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Canadian Pacific Railway news Canadian Pacific Railway Company. Public Relations & Advertising Feb 16, 1981

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FEBRUARY 16, 1981
Canadian      Yesterday
Pacific Today and
100 Years       Tomorrow
History is national mosaic
of flesh-and-blood people
Attaining century mark
a tribute to many
By Omer Lavallee
"History," wrote Thomas
Carlyle, "is the essence of
innumerable biographies."
Nowhere is this truth more
apparent than in the evolution of Canadian Pacific,
whose centennial we observe
today. Companies and organizations, though "persons" in
the legal sense of that term,
are made up of flesh-and-
blood people. As we consider
the involvements and accomplishments of 100 years, we
must bear in mind that events
do not occur of themselves.
The fact that the century mark
George Stephen
Railway quenched
public's thirst
for cure with
spring water
Owned bottling plant
By Francine Leclerc
Canadian Pacific is renowned as a diversified company, but little is known of
the company's foray into the
quasi-medicinal world of
sparkling mineral water and
its soda pop offspring.
The Caledonia Springs Company Limited bottled such
liquids as Magi Water, which
"exercises a most beneficial
influence,"and the "sparkling-
healthful" Adanac Ginger
Ale. It, along with a stately
hotel bearing the Caledonia
Springs name, was purchased
by the Canadian Pacific Railway Company around the
turn of the century.
The "curative qualities" of
the Caledonia Springs in Ontario, eight miles from l'Ori-
gnal on the shore of the Ottawa River, had long been
known to the Indians of the
A former member of the
Continued on page 2, col. 1
has been attained is, first and
foremost, a tribute to the application and industry of the
hundreds of thousands of
people in the Canadian Pacific family who have made it
What was known originally
as the Canadian Pacific Railway Company — since 1971,
Canadian Pacific Limited —
came into being on Feb. 16,
1881, in the form of Letters
Patent issued by the Government of Canada. This charter
was authorized by a special
act of Parliament, known in
"legalese" as 44 Victoria,
Chapter 1, which had been
given royal assent by the governor-general, the Marquess
of Lome, on the previous
day. The new company was
headed by George Stephen,
Duncan Mclntyre and
Richard B. Angus, all successful, Scottish-born Montreal businessmen, and James
J. Hill, a native of Ontario
who had gone to the United
States several years before to
seek his fortune. Hill had
been actively engaged in reviving several moribund railways in Minnesota, and was
the only experienced railwayman in the group.
It was left to Hill to hire
the initial staff — operations
were to commence on May 1,
1881 — and he brought in
Alpheus B. Stickney as general superintendent and General Thomas L. Rosser as
chief engineer, to head a staff
headquartered in Winnipeg.
Rosser, was a West Point
classmate of General George
Custer of "Little Big Horn"
fame; after graduation, these
two career military men had
fought on opposite sides in
the American Civil War, Custer with the Union and Rosser with the Confederacy.
Like many military engineers,
Rosser's experience in what
historians have characterized
as the first "railroad war"
found a ready market in civilian pursuits in the rail-building boom in the 1870s.
The hiring of Stickney and
Rosser did not have happy
results. Late in 1881, they
became involved in land speculation at what is now Brandon, Man., the first subdivision point west of Winnipeg.
Since they had apparently
used their knowledge as officers of Canadian Pacific for
personal benefit, Stephen insisted that they resign. Hill
set out to replace them and
his choice proved the old
adage about clouds and silver
linings; he brought in William
Cornelius Van Horne, a 38-
year-old Illinois-born railroader who, as general manager, replaced both Stickney
and Rosser.
In 1882, Van Horne hired
Thomas G. Shaughnessy of
Milwaukee to  be  his right-
Continued on page 8, col. 1
Spectators and passengers mill about shortly after the premier transcontinental train arrived at Port Moody at noon July 4, 1886.
The train was headed by locomotive 371, which pulled it from North Bend. The occasion was the most significant event in the
history of Port Moody.
First nation-wide train trip
Pacific Express departed for West
with 'eclat' the occasion deserved
By Patrick Finn
Canadians have heard all
about the driving of the last
spike by Sir Donald Smith,
but few have heard much, if
anything, about the first regular passenger train to cross
the nation.
The event and the ceremonies that took place at the
departure point and along the
route could be categorized as
more   of  a  public   occasion
than that grand company
event — the last spike ceremony at Craigellachie, B.C.
on Nov. 7, 1885.
Called the "Pacific Express," the first transcontinental train left Montreal's
Dalhousie Square Station
(later Place Viger) at 8 p.m.,
Monday, June 28, 1886, and
arrived at Port Moody, B.C.
at noon, July 4.
Allowing for the time zone
differential, the first train
took five days and 19 hours
to travel about 2,900 miles to
Company sponsors series
on Canadian art history
as part of centennial
MONTREAL — Canadian
Pacific's centennial year sponsorship of a history of Canadian art television series adds
a new chapter to the company's record of support for
artists, a practice that goes
back to the time of Sir William Van Horne.
The educational package,
to be created and produced
by TV Ontario, will provide a
cultural history of Canada as
seen through the works of
this country's artists. If Van
Horne were still around, he
would undoubtely approve.
The great railway builder
and tycoon was a collector of
the old masters, French impressionist paintings and other
notable works, and at one
time possessed one of the
finest collections in North
He had a special fondness
for oriental works of art, an
awareness of which Lord
Strathcona   (Donald   Smith)
Continued on page 5, col. 1
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Port Moody. The community
served as the west coast terminus of the Canadian Pacific Railway until the company
extended the main line 12.2
miles to Vancouver in 1887.
(The first passenger train
for the east left Port Moody
on July 6, arriving in Montreal on Monday, July 12).
A check of Montreal newspapers reporting the gala departure of the first westbound
train reveals that there were
72 passengers on board, not
counting immigrants.
A story in The Montreal
Star under the heading "All
Aboard for the Pacific" notes
that William Van Horne, Canadian Pacific's vice-president
and general manager at the
time, had his private business
car temporarily attached to
the train.
As part of the ceremony,
the Saskatchewan took Montreal Mayor Honore Beau-
grand and other dignitaries
as far as St. Martin's Junction, 12.8 miles from the departure point.
The first class sleeping car
on the first train was the Honolulu, which has a private
stateroom and bath in addition to the usual open sofa
The dining car was the
Holyrood, which carried
$3,000 worth of silverwear.
(Only the Honolulu and the
Continued on page 4, col. 1
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Medicinal value of Caledonia Springs spreads;
hundreds patronize luxurious spa to bathe
Continued from page 1
Ontario legislature and his
party of beaver hunters were
the first town dwellers to happen on the springs. They
thought they had been poisoned. It seems the water had
a laxative effect.
During the early 1800s, word
of the medicinal values of
the Caledonia Springs water
had  filtered  through  and it
wasn't long before the area
was developed as a health resort, similar to ones popular
with the more affluent in
continental Europe.
"The water, although somewhat unpleasant to the taste,
is extremely bracing, and in
much request," reads a report
in the Montreal Transcript
and General Advertiser dated
July 5, 1838. "The most extraordinary   cures   which   have
been performed, have been in
the cases of Rheumatism,
Diseases of the Liver, Dropsy,
Dyspepsia, Scrofulous Affections of every description,
Fever and Ague, Jaundice,
etc. . . . The almost superhuman cures which have been
effected in cases of Syphilis
cannot be too forcibly impressed upon the public."
The   report   contains   an
analysis of the spring water
The Caledonia Springs Bottling plant above was once owned by Canadian Pacific Railway.
by Dr. James R. Chilton and
goes on to add:
"It is a delicate but necessary task to point out some of
the diseases for the relief of
which these waters have become so justly celebrated.
Their powers in diseases to
which females just verging
upon womanhood, are subject
deserves particular notice. To
heads of families, and medical
gentlemen this hint will be
amply sufficient; and they
may rest assured that in such
cases none have tested their
efficacy in vain."
Such endorsements and testimonials by leading physicians of the day helped cement
the spring's reputation in
Europe and the United States,
as well as at home.
Hundreds of people would
patronize the springs to bathe
in its soothing waters. The site
now contained a stately hotel,
billiard room and a steam-
powered train which ran on
an oval track around the site
to the amusement of the clientele. Excursions were operated
from Montreal, Ottawa and
Toronto.  The visitors would
Ruffians after gold outwitted by Mounties
Company assisted lawmen in outfoxing Soapy Smith
The North-West Mounted
Police once enlisted the help
of Canadian Pacific in a successful bid to outwit a gang
of ruffians in a dockside encounter at Skagway and prevent a shipment of Yukon
gold from falling into their
As a result of this cooperation, the shipment —
some $225,000 worth of Canadian government gold and
cash — was safely moved
from Alaska to Victoria in
1898 in Canadian Pacific's
steamer, Tartar.
The   ship's   officers,   crew
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Suit at $12.50
M Come over her©/' said the Clothes Buyer
to the adman. M I want to show you a new suit.
Here, loci at the twill in that blue serge, feel
how soft it is, and what body it has. What's
it worth? "
I picked up the sleeves of the coat at his
bidding and saw that the twill was really fine.
Body it certainly had and that soft' feeling
which only wool can give was there, too. How
much) well, it seemed to me that it was just a
little better than the suit we sold last year at
I based my valuation on that fad. w Well/*
he said. "Wp beat you by just two dollars and
a half.
That suit is selling for $12.50. Go and
let the men know about it." And I feel that I
should. It certainly is a remarkably fine blue
serge suit for $12,50
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and agents at Skagway played
a key role in the dramatic
and dangerous confrontation
between the NWMP and the
In his book, "Sam Steele,
Lion Of The Frontier," Robert
Stewart tells how Inspector
Zack Wood and Superintendent Sam Steele faced the
challenge of moving the winter's collection of custom's
fees from gold rushers entering the Yukon through the
lawless Alaskan community
to the ship.
Steele had already helped
bring law and order to the
Canadian West, the railway
construction camps of Canadian Pacific and the Yukon.
Through his efforts and
those of his colleagues, Canada had avoided the extremes
of the American West and
Alaska where gunslinging,
murder and riotious acts had
become part of frontier development.
In Alaska, the NWMP had
Absolutely Pure.
This powder never varies. A marvel of purity,
strength and wholesoraeness. More economical
than the ordinary kinds, and cannot be Bold in
competition with the multitude of low test, short
weight, alum or phosphate powders. Sold only
incati*. Royal Baking Powdkb Company, 106
Wall street. New York.
no authority as lawmen, and
had to use guile in an effort
to outmanoeuver Skagway
thug Soapy Smith, leader of a
gang of toughs who terrorized
the U.S. community.
From his Yukon headquarters, Steele had started a
rumor in the gossipy gold
camps that Inspector Wood
was leaving the Yukon on
personal business. The idea
was that Smith and his gang
would eventually hear about
the trip, but would not suspect
any gold movements.
After packing the gold
into kit bags, Wood, a sergeant and a constable crossed
the boundary into Alaskan
territory. Wood checked with
Canadian Pacific officials and
learned that the Tartar was
not scheduled to dock for
several days.
The officers then checked
into a hotel in the town of
Dyea, just across the bay
from Skagway. Before long
the sergeant discovered that
members of Smith's gang
had been seen prowling the
streets of Dyea.
"Wood summoned the Canadian Pacific agent in Skagway to the hotel, and together
they made further plans to
outwit the infamous Soapy,"
Stewart writes. "They secretly
hired a small tug and procured a rowboat, which they
hid near the Dyea dock."
On June 14, Wood learned
that the Tartar had docked
in Skagway. After hastily
carrying the bags of money
to the concealed rowboat, the
mounties rowed toward the
"As the tug pulled out into
the bay, a boat full of gunmen
appeared in its wake," writes
"Wood ordered his men to
shoulder their Winchesters
and shouted to the men in the
boat that they would open
fire if they came any closer.
The boat veered out of range."
But the danger was not
over.    After    the    mounties
have to travel by train to
Calumet, take the ferry across
the Ottawa River to a dock
three miles from L'Orignal,
then continue the remainder
of their journey in a horse-
drawn carriage.
The Canadian Pacific Railway Company began serving
Caledonia Springs in 1898 and
about eight years later purchased the Caledonia Springs
Hotel and its associated bottling plant; the acquisition became part of the company's
hotel chain.
By 1914 it became apparent
the hotel was in need of renovation. The popularity of
hotel-spas was fizzling out and
the company decided to shut
its doors for good.
However, until the 1920s
Canadian Pacific maintained
a financial interest in the bottling plant which produced
mineral water, ginger ale and
other carbonated drinks under
the trademarks Adanac, Magi
Water and Duncan Water.
J. J. McLaughlin Limited,
the forerunner of Canada Dry
Ginger Ale Limited, purchased the Caledonia Springs
Company Limited in 1927 and
changed the name to The
Caledonia Springs Corporation Limited.
Canadian Pacific formally
licensed Canada Dry to use
the Adanac trademark on
Jan. 2, 1934. The trademark
was eventually sold to the
soft-drink company Feb. 29,
Whether the products produced by the Caledonia Springs
Company Limited tasted anything like the products on the
shelves today is not known.
But at least one speaker,
addressing a CPR Conference
and Banquet in 1919, during
which prohibition was the
subject of many a coffee-cup
chit-chat, decided to poke a
little fun at the company's
venture into the soda pop
He was quoted as saying:
"Another great ally, which
would be even greater if Quebec went bone dry next May,
was the Caledonia Springs Co.
When the people were deprived of their seductive
Scotch and soda, and the
merry making Martini and
Manhattan and the genial gin
fizzes were banished into utter
oblivion, the C.P.R. would
timely come to the rescue,
and though there might be no
mornings after the night before, there would be the rare
vintages of Magi water, the
effervescing Adanac ginger
ale, the delectable crearh soda
— the delight of the hardened
drinker — sparkling Cola
Champagne, whatever that
might be, to assuage the imperishable thirst, and to revive
one's drooping spirits, and
these with a bumper or two
of that justly celebrated and
far famed Duncan water,
would make every day a Sunday in the sweet bye and bye."
V .-V. :-    ^   -
Continued on page 8, col. 3
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Ron Grant, Manager, Employee Publications
Timothy R. Humphreys, Editor
Shirley Whittet, Editorial assistant
Carol Caney, Calgary Mickey Potoroka, Winnipeg
Stephen Morris, Toronto Morrie Zaitlin, Vancouver
Special Contributors
Len Cocolicchio
Patrick Finn
Jean Lafortune
Omer Lavallee
Francine Leclerc
Agnes McFarlane
CP Rail News is published every three weeks in both
English and French for the employees and pensioners of
CP Rail. All letters and enquiries should be addressed to:
The Editor, CP Rail News, Public Relations and Advertising Dept., Windsor Station, Montreal, Que., H3C 3E4. CANADIAN PACIFIC RAILWAY NEWS FEBRUARY 16, 1981
Horse sense plus horseplay equals horsepower
Equanimical equines
paced themselves
to save energy
They rarely missed a meal
OTTAWA — In these
times of concern over fuel
consumption, durability of
equipment and engine power
ratings, it can be enlightening
to look back to the earlier
days of CP Express — to the
era of horsepower.
Energy saving may be all
the rage now, but the express
wagon horses of the early
part of this century knew how
to pace themselves on the
job — to save energy. No
need for complicated things
like ignition shutoff devices.
They also knew the importance of carrying adequate
fuel supplies, and rarely missed a chance to get into the
And at least one horse in
Ottawa had a smattering of
knowledge of scheduling and
time keeping. He could read
the clock, of so they say.
With CP Rail celebrating
its 100th anniversary on Feb.
16, it seems appropriate to
take a brief glimpse at some
of the highlights of the horse-
drawn period of company
operations in the nation's
capital. (Dominion Express
Co. became Canadian Pacific
Express Co. in 1926.)
A report in the Canadian
Pacific Spanner of February,
1961, tells of Paddy, a gentle
bay horse standing 14 hands,
who "recognized and reacted
to the stroke of the clock at
noon." His stomach tipped
him off, no doubt.
One pensioner recalled,
with relish, that when the
James Davidson's Sons lumber firm whistle blew at 6 p.m.
"there was no holding Paddy,
attended or unattended."
"He'd simply pull out of
Broad Street, head south and
turn east on Wellington, take
Albert Street and plod purposefully home for supper."
Obviously, he wasn't interested in overtime.
Another celebrity horse of
the era was Bruce, a dapple
gray gelding, who had a
voracious appetite and piratical approach to the outdoor
fruit and vegetable displays
at Byward Market.
An old ledger for the period for 1918 to 1930 — the
period that covers the demise
of the CP Express horse and
wagon days and the entry of
the motor truck — listed
many details of the company's horses.
In 1921, there was Scarf,
a 1,300-pound, six-year-old
bay mare with "white star on
forehead, and four white
pasterns." The horse cost
Chuck was a $235 six-year-
old bay gelding "with star on
forehead, white right hind
Count was tall in the harness at 16 hands, two inches;
the six-year-old grey gelding
weighed 1,400 pounds and
hailed from Toronto.
Roy, a six-year-old dark
grey gelding who joined the
company on Oct. 28, 1929,
with a listed value of $225,
was sold on April 19, 1930,
for $75. Even in the horse
era, depreciation had to be
taken into account.
At one time, as many as
36 horses were stabled at 210
Albert Street. The animals
lived on the second floor with
ramps leading from the street
to the stables. The company
stored its wagons on the first
With the coming of trucks,
the horses and wagons gradually disappeared from the
streets of the capital — and
every other community served
by CP Express.
The last relic of this colorful era in Ottawa faded with
the razing of the 210 Albert
St. building around 1960.
There  are  no   doubt  still
old timers in Ottawa who
remember Bruce, and his
hungry ways. They probably
recall his special fondness for
apples, and his ingenious
ways of getting them out of
He simply knocked the barrels over, breaking the staves.
Then he helped himself to
this high octane fuel.
The 20-year-old Spanner
story said that it was once
suggested that Bruce must be
costing the company more
than he was worth. Not so.
Everyone seemed to like
him, and there were few real
complaints. In fact, despite
his thieving ways, he was
allowed to roam the market
in the manner of the free-
wandering sacred cows of
CPR presidency handed over
to Oblate missionary priest
By Shirley Whittet
For one hour back in 1884,
an Oblate missionary priest
by the name of Father Albert
Lacombe became president of
the Canadian Pacific Railway
The nomination was purely
an honorary one but a significant way for the board of
directors to thank the priest
for his successful efforts to
appease the Indian tribes out
west who feared the coming
of the Iron Horse.
The westward bound transcontinental rail line had just
reached Calgary and work
was progressing well on the
push through Kicking Horse
Father Lacombe had been
doing missionary work in the
Calgary area after years of
working with tribes on the
plains and as a chaplain for
the CPR rail gangs.
In August, shortly before
the first train chugged into
Calgary, Father Lacombe was
invited by then CPR president
George Stephen to dine in the
president's personal car. Their
friendship dated back three
years, and Father Lacombe
had once prophesied that the
company would never find a
favorable pass over the Rockies at Bow River.
Father   Lacombe   was   in
good company; in addition to
Stephen, there was Donald
Smith, William Van Horne,
who Father Lacombe greatly
admired, R. B. Angus and
Count Hermann Von Hohen-
lohe, after whose estates in
Germany the Station of Glei-
chen was named.
It was a time to celebrate
the progress of rail construction with toasts and speeches;
for Father Lacombe it was
also a time to be teased about
his prophecy.
It was here that George
Stephen resigned and, on a
motion by Angus, Father
Lacombe was unanimously
chosen to succeed him for a
brief 60 minutes. The missionary priest graciously accepted and in his first "official" act appointed the former
CPR president to the rectorship of St. Mary's for the
same period of time. The appointments were greeted with
laughter and applause.
Gazing out the rail car's
window, Stephen accepted his
new dignity with the remark
"Poor souls of Calgary, I pity
It is often said Father Lacombe capitalized on his new
power to vote himself a lifetime rail pass but such was
not the case.
Father Lacombe became CPR president for one hour.
It wasn't until five years
later that Van Horne sent the
missionary priest a pass with
a letter which read in part:
"We are still following you
wherever you go, with our
rails and locomotives, and it
is possible that you will hear
our whistle at Macleod before
the end of the year.
"I send you herewith a little
charm against railway conductors, which you may find
useful since you cannot get
beyond their reach."
Fire ravages Fernie
70 residents perish
Trains run through sheets of flame
to rescue trapped survivors
The Canadian Pacific Railway, in its 100 years of existence, has learned to live
with the moods of nature.
Landslides, storms and forest
fires are all part of the company's history.
Perhaps nowhere was the
company's mettle tested more
severely than during the great
Fernie fire, in 1908. Canadian
Pacific's decisive action during
this disaster probably saved
the lives of hundreds of trapped people.
Bush fires had been burning in the Crows Nest territory of British Columbia for
some time and were expected
to burn themselves out. It
was not a new situation and
residents of the area were not
alarmed by it. But then the
worst happened.
A protracted dry spell,
fanned by strong winds,
turned 100 square miles of
country into a seething mass
of flames, completely destroying the city of Fernie. Michel
and Coal Creek also suffered
serious damage. Hosmer was
only a little luckier.
It was a national catastrophe. Property losses were
estimated at $7 million, more
than 70 people died, and upwards of 5,000 people were
left homeless.
What made matters worse
was the fact that there was
no simple way of escape. The
whole region was ablaze and
many who escaped their
houses found themselves no
better off in the burning
Every newspaper in the
country carried reports of the
conflagration. The Montreal
Gazette (Aug. 2) said: "It is
feared many have perished in
the   relentless   flames   .   .   .
Fanned by the great wind
that was blowing, the city
was at the mercy of the fire
fiend, the wind attaining a
velocity and force of a cyclone."
Canadian Pacific, which
also suffered great property
loss, responded quickly. Relief trains were sent into the
area carrying supplies, medical equipment and much
needed food. These trains
were the only means of escape for the thousands of
people trapped by the fire.
Crowds rushed to the railway stations in the hope of
getting on one of these trains
and, luckily, most of them
did. The trains were reported
running through sheets of
flame "which repeatedly set
fire to the coaches." It was
this action that helped keep
the loss of life to a minimum.
Across Canada, towns contributed to the Fernie fire
relief fund. Canadian Pacific,
in turn, contributed $10,000
but it was the selfless spirit
of its train crews that drew
the most praise from the
The Fernie District Fire
Relief Fund acknowledged
the company's contribution in
a letter which said: "Our
heartfelt thanks to the officials and employees of the
company whose forethought
provided a means of escape
from the conflagration, and
without which great loss of
life would undoubtedly have
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Cross-Canada train
makes maiden trip
in 5 days, 19 hours
Continued from page 1
baggage car made the full
The Montreal Field Battery
fired the send-off salute, with
the Victoria Rifles adding
their own touch of military
formality to the occasion.
The newspaper story observes that the train left
"with the eclat that the occasion deserves," but adds that
the intention of making the
national voyage "a grand
affair," had been abandoned;
the trip was to be "purely a
business one."
"The ceremonies of dispatching the first train to the
Pacific were not imposing,
but the train started on time
and everything was conducted
on strictly business principles,
for which the CPR has become famous," the story said.
"At 20 hours sharp, his
worship the mayor gave the
signal to start, and the engine
with its 10 cars steamed out
of the depot amidst the salvos
of the field battery and the
cheers of spectators."
The first train arrived in
Ottawa at 11:35 p.m., at
North Bay at 9:10 a.m., and
at Port Arthur, Ont. (Thunder Bay) at 4 p.m., according
to an updated report in the
next day's paper.
Transcontinental trains
continued to operate from
Canadian Pacific Stations in
Montreal for 92 years, until
VIA Rail Canada took over
the service and shifted Montreal departures for Vancouver to Canadian National's
Central Station.
The last train to leave
Windsor Station for Vancouver departed on Oct. 28, 1978.
The railway opened Windsor Station to trains on Feb.
4, 1889, but the transcontinental CPR trains continued
to depart from the station at
Place Viger until 1892.
Then for a short time trains
ran out of both stations and
merged some distance down
the line. In total, transcontinental trains ran out of
Windsor Station for 86 years.
Probably the most spectacular event in the history of
the Windsor Station was the
great accident of March 17,
1909, when a Boston express
barrelled into the station at
50 mph, crashing through the
granite walls of the building,
killing four persons and injuring 24.
Station master Thomas
Whelan risked his life to
clear passengers from the end
of the track and prevented
further fatalities.
All Montreal papers carried front page stories on the
wreck, some with photos and
others with drawings of the
engines and cars crumpled in
a heap at the end of Done-
gani Street.
Infamous Dr. Crippen arrested
aboard Canadian Pacific liner
Passengers 'Mr. Robinson and son5
really murderer and other woman
Crippen curses ship and spot where captured
By Ron Grant
In 1910, the Canadian
Pacific liner S.S. Montrose
sailed from Antwerp with a-
murderer as one of its passengers.
He had boarded the vessel
with a young companion
under the name of John
Robinson and son. The two
of  them  were  en  route  to
California, supposedly for
health reasons. They never
made it. The ship's master,
Captain Henry George Kendall, saw to that.
After deducing their true
identities, Captain Kendall
had his wireless operator
notify British police authorities who subsequently apprehended the pair. It marked
the first time that wireless
telegraphy was ever used
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The Picture Chosen to Open
"The Hoxyr New York!
The Xuticxxl Marvel of the Age.
The Mammoth New
VicteVi Grectett Achievement.
the arrest of a fugitive criminal.
John Robinson, it turned
out, was the infamous Dr.
Crippen, perhaps the most
hunted criminal of his time.
He had murdered his wife
and then buried her in the
dusty cellar of his English
home. The disguise of his
companion, although more
elaborate, was equally ineffective. The younger Robinson proved to be Ethel
LeNeve, "the other woman"
with whom Crippen was fleeing the country.
According to one report,
Captain Kendall became
curious as he watched the
two boarding the Montrose.
A gust of wind had blown
open the coat of "the young
boy" to reveal that the top
of his trousers was gathered
by a safety pin.
The strange appearance
and behavior of "Mr. Robinson and son" fueled the captain's suspicions. At sea, he
noticed them squeezing hands
when they thought they were
unobserved and his belief
grew stronger that the "son"
might be a girl in disguise.
He also suspected that Robinson might indeed be Dr.
Crippen, and not surprisingly.
The body of Crippen's wife
had been found in the cellar
grave of their Holloway
home, and his photograph
and description had been
published widely in the newspapers.
Newspaper photographs,
however, showed Crippen
with a heavy moustache and
glasses. Mr. Robinson wore
neither but Captain Kendall
noted that the skin on the
upper lip and across the
bridge of the nose indicated
that he might recently have
worn both.
The captain pinned a newspaper photograph of Dr.
Crippen to a drawing board,
covering the moustache with
chalk. The resemblance to
Mr. Robinson was immediate
and striking. He then compared specimens of Robinson's handwriting with examples of Crippen's, as published
in the newspapers. He also
invited "Mr. Robinson and
son" to dine at his table
where he noticed little discrepancies in their conversation.
The captain, aware that the
couple were travelling with
no luggage, also observed that
Robinson was sleepless at
nights, read a great deal, and
could not be separated from
his young companion, who
never spoke.
His suspicions were now
sufficiently strong and, swearing his wireless operator to
secrecy, he sent his now
famous message to the authorities.
At the time the Montrose
was one of only 60 ships in
the world fitted with wireless
equipment. Within six months
of the sending of this history-
making message, more than
600 ships were wireless-
equipped. Within 18 months
an act was passed making it
compulsory for all passenger
ships to carry wireless.
In any case, Captain Kendall's wireless operator soon
Captain Kendall
intercepted a message from a
newspaper to a correspondent
asking what Detective-
Inspector Dews of Scotland
Yard was doing aboard the
fast liner Laurentic, bound
for America.
Captain Kendall, at least,
knew the answer. The inspector planned to board the
He did, in fact, board the
ship at Father Point but, on
Captain Kendall's suggestion,
not before he had disguised
himself in a pilot's uniform.
Detective-Inspector Dews
did not recognize Dr. Crippen
at first. Nevertheless, the
chase was over. Later in Captain Kendall's cabin, on discovering the true identity of
the pilot, "Mr. Robinson"
collapsed and said:
"Thank God it's all over.
The suspense has been so
great that I couldn't stand it
any longer."
As the ship was outside
territorial waters Captain
Kendall had to read the
warrant for Dr. Crippen's
The captain said he last
saw Miss LeNeve being
driven away with two wardresses. She was cleared of any
complicity in the murder, for
which Dr. Crippen was
No story is complete without a touch of mystery and
the Crippen case is no exception. Another version of the
capture has it that Crippen
cursed the ship and the spot
it was on when the arrest was
The Montrose broke loose
from her moorings in Dover
Harbor, in 1914, drifted out
and was wrecked on the
Goodwin Sands. Near the
spot of Crippen's arrest, also
in 1914, the Empress of Ireland was sunk after a collison
with the Norwegian collier
Storstad. Captain Kendall
was in command of the Empress at the time. CANADIAN PACIFIC RAILWAY NEWS FEBRUARY 16, 1981
McConachie wins right
to fly planes to Orient
Curtain falls
after first
By Patrick Finn
Someone should make a
movie about it — CP Air's
survey flight from Vancouver
to Shanghai in 1949.
It's an anecdote-packed tale
of high adventure, air route
pioneering and zestful ma-
noeuvering by a man with a
dream: Grant McConachie,
then president of the airline.
The full story of the flight
and the events leading up to
it is crowded with larger-
than-life personalities, postwar diplomatic strategems
and bureaucratic blockades,
all set against the background
of an uprising in China.
Some of the chief characters in this real life drama
were General Douglas Mac-
Arthur, Generalissimo Chiang
Kai-shek, famed Canadian
war ace and bush pilot Wop
May, and Captain Charles
Pentland, of CP Air (then
called Canadian Pacific Airlines).
There was even a sort of
cameo appearance by that
mysterious former Canadian
resident, General Morris
"Two-Gun" Cohen, of the
Chiang Kai-shek army.
The flight was to be the
first step in the culmination
of a plan hatched by McConachie to pioneer routes that
would eventually make CP
Air one of the world's greatest travel systems — "flying
from the estuary of the St.
Lawrence to the shores of the
South China Sea," as McConachie once put it.
The quote is from Ronald
A. Keith's book, "Bush Pilot
With A Brief Case," the
happy-go-lucky story of McConachie. Keith gives an excellent account of the airline's
early venture into China in
two chapters: "Wings across
the Pacific," and "North to
the Orient."
Poised for a survey flight to the Orient, Captain Charles Pentland (with log book) and Grant
McConachie (left) appear with company specialists under the wing of an airliner bound for
Tokyo, Shanghai and Hong Kong. McConachie did not go on this flight. The aircraft was the
last to leave Shanghai as the invading Communist forces stormed the outskirts of the city.
The Shanghai story begins
with McConachie's arrival in
Japan in January, 1949, on a
mission to obtain operating
permits for the airline to initiate scheduled service from
Vancouver to Tokyo, Shanghai and Hong Kong.
Getting the Japanese permits turned out to be a tougher job than anticipated. The
U.S. military in Tokyo had
set up a bureaucratic jungle
run by generals who refused
to make any decisions until
General MacArthur gave his
McConachie, with some
help from Canadian ambassador E. H. Norman, finally
managed to obtain 15 minutes
of MacArthur's time. The
corn-cob pipe smoking general did most of the talking,
much to McConachie's chagrin.
MacArthur "knew" Canadian Pacific was a "great corporation," but he was chiefly
interested in getting the com
pany to put its ships into service again on the Pacific
where they were needed to
bring supplies to Japan.
McConachie agreed to do
what he could, and the general in turn granted all the
necessary permits to operate
aircraft into Japan, the jumping off point for the Shanghai
leg. The next job was to
obtain a permit for Shanghai.
This is where Wop May
and "Two-Gun" Cohen came
in. May, who accompanied
McConachie on this trip to
Shanghai, had struck up an
acquaintance with Cohen in
Edmonton many years earlier.
Cohen had come to western
Canada from Britain as a
16-year-old incorrigible, and
had worked on a ranch where
he learned to ride, shoot and
play poker.
He once knocked out a
burglar who was robbing a
Chinese restaurant and, on
the strength of a growing
friendship with Canadian Chi-
Company extends its links
with Canadian art world
Continued from page 1
once put to mischievous use
on a trip to London.
Feeling in an extravagant
mood, Smith walked into a
London auction house and
outbid the British Museum
and German Government for
a collection of Japanese art
so that he could "make Van
Horne mad."
When Smith later showed
Van Horne one of the prizes
of the collection — a blue cup
and saucer set — Van Horne
offered him a huge sum. John
Murray Gibbon reports in his
book, "Steel of the Empire,"
that Smith said: "Nothing
doing," as he chuckled and
locked up the china.
Van Home's association
with Canadian painters goes
back to the days when the
company was trying to promote travel and immigration.
During his presidency, painters such as William Brymner,
John Fraser and Lucius
O'Brien travelled across the
country capturing the Canadian Northwest on canvas.
The railway provided these
painters with transportation
assistance and room and
board, and staged exhibitions
of their works. Many of these
paintings were shown in England and continental Europe
where they drew acclaim.
In the late 1920s, Gibbon,
who was the railway's general
publicity agent, organized several folklore and folk music
festivals  in  company hotels.
During the first half of this
century, Canadian Pacific acquired many paintings —
some of them works of the
"Group of Seven" — for its
executive offices and hotels.
The company was also one of
the early users of motion
The centennial television
series, the cost of which will
be underwritten by the com
pany, will be presented in 30-
minute episodes. The series
will be followed by the release
of an illustrated student text,
an educators guide, which will
supply an in-depth analysis of
each episode, and a video tape
library for use by educational
institutions across the country.
Including broadcasts on
TV Ontario's network, the audience potential for the series
has been estimated at about
10 million viewers, and during
a five-year period, 15 million
Production will take place
this year with broadcast and
distribution set for 1982. It is
expected the series will satisfy
a growing demand on the part
of the academic community
for greater Canadian content
in educational material.
The project will also extend
Canadian Pacific's long association with Canadian art
and artists.
nese residents, Cohen was introduced to Chinese nationalist leader Sun Yat-sen,
eventually becoming is bodyguard. Later he became
Chiang's bodyguard.
Whether or not General
Cohen actually influenced
Chiang in favor of CP Air
remains an unanswered question, Keith observes in his
book. In any case, while May
was contacting Cohen, McConachie worked through
more conventional diplomatic
channels, met Chiang's wife
at a diplomatic reception and
quickly obtained the permit.
About two weeks after his
return to Canada, McConachie proudly watched a company North Star airliner
(leased from the RCAF) take
off from Vancouver for
Shanghai with Captain Pentland and 18 company personnel aboard.
As they approached Shanghai they spotted fires on the
periphery of the city — evidence that reports of a Communist offensive were true.
When they landed they realized the city would fall in a
matter of hours.
"Pentland took on fuel,
loaded his passengers and departed for Manila just before
dark," Keith states. "His was
the last plane to leave Shanghai before its surrender to
Communist forces." (The city
was taken over on May 25,
CP Air would have to wait
a long time before returning
to China. The disappointed
McConachie said later that
the Shanghai permit was "the
easiest permit I ever got, but
the least fruitful."
"Just the same he had
realized his bush pilot dream
of an air route over the top
of the world to the Orient,"
writes Keith.
Yes indeed, great movie
scenario material there. All
that is needed is a John
Wayne type to play McConachie. Then there's the Mac-
Arthur role . . . and "Two-
Gun" Cohen . . . and Wop
May . . . The actors would
love it and so would the audience.
Time was precious
to burly Scotsman
who traced route
Standard time born on Day of Two Noons
By Len Cocolicchio
"Do not squander time, for
that is the stuff that life is
made of."
Those famous words of
Ben Franklin provided a maxim by which Sir Sandford
Fleming lived. Indeed, he
might have interpreted them
to the letter when he conceived of a notion that was
to literally alter the course
of time.
Fleming, a husky six-footer
sporting a great bushy beard,
began his rise to international
renown in 1871 when he accepted an invitation from Sir
John A. Macdonald to survey
the route of the Canadian
Pacific Railway.
Predicting the new railway
would "surpass in every element of magnitude and cost
any work ever undertaken
by man," the tough Scotsman
plunged into his work with
characteristic determination,
mounting a three-month expedition from Halifax to New
Westminster by rail, canoe,
wagon, dugout and on foot
to see for himself the countless hazards and obstacles the
rails would have to traverse.
Fleming's expedition pushed
through storms that dropped
hailstones an inch thick,
crossed the eerie, desert-like
prairies, and clawed and clambered through the Rockies
in storms so fierce that sled
dogs froze to death.
It took 13 years of back-
breaking work and political
haggling to complete the CPR
and Fleming, his bull-like
build never failing him,
thrived through it all.
With the steel link that
would pull the country together and open up the land
nearing completion, the man
who helped set the course of
the country was now ready
to alter the course of time.
In 1876, Fleming proposed
a system of 24 equal time
zones, spanning the globe and
anchored on the British Observatory at Greenwich, England. The standard time idea
was quickly lauded by North
American railway executives
who desperately needed a
uniform system.
But the public greeted the
news with less than enthusiastic acceptance. Blustered
an American newspaper of 97
years ago:
Sir Sandford Fleming
"People will have to marry
by railroad time and die by
railroad time; banks will open
and close by railroad time.
We presume the sun, moon
and stars will make an
attempt to ignore the order
of the Railroad Convention,
but they, too will have to
give in at last."
Others screamed about an
underhanded make-work project for watchmakers.
Influenced by the brash,
new railway to the north,
railroads throughout North
America in 1883 set up their
own standard time on what
was known as "The Day of
the Two Noons." They picked
a Sunday when traffic was
slow. Telegraph offices were
connected with a central observatory; at precisely noon,
clocks were turned back or
ahead to cut the continent
into even time zones. Train
crews were ordered to check
in at the next scheduled stop
to adjust their watches.
The reaction was not totally adverse. Some saw the
advantages, though not always the ones intended. The
New York Herald chortled:
"Every old maid in Beacon
Hill, in Boston, will rejoice
tonight to discover that she
is younger by almost 16 minutes."
The following year, U.S.
President Chester Arthur convened a conference of 25 nations to spread Fleming's
standard time around the
Indeed, without Fleming's
genius, today's globetrotting
businessman would need a
calculator to keep time, even
if he were simply travelling
across the country. Prior to
standard time, communities
used local or solar time based
upon calculations of noon as
determined by the position
of the sun. Thus, Montreal
Time was 8.5 minutes faster
than Brockville, 10 minutes
ahead of Kingston and 23
minutes ahead of Toronto.
Meanwhile, Fleming had
begun work on completing
another project of global significance: To create an all-
British cable system around
the world by filling in the
missing link — an undersea
cable from Canada to Australia. It took 23 years, and
Fleming himself did the preliminary engineering studies.
When the cable opened in
1902, Fleming triumphantly
marched into the Ottawa telegraph office and dispatched
two telegrams to Canada's
governor-general — one east-
bound the other westbound.
Both travelled around the
globe and arrived back in the
nation's capital within minutes.
When Fleming arrived in
1845, Canada had 16 miles
of public steam-operated railway lines. When he died in
1915, it had 35,582 miles in
operation. And from Paris to
Pretoria, Moscow to Montreal, people, indeed, married
by railroad time and died by
railroad time; the sun, moon
and stars had at last given in
to the burly Scotsman who
wasted nay a minute. PAGE 6
Silkers had top priority across the system;
God help the railroader who delayed one
By Jean Laf ortune
When Christopher Columbus set sail in search of the
gateway to the Orient he
hoped to find the shortest
route by which to transport
the riches of the Far East —
tea, spices and silk.
But once on the American
continent, he discovered, to
his great surprise, that none
of these precious goods existed here, not even silk. Few
dreamed the day would ever
come that the silks of Cathay
would be transported across
this new continent.
But, in the early 1900s,
North American fashion dictated that clothing,  such  as
women's stockings, scarves,
and dresses, be manufactured
from this lustrous material. It
was this market demand that
fostered the legendary Canadian Pacific Railway silk
The "silkers," as they were
referred to, were given top
priority all across the line
from Vancouver to their eastern destinations and these
steam-powered trains, which
carried the precious cargo of
live silkworms and raw silk
material sometimes worth
$10 million, set speed records
still in effect today as a result.
As one dispatcher put it:
"They had a clear board, right
across Canada. There never
was a signal set against a silk
train — and God help the
railroader who let one be delayed."
The reasons for the speedy
transportation of the silk
were threefold.
The multi-million dollar
cargo posed a tempting lure
for bandits. There was also
the danger of spoilage as silk
must be kept in a dry environment. A more urgent reason,
however, was the sharp fluctuations in price, for silk was
usually consigned to a bank
or brokerage house, not a silk
mill and, like other commodities, was traded on the stock
exchange. A few hours delay
could wipe out a fortune.
Rapidity then was of the
utmost importance.
Legend conjures up cruel visions
but it's really just another myth
By Ron Grant
There is a popular legend
that, at one time, some Chinese laborers were kept in a
cell-like room with barred
doors,   deep   in   the   gloomy
bowels of Windsor Station. It's
a story perpetuated out of the
corners of mouths in sly, confidential whispers.
When heard, it conjures up
visions of leg irons, anguish
and cruel desperation, even in
the least sympathetic imagina-
This is the eerie-looking, cell-like room on B floor of Windsor
Station where popular legend says Chinese laborers were kept.
{Photograph by Maurice Quinn)
The legend is really just a myth and the living quarters shown
above are where Chinese laborers actually stayed.
tions. But, as it happens, it's
just another myth.
The truth is that during the
First World War, the allied
forces recruited laborers in
China to be sent to Europe to
perform unskilled labor in
connection with military operations. These Chinese, evidently all volunteers, were
used to help in the digging of
trenches or in construction
work around military installations. Apparently they were
not employed in conditions
which would normally put
them under enemy fire.
Movement from China, presumably through Hong Kong
and Shanghai, was made by
CPSS vessels across the Pacific, by train across Canada,
then by convoy across the
Atlantic. While travelling
across Canada they were, of
course, aliens in bond and, as
such, were escorted by guards.
Pending transfer to other
trains and ships, they required
overnight accommodation —
and this is how the legend
was born.
They were housed and fed
in immigrant quarters for
transients which the company maintained on B floor
in Windsor Station, below the
concourse and waiting room
Now there happens to be a
cell-like room with barred
doors that still exists at the
bottom of the stairs to B floor,
off the Lagauchetiere and Peel
office entrance. This room,
however, was maintained by
the Express Company as a
store room for bullion and
other valuables in transit. It
was never used by the Chinese,
or anyone else.
But, a vestige of the old
immigrant quarters still remains in an area on this floor.
It's a room, with a door out
to the Peel Street hill, which
the present building staff —
and generations of them before — still call "the old
kitchen." Evidently, this is
where the immigrant kitchen
was, although it ceased to
exist at least 50 years ago.
In any case, there was no
dungeon, no cries of despair,
no nudge-nudges and wink-
winks. Even so, I'll bet that
five or six years hence, somebody will pause with me at
the top of the B floor stairs
and furtively say: "Did I ever
tell you about that room down
there with the barred door..."
Canadian Pacific had a lot
going for it in getting the silk
to market. Its Empress ships
were the largest and fastest
liners on the Pacific and had
ports of call at Shanghai,
Kobe, Yokohama and Hong
Kong. And its trains were far
from being slow. On one run,
a silk train passed through
Fort William 48 hours after
leaving Vancouver. It travelled the 133 miles between
Brandon and Winnipeg in 131
minutes — that's more than
100 miles an hour. Cargos
handled by Canadian Pacific
were being delivered in New
York 13 days after leaving
Japan, a time the American
railways found themselves unable to compete with.
The majestic white Empress ships would dock at
Vancouver harbor full of raw
silk material bundled in straw-
matting or brown paper, and
live silkworms contentedly
feeding on mulberries and
spinning their cocoons from
which thread is unravelled to
make ties, gowns and undergarments.
The special trains that later
became famous would be
waiting at the docks. The silk
cargo would begin to be unloaded and put into specially
designed freight cars before
the passengers would even
begin to disembark.
Everyone was working
against time. Everyone and
everything was in motion;
bales, trucks and men, weaving and interweaving. No
man bumped another man, no
truck collided with another
truck, no combination of
man, truck and silk ever hesitated on its course. One could
have sworn there was perpetual motion.
This frantic pace would
continue from Vancouver
harbor to the cargo's final
destination at New York or
Hoboken, N.J. The "silkers"
had no schedule and inherited
top priority across the system.
Regular trains would have to
take the "hole" (pull into a
siding) to allow the highballing trains through. There
were no exceptions.
On one occasion in December, 1919, the late Prince
George, Duke of York, who
later became King George VI,
arrived on the Empress of
Russia at Vancouver enroute
from Hong Kong to spend
Christmas with his family at
Windsor Castle. His ship had
been delayed by fog and a
special section of a CPR passenger train had been kept
waiting to hurry the royal passenger to the eastern seaboard
and connection with a steamship over the Atlantic.
The prince's train pulled
out of Vancouver at midnight.
Almost four hours later, a silk
train also started east. Before
noon of the next day, in the
Rockies, the royal train pulled
into a siding as the "silker"
thundered by.
A conductor was said to
have told the inquisitive
prince: "In this country silk
has rights over everything."
The era of the "silkers"
lasted into the 30s when trans-i
portation of silk by rail
slumped to an all-time low.
This downward trend was
due, in part, to the depression,
and to the introduction of
materials like nylon and
rayon. Also, nearly 90 per
cent of the entire movement
of silk was now arriving in
the United States by an all-
water route through the Panama Canal. The all-water gateway to the Orient had been
The store with the Christmas
Warehouse Elevators
•4 Ml* ft***
•til Ttl Mala 4M
Right now, when holiday festivities call
for new afternoon gowns, this special
reduction will be much appreciated
Smart New York Styles in Navy and Black
Serge; Crepe de Chine, Georgette and Taffeta
in Navy, Fawn, Grey, Brown and Myrtle.
Valued to $35.00.   On sale to-day, $17.50.
—Second Floor.
una uviswom & sons co, w.
mi mt. aim stkeet, bmtbbai.
In purchasing an Automobile you want a car that putt up a good front, that you
are proud to be teen in.   You have it in this car.
In addition you have a car of correct design—i.e..
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Then you have behind the car, right here in Canada, a firm, determined to stand behind it   Think what that means.
C* Tcvrteg Car	
fteflel A, IS**. Light Tearteg Car.
The Number 285, seen above, was the first steam engine ever
built by Canadian Pacific in its own shops. The company's
locomotive building epoch lasted 61 years.
The Number 2850, a Hudson-type engine built for high-speed, heavy passenger runs, is seen
here hauling the Royal Train with King George VI and Queen Elizabeth aboard near Leanchoil,
B.C. in 1939.
Iron Horses charmed railroaders
but still lost out to new diesels
By Stephen Morris
When the last scheduled
steam-powered train chugged
into Windsor Station from St.
Lin, Quebec Nov. 6, 1960, it
spelled the end of an era for
Canadian Pacific.
It was a sad day for many
but not an unexpected one;
the younger generation of diesels had, inevitably, taken
over the reigns.
The same unique characteristics of the Iron Horse,
which charmed early railroaders, poets and song writers, also limited its lifespand
as a viable form of motive
It was hard, dirty work
operating a steam-powered
locomotive; stoking its fires
with coal to maintain a full
head of steam being a major
Engine crews had to be
changed frequently and even
if there was more than one
locomotive pulling the train,
each unit required its own
crew. The steam engine's appetite for water and coal also
restricted its non-stop range.
Most large railroads built
their own steam-powered locomotives and Canadian Pacific was no exception. For the
company the locomotive
building epoch lasted 61 years
(1883-1944) and saw 1,056 of
its steam engines come on
During the first 20 years,
the company constructed engines at its Delorimier Avenue
shop in Montreal. Later, the
operation was moved to Angus Shops, a new building and
repair facility in northeast
But it was at the Delorimier
Shop where the CPR built its
first steam engine. Number
285 was designed by Francis
Brown who in 1833 had been
lured from the Grand Trunk
Railway to Canadian Pacific
by William Van Horne.
The engine was small compared with later designs. It
featured a 4-4-0 wheel arrangement — a four wheel
leading truck, four drive
wheels on the second truck,
and no trailing truck — and
was designed for passenger
and freight service.
By the end of the First
World War engines with a
4-4-0 wheel arrangement were
a rarity. Most had been
scrapped because of their inability to pull the increasingly
heavier and longer trains.
But this seeming disadvantage led to the survival of
three of these engines built in
the 1880s.
Operating on a small
branch line in New Brunswick,  Numbers 29,   136 and
144 survived because of the
low traffic on the line and the
light rail on which heavier engines could not run. Today,
the three engines are preserved in Ontario and Quebec.
In its steam period, Canadian Pacific boasted a fleet of
locomotives which featured
20 different wheel arrangements. However, every railway had a class or type of engine which formed the backbone of its fleet.
With Canadian Pacific it
was the versatile, sturdy and
reliable D-10 class 4-6-0 wheel
Capable of a multitude of
tasks, these engines were
equally at home on the headend of a freight, mixed and
passenger trains or in yard,
pusher or work service.
Between 1905 and 1913,
Canadian Pacific acquired
502 of these engines of which
119 were built by the railway.
The D10 class engines could
be seen in virtually every
roundhouse and yard from
the Atlantic to the Pacific.
Canadian Pacific also had
some of the most streamlined,
stylish engines on the North
American continent. Perhaps
the best example is the Canadian Pacific 4-6-4 Royal Hudson.
This class of locomotive
was popularized by the New
York Central, which named
it after the Hudson River.
The Hudson-type engines
first appeared on Canadian
Pacific in 1929 when 20 were
built for high-speed, heavy-
passenger runs. Eight years
later, the company acquired
45 more of the engines which
were semi-streamlined.
In 1939, Number 2850 was
selected to haul the Royal
Train with King George VI
and Queen Elizabeth aboard
across Canada. The steam locomotive had been refinished
in royal blue and stainless
steel with a golden crown at
the front of each running
Subsequently all 45 semi-
streamlined 4-6-4s were provided with similiar running
board crowns and engines of
the H, L, C, D and E class
became known as Royal Hud-
After the Second World
War it became evident that
diesel locomotives would replace steam engines in North
America. Diesels were easier
on the crews and oil was
cheap. They had a longer
range and could generate
more work power. They were
cheaper to maintain and operate, and were more reliable.
Canadian Pacific had been
experimenting with a diesel-
powered locomotive in its
yard and switcher service
since 1937. Six years later,
the company began acquiring
production diesels for yard
service and in 1948 the first
diesel road units came on line.
In 1949, Canadian Pacific
took delivery of its last steam-
powered locomotive, the
5935, a 2-10-4 Selkirk-class
unit built by Montreal Locomotive Works. Measuring just
shy of a hundred feet in
length, these types of engines
were the largest and heaviest
in the Commonwealth and
were assigned to passenger
and freight service in Alberta
and British Columbia.
Museum pieces at the age
of 10, these engines represented the finest technology in
steam engine design. But even
this technology could not
match that of the new diesels.
Beaverford lost with all hands
during battle with Admiral Scheer
HMS Jervis Bay began the battle
By Len Cocolicchio
Canadian Pacific's Beaverford had completed eight
wartime voyages when she
left Halifax, N.S., in October,
1940. She was on her way
to join convoy HX84 and its
escort HMS Jervis Bay, the
armed merchant ship that
was later to achieve world
Prior to sailing, Captain H.
Pettigrew asked two friends
to dine with him at an uptown restaurant. The friends
were intrigued. The captain
usually entertained aboard
ship. When asked why the
change of venue, Captain
Pettigrew replied gravely: "I
have a feeling this will be
our last lunch together, so I
thought a change would be
Next day the convoy was
formed; the ships positioned
in nine columns. The Beaverford was the middle ship in
the seventh column. For
seven days there were no
U-boat alarms and the convoy continued eastward uneventfully.
Meanwhile, the German
pocket battleship Admiral
Scheer had crept out of Sta-
venger unobserved. Her commander, Captain Krancke,
already knew that convoy
HX84 had left Halifax and,
on the morning of Nov. 5,
a reconnaissance plane from
his ship reported sighting the
The first warning to the
convoy came at 1545 when
smoke was spotted on the
horizon, and by 1700 hours
the enemy raider had been
identified. The Jervis Bay,
unarmored and lightly armed,
The company's fleets
sailed special missions
and bore heavy losses
All British merchant ships
were liable to requisition by
the government during the
Second World War. Canadian
Pacific's fleet suffered some
of the heaviest losses. Eighteen of the company's ocean
ships, two Canadian Australasian Line ships and two
vessels from the British Columbia coastal operation were
in the service of the British
Admiralty during the war.
Only five of these returned to
company service after the
The speed of the Canadian
Beaver ships made them invaluable as cargo carriers,
shuttling across the Atlantic.
But as cargo ships they were
also main targets for the
dreaded U-boats whose mission was to cut off England's
main supply route and starve
the country into surrender.
Of the five Beaver ships,
all but one was lost in enemy
action by 1941. The last, the
Beaverhill, carried on alone
until 1944 when she was lost
in a marine mishap on the
Hillyards Reef.
The company's passenger
liners, whether from Atlantic
or Pacific services, moved
about the face of the seas at
the direction of the Admiralty and became equally at
home in tropical as well as
northern ports. They served
on special missions — the
demolition of coal mines at
Spitzbergen, the Madagascar
landing, the removal of freed
prisoners from Odessa and
the evacuation of Narvik and
Brest. They carried troops
from Australia and New
Zealand to Suez, from North
American ports to North
Africa; they served at Salerno, were bombed at Oran,
took reinforcements to Singapore, rescued Dutch from
Batavia, ferried Canadian
contingents across the Atlantic, shipped landing craft for
service in the Mediterranean,
and carried more than 6,000
unescorted children from
Britain to Canada.
Mttoac* a»d Mra*.
US H. Um— *tr~%    t
signalled: "Prepare to
She then turned and made
toward the heavily armed
raider. Her aim was to delay
the battleship, giving the convoy a chance to escape. For
nearly half-an-hour she engaged the Admiral Scheer before being sunk.
On witnessing the Jervis
Bay's gallant demise, and the
short distance still between
the rest of the convoy and
the German battleship, Captain Pettigrew took up the
fight. Even with superb seamanship and the speed of the
Beaverford on their side, the
vessel's single four-inch and
three-inch guns could only
hope to borrow time. But
borrow she did. The brave
crew maintained an uneven
fight for up to five hours
while slower ships in the convoy made their escape.
During that time the Admiral Scheer had fired 12
rounds main armament and
71 rounds of secondary armament, striking the stubborn Beaverford 19 times
without stopping her. To sink
the ship, the raider finally had
to launch a torpedo. At 2245
hours, in a tremendous explosion, the Beaverford went
down with all hands.
The action of the Jervis
Bay rightfully became one of
the more heralded events of
the Second World War. The
Beaverford deserved no less.
Cartons Houm Broken
Stonqp fas Bond or Fnt
Cwtom Housj Work
* 8pteiolt j.
m common trmurr
Uprjurie Bricks
The Best
Brickft to Coaodft m«dft from
UtU*   •**!•   <•*<*>
ii »—we of Ti—»Htlwil
Founded London 175$. Montreal 177$
■maUli Oibfc. It*
Tonm4w. 17H
Lord Chesterfield warned his son to
forswear Clothes that lacked character. Said he: "Let the careless wear
what the careless make!" Quality
is still worth buying, for the fine
hand workmanship offered in Gibb
Clothes lengthens the life of the
Suit—lengthens the lift of your investment, too.
Tailors, Haberdashers and Shirtmaker*
148 St. James Street MAin 1889
Uptown Branch: Mt. Royal Hotel, £ee± Street
The Oldest Car Wheel Establishment in the Country,
CRUh'-iOjP & WES T.PtilL A.
Manufacture all kinds of WHEELS, from 18 to 50 inches, for
Railway service; also CHILLED WI1EEL.S with turned treads, under
patent   of  W.   W.   LOB DELL,   guaranteed   to   give   greatly   increased
mileage. ____^^^___^__^^__
Railroad, Car, Light and Heavy Machine Castings.
Productivity amazed officials
Remained committed to all-Canadian railway
Continued from page 1
hand-man in the crucial task
of purchasing equipment and
supplies. At the same time,
he moved his headquarters to
Montreal to assume direct
control both of construction
and operations on the system.
Though Van Horne had been
Hill's choice, he was not by
any means a protege.
In 1883, Van Horne disagreed with Hill on the routing of the railway. Hill had
hoped that his own lines in
Minnesota might form part of
the Canadian transcontinental
for a transitional period, thus
avoiding the necessity to construct a railway immediately
around the unpopulated and
unproductive North Shore of
Lake Superior. Van Horne
was adamant; he had been
hired to build an all-Canadian
railway and build it he would.
As a consequence, Hill resigned and became an implacable foe of Canadian
Pacific. In later years, his
railway, known later as the
Great Northern and serving
the northern tier of western
states, attempted many times
to tap Canadian traffic sources
in boundary areas. This competition was to last for nearly
30 years.
Van Home's productivity
astounded Canadian Pacific's
directors. In contrast to 136
miles added to the prairie
main line, in 1881, no less than
418 miles were added in 1882
and 376 more by the end of
1883, bringing the railhead to
the summit of the continental
divide at a siding appropriately
called "Stephen". In the latter
year, under the direct supervision of James Ross, manager of construction in the
west, nearly six-and-a-half
miles of track were laid in
one day, July 28, 1883, at a
point near Strathmore, Alta.
When the rails reached Calgary, the famed Oblate missionary, Father Albert Lacombe, was entertained at a
dinner in car No. 33, in which
Canadian Pacific's principals
and many directors participated.
Made "president" of Canadian Pacific for one hour
(ceremonially, not officially),
Lacombe reciprocated by putting George Stephen in charge
of the parish of St. Mary's in
Calgary for the same period
of time. "Poor souls of Calgary" said Stephen, looking
out of the car window, "I pity
Despite acute setbacks
caused by unscrupulous subcontractors and shoddy work
inherited from government
contracts, under Van Home's
direction the huge task was
completed in less than half
the stipulated time, the rails
from the east being laid to a
connection with those already
constructed from the West
Coast early in November,
1885, at a point in Eagle Pass
between Revelstoke and Sicamous.
There was much popular interest in the accomplishment
and many expected that the
termination of this important
work would be marked by
elaborate ceremonies and
speechmaking, a ritual which
had marked the completion
of the important trunk lines
in the United States. Van
Horne was only too keenly
aware that such events also
almost invariably presaged
bankruptcy and his attitude
to an anticipated completion
of the work, as delivered to a
group of particularly persistent reporters in Winnipeg
about a week before the line
was completed, was typical of
the attitudes and feelings of a
"railway general" who had
pursued one of the most ambitious construction tasks in
the world through to a successful completion.
He said: "We intend going
to British Columbia but cannot say whether we will pass
over the line before or after
the last spike, about which
you appear to be so anxious,
is driven. No, I'm sure I can't
say who will drive the last
spike. It may be Tom Mular-
. tfanafltn J£ariffrJWlw^tj la.
i^w, 4^i ^&m$ #«i ^ir ^K^Pfc* ^*fl|? m^0* w
Ttfttat «<»*' run 8U follow'*, hy St, Paul time whkli i' 17
fitUiu*v> l,i-{< r tiuiti Winning time.
St. Bomfaoe. ..I've M:3u
St. Vintkxt .,.
&O0 f
Kt.   XoKHKRT. ...   **    fhM
Kmfusu>\' .''...?
Xwvtixnu   .... '*   \k:v>
' AftVAf'i'   ,...-...
OTTfcHmuM;   M   <*:.>*>
f'H rimsr < — ....  •* Ii>:f H
IHtkust ,
Ahval-'I*  ..-,....  ** 10:2>
**ttkkw:rxk ..,
Domimox Cm v      **  Itt-M
XfVKiJViiLE   . ..
7ip ■
v******         S »rr. 11:15*
St. Vixrfcxt jirr, l?:(i~>
£f, BoXH'At'F, . .
Through Coaches and Elegant Sleep'ng Cars »re now"
run l*»!we£i?^Vim)ii*eg nml St. |»»«ni a<M)mJbrt ml lufliorto,
*uf>i)li«t. ;
Sir William  Van Horne was the first chairman and second
president of the Canadian Pacific Railway.
Canadian Pacific's first public railway timetable was a small
card, printed on both sides. The front of the card is shown here.
ky or Joe Tubby, and the only
ceremony that I fancy may
occur will be the damning of
the foreman for not driving it
quicker. There will be no concluding ceremony, no nonsense. Some roads may like to
advertise by making a great
fuss, but we do not care for
that sort of thing."
In retrospect, the ceremony,
if such it may be called, was
almost an anticlimax. The
special train carrying the directors, Van Horne and senior officers arrived at the site
of the joining of the rails very
opportunely, about an hour
before the task was to be
done, on the damp and foggy
morning of Saturday, Nov. 7,
1885. Interestingly, president
George Stephen was not
among the "chosen;" he had
elected to go to England to
try to press Canadian Pacific's
interest in obtaining a mail
contract for a steamer line on
the Pacific Ocean. By unanimous choice, his cousin,
Donald A. Smith, one of the
senior directors, was asked to
perform the act of the driving
of the last spike. After he did
so, Van Horne summed up
the task in only 15 words:
"All I can say is that the
work has been well done in
every way."
The "last spike" proved to
be a beginning rather than an
end. Ultimately, Stephen's efforts with the British government proved fruitful. In 1887,
chartered vessels and, in 1891,
the Company's own pioneer
"Empress" ships, three in
number, provided service between Vancouver, Japan and
China. For this service, Van
Horne personally designed
the red-and-white checkered
house flag which was flown
for nearly 80 years. Van
Horne was an inveterate
poker player, and some of his
acquaintances suggested that
the design of this flag depicted
"three of a kind". The typical
Van Horne retort in denial
was that only a "royal flush"
would be appropriate for
Canadian Pacific.
Gang after government gold
retreats as rifles readied
Continued from page 2
reached the wharf, they began
unloading the bags of gold.
Suddenly, a rough-looking
mob came charging up, with
Soapy Smith in the lead.
Obviously, Smith now knew
what was in the kit bags. The
crowd began to jostle the
policemen as they tried to
carry the bags to the Tartar,
which was alongside.
"Then an order rang out
from the ship's wheelhouse,
and a squad of sailors ran
down the gang plank with
loaded rifles. They levelled
them at the mob," writes
"Another squad took up
positions on the hurricame
deck with rifles pointed. At
that moment Inspector Wood
came face to face with Soapy
"Why don't you stop in
Skagway for a while, Inspector?" the gang king said smilingly. Wood politely declined
the invitation and Smith turned and led the mob off the
Wood and Steele were
promoted shortly after the
event. A few weeks later, the
leader of a vigilante group
from the community killed
Soapy Smith in a shoot-out
on the Skagway dock.
Those who \v;iiu lo farm and haw no land.
Those who haw sons to settle.
. Those who cannot make hoth ends meet farming here.
. All those who haveS.V)0 or more to settle with.
. All wh.. are siilferinu I'mm Asthma or Bronchial AITeetions.
. All who want to en'|o\   the nicest   kind of a pleasure trip
ri23IO]M =
Single Fare Tickets from Montreal to any Point at Lowest Prices,
Brandon, $34.00. Oak Lake, $35.30.
Whitewood, $38 70,    Broadview, $39.30.
Regina, $40.00.
Calgary, $64.10. Canmore, $67.60.
.A-rxd.   Otixor   ZF^oirits   at   IFxoporticrn.a.te   :E5a.tes.
Knowing thoroughly all districts of the North West, the Land and its Regula
tions, will accompany the; Excursion. It is the best chance yet offered. No
Customs annoyances, no useless expense or trouble. Free Colonist Sleeping Cars.
To do the journey at the smallest cost the Explorer should carry his own provisions
and a pair of blankets.    For all information, and for tickets, apply or write to
tmm mt
Oif   -AJJL   Descriptions.
Chas.  S. Millard, PresH & Tret in
Gko.  A.  McCori), Srry.
Rogers Locomotive and Machine Works,
L0C0H0T 1¥I Dfi
New York Office, 44 EXCHANGE PLACE.
J. S. ROGERS, Prest,       )  ROBT. S. HUGHES, Treas.,
R. S. HUGHES, Sec'y, T "     "   %r    T
WM. S. HUDSON, Sup't,
44 Exchange Place. New York.


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