once the train has passed, reopen the switch..
158. CLOSEUP OF WATCH
... and commence waiting a second three minute interval.
159. PROCEED TO ENGINEMAN
After the three minutes have elapsed, a proceed signal can be
given to the engineman....
160. ENTERING MAIN TRaCK
.... and the movement may enter the main track.
161. TRAIN HEADING IN
Trains are run on the basis of their importance.  Important
trains have what is termed superiority.  Inferior trains must
keep out of the way of superior trains and are governed by
intricate clearing rules and train orders, about which a great
deal must be learned as experience increases.
162. DISPATCHER
A key man in the operation of trains is the train dispatcher.
Here we see him issuing a train order, instructing a train to
take certain action.  This action is primarily designed to keep
all trains moving in a safe and efficient manner.
163. DISPATCHER CLOSE UP
Each train order must be written in full in a book provided
for the purpose in the office of the dispatcher.
164. OPERATOR
d-
At the other end is an .operator, in the process of copying the
dispatcher order, the order is copied on the specified form
designated for the purpose. (28)
165.  TRAIN ORDER
O
'
Here we see a completed train order, note the nature of the
instructions to Train No. 2.
166. CLEARANCE
This is a clearance.  Each time one or more train orders are
delivered, they must be accompanied by a clearance.
167. TRAIN ORDER & CLEARANCE
Notice how the number on the train order is carried to the
clearance, the numbers of all train orders delivered must be on
the clearance and the clearance GK'd by the dispatcher before ;
it can be delivered to the train.
168. TRAIN ORDER SIGNAL
This is a train order signal.  It is the implement used to
deliver train orders on the line, a train approaching it is
governed by the position of the semaphore arm to the right of
the mast. A light corresponds to the position of the arm.
The position shown is the caution position and indicates 19 Y
train orders are on hand for delivery to the train.
169. HOOPING ORDERS
Where only 19 Y train orders are to be delivered, delivery will
be made by the operator, or from an approved device where
provided, without bringing the train to a stop.  Exact duplicates
of the orders handed up to the engine are given to the train
crew.
170. CLEaR TRAIN order diagram
This is a clear train order signal.  It indicates proceed, no '
train orders. (29)
171. caution train order diagram
This is a caution train order signal.  Its indication is caution,
for delivery of 19 Y train orders.
172. STOP TRAIN ORDER DIaGRaM
A stop train order signal.  Indicates stop for orders.
173. CAUTION & STOP DIAGRAM WITH CLEARANCE
When the train order signal is in either of these positions.
When any portion of a train passes it... the train must not
leave that station until it is in possession of a clearance.
174. READING RULE BOOK
It is not possible in so short a time to cover all of the rules
in the rule book. What you have seen is only the beginning.
Your success will depend on the effort you make to study and
understand the rules.
175. SAFETY FIRST IMPORTANCE
You are reminded of the opening statement in the rule book:
"Safety is of the first importance in the discharge of duty,
an0-....
176. OBEDIENCE TO RULES
'Obedience to the rules is essential to safety".
177. RU^ES CaR
The Company provides a rules instruction program.  You are
expected to attend instruction classes, and you must pass oral
re-examinations on the rules at intervals.
178. INSIDE RULad CaR
All phases of the Uniform Code of Operating Rules are discussed
in the rules car.
o 1
(30)
179. WELCOME
We welcome you to this huge railway family, and hope that
your association with the Company will be a long and happy one,
180. END.
"

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