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Successful farming in Manitoba : 100 farmers testify Canadian Pacific Railway Company 1889

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FJI!F ™gr'JIF3llF'JI,»n' REGULATIONS   FOR|THE    SALE   OF    LANDS
ZXl  OF   THE	
CANADIAN   PACIFIC   RAILWAY   COMPANY.
oioiiiiii mini i tut in tumult
^*HE Canadian Pacific Railway Company offer for sale some of the finest Agricultural Lands in Manitoba and the Northwest. The
vLf lands belonging to the Company, in each township within the railway belt, which extends twenty-four miles from each side of the
main line, will be disposed of at prices ranging
H ':§v     FROM ^2.50'| PER    ACRE    UPWARDS.   |§
(These   regulations   are   substituted   for   and   cancel   those   hitherto   in   force).
If paid for in Bull at time of purchase, a Deed of Conveyance" of the land will be given; but the purchaser may pay one-tenth in
cash, and the balance in payments spread over nine years, with interest.at six per cent, per annum, payable at the end of the year with
each instalment. Payments may be made in Land Grant Bdnds,..^hich will be accepted at ten per cent, premium on their par value,
with accrued interest. These.bonds can be obtained'on application at.the Bank of Montreal, or at any of its agencies in Canada or the
United States. yt^ iS^i.^
R; '" j:"' ©MOMAirjj 'COXVDITIOK8, _'
All sales are subject to the following general conditions :
i.    All improvements placed upon land purchased to be maintained thereon until final payment has been made.
2. All taxes and assessments lawfully imposed upon the land or improvements to be paid by the purchaser.
3. The-Gompany reserve from sale, under these regulations, all mineral and coal lands, and lands containing timber in quantities, stone, slate and marble quarries, lands with water-power thereon, and tracts for town sites and railway purposes.
4. Mineral, coal and timber lands and quarries, and lands controlling water power!, will be disposed of on very moderate terms
to persons giving satisfactory evidence of their intention and ability to utilize the same.
Liberal rates for settlers and their effects will be granted by the Company over its railway.
Detailed Prices of Lands and all information relating thereto can be obtained on application to the Land Commissioner,
Canadian Pacific Railway, Winnipeg. Bal-$f¥
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United P*eX W?¥
FARMING IN MANITOBA.
XPERIENCE = OF = ACTUAL = SETTLERS,
INTRODUCTORY   REMARKS.
Circulars asking information drawn from personal experience in agriculture, and calculated to be useful to persons intending
to settle in the Canadian North-West, were lately addressed to a large number of the farming residents of that Province. These
farmers were known to be men of intelligence and probity, desirous of aiding, to the best of their ability, anyone thinking of
making for himself a new home on the prairies.
Of the circulars referred to, which contained no less than forty-four questions, a large number have been returned, fully
replied to. The information they contain is circumstantial, exact, and of the utmost utility; and the earliest opportunity has been
taken to put it into print.
In arranging the contents of these circulars for this publication, similar questions have been grouped into classes, under
whicfr have been collated the accompanying answers. This avoids confusion, and enables the reader to get, all at once, the
testimony in reference to a particular subject, without having to mix with it what relates to a different topic.
This book is only a first instalment; and, it must be remembered, relates wholly to the Province of Manitoba. As
additional answers are received they will be published and distributed.
vjcX<^v7<t,r .&&&.
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CLEAR   EVIDENCE   OF   SUCCESS. I.-SOIL   AND   CAPITAL,
It will be noticed in the first of the replies to the following questions that the majority of those furnishing answers have been only half-a-dozen years in.
the country. Many of them had nothing at all beyond the bare land when they began, and some were in debt; yet these seem to have done about as well,—that
is, have increased the value of their property by as large a percentage,—as have the more fortunate men who had considerable capital to begin with. This shows
conclusively that in the Canadian North-West the chances are relatively as good for the poor man as for his richer neighbor.
There seems to be some ambiguity in some cases as to whether the correspondents, in answering the third question, have included the value of their
improvements in their estimates, or have given only the value of the land alone.
In the description of the soil there is great uniformity; and it appears that Manitoba everywhere has a thick, almost black, top-soil of clayey (sometimes
sandy) loam, underlaid with a great depth of gravels and clays.
1.— When did you settle in Manitoba ?
2.—How much capital had you ?
Questions :.
3.— What do you consider the present value of your farm?
■What is the general nature and depth of soil on your farm
4.-
Answebs
Name and Address.—Manitoba.
John J. Cochrane, Deloraine ..
W. J. Helliwell, Ralphton ....
Albert E.  Philp, Brandon	
John Q. Sumner, Arnaud	
William Corbett,  Springfield...
Agenor Dubuc, Lorette	
Thomas A. Sbarpe,  Adelpha..
W. B. Thomas, Cypress  River.
Geo. Forbes & Sons,   Treherne
F. W, Stephenson, Rill View...
S. W. Chambers, Wattsview....
Norris Fines. Balmoral	
cd
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1879
$    100
$ 2,000
1878
45
1,500
1881
700
2,000
1878
500
2,500
1870
500
5,000
1874
100
5,000
1877
None
7,000
1871
None
2,000
1882
3,500
6,500
1883
5,000
12,000
1879
None
6,000
1878
None
2,000
Character of Soil.
Black clay loam, 18 in. deep, with heavy clay subsoil.
Black sandy loam, 2 ft. deep.
Dark sandy loam, mixed with clay.
Black loam, 4 in. deep ; clay subsoil.
Black clay, 2 or 3 ft. deep.
Loam, 3 to 4 ft. deep.
Black loam, underlaid by yellow clay.
Black sandy loani, 2^ ft. deep, with clay subsoil.
From'2J to 3 ft. of black soil, as rich as I have ever seen in a
garden in Ontario.
6 in. to 1 ft. of loam, with clay subsoil.
Rich loam, 18 in. deep, overlying clay subsoil, part sandy loam.
Sandy loam. ' ^^^ Name and Address.—-Manitoba.
Geo. G. Downie, Crystal City...
W. B. Hall, Headingly	
James R. Routley, Carberry.. ..
Alfred Pickering, Austin   	
R. Dunsmore, Bridge Creek	
Harold Elliot, Morden	
Thomas D. Perdue, Richlands...
R. S. Conklin, Sunny side	
B. R. Hamilton, Neepawa	
Alfred Walker, Shepardville
D. D. Buchanan,   Gristvold	
S. F. Burgess, Seeburn	
J. G. Elliott, Shadeland	
Chas. Findlay, Shoal Lake	
P. J. McNaughton, Raven Lake.
John George, Nelson	
James Laidlaw, Clearwater
Andrew Johnston,  Mowbray....
Alex. Naismith, Millford	
George M. Yeomans, Dalton.. ..
Charles C. Oke, Fairwood ,
William Thompson, Holland....
Thomas Frame,   Virden	
Thomas Hagyard, Pilot Mound
Richard Brown, Langvale	
C. Wheatland,  Donore	
Henry Last, Stonewall ,
Stephen Birks, Bamsley	
F. S. Menarey, Cartwright.   ..
Albert McGuffin, Melgund	
Wm. Walton, Marringhurst... ■
A. H. Carroll, Carrollton	
F. P. Westwood, Pendennis....
William Smith, Beaver Creek.. .
W  S. Wallace, Shellmouth	
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1880
None
1858
$ 300
1882
20
1880
None
1880
None
1880
400
1881
800
1876
None
1880
None
1882
500
1880
None
1882
200
1880
None
1879
200
1882
150
1877
None
1881
800
1880
2,000
1880
1,500
1873
2,000
1882
100
1882
1,000
1882
800
1878
300
1882
800
1880
500
1872
150
1882
None
1885
400
1881
None
1885
None
1882
1,600
1880
300
1880
1,000
1881
150
$2,500
10,000
2,200
2,000
2,000
2,000
1,600
3,000
2,000
3,000
1,200
2,000
10,000
6,000
2,500
3,000
4,000
5,000
4,000
12,000
3,500
5,000
6,000
4,000
4,800
3,000
1,500
2,000
1,000
3,509
3,000
5,000
3,200
2,000
1,000
Character of Soil.
Alluvial deposit 3 ft. deep.
Black clay loam, 1 to 2 ft. deep.
Clay loam, 3J ft. deep, with stiff clay bottom.
Sandy loam, 2 ft. deep.
Black loam, 18 in. deep.
Level prairie, sandy soil.
Clay loam, 2 ft. deep.
Heavy black loam, 16 in. to 4 ft. deep.
Rich black loam, 18 in. deep, with clay subsoil.
Black mould, 2| ft. thick, with clay subsoil.
A heavy dark loam, sometimes mixed with sand.
1 ft. of black loam with clay subsoil.
Black clay loam, from 2 to 7 ft. deep.
Black loam, 1 to 2 ft. deep.
Black loam, about 18 in. deep ; clay subsoil.
Deep clay loam.
Deep black clay loam.
Black loam, 2 ft. deep, with clay subsoil.
Black loam, 1 to 2 ft. deep, overlying clay.
Surface, mellow, rich and black ; subsoil, porous clay
About 16 in. of rich black loam ; the hills are gravelly.
Sandy loam, of great depth.
Clay loam, with sandy clay subsoil.
Black clay loam.
Soil varying from light to heavy, and from 12 to 24 in. in depth.
Heavy black clay loam.
18 in. of black sandy loam.
18 in. of black loam.
Sandy loam 2 ft. deep.
Black sandy loam, over clay.
A | quick " soil, varying in composition.
Heavy, clayey, black loam.
Light; some clay, some sandy subsoil; from 8 to 24 in. deep.
Black loam.
Sandy loam, 18 in deep Name and Address.—Manitoba.
Alex. Stewart, Castleavery	
Joseph, Tees, Manitou,	
Geo. Gillespie, Greenwood	
R. Armstrong, Silver Spring	
Croton McGuire, Boissevain	
Wm. Summerville, Montefiore .
George U. White, Foxton	
James Muir, Douglas	
L. Wilson, Stockton	
D. W. Grimmett, Elm Valley....
William J. Brown,  Melita	
George G. Nagy, Rosser	
Alvah Gilbert,   Wakefield ,
R. B. Wetherington, Douglas ....
W. H. Bridgeman,   Wellwood..   ..
T. H. Jackson, Minnedosa	
Victor, Major,  St. Boniface ,
John Duncan, Austin	
Wm. A. Doyle, Beulah	
Matthew Kennedy, Lothair	
Geo. Bowders, Balmerino	
John A. Mair, Souris ,	
M. G. Abey   Chater	
William Lindsay,  Emerson	
James Drury, Rapid City	
James Little, Oak River	
J. Connell & Son,   Creeford	
A. Davison, Green Ridge	
John Spencer,  Emerson	
F. A. Brydon, Portage La Prairie
Thomas McCartney	
Roland McDonald, Lowestoft	
Wm. H. Wilson, Deloraine	
If 1
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1
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cd
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1882
$ 1,000
1879
500
1873
None
1879
1,000
1879
1883
1,500
3,000
1874
800
1880
1,200
1881
1882
1,000
100
1881
None
1879
1,000
1884
500
1879
40
1883
None
1878
100
1859
3
100
1878
1874
1,000
None
1882
3,000
1877
450
1880
None
1879
600
1880
150
1879
1882
1,000
1,500
1871
200
1881
1,000
1875
750
1878
None
1879
1882
1,800
300
c <u H
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o
$ 2,000
2,500
3,000
2,000
6,000
6,000
2,000
3,000
4,500
1,000
1,500
2,400
2,000
3,000
1,600
6,500
5,000
4,000
5,000
4,800.
4,000
5,000
3,500
4,000
1,700
5,000
3,000
5,000
2,500
6,000
8,000
3,000
5,000
Character of Soil
Black loam and hay land.
Black loam, 10 to 20 in. deep, with shale subsoil.
Fine sandy loam, with clay subsoil.
Deep black loam, with good clay underneath.
Black loam, 2 ft. deep.
Black loam.
Black loam, 1 ft. deep.
From 12 to 18 in. of black, heavy soil, and then a subsoil of
clay.
Black loam 12 in. deep, with clay subsoil.
Black and heavy clay loam.
Black clay loam, with clay subsoil.
A heavy soil about 4 ft. deep; level plain and hay land.
Sharp, light sandy loam.
Partly sandy loam, and the rest heavy black clay, about 4 ft>
deep.
Deep black loam, with sandy subsoil. ,
Black loam, 6 to 27 in. deep.
Heavy black loam.
Sandy and clayey loam.
Sandy loam and heavy clay, 1 to 10 ft. of good soil.
Sandy loam, 18 to 24 in. deep.
Black loam, with clay subsoil of great depth.
Clay loam, 18 in. deep.
Heavy clay loam.
Black soil, 2 to 4 ft. deep.
Thick black loam, on clay subsoil.
2 ft. of very rich black loam.
Black loam, overlying clay.
Rolling prairie of black loam ; clay subsoil.
Heavy black loam, very deep.
Heavy clay, with 2 ft. of loam on top.
Loam, 2 to 3 ft. deep.
Sandy loam, 3 ft. deep.
Clay loam 18 in. deep, with clay subsoil. ____ II.—BEGINNING   A   FARM.
The next group of questions refers to the beginning of a farm. The general opinion is, that the breaking of new land should be done in May or June,
and back-setting as soon as the sod is well decomposed; the process of decomposition apparently takes about two months. Many correspondents express
preference for deep ploughing at first, and then harrowing only. It appears that oats, barley, roots and wheat will yield a fair crop on land first ploughed, the
same spring. The statistics as to cost of breaking and raising a crop vary with the locality, and also with the amount of timber or scrub encumbering the land.
These circumstances also aftect the amount of a day's work, as will be seen by observing the answers following :
Questions :
1.— When is the best time for breaking and back-setting ?
2.—Do you consider that a partial crop can be obtained the first year, off^ breaking" and if so, what is the best seed to sow ?
3. — What is the cost per acre of breaking to a farmer doing his own work.
4.— What do you consider the cost per acre of preparing new land and sowing it with wheat, including seed and harvesting ?
5.— What kind of fencing material do you use, and what is its cost per rod ?
Name and Address.—Manitoba.
John K. Ross, Deloraine,
James McConechy, Virden Early spring.... [July 15.
W. J. Helliwell, Ralphton May to June  15. |July 15.
Date of
Breaking. Back-setting.
Early spring..
Before harvest..
George H. Halse, Brandon
John Cumming, Minnedosa	
Agenor Dubuc, Lorette	
W. B. Thomas, Cypress River..
F. W. Stevenson, Hillview	
Robert Renwick,  Carberry	
Robert Campbell, Bridge Creek.
Thomas D. Perdue, Richlands..
Before June 30.
May to July 1...
June 15 to Aug. 1
June	
May to July ...
May or June ....
June
June
B. R. Hamilton, Neepawa June and July...
D. D. Buchanan, Griswold Ijune and July... September
July 15.
After 2 months..
Spring or fall.. ..
After 2 months..
July and August,
September.
Autumn...
Fall	
Can crop be taken off breaking.
Potatoes, turnips, oats and flax do
well	
No	
Oats do fairly well	
Got 10 bu. wheat and 75 bu. potatoes
first year	
Not here	
Six to 10 bu. wheat	
Oats, potatoes or turnips	
No	
Wheat or oats	
Good wheat and barley	
Never succeeded	
Oats, potatoes or wheat in a moist
season	
Do not advise it	
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$2
50
1
50
1
25
2
00
2
00
3
00
1
50
2
00
1
50
2
50
1
50
2
50
2
00
Total cost
per acre
including
Harvesting.
$6.80, including
board of 1 man
6 50
5, without help
9 00
7 00
ti oo
7 20 first crop
6 00 to 7 00
8 00
5 00
6 75
Fencing and cost
per rod.
Poles, 20c.
Wire, 18c.
Wire, 18c.
Wire and top rail 40c.
Wire, 14c.
Wire^Vc'."
Two wires, 20c,
Wire, 25c.
Rails and wire
Rails, 10c. ; wire, 20c.
Wire
Wire Name and Address —Manitoba.
Charles Findlay, Shoal Lake	
John George, Nelson	
J. G. Elliott,  Shadeland........
A  H. Scouten, Raven Lake	
William Thompson, Holland. ...
George E. Yeomans, Dalton	
Richard Brown, Langvale	
Cornelius Whextland, Donore. ...
Stephen Birks, Barnsley	
F. S. Menarey, Cartwright	
A. H. Carroll.  Carrollton	
William S. Wallace. Shellmouth.
Alexander Stewart, Castleavery..
Joseph Tees, Manitou	
J. R. Routley, Carberry	
Oswald Bowie, Morden	
George C. Wright,  Boissevain...
W. J. Brown, Melita	
Robert B. Witherington, Douglas
G. R. Black,   Wellwood	
George Jackson, Neepawa	
John Duncan,  Austin	
William A. Doyle, Beulah......
John A. Mair, Souris	
James Drury, Rapid City  	
J. Connell & Son, Creeford	
E D. Young, Brandon	
Date of
Breaking. Back-setting.
June
June
June
June
June
June
Before June 15.
Spring	
June	
June and July.
Early spring ..
Spring	
May and June.
June	
May or June.
June ....
Before July...
May and June.
May and June.
June	
June	
June   	
June	
June	
June	
June	
June   	
Early fall.
Fall
August.
August.
Fall ...
After July 15.
After harvest.
May	
September...
When ready.
Fall	
September...
October	
Early fall	
After harvest.
When ready.
August p
August	
When ready.
September...
October	
October	
When ready.
August	
August	
August	
Can crop be taken off breaking.
If broken early and shallow; oats—
I have grown 45 bu., but it spoils
the land	
Potatoes and turnips only.	
It spoils the  ground ,
Half a crop in a moist season	
Yes—flax, barley and potatoes	
Not around Portage La Prairie, but
does well westward	
Sometimes when sod is not too
dense 	
Oats	
Wheat or peas	
Oats	
Oats sometimes succeed	
Oats ; as good as after back-setting...
Wheat and oats may succeed, but not
advisable	
Peas or potatoes	
Oats will do but spoils the land for
two years	
It can; oats or wheat	
In the wet season; flax, oats or wheat.
Half a crop on light land	
Not here	
Twenty to 35 bushels	
Not profitable	
Yes—but oats and roots only	
Never done here	
Oats and potatoes	
Have known 40 bushels of oats	
Not advisable	
&. v -S
io y is
O   <d   (U
$2 50
4 00
1 85
1 50
1 50
50
50
00
75
00
50
2 50
2 50
00
50
50
00
00
50
00
50
00
50
00
25
Total cost per
acre including
Harvesting.
$6 65
7 00
10 00
00
00
6 00 to 8 00
6 00
6 00
00
25
00
6 00
9 00
10 00
50
00
8 50
7
11
6
30
00
00
50
00
00
50
50
Fencing and cost
per rod.
Wire, 25c.
Wire, 16c.
Wire
Wire
Poles, 15c.
Wire
Three wires, 25c.
Wire, 30c.
None needed.
Wire
Wire and top rail.
Rails
None
Rails and wire, 25c.
Wire
Poles
Two wires, 25c.
Two wires, 30c.
Two wires, 22c.
One wire, 8Jc.
Rails, 25c.
Two wires, 28c.
Wire, 35c.
None used.
Wire, 20c.
None used. Name and Address.—Manitoba.
J ames Muir, Douglas	
Peter Campbell, Campbellville...
M. G. Abey, Chater	
Wm. H. Wilson,  Deloraine	
Roland McDonald, Lowestoft	
F. A. Brydon, Portage La Prairie.
John Spencer, Emerson	
June August	
June September ...
June Early fall	
May Before harvest.
Before July  12.. September
D. W. Grimmett, Elm Valley.
Andrew Davison, Green Ridge.
L. Wilson, Stockton	
R. S. Conklin, Sunny side	
George U. White, Foxton......
James Little, Oak River....
William Lindsay,  Emerson
Walter Gray,   Chater	
Matthew Kennedy, Lothair.
A. T. Tyerman, Lothair.
Victor Major,  St. Boniface	
John S. Martin, Rapid City	
George G. Nagy, Rosser	
Wm. S. Moody,  Rounthwaite...
J. Paynter, Beulah	
William Somerville, Montefiore...
R. Armstrong, Silver Spring....
Donald J. McQuish, Morden 	
Robert Dunsmore, Bridge Creek.
William MacDonald,   Virden....
George Gillespie. Greenwood	
Donald Fraser. Emerson. . .   .
Date of
Breaking. Back-setting.
June
June
June	
June .. ..
Early spring..
Fall
Fall
July
June and July.
May and June.
June \	
May	
June	
June	
June	
June	
June	
June	
June	
Early .......
After seeding.
June	
June	
Spring	
Spring	
Tune	
When ready.
August	
Fall ..
When
July..
August.
August.
August.
ready.
October ...
August
September.
When ready.
August	
September...
Fall	
Fall	
Tuly	
Can crop be taken off breaking.
Not advisable	
Not advisable	
A partial crop of almost anything....
Not advisable	
Better not try	
Not here	
Oats, ploughed in ; or flax, on breaking,
do well 	
No,	
Yes ; flax or oats ,
Ten or 15 bushels Red Fyfe wheat....
I have seen 30 bushels of flax........
Good   on   bushy   land;   White Fyfe
wheat	
Oats and potatoes ploughed in ,
Have had 25 bushels in a wet season..
Not desirable	
Nothing except roots, and only in a
wet season	
Nothing except roots, and only in a
wet season	
Half a crop of wheat or oats	
Ten to 12 bushels of oats or barley...,
No ; soil requires too much working..
In a wet year oats or flax	
In a wet year oats or flax	
Bad policy	
Not as a rule	
Wheat, barley and oats	
Not to be trusted	
Yes ; of oats, potatoes and turnips....
A three-quarters crop if started early..
Half a crop of oats	
bjo
u
a.u.5
o
U
$2 00
2 50
00
00
00
00
75
50
00
00
00
2 00
2 50
3 25
2 00
00
00
75
25
25
00
75
00
50
00
00
00
75
Total cost per
acre including
Harvesting.
$5 25
6 00
10 40
6 85
1
9 00
7 00
6 00
8 00
4 00
8.00
8 50
6 00
8 00
6 00
8 00
7 50
5 00
7 75
6 50
9 50
6 50
7 00
6 00
8 25
9 00
12 50
6 00
10 50
Fencing and cost
per rod.
Wire, 20c.
Wire
None used.
Wire, 65c.
Wire, 35c.
None used.
Wire
Wrire, 25c.
Two wires, 20c.
Rails or wire
None used.
Wire, 20c.
Two wires, 28c.
Wire, 35.
Two wires, 30c.
Wire
Two wires, 32c.
None used.
None used.
Three wires, 32c.
Rails
Two wires, 32c.
Rails
Thick wire Name and Address.—Manitoba.
R. E. Hopkins, Beresford	
William Smith, Beaver Creek....
F. T. Westwood, Pendennis	
William Walton, Marringhurst..
J. E. Stirton,   Cartwright	
Henry Last, Stonewall	
John Hooper, Middlechurch	
Thomas Hagyard, Pilot Mound. .
Thomas Frame, Virden	
Charles C. Oke,  Fairburn	
Alex. Naismith,  Millford	
Andrew Johnston, Mowbray	
James Laidlaw,   Clearwater	
P. J. MacNaughton, Raven Lake.
S. F. Burgess, Seeburn	
Alfred Walker, Shepardville....
Harold Elliot, Morden	
Date of
Breaking. Back-setting
June	
June	
June	
May	
After seeding.
Spring	
June	
June	
June	
June	
June	
June	
June	
June	
June	
June	
June	
John Q. Sumner, Arnaud.
Henry McLeod, Carberry.
Alfred Pickering, Austin.
W. B. Hall, Headingly. ..
George G. Downie, Crystal City..
Samuel W. Chambers, Wattsvienv.
Charles Wilson, Treherne	
Thomas A. Sharpe, Adelpha	
J. J. Cochrane, Deloraine	
William Corbett, Springfield	
June .
June .
June .
April
June
June
June
June
June
Early fall	
August	
August	
When ready...
Before harvest.
After harvest...
October	
October	
August	
When ready..
When ready..
When ready..
August ,
August	
July	
Before harvest.
Early fall.
August...
May
Early fall	
August........
Fall	
July or August.
Spring or fall.. .
Can crop be taken off breaking.
No	
Not profitable.
No	
Roots do well	
Only in exceptionally wet seasons.
Average crop in favorable weather.
Good crop of oats	
Oats, but do not recommend it....
Spoils the land	
Spoils the land	
Half a crop on light land	
Fair crop of oats and flax	
Not  advisable	
Wheat does well; barley better...
Good crop of oats on light land.. .
Yes—flax    	
Oats and turnips yield well in a rainy
season ..	
Does not pay	
A fair crop of oats	
Oats or wheat if the season is wet....
A scanty crop on sandy loam, wheat
or barley	
In loose soil and a damp season....
Oats     	
Yes; but not advisable	
Certainly ; oats or roots	
Oats or potatoes	
Not advisable ; but potatoes do best
a    to
Cost p<
acre
breakin
$2 50
2 50
1 50
2 00
2 00
3 00
2 00
2 50
2 00
3 00
2 50
2 00
1 50
2 50
2 50
2 25
2 50
1 50
1 50
2 50
2 50
2 50
2 00
2 00
2 50
2 00
Total cost per
acre including
Harvesting.
$8 50
10 00
5 75
6 00
70
00
6 50
3 25
8 00
00
00
00
50
00
60
00
00
6 50
8 00
10 00
5
7
11
7
7
11
20
70
00
50
00
00
Fencing and cost
per rod.
None used.
Wire, 40c.
Four wires, 40c.
Poles
Wire and rail
Wire
Wire, 35c.
Wire
Two wires, 20c.
Wire, 17c.
Wire, 15c.
Two wires, 12c.
Wire, 50c.
Wire
One wire, 10c.
Wire
Wire, 20c.
Wire
Wire
Rails, 40c.
Wire, 75c.
Three wires, 35c.
Wire
None used.
Poles, 20c. 10
I in.—STATISTICS   OF   PRODUCTION.
We have here statistics in regard to their principal crops, from about 125 farmers, in all quarters of Manitoba, as furnished by the yield of the season of
1887. It will be seen that very few crops of wheat averaged less than 25 bushels to the acre, and quite half reached or approached an average of 30 bushels. A
score or so report 35 or more bushels per acre, and a few from 40 to 46. These are not the products of small patches under especially favorable conditions, but
general results upon large farms.    One record of 45 bushels an acre, from 80 acres, will be noticed, as an example.
Similar statistics are given for oats and barley. Oats, it will be seen, often yield an average of 60 to 80 bushels, and barley of 50 bushels. These are
good crops, but equally good ones are reported in the list of roots ; potatoes, it appears, yielding 300 to 400 bushels as a rule, and sometimes much more ; turnips,
1,000 bushels in some cases; carrots, 400 to 800 ; peas and beans, 20 to 50; and cabbage, 500. Onions make a grand crop, and flax, which is extensively raised
in all parts of the province, but especially towards the south, yields from 12 to 25 bushels of seed to the acre, and furnishes an excellent fibre. Hops, also, do
exceedingly well, though no statistics in regard to them are presented here. As for vegetables, it is only necessary to say that every kind suitable to the temperate
zone grows in Manitoba luxuriantly, reaching a size, in many cases, quite unheard of elsewhere. The generous soil and climate reward bountifully any effort to
cultivate flowers, too, a matter of no little concern to the wives and daughters of the colonists, and one to which most men are not indifferent.
Questions :
1. —How many acres have you under cultivation including this year's breaking ?
2.—How many acres had you tinder the following crops this season, and the average yield per acre :  Wheat, oats, barley ?   ■
3.—What was your average yield per acre, in bushels, of the following crops this season : Potatoes, turnips, carrots, peas, bean, flax ?
4.—What is your experience in raising vegetables, and what varieties have you grown ?
—
ID      •
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Acreage and average of the following crops :
Average yield, in bushels.
Name and Address.—Manitoba.
Wheat
Oats.
Barley.
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200
a,
'S
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3
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i
Vegetables.
Geo. H. Halse, Brandon	
120
160
50 acres, 30 bus.
60 acres, 25 bus.
25 acres, 40 bus.
12 acres, 45 bus.
Asparagus, lettuce, radishes, parsnips, cabbage, cauliflower, beans,
melons, citrons, beets, onions,
green peas, carrots, rhubarb and
sweet corn have all done very
well.
I have raised nearly all usually
grown in Canada.
W. J. Helliwell, Ralphton    .
m 11
to     •
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Acreage and
average of the following crops :
Average yield, in bushels.
Name and Address —Manitoba.
Wheat.
Oats.
Barley.
CO
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Vegetables.
Thos. A. Sharpe, Adelpha.. ..
45
75
200
52
120
55
3 acres, 35 bus.
12 acres, 30 bus
60 acres, 34 bus.
9 acres, 35 bus,
35 acres, 32 bus.
13 acres, 45 bus.
22 acres, 40 bus.
50 acres, 60 bus.
16 acres, 45 bus.
12 acres, 45 bus.
5 acres, 32 bus.
10 acres, 50 bus
300
300
320
300
200
300
200
350
150
360
400
300
250
350
300
350
250
150
1000
All, including the less hardy sorts,
12
like   vegetable   oysters, flourish
here.
Cabbages, tomatoes, cucumbers, etc.
Wm  Corbett, Springfield	
My experience has been very satis
John Cumming, Minnedosa....
John Q Sumner, Arnaud	
G. G. Downie, Crystal City. ..
factory with all kinds.
Never saw better.
75 acres, 40 bus.
No trouble to raise any vegetable.
Soil well suited to them.    I saw
 60 bus.
 25 bus
 40 bus.
 35 bus.
400
potatoes this year weighing 4J
pounds.
Nearly all kinds.
Very successful.
30
185
200
330
80
100
130
64
50
15 acres, 30 bus
85 acres, 30 bus.
70 acres, 35 bus.
240 acres, 25 bus.
50 acres, 25 bus.
14 acres, 30 bus.
70 acres, 44 bus.
39 acres, 30 bus.
25 acres, 27 bus.
9 acres, 60 bus.
28 acres 35 bus.
25 acres, 60 bus.
80 acres, 40 bus
20 acres, 40 bus
7 acres, 55 bus.
29 acres, 70 bus.
4 acres, 30 bus.
8 acres, 50 bus
2 acres, 33 bus.
13 acres, 30 bus.
10 acres, 40 bus.
10 acres, 35 bus.
Chas. C. Oke, Fairburn 	
600
800
All garden sorts with much success.
S. W. Chambers,   Wattsview..
Very successful; onions, cabbage,
F. W. Stevenson, Hillview....
cauliflower, tomatoes, corn, peas,
beans,   carrots, parsnips, squash,
citrons, cucumbers.
Very little trouble to raise them.    I
W. D. Thomas, Cypress River.
200
600
20
12
cultivate the Early Rose potato
and Swede turnip.
They do well.
Very successful in all kinds. I have
had 225 bushels of tomatoes to
the acre.
Grow to perfection, but insect pests
have given me some trouble.
With sufficient rain Manitoba vegetables can equal the best.
In small quantities, the cabbage,
pea, pumpkin, squash, cucumber,
beet, carrot, onion and rhubarb
all do well here; but tomatoes
and Indian corn do not succeed.
W. B. Hall, Headingly	
G. Forbes & Son,   Treherne. ..
7 acres, 20 bus.
8 acres, 30 bus.
300
20
A. Pickering, Austin	
400
400
D. A. Buchanan, Griswold.   ..
6 acres, 22 bus. 12
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Acreage and average of the following crops:
Average yield, in bushels.
Name and Address.—Manitoba.
Wheat.
Oats.
Barley.
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Vegetables.
Alfred Walker, Sheppardville..
Alex. Naismith,  Millford	
Wm. Thompson, Holland	
85
30
220
130
156
100
500
140
100
140
136
200
70
160
23
80
20
100
75
43
15
100
300
100
85
60
49 acres, 28 bus.
19 acres, 33 bus.
160 acres, 35 bus.
80 acres, 32 bus.
108 acres, 22 bus.
40 acres, 29 bus.
. . acres, 32 bus.
40 acres, 26 bus
42 acres, 34 bus.
25 acres, 37 bus.
5 acres, 36 bus.
130 acres, 28 bus.
23 acres, 27 bus
110 acres, 31 bus.
12 acres, 60 bus.
250
200
400
700
350
300
350
350
400
600
400
200
150
350
Can heartily recommend the prairie
5 acres, 75 bus.
50 acres, 65 bus.
25 acres, 56 bus
28 acres, 40 bus.
13 acres, 72 bus.
.. acres, 71 bus.
1 acre, 40 bus.
10 acres, 38 bus.
12 acres, 50 bus
20 acres, 30 bus.
30
for cabbages and onions.
Best soil I ever saw, but grubs are
300
600
• • • •
troublesome.
Not had good luck with them.
800
10
Have raised nearly every sort.
Thos. Hagyard, Pilot Mound..
Decidedly successful.
All do well.
Geo. M. Yeomans, Dalton....
I had 2,000 rhubarb roots in full
John George,  Nelson  	
P. J. McNaughton, Raven Lake
Chas. Findlay,  Shoal Lake....
J. G. Elliott,  Shadeland	
Wm. Walton,  Marringhurst..
30 acres, 50 bus.
15 acres, 45 bus.
15 acres, 16 bus.
10 acres, 42 bus.
13 acres, 35 bus.
bearing ; many roots yielded 10
pounds at a single picking.
All do remarkably well.
They do exceptionally well.
Have never seen better.
33 acres 60 bus.
42 acres, 45 bus.
8 acres, 40 bus.
40 acres, 43 bus.
22 acres, 52 bus.
10 acres, 40 bus.
12 acres, 34 bus.
All sorts in abundance.
All sorts of garden produce.
520
500
All kinds, including some delicate
T. S. Menarey,   Cartwright...
John Hopper, Middlechurch...
Cornelius Wheatland, Donore..
....
40
ones.
Excellent.
20 acres, 30 bus.
6 acres, 18 bus.
30 acres, 27 bus.
48 acres, 33 bus
30 acres, 20 bus.
5 acres, 25 bns.
47 acres, 29 bus.
16 acres, 30 bus.
60 acres, 27 bus.
45 acres, 30 bus.
22 acres, 22 bus.
.. acres, 54 bus.
20 acres, 30 bus
20 acres, 30 bus
16 acres, 47 bus.
6 acres, 54 bus.
6 acres, 30 bus.
300
300
300
250
350
250
220
250
400
300
250
All kinds.
200
20
All very easily raised.
All very easily raised.
15
Wm. Smith,  Beaver Creek
All very easily raised.
Almost every variety suitable to the
W^m. S. Wallace, Shellmouth..
200
Fair
400
150
Good
400
600
Alex. Stewart, Castleavery ...
R. E. Hopkins, Beresford	
Andrew Johnston, Mowbray...
Oswald, Bowie, Morden	
3 acres, 50 bus.
12 acres, 40 bus.
45 acres, 47 bus.
25 acres, 40 bus
30 acres, 45 bus.
10 acres, 40 bus.
4 acres, 36 bus.
4 acres, 30 bus.
35 acres, 36 bus.
Good
temperate zone flourishes here.
All kinds.
Occasional grubs are the only hindrance to complete success.
All kinds.
All the hardier kinds grow finely.
20
....
18
10 acres, 40 bus.
4 acres, 25 bus.
Nearly all varieties.
All vegetables, including celery, tomatoes and all kinds of vines.
200
200 13
Total acres
Cultivated.
Acreage and average of the following crops :
Average yield, in bushels.
Name and Address.—Manitoba.
Wheat.
Oats.
Barley.
CO
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cd
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a.
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3
H
200
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5
Vegetables.
William McDonald,  Virden...
500
150
40
200
200
105
75
130
100
160
230
80
200
270
220
65
200
200
120
100
45
50
90
110
200
40
56
160 acres, 33 bus.
75 acres, 30J bus
15 acres, 25 bus.
180 acres, 27 bus.
90 acres, 25 bus.
36 acres, 33 bus.
50 acres, 28 bus.
48 acres, 23 bus.
45 acres, 31 bus.
75 acres, 38 bus.
100 acres, 42 bus.
40 acres, 27 bus.
93 acres, 32 bus.
150 acres, 27 bus.
80 acres, 46 bus.
30 acres, 35 bus.
68 acres, 38 bus.
100 acres, 30 bus.
30 acres, 40 bus.
30 acres, 30 bus.
10 acres, 46 bus-
29 acres, 30 bus.
50 acres, 31 bus.
74 acres, 20 bus.
125 acres, 25 bus.
10 acres, 30 bus.
28 acres, 23 bus.
70 acres, 52 bus.
25 acres, 55 bus
25 acres, 50 bus.
30 acres, 55 bus.
10 acres, 40 bus.
400
Everything succeeds.
I have always been fortunate.
Vegetables grow beautifully.
All do well
Wm. S. Moody,  Rounthwaite.
S. R. Henderson, Kildonan...
5 acres, 28 bus.
200
300
170
350
275
250
100
300
300
300
300
300
250
200
250
200
300
200
230
300
200
200
300
Wm  Somerville, Montefiore...
G. C. Wright, Boisevain	
J. R. Routley,   Carberry	
15 acres, 40 bus.
28 acres, 35 bus.
10 acres, 50 bus
18 acres, 40 bus.
20 acres, -60 bus
20 acres, 75 bus.
33 acres, 87 bus.
15 acres, 55 bus.
45 acres, 40 bns
40 acres, 55 bus.
30 acres, 80 bus.
12 acres, 60 bus.
29 acres, 58 bus.
70 acres, 58 bus
40 acres, 60 bus.
17 acres, 35 bus.
15 acres, 52 bus.
6 acres, 50 bus.
14 acres, 15 bus.
25 acres, 48 bus.
26 acres, 57 bus
6 acres, 40 bus.
14 acres, 29 bus.
10 acres, 35 bus.
6 acres, 40 bus.
150
250
25
30
23
20
I have raised 500 bus. of cabbages
and 200 bus. of onions to the acre.
Gardens thrive.
Very fair.
All kinds do well.
T. M. Kennedy, Menota	
R. Armstrong, Silver Spring..
14 acres, 33 bus.
8 acres, 30 bus.
6 acres, 30 bus.
6 acres, 42 bus.
John H. Martin,   Rapid City..
All kinds successful.
F. B. Witherington, Douglas..
All kinds successful.
G. R. Black,  Wellwood	
900
600
All kinds successful.
A. F. Tyerman, Lothair..
15 acres, 35 bus
.. acres, 50 bus.
.. acres, 40 bus.
.. acres, 50 bus.
5 acres, 30 bus.
20 acres, 45 bus.
45 acres, 60 bus.
12 acres, 30 bus.
10 acres, 40 bus.
6 acres, 30 bus.
700
400
500
600
Never saw the equal.
	
T. H. Jackson, Minnedosa
Geo. Bowders, Balmerino.
300
200
....
Never saw the equal.
All successful, including pumpkins,
melons, chicory, etc.
M. G. Abey, Chater	
Wm. Lindsay,   Emerson..
18
Jas. Little, Oak River.	
Do well
J. Connell & Son, Creeford
Celery, cucumbers, citron and all
the more common sorts.
Every kind, and splendid crops.
Have raised most every variety
with success.
All kinds do well.
This part of the province is excellent
for root crops and garden stuff.
Cabbages, cauliflower, onions, tomatoes, citrons, cucumbers, etc.
Have succeeded well.
G. M. White,  Foxton	
320
Jos. Charles,   Oakland....
Wm. H. Wilson, Deloraine
R. McDonald, Lowestoft..
1 acre, 60 bus.
5 acres, 30 bus.
14 acres, 41 bus.
2^ acres, 30 bus.
275
250
300
300
400
500
50
20
F. Bryden, Portage La Prat
'rie.
John S. McKay, Rapid City...
400
500
15
E. T. Paynter,  Beulah	
Good success some years.
i . — .. —„__      __^^.
. 14
IV.—THE   SEASONS   AND   THE   CLIMATE.
It appears that everywhere in Manitoba ploughing and seeding may begin early in April, and harvesting generally begins at least by the second week of
August, while along the southern border harvesting has begun by July 15. There is a constant difference of several days in all these dates between the southern
and the northern parts of the province. Winter may be said to open with the permanent freezing of the ground, which takes place about the middle of November,
as a rule, and it ends with the close of March, so that ploughing may often be begun before the 1st of April. Really cold weather does not " settle down,"
however, before Christmas, as a rule. Here, too, a difference between the northern and southern parts of the province is, of course, noticeable, in favor of the
latter.
None of the correspondents report any serious hardship or loss from the climate in winter, which everyone seems to regard as an enjoyable and exceedingly
healthy season. All are busy hauling grain to market, getting fuel, caring for stock, or in the paid service of wealthier neighbors, and the cold weather is not
allowed, or able, to interfere with either business or pleasure.    " Better than the East," is the opinion of many old settlers.
The fuel used is principally wood, which is scattered plentifully over all the province. This will become scarcer, of course, and is already thin in some
of the more populous districts ; but coal is plentiful and can be obtained at any of the stations of the railway at a small advance on the cost of production.
Summer frosts are spoken of as "exceptional " by nine out of ten farmers in all parts of the province, and particulars are given which confirm this opinion.
The farther north the settler makes his home the more liable he is to an occasional visitation of this kind, but summer frosts of a damaging character are extremely
rare in any part of Manitoba.
The testimony to the healthfulness of the climate is unanimous.
Questions
1.—Please state earliest and latest date in which you began ploughingi seeding and harvesting ?
2.— What time does winter set in and when does it end ?
3.—Have you suffered any serious hardship or loss from the climate in winter ?
4.— What fuel do you use, and is it difficult to obtain ?
h.—Are summer frosts prevalent ?
6. —Do you consider the climate healthy ?
Name and Address.
Manitoba.
Wm. Corbett, Springfield.....
John Gumming, Minnedosa.,
J. Q. Sumner, Arnaud	
Geo. H. Halse, Brandon	
Date of Farm Operations.
Ploughing.
Earliest.
Latest.
Mch. 20
Apl. 4...
Mayl.
Seeding.
Earliest.
Latest.
May 2.
Apl. 1..
Apl. 2..
Apl.  16
Apl. 5... May 3..
Harvesting.
Earliest.
July 11
Aug. 13
July 15
Aug.   2
Latest.
Aug. 1..
Aug. 22
Winter.
Begins.
Ends.
Late Nov E'rly Apl
Late Nov	
Late Nov Apl. 10 ...
Late Nov Apl. 5	
Winter.
,3: no
a. o
cd u
Fuel.
None Wood, easily obtained ..,
None Wood, easily obtained...
None Poplar, easily obtaiued.
None |Wood, easily obtained...
Summer
Frosts.
Is the
Climate healthy.
Exceptional Yes; decidedly.
Exceptional Yes; decidedly.
Exceptional Yes; decidedly.
Exceptional [Yes; decidedly, 15
Name and Address.
Manitoba.
Date of Farm Operations.
Ploughing.
Earliest.
Latest.
J. K. Ross, Deloraine  Apl. 3 ..Apl. 7..
Jas. McConechy, Virden         	
W. J. Helliwell, Balphton Apl. 6.
Thos. Sharpe, Adelpha	
Agenor Dubuc, Lorette.
F. W. Stevenson, Hill View ...
S. W. Chambers, Wattsview...
Norris Fines, Balmoral	
Geo. G. Downie, Crystal City
W. B. Hall, Headingly	
Henry McLeod, Carberry.	
Apl.  20
Apl. 1
Mch. 23
Apl.   14
Robert Campbell, Bridge Creek
Harold Elliot, Morden	
Thos. D. Perdue, Itichlands	
R. S. Conklin, Sunnyside	
Alfred Walker, Sheppardville	
S. F. Burgess, Seeburn 	
S. R. Henderson, Kildonan ......
Wm. Summerville, Montefiore.
Thos. M. Kennedy, Menota.-...
R. B. Wetherington, Douglas...
J. H. Martin, Rapid City	
John Plant, Rossburn	
S. D. Barr, Neepawa	
George Nagy, Rosser	
Wm. J. Brown, Melita....
J. W. Newton, Wellwood.
Apl. 5..
Apl.  15
Apl.  20
Apl.  10
Apl.  10
Avi"£.'.'.
John Duncan, Austin	
R. Armstrong, Silver Spring.
Croton Maguire, Bois'evain..
J. Cormell, Creeford	
Walter Gray, Chater	
John A. Muir, Souris	
Geo. Bowders, Balmerino	
M. Kennedy, Loihair	
Gilbert Rowan, Parkissimo..
Wm. A. Doyle, Beulah^,,	
Geo. F. Slade, Gladstone	
Apl.  15
Oct.   20
Apl.  26
Seeding.
Earliest.
Apl. 6...
2nd w'k
Apl 6...
March..
Apl.  20
Apl. 1
Mch. 23
Apl.   20
Apl.   12
Apl. 6...
Apl. 8...
Apl. 6..
Apl.   15
Apl. 5...
Apl. 6...
May 13 Apl. 10
Apl. 2 ..
Apl. 3...
Apl. 6...
Mch. 26
Apl.  28
Apl.   13 Apl.   20
Apl. 1.
Apl. 1...
Apl. 5...
Apl. 3...
Apl. 10
May 20
Apl.  13
Apl.   20
Apl. 7...
Mch. 28
Apl. 3...
Apl. 5...
Apl. 9...
Apl. 6..
Apl. 1...
Apl. 1.
Apl. 1.
Apl. 1.
Latest.
Harvesting.
Earliest.
Apl. 8..
of Apl..
May..
Apl.
July 27
2nd w'k
Aus. 18
Aug. 15
Latest.
Aug. 15
of Aug.
.... Aug.   9
12 July 28
.'July 29
.'July 30
Apl
.... Aug.
28 Aug.
.... July
.... Aug.
Aug  27
Apl. 17
May 13
Apl. 22
May 1 ..
Mayl..
1 Sept. 7..
281 Aug. 15
1
Ap). 5...
May 2...
Aug.
Aug.
July
July
Aug.
1 Aug. 25
10 Aug. 15
31 Aug. 20
24 Aug. 15
20
Aug.
Aug. 131
Sept. 30
Aug. 22
July 23 Aug. 15
Aug. 15   E'rlyNov Apl.
Apl.   20|Aug.   lSept. 1.. Nov. 15... Mch. 31.
Winter.
Begins.
Dec.
Nov.
Nov.
Nov.
Nov.
Dec.
Nov..
Nov.
1...
15.
10.
15.
5...
1...
15...
Nov. 15...
Dec. 1	
Dec. 1	
Dec. 15...
Nov. 15...
Nov. 1	
Nov. 20...
Nov. 5....
Dec. 1	
Nov. 15...
Nov. 1	
Nov. 15...
Nov. 20...
Dec. 1	
Nov. 1	
Nov	
Dec. 1....
Nov. 15...
Nov	
Ends.
Mch. 20...
Mch. 31...
Apl. 1	
Mch. 15...
Late Mch
Mch. 20...
Apl. 5	
Apl. 15 ...
Mch. 25...
Apl.   10...
Apl. 1	
Mch- 31...
Mch. 15...
Mch. 15 ..
Late Mch
Mch 15
Apl. 1..
Mch. 31
Mch. 25
Apl. 1...
Mch. 15
Mch. ...
Mch. 31
Mch. 15
Apl. 1...
Mch. 31
Apl.  18 Aug. 11 Sept. 1.
Apl. 6... Aug. 20
'July 29
July 30
July 27
Apl.  10 July 25
 I """
Aug. 1..
Aug. 21
Dec. 15..
Nov	
Dec	
Nov. 20.
Nov	
Nov.	
Nov	
Nov. 15..
Nov	
Mch. 31.
Mch	
Mch. 31.
Mch. 31.
Mch. 31.
Mch	
Mch	
Mch. 15.
Apl. 1 ...
Win
ter.
ft .
X) m
OQ o
None
None
None
None
None
None
None
None
None
None
None
None
None
None
None
None
None
None
None
None
None
None
None
None
Noue
None
None
None
None
None
None
None
None
None
Fuel.
Wood, easily obtained...
Wood, becoming scarce.
Poplar and oak on the farm
Wood, easily obtained.
The wood is nearly gone.
Wood, in plenty on farm.
Wood, in plenty on farm.
Wood, rather difficult	
Wood, in plenty	
Wood, easily obtained....
Wood, hauled 3 miles	
Wood, hauled 7 miles	
Wood, hauled 3 miles	
Wood, hauled 5 miles	
Wood, from Turtle Mountain 	
Wood, hauled 4 miles	
Wood, plentiful	
Wood, hauled 4 miles	
Wood, easy to get	
Poplar, in plenty :	
Wood, easy to get	
Poplar, abundant	
Wood, supply myself in a
week	
Wood, no difficulty	
Wood, becoming scarce	
Poplar, plentiful and excellent ,	
Wood, plentiful	
Wo d	
Summer
Frosts.
Exceptional
Exceptional
Exceptional
Exceptional
Exceptional
Exceptional
Exceptional
Exceptional
Exceptional
Exceptional
Exceptional
Exceptional
Exceptional
Prevalent
Exceptional
Exceptional
Exceptional
Exceptional
Prevalent
Prevalent
Exceptional
None Wood, in plenty Exceptional
None Wood, in plenty Exceptional
None Wood, in plenty Prevalent
None I Fire-killed   poplar,   plenti
ful iExceptional
Exceptional
Exceptional
Exceptional
Exceptional
Exceptional
Exceptional
Wood, easily obtained IExceptional
Poplar, drawn 18 miles Exceptional
Wood, easy to get Exceptional
Wood, very scarce here Exceptional
Wood, in plenty  Prevalent
Is the
Climate healthy.
Yes; decidedly.
Yes; decidedly.
Yes; decidedly.
Winter better than on
Lake Erie.
Better   climate   than
, that of Quebec.
Perfectly so.
Healthiest I know of.
Yes.
Best in the world.
Yes.
I suffer less than in
Ontario.
Particularly so.
Yes.
Very.
Exceedingly.
Especially so for asthmatic persons.
Yes.
Certainly.
Decidedly.
Yes.
I do.
Yes.
Yes.
Very.
Very.
Yes.
Better than in Ontario.
Very.
Yes; winter not so bad
as it is reported.
Yes.
Very.
Certainly.
Yes.
Finest winter climate
in the world.
Yes.
Yes.
Exceedingly so.
Certainly. 16
Date of Farm Operations.
Name and Address.
Manitoba.
Jos. Charles, Oakland |Apl. 5.
J. G. Elliott, Shadeland
Chas. Findlay, Lake Shoal Apl.  11
Ploughing.
Earliest.
P. J. McNaughton, Raven Lake..
8. A. Ward, Clandeboye	
A. H. Scouten, Raven Lake	
Wm. Thompson, Holland	
Andrew Johnston, Mowbray	
John George, Nelson ,
James Laidlaw, Clearwater	
Apl.  21
Apl. 7
Mch. 22
Alex. Naismith, Millford	
Thos. Hagyard, Pilot Mound...
Cornelius Wheatland, Donore.
Thos. Adair, Treherne	
John Hopper Middlechurch...
Henry Last, Stonewall	
Wm. Walton, Marringhurst....
Latest.
May 3..
Seeding.
Earliest.
Apl. 3.
Apl.   23
Apl.   28
Apl. 19
Apl. 10
LMayl...
Apl. 15|Mayl;..
Apl. 15 Apl. 25
Apl. 1
Apl	
Apl	
Apl. 1..
Mch. 30
Mch. 29
Apl.'i.'.!
Apl. 1...
Latest.
May-
Winter.
Harvesting.
Ear-  | Latest
best.
Apl.   16
May	
Aug.
Aug.
July
May 5...
Apl.  15
Apl.  20
F. S Westwood, Pendennis	
Richard Brown, Langvale	
Chas. C. Oke, Fairburn	
Thos. Frame, Virden	
George M. Yeomans, Dalton ....
Geo Gillespie, Greenwood	
Wm. Smith, Beaver Creek	
W. C. Wallace, Shellmouth	
R. E. Hopkins, Beresford	
Alex. Stewart, Castleavery	
Donald Fraser, Emerson	
Joseph Tees, Manitou    	
Alfred Pickering, Austin	
Wm. Irvine, Almasippi	
James Muir, Douglas	
James Little, Oak River	
Roland Macdonald, Lowestoft ...
M. G. Abey, Chafer	
F. A. Brydon, Portage La Prairie
John Spencer, Emerson	
D. W. Grimmett, Elm Valley	
Andrew Davison, Green Ridge...
L. Wilson, Stockton	
J. W. Bridge, Carman	
Peter Campbell, Gampbellville..
Apl. 12
Apl." 15
Api."'l0
Api.5
Apl. 6
Apl. 6
Apl.   10
Apl.   10
May 1..
Nov.   5
Oct.   30
Aug.
Aug.
July
July
Aug.
Aug.
July
Aug.
May 24
Apl. 6..
Apl. 3..
Apl. 3..
Apl. 5 ..
Apl." 15
Apl. 6...
Apl. 5...
Apl.  21
May 4...
Apl.  1
Apl. 5...
Apl.  21
Apl.   30
Apl." 10
Apl.
Api.'
10
15
Apl.   15
Apl. 5...
Apl. 5...
Apl. 8..
Apl. 15
Apl.l
Apl. 5...
Apl. 5...
Apl. 6...
Apl. 6...
Mch. 24
Mch. 31
Apl. 3...
Apl. 5...
Apl. 3..
Apl.   10
Aug. 15
Oct. 1...
Sept. 3.
Begins.
Nov. 15..
Nov. 20.
Dec. 1...
Dec. 1...
Sept. 9.. Dec. 1..
 |Dec. 1...
 Nov. 1...
 Nov. 20
Aug. 20.Nov. 15
Ends.
. I Late Nov Late Mch
Nov. 1.... Mch. 31...
Apl. 6	
Mch. 25...
Mch. 31...
Mch. 20...
Mch. 20...
Apl.l	
Mch. 20...
Mch. 31...
Winter.
ft .
•jj oo.
fl   00
co o
o
M
None
None
None
Fuel.
Wood and straw ,
Wood, easy to obtain..
Wood, easy to obtain.
None Wood...	
None Wood, growing scarce.
None Wood, growing scarce .
None Wood, in plenty	
None Wood, in plenty	
None Oak, in plenty	
None Wood, on the farm	
July 29
Aug. 22
July
Aug.
Aug.
Sept. 2..
Aug. 28
Aug. 20
Apl.  20
Aug.
July
Apl.   13
27
Apl,
May 7..
Apl. 10
Apl.'"i5
Aug.
Aug.
Aug.
July
July
Aug.
Aug.
Aug.
Aug.
Aug.
Aug.
1
15
15
25
28
7
1
25
1
23
12
Nov. 1....
Nov. 5	
Dec. 1	
Sept. 15|Nov. 15...
Nov. 10...
Dec. 20...
Nov. 20...
Nov. 10...
Nov. 25...
Nov. 25...
Dec. 1	
Oct 15	
E'rlyNov
Nov. 15...
Nov. 15...
Nov	
Nov.
Dec.
Nov. 15 ..
Nov	
iNov. 15 ..
[Nov	
Nov. 10...
Nov. 15...
Nov. 10...
Nov. 1	
Nov	
Nov. 15...
Apl
Apl.
10.
1...
Aug. 2.
Sept. "l
Aug. 10
Sept. 25
Aug. 30
Apl. 1	
Apl.l	
Apl. 20 ..
Mch. 31..
Mch. 31..
Mch. 31..
Mch. 31..
Mch. 31..
Mch. 31...
Er'lyApl
Mch. 31...
Apl. 15	
April	
Apl. 10 ...
Mch. 1...
Mch. 25...
April	
Mch. 15...
March ...
Mch. 31...
Mch. 25 ..
Mch. 31..
Apl.l	
April	
Mch. 31...
None
None
None
None
None
Wood, hauled 7 miles...
Wood, difficult to get....
Wood, plentiful	
Wood, costs $1 a cord...
None IWood, very plentiful....
None Wood, easily obtained.
Nov	
Nov	
April....
March.
None
None
None
I None
None
I None
None
None
None
None
None
None
None
None
None
None
None
None
None
None
None
None
None
None
None
Wood, easily obtained	
Wood, easily obtained	
Poplar, hauled 6 miles	
Wood, hauled 4 miles	
Wood, in plenty	
Wood, in plenty	
Wood, hauled 6 miles	
Wood, in abundance	
Wood, mixed with coal	
Poplar, no difficulty	
Wood, no difficulty	
Oak and poplar in plenty....
Poplar, in plenty and good.-.
Poplar and oak	
Wood; plenty of coal here...
Wood, easily obtained	
Wood, hauled 12 miles	
Wood, hauled some distance
Wood, hauled 10 miles	
Wood, growing scarce	
Elm and mapie wood	
Wood	
Wood, hauled 2 miles	
Wood, scarce	
Woo J in plenty	
"Summer
Frosts.
Exceptional
Triennial
Exceptional
Exceptional
Prevalent
Exceptional
Exceptional
Exceptional
Exceptional
Exceptional
Exceptional
Exceptional
Usual
Exceptional
Exceptional
Exceptional
Exceptional
Exceptional
Exceptional
Exceptional
Exceptional
Exceptional
Exceptional
Exceptional
Exceptional
Exceptional
Exceptional
Exceptional
IExceptional
Exceptional
Exceptional
Exceptional
Exceptional
Exceptional
Exceptional
Exceptional
Exceptional
Exceptional
Exceptional
Is the
Climate healthy.
Yes.
Nothing equal to it.
Family never need a
physician.
Healthiest in the world
Yes.
Yes.
None more so.
None healthier.
Yes.
Better   for   me   than
Ontario's.
Very healthy.
Decidedly.
Very.
Yes.
Very.
Better in many ways
than England's.
Yes.
Yes.
Very.
Never in better health.
Extraordinarily so.
Very.
Very.
Extremely so—bracing
Yes.
Yes.
Yes.
Yes.
Yes.
Healthie st in the world
More so than Ontario.
Yes.
Very.
Very.
Yes.
Yes.
Very.
If you take care.
Exceedingly so.
Yes.
Exceedingly po. 17
V.—THE CARE AND ADVANTAGE OF CATTLE.
This fifth group of questions refers to the raising and care of live stock in Manitoba. It appears that almost all farmers keep a certain number of horses
and cattle, sometimes amounting to considerable herds, and including a large proportion of thorough-bred stock. There is no difficulty in keeping these in good
condition during the winter if they are properly cared for, and they will thrive with even very little care. The universal testimony is that the wild grasses of the
prairie afford as good feed as can be found anywhere, and that animals pastured upon the prairies thrive as well or better than those living upon the cultivated
pastures of eastern Canada.
The fact that almost all farmers maintain small herds of cattle and horses is itself an affirmative answer to the third question. The profitableness of stock
raising, where cattle have to be housed during the winter, depends upon the cost of feed, and the few cases where a correspondent has answered " no " occur in
localities where it is necessary to haul hay many miles, or where, for some other reason, feed is expensive. These instances are very rare. There is no reason to
suppose that the time will ever come when cattle raising, within certain limits, will not form a profitable accompaniment of farming in Manitoba, especially in the
northern part of the Province, since, as the cost of feed increases with the further settlement of the Province, the price of beef will rise correspondingly.
The fourth question will be found answered at considerable length in most cases. It appears that all the live stock kept upon the farm ought to be given
good shelter during the winter; the older animals should be kept in warm, but not close, stables, and fed an allowance of prairie hay and oat chaff or roots,—
just such keeping, in short, as they would have in Ontario. Bran is given only to milking cows, or when calving. Young cattle are stabled only at night, but
should have free access to the straw stack all day, or may be allowed to run on the prairie in fine weather. Only horses get any grain, as a rule, and this only
when working. All the animals should have plenty of water. It appears that live stock thrive everywhere in Manitoba with much less care than this, but the
better care that is taken of them the larger are the returns to be expected.
Sheep are kept only here and there in the Province. There is no doubt that sheep thrive well on the natural pasturage of the prairies, whose dry climate
and pure water are particularly well suited to their health, and the total of flocks in the Province is steadily growing larger.
Questions :
1.—How many head of horses and cattle have you, and how do they thrive in winter ? 4.—How do you winter your stock ?
2.—How do cattle thrive on the wild grasses of the prairies ? 6.—Do sheep thrive and are they profitable ?
3.—Ls stock-raising profitable where cattle have to be housed during the winter ?
Name and Address.
Manitoba.
No. of Cattle and Horses,
and how they Winter.
How do Cattle thrive
on Prairie Pasturage.
Is Stock-raising
Profitable.
How do you winter your
Stock ?
Do Sheep Thrive.
J. S. McKay, Rapid City	
Two horses, 10 cattle;
thrive well.
First rate..........
Yes	
Some stabled and some in an .open
shed.
They do well. 18
Name and Address.
Manitoba.
J, E. Paynter, Beulah
S. R. Henderson, Kildonan ...
Wm. Somerville, Montefiore . . .
J. E. Stirton, Cartwright	
Stephen Birks, Barnsley ,
Thos. M. Kennedy, Menota...
Geo   E. Nagy, Rosser	
T. McCartney, Port. La Prairie
Roland McDonald, Lowestoft..
Wm. H. Wilson, Deloraine....
Wm. S. Moody, Rounthwaite..
Geo. C. Wright, Boisssevain...
Wm. J. Brown, Melita	
Matthew Smith, Minnedosa ...
S. D. Barr, Neepawa	
No. of Cattle and Horses, How do Cattle thrive
and How they Winter, on Prairie Pasturage.
Is Stock-raising
Profitable.
Thirteen ; very well in- Splendidly,
deed.
Eight horses, 35 cattle; Do well.
well, if fodder is sufficient.
Forty-four ; excellently. (Fatten very rapidly.,
Eight; splendidly.
Better than on timothy or clover.
Six   horses,   12   cattle ;\First rate,
well.
Six ; they do well Very well.
Fifty-six ; very well.... Very well.
Three horses, 40 cattle
Eight horses, 18 cattle
Five horses, 5 cattle .
Ten ; they do well	
Sixteen; nicely........
Eight; very well	
Ten horses,   20  cattle ;
do well.
Ten ; do well	
Very well	
Very well	
Remarkably well....
Remarkably well....
Feed on it exclusively
First rate	
Grow fat	
Remarkably well.. ..
Safest and best paying branch of farming.-
Yes, where hay is
plentiful.
Fairly so	
Yes, if stables are
warm.
If not too many are
kept.
Yes	
An open question ; I
say yes.
Yes	
Yes, where hay is
cheap.
Yes,   where  hay  is
cheap.
Yes,   where  hay  is
cheap.
Yes	
Yes	
Yes—expense little..
How do you winter your
Stock.
Stable and feed prairie hay.
Keep them in log stables, well roofed, warm and ventilated.
By   stabling   during   the   severest
weather.
In a " bank " stable, on prairie hay
and well watered.
Do Sheep Thrive.
Thrive excellently and
will be profitable when
a good market for mutton rises.
Thrive and are profitable.
Thrive and are profitable.
Would pay better than
cattle, were it not for
wolves.
House them and feed well	
Stable them and feed prairie hay
and oat straw.
Milking cows are stabled and fed Yes.
hay ; young cattle live in sheds.
House them Very profitable.
Cows stabled at night and given
plentiful feed ; young cattle do
not pay for extra care, but should
have a shed.
I stable them, and feed hay, oat-
straw, oats, bran and flax; water
twice daily.
In an adobe stable. Yes.
Stable them and feed prairie hay Yes.
and oat-straw.
Housed at night and fed hay ; run
to straw stack in the day time.
In a good stable feeding plenty of
wild hay.
I have 68 ; most profit-
table stock on the farm. 19
Name and Address.
Manitoba.
No. of Cattle and Horses,
and How they Winter
How do Cattle thrive
on Prairie Pasturage.
Is  Stock-raising
Profitable.
How do you winter your
Stock.
Do sheep Thrive.
John Plant, Rossburn	
Joseph Charles, Oakland	
E. W. Grimmett, Elm Valley..
Geo. U. White, Foxton.
Three horses, 20 cattle..
Seven ; very well	
Twenty; thrive well with
care.
Four horses,   75 cattle ;
splendidly.
Two	
Better than on Ontario meadows.
Very well	
I find it so...
I keep 200.
Yes; because climate
is dry, straw covered sheds and banked up stables answer all   purposes
and cost little, and
wild hay is cheap.
As   soon   as  freight
rates are lower.
Yes	
Well stabled.    I never lost a cow
or calf.
In a dugout stable, feeding prairie
hay.
In stables at night; loose in yards
by day.
Will fatten on it....
As well as on cultivated grasses.
Could not do better.
Could not do better.
Very well if the grasses are selected.
They grow fat	
Yes.
Wm.  Irwine, Ahnasippi   	
P. Campbell, Campbellville....
J. W. Bridge, Carman	
L. Wilson, Stockton	
A. Davison, Green Ridge	
John A. Mair, Souris . .   ..
Stable them and feed prairie hay..
Straw  until Jan.   1;   prairie   hay
morning and evening till spring.
Yes.
Eight horses, 80 cattle ;
well.
Three horses, 25 cattle;
well, if fed and attended to.
Seven horses, 33 cattle..
Five ; very well	
Twenty-two ; well	
Yes	
Yes.
Not at present prices.
If one has hay and
help of his own.
Reasonably so	
Yes	
Stable them ; feeding horses hay and
oats ; cattle, hay and straw.
Let them feed at the straw stacks
in fine weather, and stable them
at night and feed hay.
Cows and calves in stable, feeding
prairie hay and   straw;   young
cattle run out.
Shelter most of time, and feed hay
and straw.
In stables, feeding prairie hay, straw
and  chopped  grain ;   with  oats
regularly to the horses.
Feed with hay and roots	
Yes.
Walter Gray, Chater	
Grow fat	
Most certain and remun
Wm. Lindsay, Emerson	
J. Connell & Son, Creeford ...
Oswald Bowie, Morden	
Better than in Ontario
Yes	
erative stock.
Thrive well.
Two horses,  16 cattle ;
very well
Well	
Yes	
Thrive but not profitable
. 20
Name and Address.
Manitoba.
No. of Cattle and Horses,
and How they Winter.
How do Cattle thrive
on Prairie Pasturage.
Is  Stock-raising
Profitable.
How do you winter your
Stock.
Do Sheep Thrive.
A. T. Tyerman, Lothair	
Geo. F. Slade, Gladstone	
Three horses, 16 cattle..
Well	
Yes	
As well as grain growing.
Yes, with mixed farming.
Yes,   especially with
high grade stock.
Yes	
Put them in a warm stable, fat, at
the beginning of the winter, feed
on hay and barley straw, and
water regularly ; feed turnips and
hay to milking cows. They come
out fat in the spring.
Cows stabled at night; young cattle
run in sheds.
Principally on straw ; cows have a
little hay and grain.
By feeding hay. Hardy cattle will
maintain their condition if liberally fed and watered once, or
better, twice a day.
I generally house them, though
many do not.
I stable cows and calves and feed
straw about half the time ; young
stock winter around the straw
stacks.
House them and feed oat and wheat
straw, with a little bran and
shorts. They always come out
fat.
I stable all .my cows and give them
plenty of prairie hay ; young cattle run to the stacks. •
I stable only at night, or on stormy
days ; at other times they feed on
the prairie.
Stable at night and feed hay	
Feed hay, giving the cows a little
meal toward spring ; they maintain a. fine condition.
As well as on timothy
Splendidly	
Yes.
Five horses ; thrive well
Thirty	
Thrive exceedingly well.
Dogs and wolves are the
only drawbacks.
Yes.
Well	
First rate	
Well	
They get fat	
They get fat	
Well	
Yes.
Henry McCleod, Carberry	
Rob't Campbell, Bridge Creek.
Harold Elliot, Morden	
Alfred Walker, Sheppardville..
Thirty-three; as well  as
in Ontario.
Four horses ; 4 cattle...
Fifteen ; all very well...
Five horses,  11 cattle ;
do well.
Two horses, 25  cattle;
first rate.
Yes, if the stock are
good.
Yes	
I have 33 wintered in a
shed.
Morethangrain growing.
Yes	
Get fat   enough  for
butchering in two
months.
As well as on timothy
More profitable than
the crops.
Yes,    when   hay   is
cheap.
Yes. 21
Name and Address.
Manitoba.
No. of Cattle and Horses,
and How they Winter.
How do Cattle thrive
on Prairie Pasturage.
Is Stock-raising
Profitable.
How do you winter your
Stock.
Do Sheep Thrive.
D. D. Buchanan, Griswold  ...
Well	
Most    profitable
branch of farming
here.
Yes	
In a warm stable, with plenty of
hay, roots and grain.
Feed oats and barley principally for
cattle, and hay for horses.
I keep my horses in " bank " stables, feeding them principally straw
with a little bran and chopped
feed.
Cows, calves and oxen are housed,
and get hay night and morning,
with some ehop or oats ; young
cattle can live mainly at the straw
stack.
Cattle will keep fat on prairie hay,
with a little bran and shorts when
calving.
Feed oat straw and a little grain..
Stabled, and fed a little hay and oat
straw.
Stable them at night, and let them
go to the straw stacks by day.
Feed hay night and morning, and
let'them pick up straw.
Stable, and feed hay and oat straw.
Housed ; plenty of hay and water,
but little grain.
In warm stables,  feeding   prairie
hay, straw, turnips and grain.
Milch cows I house; young cattle
run in the sheds and about the
stacks.
Yes.
Yes.
Yes.
Yes.
They thrive,
sells well.
Yes.
Yes.
Fairly so.
Yes.
Seven horses, 15 cattle;
very well.
Thirty-five; very well..
Twenty-six horses; all go
through the winter in
good shape.
Six horses, 28 cattle....
Three horses, 25 cattle ;
very well.
Seven horses,  6 cattle;
well.
Five horses,  10   cows;
very well.
Twenty; very well indeed
Twenty; very well	
Four horses, 15 cattle...
Eight horses, 5 cattle...
Forty-three; remarkably
well.
W. B. Hall, Headingly 	
Geo. Forbes & Sons, Treherne
Well   	
Yes	
I   have   two   steers,
coming three years
old,  which would
dress 700 lbs., and
have never been in
a stable.
Keep healthy and fat.
Grandly ,
Yes.	
Yes	
W^ A. Evans, Rosser	
Yes	
Matthew Kennedy, Lothair....
Agenor Dubuc, Lorette	
Geo. Bowders, Balmerino	
Yes 	
and mutton
Yes	
Yes    .
Yes,   more   so  than
range cattle.
With a limited number.
If properly conducted
They keep in good
condition.
Where hay is plentiful.
Gilbert Rowan, Parkissimo....
Well    .....
R. B. Wetherington, Douglas..
W. H. Bridgeman, Welhuood..
Andrew Johnston, Mowbray...
Well	
Well	
Splendidly	 22
Name and Address.
Manitoba.
No. of Cattle and Horses,
and How they Winter.
How do Cattle thrive
on Prairie Pasturage.
Is  Stock-raising
Profitable.
How do you winter your
Stock.
Do Sheep Thrive.
F. W. Stevenson, Hillview....
Robt. Armstrong, Silver Spring
Alex. Stewart, Castleavery ....
Eleven horses, 12 cattle ;
well.
Four horses,  20 cattle;
finely.
Three horses,  8 cattle;
well, with care.
Two horses, 28 cattle...
Ten horses,  30   cattle;
generally well.
Eleven horses, 40 cattle;
well.
Thirty-six;   thrive   well
if kept warm.
Twenty ; they do well..
Five horses, 35 cattle...
Five horses,   62  cattle;
very well.
About 60; well	
About 367 ; thrive splendidly.
Become fat by July..
Never saw better pasture.
7	
Yes, because food is
unlimited.
Yes, with proper care.
Stable some, and let others run out,
sheltered by sheds.
House all the stock in "bank"
stables.
On prairie hay and straw	
House at night; feed hay principally, with plenty of water.
House them in a stable, warm, but
not too close.
Part tied in stable, part loose in
sheds.
House them only at night, and feed
prairie hay, straw, oats, chopped
feed and bran.
Yes.
Yes.
Yes, if hay is near...
Yes	
Pays   better   than  pigs,
and less trouble.
Keep fat all winter..
Not very; in southern
Manitoba     where
hay is scarce.
Horses    pay   better
than cattle.
No	
Yes.
George Gillespie, Greenwood. ..
Thrive,  but not always
profitable.
Would   be,   except   for
wolves.
Thrive, but do not pay
well here.
Splendidly in summer
Well	
Thoroughbred  stock
is profitable; grade
stock is good  for
milk ; every farmer
should keep a few.
Yes, if hay alone is
fed.
Yes	
In warm stables, feeding hay and
chopped feed.
In stables, feeding hay, bran, etc.,
to cows.
I stable them at night and feed hay.
In stables. Let them out once a
day for water but if the weather
is cold return them at once.
Stable them and feed hay...
Always keep fat	
Well	
No sheep in this district.
John Hopper, Middlechurch., .
The easiest  way  to
make money.
Yes	
Well	
Well	
Not if grain is fed...
Stable them in severe weather and
let them roam on pleasant days,
feeding straw and some hay.
In stables, on straw and hay	
Yes. 23
Name and Address.
Manitoba.
No. of Cattle and Horses,
and How they Winter.
How do Cattle thrive
on Prairie Pasturage.
Is  Stock-raising
Profitable.
How do you winter your
Stock.
Do Sheep Thrive.
F. T. Westwood, Pendennis...
Three horses, 12 cattle ;
well.
Eleven ;   keep  in   good
condition.
Ten  horses   80   cattle;
always well.
Thirty ; well, with care.
Twelve horses, 8 cattle ;
well
First rate	
Exceedingly well....
Well	
Yes	
Feed horses with straw, hay and
oats ; the cattle run out most of
the time.
Just as I would do in Ontario....
Yes.
Wm. S. Wallace, Shellmouth..
George M. Yeomans, Dallon ..
Thos. Hagyard, Pilot Mound. .
J. Gordon Elliott, Shadeland ..
^Vtn. Smith, Souris     ........
Yes	
Where hay is cheap.
No	
Yes	
With a limited number
Yes	
Let them run to the straw stack. ..
In warm stables, feeding hay and
oats. Cattle can run at the stacks
most of the winter. To horses
we feed hay and oats, with a little
bran when working.
Milking cows should have hay three
times a day, with an oat-sheaf
twice a day. Young cattle will
thrive on good oat straw. They
should go out only on warm days.
House them, and feed straw and
hay with a good share of turnips.
Let them out during the day, when
they  pick  up  straw  and  chaff.
Put them in stables at night and
feed hay.
House them and feed prairie hay;
they will come out fat in  the
spring.
Stabled at night; they will do well
without any shelter.
Feed on prairie hay, oat straw, etc.
Thrive well if attended to
Yes.
I cannot say	
Better than in Ontario
Grandly	
Yes.
C. C. Oke, Fairburn
Three horses, 33 cattle ;
well.
Five horses,   13  cattle;
well, if you give  them
plenty to eat.
Nine; excellently	
Forty-seven ; very well.
Fourteen horses, 6 cattle;
well.
Four ; horses get into the
best condition and cattle hold their own.
Thrive well on hav, and
S. F. Burgess, Seeburn	
Charles Findlav, Shoal Lake
Well	
are    more    profitable
than cattle.
Yes.
Remarkably so.
It is all they get....
Very well	
Yes	
This dry region is highly
suitable for sheep, and
they are profitable.
Yes.
P. McNaughton, Raven Lake..
Albert McGuffin, Melgund	
They grow fat on it.. 24
Name and Address.
Manitoba.
No. of Cattle and Horses,
and How they Winter.
How do Cattle thrive
on Prairie Pasturage.
Is  Stock-raising
Profitable.
How do you winter your
Stock.
Do Sheep Thrive.
W. B. Thomas, Cypress River..
S. W. Chambers, Wattsview.. •
Twenty ; my cattle are
mainly recorded shorthorns, and thrive well
if fed enough.
Ten ; well..
Yes, and it will be
necessary to keep
up the land.
Yes	
Stable them and feed hay, straw,
roots and good grain.
Stabled at  night, and running to
the stacks by day.
House all stock, and feed regularly
prairie hay and a little grain.
In log stables, fed wilh wild hay at
night.
On hay, with a little grain to the
young ones and to cows giving
milk.
On hay. I have my grain threshed
as closely as possible to the stables, and the cattle are turned to
the straw stacks when the weather is not stormy.
On cut feed, two parts oat straw
with bran.
Some I stable, others go to the straw
stacks in a sheltered place.
Cows and oxen get nothing but hay,
and do well on it in a sod stable.
Profitable where wolves
Get fat	
are not numerous.
Yes.
Twenty-three;      thrive
when housed.
Six cattle; better   than
in Ontario.
Seventy-five; very well.
Twenty-three; unusually
well.
Seven horses,  6 cattle;
well.
Thirteen cattle ; do well
Eighteen; very well   if
properly cared for.
Certainly; the manure alone is worth
the trouble.
Yes	
Yes, as feed is cheap.
Yes, counting in the
manure.
Yes	
Yes, very profitable.
Yes.
Yes.
John Cumming, Minnedosa....
W. J. Helliwell, Ralphton	
Could not be better,
First rate 	
Very well	
First rate	
Well	
Yes ; I have 20.
Fatten on it alone.  .
Within certain limits.
Yes. 25
MIXED FARMING, DAIRYING AND FRUIT. |
As has been foreshadowed by the answers to one of the questions in the last section, there are few farmers in Manitoba who do not believe that it is far-
the best way to combine stock-raising with grain-growing. The ordinary dictates of prudence " on the principle of not putting all your eggs in one basket," as
one correspondent expresses it, point in this direction. The only dissentient voices come from some limited districts, generally in the extreme southern part of the
Province, where pasturage is not sc abundant as elsewhere.
Closely connected with this is the subject of dairying ; but here the answers, while altogether affirmative as to the extraordinary suitability of Manitoba
in climate, natural pasturage, and purity of air and water, are divided as to the question of profit. The difficulty seems to be that the home market is limited :
nevertheless, the quality of the milk given by cows feeding on the prairie is so high, and Manitoba butter and cheese have proved themselves so superior, that
there is no question that in a short time dairying will become a leading industry there.
Water seems to be plentiful everywhere at a depth of a few feet below the surface, while springs, running streams or sloughs are accessible to the live
stock of almost every farm.
The list of wild fruits of Manitoba is a long one, as will be seen below, and these native berries and tree-fruits are abundant and luxuriant. In many
cases they have been transplanted and cultivated with good effect, while the small fruits of the garden grow to perfection in Manitoba, and cherries, plums of
various kinds, and the hardier apples, thrive amazingly. Along the southern border of the Province, the less hardy apples, grapes and the like, are rapidly being
acclimatized and made successful. Manitoba is quite as far advanced toward fruit-growing as could be expected of her, and there is every reason to believe that
before many years a large variety of fruits now cultivated only experimentally, will become adapted to the local conditions and generally grown.
Questions :
1.— What is your opinion of mixed farming, i. e., stock raising and grain growing combined ?     3.—Have you -plenty of water on your farm, and if so, how obtained.
2.— What is your opinion of Manitoba as a dairying country ? 4.—Give the name of wild and cultivated fruits grown ?
Name and Address.—Manitoba
J. E. Stirton, Cartwright
Stephen Birks, Barnsley.
J. K. Ross, Deloraine
Mixed Farming.
The most profitable in this
part of the Province.
Stock raising and grain growing certainly ought to go
together.
It pays best	
Dairying.
It has a better climate
than Ontario for making cheese.
It will be the leading
dairying country of the
world.
Dairying will pay where
plenty of native hay
can be obtained.
Water.
Abundance 4 feet below surface.
From a depth of 122 feet....
Plenty   from wells 20 feet
deep.
Fruits: a, Wild; b, Cultivated.
Wild—Plums, gooseberries, currants, strawberries, raspberries and cherries. Cultivated
—Strawberries, currants, gooseberries.
Strawberries, raspberries, blueberries, plums,
cherries, saskatoons and nuts.
Wild—Saskatoons, cranberries, strawberries,
plums, raspberries, currants, Cultivated—
red, black and white currants. 26
Name and Address.—Manitoba.
James McConechy, Virden...
W. J. Helliwell, Ralphton	
Albert McGuffin, Melgund ...
J. J. Cochrane, Deloraine	
Geo. H. Halse, Brandon	
J. Q. Sumner, Arnaud.	
John Cummings, Minnedosa..
Thos. A. Sharpe, Adelpha....
Agenor Dubuc, Lorette	
John Kemp, Austin	
W. B. Hall, Headingly	
Wm. Cor>ett, Springfield....
Geo. G. Downie, Crystal City
Norris Fines, Balmoral.....
Mixed Farming.
Just the thing	
The only successful way....
Pays better than grain alone
Most profitable	
The only successful way....
Makes success sure -.
Ought to be followed here..
Only way to continue prosperity.
It pays best in Provencher
county.
The only profitable way....
The best plan	
The proper way	
Foundation of success here.
Generally practised here	
Dairying.
Excellent.
J      the thing.
Far ahead of Ontario....
A good place ; but milking cows require extra
food in the fall.
Can't be beaten	
It is a good place	
Excellent dairying region
Generally good	
Could not be better	
Very good	
Well adapted to it in all
its departments.
Cannot be beaten.
Just the place. ...
Water.
Fruits: a, Wild ; b, Cultivated.
Well, 16 feet deep
Plenty ; 10 to 15 feet.
Souris River and a well 24
feet deep.
Plenty from wells 10 to 15
feet deep.
Yes, from a well 30 ft. deep.
All I can use, from a well 63
feet deep, made with a 14
inch augur ; cost $35.
Well, 18 feet deep	
Plenty from springs	
Seine River and an artesian
well.
Well, 12 feet deep	
Assiniboine River	
Plenty from a
deep.
well 40 feet
River and deep well.
Well, 8 feet deep ...
Wild—Saskatoons, cranberries, strawberries,
plums, currants. Cultivated—Red, black
and white currants.
Wild—Cherries, high bush cranberries, plums,
currants, gooseberries. Cultivated—All small
fruits.
Wild—Plums, currants, gooseberries and cranberries.
Apples and all the small fruits are grown.
Wild—Cherries, high-bush cranberries, plums,
currants, gooseberries. Cultivated—All small
fruits.
Wild—Plums, strawberries, grapes, blueberries.
Wild—Strawberries, currants, raspberries, saskatoons, cranberries. Cultivated—Currants,
gooseberries, raspberries, strawberries.
Wild—Strawberries, currants, raspberries, saskatoons, cranberries. Cultivated—Currants,
gooseberries, raspberries, strawberries.
Wild—Pears and all the other fruits mentioned
above.    None cultivated.
Same lists as given above.
Wild—Plums, saskatoons, blueberries, cranberries (12 varieties), strawberries and raspberries. Cultivated—Plums (3 varieties),
currants, two raspberries and strawberries.
Wild—Plums, saskatoons, blueberries, cranberries (L2 varieties), strawberries and raspberries. Cultivated—Plums (3 varieties),
currants, two raspberries and strawberries.
Currants and gooseberries principally.
Two cultivated crab apples, and other small
fruits as above. 27 T
28
Name and Address.—Manitoba
Thos. Frame,   Virden.
Geo. M. Yeomans, Dalton..
Wm. Smith, Souris	
John George, Nelson	
S. A. Ward, Clandeboye	
C. Wheatland, Donore	
Thos. Hagyard, Pilot Mound
C. C. Oke, Fairbum	
Wm. Thompson, Holland	
F. T. Westwood, Pendennis.
A. H. Carroll, Carrolllon. ..
Jas. Muir, Douglas	
G. U. White, Foxton	
John S. Mackay, Rapid City
S. R. Henderson, Kildonan ^..
Jos. E Paynter, Beulah	
Wm. Somerville, Montefiore...
Thos. M. Kennedy, Menots,....
T. McCartney, Port, la Prairie
Andrew Davison, Green Ridge.
L. Wilson, Stockton	
Mixed Farming.
Any person of moderate
means would be foolish to
trust to grain growing
alone, for in case of failure
he has nothing to fall back
upon.
It always does well under
efficient management.
Most successful way	
Best way	
Best way	
I could not farm in any other
way.
Most profitable course	
It pays to keep 25 or 30 cattle and horses.
The only profitable method.
The only profitable method.
Just the thing	
No success otherwise  	
No success otherwise	
Best way, where possible...
Best way, where possible...
Best way, where possible...
Best way, where possible...
Best way, where possible...
Best system. It keeps you
in work and gives something to fall back on	
The only safe plan	
The best way	
Dairying.
Some parts of the Province cannot be beaten
for dairying.
Dairying  will   not   pay
now if it is necessary to
hire help.
Grass and climate both
favorable	
Hard to surpass it	
Hard to surpass it	
Good ; the cows saved us
last year.
Certainly; first rate on
the Turtle mountains.
Good, where you have
good water.
Good	
Splendid	
Good 	
Good 	
The milk of three cows
for four months made
$103.35 worth of
cheese.
Unsurpassed	
Unsurpassed	
Unsurpassed	
Unsurpassed	
Good	
Water.
Fruits: a, Wild; b, Cultivated.
Very good	
Cannot be beat
I have a well 28 ft. deep, but Lists as above,
in summer cattle generally
get water in sloughs.
Abundance in wells 12 to 20
feet deep.
River and well
Well 15 feet deep..
Plenty at 24 feet., .
Well, 50 feet deep.
Wells, in shale, 20 feet....
Wells, 18 feet deep	
Springs, open all winter..
River and well	
Easily obtained	
Springs and wells	
Slough, and a well 15 ft.deep
Red River and a well.
Well 12 feet deep, ...
Well 16 feet deep	
Plenty from a well 12 feet
deep.
Well 20 feet deep.
Well 20 feet deep.
All the small fruits.
Crab apples and various small fruits.
Strawberries, raspberries, black and red currants
Plums and currants.
Lists as heretofore.
Lists as heretofore; apples, mulberries, &c, do
not thrive.
Lists as heretofore.
Lists as heretofore.
Lists as heretofore.
All the wild berries can be cultivated.
All the wild berries can be cultivated.
Lists as heretofore.
Lists as heretofore.
Lists as heretofore.
Lists as heretofore.
Lists as heretofore.
Lists as heretofore.
Lists as heretofore.
Lists as heretofore. 29
Name and Address.—Manitoba.
Mixed Farming.
Dairying.
W7ater.
Fruits : a, Wild; b, Cultivated.
Wm. J. Brown, Melita	
W. S. Moody, Rounthwaite...
Joseph Charles, Oakland	
James Drury, Rapid City	
The milk   is far richer
than that of the cows
in Ontario.
The pasture produces an
abundant flow of rich
milk.
Well   14   feet   deep   gives
plenty of water.
Well and springs	
Well 15 feet deep	
Lists as heretofore.
Plum, cherry, saskatoon.
All the wild fruits known  in  Manitoba grow
here.    All the hardy kinds can be cultivated.
The  Canadian blueberry might,  and  ough
to be, added.
Lists as heretofore.
Gives work for all the boys
and girls of a large family;
and cattle form a crop that
-grows summer and winter
But for young men homesteading grain growing is
best.
The best way	
Cultivated fruits do well.
Lists as heretofore.
Most remunerative and cer-
Plenty at 18 feet	
Poor well, 18 feet .deep.. ..
Plenty; well 100 feet deep,.
Plenty at 40 feet	
Wild-Grapes and plums.    Cultivated-All sorts
Fairly good ; little done
here.
Good	
Pays where hay is plentiful.
Roland McDonald, Lowestoft..
G. R. Black, Wellwood	
The usual lists.
Only way if your market is
The usual lists.
Abundant; well 23 ft. deep
Wells 70 feet deep	
Inexhaustible well, 58 feet. .
Wells 26 feet deep	
Plenty in shallow wells....
Well 18 feet deep	
John Hopper, Middlechurch....
Geo. Gillespie, Greenwood	
Joseph Tees, Manitou	
Alex. Stewart, Castleavery
Thos. A. Jackson, Minnedosa..
Lists as heretofore.
Lists as heretofore.
Lists as heretofore.
Lists as heretofore.
The only profitable way....
Should be practiced where-
ever hay can be got.
Lists as heretofore.
Dairying is profitable...
Well suited to it	
One of the best in the
Wild: Plums, grapes, saskatoons and various
berries.
Lists as hitherto.
George Bowders, Balmerino...
Best adapted to the country.
On the plan of never having
all your eggs in one basket, mixed farming should
always be carried on.
Wells 10 and 30 feet	
Abundance     of     excellent
spring water all along the
slope of Pembina Valley..
All the wild fruits; none cultivated.
Wm. Walton, Marringhurst...
I have filled my garden with the wild berries
and small fruits ; they do well under cultivation. Name and Address —Manitoba.
Wm. S. Wallace, Shellmouth .
•Wm. Smith, Beaver Creek.
Robt. Armstrong, Silver Spring
Robert Dunsmore, Bridge Creek
J. W. Bridge, Carman	
P. Campbell, Campbellville....
R. B. Wetherington, Douglas..
J. H. Martin, Rapid City	
John, Plant, Rossburn	
A. G. Wakefield, Rossburn	
Geo. G. Nagy, Rosser.
Matthew Kennedy, Lothair.
Wm. A. Doyle, Beulah	
Mixed Farming.
Most    suitable   for   northwestern part of Manitoba.
Better than either stock
raising or grain growing
alone.
Works especially well on a
small farm.
The only way that will pay.
The only way that will pay.
Absolutely necessary.
The best way	
The best way	
The best way	
The best way	
Dairying.
Unsurpassed. The water
in springs and wells is
ice cold, and the nights
are always cool.
Fine	
Good
it,
The best way.
The best way.
The best way.
Can't be beaten for but
ter.
Very  well  suited  to
but prices are low.
Well suited to it	
Very good	
Very good	
Very good	
Better than  New York
State.
The milk produced here
is rich and  in   great
quantity.
Unsurpassed	
Unsurpassed	
Water.
River, unfailing springs and
wells.
Wells 14 feet deep.
Well 22 feet deep.
Fruits: a, Wild; b, Cultivated.
The wild fruits are so various and plentiful that
there is no need to cultivate any.
Lists as hitherto.
Lists as hitherto.
Scarce here Lists
Water at 10 feet I Lists
I
The Boyne River Lists
A well, 13 feet deep. Lists
Scarce Lists
Plenty in wells  Lists
Birdtail Creek | Lists
Plenty at 27 feet	
Spring and creek
Spring and creek.
Lists
Lists
as hitherto.
as hitherto.
as hitherto.
as hitherto,
as hitherto,
as hitherto,
as hitherto.
as hitherto,
as hitherto. 31
GENERAL  ADVICE.
In answer to the question as to the best time for a settler to arrive in Manitoba, there seems to be only one answer—early spring. By this is meant, in
time to begin to break his land as soon as the season opens. It will be observed, however, that several writers advise new comers to work for an experienced
farmer one year before beginning farming on their own account, in order to familiarize themselves with the new and peculiar methods demanded by prairie
agriculture.
Colonists from Great Britain are urged to bring nothing with them except clothing and bedding, and many add that of these only so much should be
brought as can be carried in one's trunks.    House furnishings and farming implements of all sorts can be got in Manitoba more cheaply, and of a kind bette
adapted to the region.
General satisfaction with the present and future of Manitoba ; hearty commendation of the soil and weather; and sensible instructions to beginners, will
be found in the answers to the third and fourth questions of the appended list, to which special attention is directed.'
Questions :
1.— When, in your opinion, is the best time for a settler to come to this country to start at farming ?
2.— What would you recommend a settler coining from Great Britain to bring with him in the shape of clothing and house furnishing ?
3.—Are you satisfied with the country, the climate, and your prospects?
4.—General remarks.
Name and Address
Manitoba.
Best Time to Come.
What to Bring.
Satisfaction  with
Prospects.
General Remarks.
J. G.  Elliott, Shadeland	
Chas. Findlay, Shoal Lake ....
A. H. Scouten, Raven Lake	
April or May	
In the spring	
A  good   supply   of   warm
clothing.
A   good   supply   of  warm
clothing.
Clothing, but no  furniture,
which can be got cheaper
here.
Clothing, but no furniture,
which can be got cheaper
here.
Cheaper to buy here than
pay freight.
I like the country....
Pretty well satisfied..
We can grow in Manitoba from 30 to 50 bushels of wheat
to the acre, and from 40 to 60 of barley, and from 50
to 100 of oats ; and we can raise horses, cattle and
sheep  upon the natural grasses for next to nothing.
What other new country can offer such inducements
with as few drawbacks ?    I say none.
None should come but those able and willing to work.
'f-
Yes....	
Yes, generally speaking. 82
Name and Address.
Manitoba.
Win. Smith, Souris
Stephen Birks, Barnsley.
J. E. Stirton, Cartwright.
D. J. McQuish, Morden.
Wm. Somerville, Montefiore.
Wm. Gibbs, Selkirk.
J. K. Ross, Deloraine	
John Hopper, Middlechurch..
W. J. Helliwell, Ralphton	
Thos. Hagyard, Pilot Mound.
Thos. Adair, Treherne.......
Best Time to Come.
In  March, so  as  to
get settled and be
gin   breaking   by
May.
In  March, so  as to
get settled and be
gin   breaking   by
May.
May or September.
April I	
Early Spring.
Early spring .
Early spring .
Early spring .
Early spring .
About May I
Early spring,
What to Bring.
Cheaper to buy
pay freight.
here than
Satisfaction with
Prospects.
Yes, generally speak
ing.
Nothing   but   wearing   ap
parel.
Bedding and clothing only..
Woollen clothing only.
Clothing and bedding.
Cheaper to  buy  here  than
pay freight.
Plenty of strong clothes (no
knee breeches), woollen
blankets and such articles.
Bedding and strong clothing
only.
A year's clothing only....
Certainly.
General Remarks.
I would recommend oxen instead of horses for the first
year, as they require no grain, and will do nearly as j
much breaking as horses if properly handled.    Wood*
is scarce in most places, but coal of a good quality is
plentiful, and will be cheap as soon as local mines are
opened.
'1
Yes ; I don't want a
better land or climate.
Well satisfied	
Yes; I have great
faith in Manitoba's
future.
Yes	
Yes; would
back.
Yes; would
back.
not   go
not go
I have a good home,
and would not go
back for a good
deal.
Yes, and prospects
are bright.
Yes, and prospects
are bright.
If this should reach any of my Highland friends in the
Old Country, and if they want any information and
will write to me, I will give them any that I can.
Manitoba is the best place for the tenant farmers of England, who have some capital, to come to, the homesteading laws being liberal, and a return from labor
almost certain the first year.
For laborers able and willing to work on a farm, Manitoba
affords a good opening. During eight months of the
year $30 per month will be paid, and those who have
$2,000 capital can purchase a farm and soon become
independent.
We want able-bodied men and women who are not afraid
of hard work. Let the croaker and drone stay away.
We have no room for such, but the former is sure to
succeed.
Manitoba is the best place for the tenant farmers of
England, who have some capital, to come to, the
homestead laws being liberal, and a return from labor
almost certain the first year.	 33
Name and Address.
Manitoba.
Henry Last, Stonewall	
Croton Maguire, Boissevain.
R. Armstrong, Silver Spring
J. R. Routley, Carberry	
Geo. Gillespie, Greenwood ..
Joseph Tees, Manitou	
Thos. M. Kennedy, Menota...
C. C. Oke, Fairburn	
Richard Brown, Langvale...
Geo. H. Halse, Brandon...
C. Wheatland, Donore	
Geo. M. Yeomans, Dalton ..
Best Time to Come.
Middle of May
March	
March	
March	
Early spring  .
Early spring..
Early spring..
March or April; then
the settler can get
early to work.
March or April; then
the settler can get
early to work.
March or April	
March or April; then
the settler can get
early to work.
March or April; then
the settler can get
early to work.
What to Bring.
Very little.
Clothing and bedding	
Clothing and bedding	
Yes; but no place for
a lazy man.
Clothing, boots and beddinglWell satisfied	
Satisfaction with
Prospects.
Yes, perfectly.
Yes, perfectly.
Nothing.
Clothing,
Clothing, boots and bedding Well satisfied.
As little as possible.
Clothing but no house fur
nishings.
Clothing and bedding.
Bedding only.
Yes; though it is
cold. Manitoba is
to be the ruling
province of the
Dominion.
Well pleased with
present and future.
Well   pleased    with
present and future
Yes,	
Well   pleased    with
present and future.
Well   pleased    with
present and future..
General Remarks.
A settler coming to this country must not expect anything smooth for the first year or two, but if he makes
up his mind to work, I think in five years he may be
quite independent. I, myself, began on $150 and now
am worth $3,000 or $4,000.
Settlers coming to Manitoba should abandon the idea of
returning to their native homes in two or three years,
after they have made their fortunes, but come to stay.
I have been in Australia, New Zealand and California,
and farmed in Ontario, and have learned that for a man
with small capital Manitoba offers the best advantages,
as he can start on less capital.
Young, healthy women can find good homes and plenty
of work.    We are short of young women.
I would just say that any man that wants to work and is
not afraid of roughing it for a few years, and who has
a little capital, can do well here.
We are subject to hail storms and frosts. But we run
risks in all countries. In Ontario they have rust,
weevil, midge and other things, and I would twice as
soon live in Manitoba as Ontario.
Would advise those with money to buy improved farms.
Anyone with a small capital to start with should do well
in Manitoba, if he has energy, I would advise renting
a farm the first year.
I have seen farming from Ontario to Australia, and say,
without hesitation, there is no country to equal Manitoba for the steady, industrious farmer. 34
Name and Address.
Manitoba.
Thos. Frame, Virden.
A. Johnson, Mowbray
Wm. Thompson, Holland.
Robt. Dunsmuir, Bridge Creek
Wm. Walton, Martinghurst,
A. H. Carroll, Carrollton
W. S. Wallace, Shellmouth,
Alex. Stewart, Castleavery.
Best Time to Come.
March or April; then
the settler can get
early to work.
March or April; then
the settler can get
early to work.
If one has capital, in
the fall ; if not, in
the spring.
Spring	
iarly spring
Early spring
July or August, in
time to cut hay and
put up stables.
Middle of May, so as
to select his location comfortably.
What to Bring.
Clothing only.
Nothing	
Nothing ; but all the money
he can collect.
Change of clothes.
As little as he can
As little as he can.
Abundance of bedding and
clothing, but no house
furnishings.
Blankets and warm underclothing.
Satisfaction with
Prospects.
Well   pleased    with
present and future..
I am	
I am.
I
am.
Yes.
Yes.
We have prospered in
a way we never
could hope for had
we remained at
home.
Yes.
General Remarks.
A settler can generally rent a piece of land that has been
cultivated, and secure a crop the first year, much
better than by sowing on the new sod.
If many of our friends in Ontario, or the Old Country,
knew how easily they could make a comfortable living
here, I am sure none of them would hesitate to come.
Land is cheap and easily cultivated ; labor brings good
returns, and the necessaries of life are easily obtained.
I know all about Ireland, have been in England, through
the Southern States and in Ontario, and I am satisfied
that Manitoba is ahead of them all for farming.
This is the country for any man not afraid to work. I
got burnt out two years ago last spring, and lost everything, but after all I am not discouraged. After I
took up land I had to work out to earn money to get
along. I was sick for over a year before coming here,
and now can work like a man.
An excellent country for all who are not afraid to work,
and are ready to give up the conventionalities of older
countries, also for those who wish to start their families
in a free, independent life at but small cost.
A grand agricultural country for any who feel disposed
to work. There are many near here who began five
years ago with nothing who to-day are quite comfortable, in fact they are the ones who succeed.
A colonist whose means are limited, should not hope to
work a farm single-handed; if he has help in his family, good ; if not, he should try to be accompanied by
a friend, or settle near some one with whom he can
exchange work. In new settlements here hired labor
is expensive and cannot be employed with profit.
Manitoba is just the country for industrious young men
with small or large capital; and for good laboring men
who do not mind work, as in a little while they may
have farms of their own. 35
Name and Address.
Manitoba.
J. J. Cochrane, Deloraine
F. T. Westwood, Pendennis..,
J. Q. Sumner, Arnaud.
S. R. Henderson, Kildonan.
G. C. Wright, Boissevain ...
Wm. J. Brown, Melita	
Geo. G. Nagy, Rosser	
S. D. Barr, Neepawa	
J. E. Paynter, Beulah	
J. W. Newton, Wellwood....
A G. Wakefield, Rossburn..
Best Time to Come.
March
Early spring.
May
March	
April	
April or May
March \
March	
March	
April	
March
What to Bring.
Clothing only.
As little as he can.
Little or nothing.
Nothing but clothing.
Satisfaction with
Prospects.
Yes.
Fully
If I can't get along
here I would have
a poor chance elsewhere.
Yes.
Woollen clothing and bed-'Yes	
ding. |
Woollen clothing and bed-.I am not.
ding.
Woollen clothing and bed- Yes	
ding. I
Woollen clothing and bed- Well satisfied..
ding.
Nothing..
Clothing.
I   know   no   better
place	
Yes	
Nothing but the cook , Very well satisfied...
General Remarks.
To those with capital and who have no previous experience of farming, I would recommend the buying of an
improved farm and they will save money ; taking care
that the houses and stables are good and comfortable,
with a good well and a good sized slough or lake near
by for the cattle in summer, with plenty of hay land.
There is an increasing demand, at good wages, for young
men and women servants. Having travelled all over
this Province, I find Southern Manitoba the best land
and the best climate in the Province.
Manitoba is a place where a man or woman can make a
comfortable home and lay by a considerable sum to
enable them to live without working when old age
comes. But they must come with the determination
of working, not as a good many do come, to shoot and
fool away time and expect to grow rich in that way.
The crops this year show that Manitoba stands first.
New settlers should try to get close to a good market,
like Winnipeg.
I believe this soil capable of supporting 12 persons on
each quarter-section.
I would recommend southwestern Manitoba.
I advise new comers to hire themselves to farmers the
first year.
Any person coming to Manitoba, who is willing to work,
can do well farming, if he does not
means.
to too fast for his
Anyone with a small capital and willing to work need
have no fear of coming to Manitoba, where, upon a
free grant of 160 acres, he can in a very short time
acquire the independence he never could obtain in the
Old Country.
A man with energy can get along here ; a man coming
to this country must make up his mind that he has to
work, if he intends to make a home for himself. 36
Name and Address.
Manitoba.
G. R. Black, Wellwood
John A. Martin, Rapid City. .
R. B. Witherington, Douglas.
Wm- A. Doyle, Beulah	
G. Rowan, Parkissimo.
John Spencer, Emerson
F. Brydon, Portage la Prairie
Wm. Corbett, Springfield....
A. T. Tyerman, Lothair ......
Peter A. Leask, Virden	
James Drury, Rapid City\.
Best Time to Come.
May or June
April	
April	
March ....
Spring
In May
Spring
Spring
Spring
Spring
April
What to Bring.
Nothing	
Underclothing	
Clothing only	
Underwear,    bedding    and
boots.
Warm clothing only	
Clothing and bedding	
Clothing only	
Clothing only	
Clothing only	
Bed clothing and stockings..
Plenty of warm clothing,
blankets, household utensils, and such furniture as
can easily be packed,
books, pictures, carpets
and curtains, but no china
or glassware.
Satisfaction with
Prospects.
I am;   I would not
return East.
Yes	
I am	
Yes	
Pretty well	
Prospects are brighter
than formerly.. L...
Yes	
Quite	
Yes	
Yes	
Yes.
General Remarks.
I find Manitoba much better than several localities in the
United States that I have tried.
Taking into account its infancy and isolation from the
world's markets, this Province has made more rapid
strides than any country in the world, and its agriculturists have more to show for their labor than those of
any part of America ; but drones will starve even in
this hive.
I have been in a good many of the Western States and I
don't think any of them offer the same inducement to
a settler of limited means that Manitoba does.
I think Manitoba as fine a country as any one could
wish to settle in for farming ; a man who is able and
willing to work cannot help but get on. I would
strongly advise settlers from England to settle together
as much as possible.
There is no better country for a poor farmer.
I would advise incomers to largely discount their previous experience, and strongly recommend intending
farmers to spend at least one year with a farmer here
before starting for themselves.
Wish I had come earlier. I struggled hard in Ontario,
but did not make half as much progress as here.
Since I started in 1883, besides breaking 350 acres of
my father's syndicate farm in Ontario, I have broken
150 on my own place. I cut and stacked 300 acres
with the help of one man. I have 4,000 bushels of
wheat, 3,000 of oats and 500 of barley plowed and
put in with the same help. Where is the country in the
world can beat that ?
Any man desirous of possessing land of his own cannot
do better than come out here; the climate is healthy,
soil cannot be improved, scenery varied and picturesque,
good markets and railway facilities, also schools and
churches within reach. 37
Name and Address.
Manitoba.
W. W. Grimmett, Elm Valley.
J. Connell & Son, Creeford.. ..
D. D. Young, Brandon	
Wm. Lindsay, Emerson	
Walter Gray, Chater	
G. W. White, Foxton	
James Muir, Douglas	
Geo. Bowders, Balmerino	
Joseph Charles, Oakland.
Albert McGuffin, Melgund
F. W. Stevenson, Hill View
Best Time to Come.
April
March
April or May.
Early spring..
Early spring..
Early spring..
What to Bring.
Woollen clothes and blankets
Nothing; one Will know
better what he needs after
he gets here.
Only personal luggage	
Clothing and bedding	
Flannel     and     substantial
clothing.
Clothing and bedding	
Satisfaction, with
Prospects.
Yes.
Perfectly
I am ; would be sorry
to ieave it.
Early spring Nothing
Early spring.
Yes
Yes
General Remarks.
Well satisfied.
Yes ;   prospects   are
good.
Bedding and clothing Yes
Early spring, in time A wife and the old family
to break and back- Bible ; nothing more,
set. Children are all  wanted
here, and especially grown
girls, for wives are scarce
Early spring, in time
to break and backset.
Early spring, in time
to break and backset.
Clothing, furs and bedding.
Pilot cloth coats and bedding
Yes ; more than satisfied.
Yes. No desire for a
better climate, and
my prospects are
bright.
Yes	
Keep a close grip on your cash, buy everything good, and
profit by the experience of others Oxen are the most
suitable for a man of moderate means.
We have bettered our condition by coming.
A man is his own master here, and with good health,
plenty of good land and a will to work must get on
well.
Manitoba is the proper place for farmers with limited
means or large families.
If a man is steady, frugal and industrious he can make
himself comparatively independent in a few years.
I have travelled over the four continents and have never
beheld such fields of grain as I saw this year in this
province.
I have this year about 2,000 bushels of wheat and 1,000
bushels of oats. There is improved land to buy near
here at a reasonable price.
Would strongly advise young men with limited means,
or tenant farmers, to come ; there is room for all, and
a home and independence for those willing to work.
I have gardened since my childhood ; farmed since my
boyhood, and I am now an old man, and I can say
that a man or boy can do four times as much work on
a farm here as he could do on the best farm I ever saw
before I came here. To the paper manufacturers of
England there is a boundless market, in the middle of
a continent, with railroads from sea to sea, and with
straw, reeds, rushes and prairie hay for almost nothing.
In a few years a settler can become very comfortable,
owning a large farm free from incumbrances, considerable stock and comfortable buildings.
There is no healthier country, nor any country in the
world where a steady, industrious man can sooner become independent. 38
Name and Address.
Manitoba.
S. W. Chambers,  Wattsview.
Best Time to Come.
May
Geo. G. Downie, Crystal City.  In spring...
W. B. Hall, Headingly   April
T. McCartney, Port, la Prairie
R. S. Conklin, Sunnyside.
Robt. Campbell, Bridge Creek.
Walter A. Evans, Rosser	
Alfred Pickering, Austin	
Henry McLeod, Carberry.. .
April
Spring
Spring
Early spring
Early spring.
Early spring.
What to Bring.
Clothing only.
Satisfaction with
Prospects.
Yes ; in every way.
Only clothing.
Yes ;  decidedly.
Buy everything in Winnipeg Yes
Clothing only.
Plenty of clothing only.
Clothing and bedding only..
Clothing and bedding only..
Plenty of clothes and bedding.
One change of clothes	
Yes.
Very well.
I am,
Prospects bright.
Fully.
General Remarks.
To the man ready to work, and who knows, or is apt to
learn something of farm work and management, Manitoba offers a competence in a very few years. It is in
every way a splendid agricultural country and eminently
suitable for successful settlement.
Manitoba offers to beginners the best advantages for the
least outlay of capital, and I regard it as the best agricultural country in the world.
After nearly thirty years experience I can safely recommend this country to the intending emigrant. Persevering industry and a capital of a few hundred dollars
will ensure success.
A settler should arrive early and rent a piece of cnltivated
land to put a crop in, and if he takes up a homestead
he can go on and break for next year.
I think this is the best country in the world for a poor
man to get a start in, if he is only industrious and
steady. The settlers iri this country are always willing
to help a man if he is willing to help himself. This is
the oldest and most prosperous municipality in Manitoba, yet there is plenty of room.
Any man that has health and a good share of strength
and energy, and means enough to make a start on a
farm, need have no fear about getting along here.
I do not think that this country can be beaten, as it is
good for all kinds of farming and it is healthy. My
mother {age 75), who came out with me, has not had
a day's sickness yet, although in each of the last three
winters before coming out she had had a severe attack
of bronchitis, and had she not come out would not
have lived another winter.
Manitoba can beat the world in growing grain, and anyone with good health and willing to work is bound to
succeed.
If people would plough more in the fall, sow earlier in
the spring, and cut the grains a good deal greener than
they do, especially wheat, the samples would be even
better, and less complaints of loss by frost. I had
2,400 bushels this year. 39
Name and Address.
Manitoba.
Alf. Walker, Sheppardville..
Matt. Kennedy, Lothair	
Roland McDonald, Lowestoft.
Albert E. Philp, Brandon.
G. Forbes & Sons, Treherne .
Wm. H. Wilson, Deloraine	
M. G. Abey, Chater .....	
D. D. Buchanan,  Griswold....
Wm. Irwine, Almasippi
L. Wilson, Stockton
Best Time to Come.
What to Bring.
March Clothing and bedding.
Early spring.
Plenty of warm clothing.
May or June ;   as he Serviceable clothing.
can get some land
broken   and  good
wages for the after
part of the year.
April or May	
Satisfaction with
Prospects.
As early as possible.
Warm clothing only..
I am
I am
Yes.
Yes;      would      not
change.
Not much Yes.
March or April Nothing
March or April....
May or June
April	
March    	
Yes ; climate healthy
and prospects bright
I am	
Warm bedding only	
Yes....
Clothing, bedding and house Yes ; highly satisfied
linen, and by all means a     and hopeful	
box of carpenter's tools ..
Corduroy and moleskin Perfectly, and intend
clothes. to stay here.
General Remarks.
I can heartily recommend life on the prairie to young
men with a little capital and plenty of perseverance.
A good place for farmers with little money.
I can make an easier living here, with a small capital,
than in Ontario.
The man who is willing to work, and can bring $2,000
with him to this country, can be independent in five
years if he will profit by the experience of those around
him and leave behind him his former ideas of farming.
A new comer ought to work out the first year and learn
the ways of the country. I have bettered the condition of my family more in five years here than during
thirty in Ontario.
Agriculturally speaking, the country cannot be excelled.
I reached Winnipeg, April 13, 1880; was in debt then
and worked in service for about two years; commenced farming in 1882 on a homestead ; purchased 160
acres for $800, deeded to me in March ; cost of horses
and implements $1857. Now I have over $500 in
bank to my credit, and the greater part of the past
season's crop unsold. So much for agriculture in
Manitoba.
This is the country for young and healthy men. Stock
raising will be more profitable than wheat growing, if
prices of wheat and labor remain as at present. Farmers can live as easily here as in any country in the
world.
I would not live or work in the Old Country now.
Settlers coming early and remaining here will soon find
themselves in good circumstances. They need not
fear the climate ; this invigorating air will be a grand
surprise even to the healthy. Let them bring out their
wives and daughters. TT
40
CONCLUDING REMARKS. |
Since the foregoing has been put in type large numbers of letters have been received. They are generally of a very encouraging
character, and fully bear out the statement that no other known country affords better opportunities for successful farming than the
Canadian Northwest.    A few of these are appended, and will be read with interest.
PROM EGAN  BROTHERS, ROSSER.
J. H. McTAVISH, Esq., Winnipeg, December 2ist, 1887.
Land Commissioner, C. P. R., Winnipeg.
Dear Sir : It may be interesting to you to know the result of our farming operations during the past season, upon land in the vicinity of Winnipeg, which
is so often reported to be valueless and non-productive as farming land.
On the 24th of May we purchased 430 acres of land near Rosser Station, within 15 miles from Winnipeg, in a district in which there has hitherto been very
little or no cultivation. We paid $7,500 for the property, the buildings on it alone (erected by an English " gentleman farmer," whose funds gave out) being worth
that amount, consequently the land itself stands us nothing. The farm had not been cultivated, with the exception of 70 acres, for several years, and was consequently in a nearly wild state, having grown up to weeds, etc.
On the 27th of May last we commenced ploughing, following up at once with the seeders, sowing at a rate of 6£ bushels per acre of wheat and 3\ bushels
per acre of oats.    Of the 380 aores broken by us, the following division of crops was made :
36 acres  Wheat.
94   I     Barley.
250   I       Oats.
In addition to the above, our vegetables were put in a piece of land containing 32 acres, which had been cultivated, the acreage for each variety being
14 acres Potatoes.
16    "     Turnips.
1    «, j Beets.
 j Cabbages.
f Onions.
1    "     A Carrots.
^ Radishes.
Our returns upon the above acreage were as follows :
Wheat (graded No. 1 hard)     900 bush, sold in Winnipeg at $0 57 per bush $ 513 00
Barley (sold to brewery for malting)   19C0   1 40      760 00
Oats ..12750    " 25       "         31§7 50 41
Potatoes    .. 3000 bush, sold in Winnipeg at $0 25 per bush  $750 00
Beets       50    "                                              50       "         25 00
Onions       50   |                                          125       |         62 50
Carrots       50   "                                             60       "         25 00
Radishes       50   "                                              40       |         20 00
Turnips (retained for our own use)  6000   |                                              124"         750 00
Cabbages (retained for our own use)  1600 head,                                            3 each,        48 00
Hay (cut alongside farm)  300 tons,                                       4 00 per ton  1200 00
$7341 00
We would particularly call your attention to the very late date upon which we began our work, our harvest having been done during the first week in
August, a little over two months after seeding. Yours truly,
Egan Brothers (per Edward Egan),
Corner of Graham and Garry streets, Winnipeg.
P. S.—You are doubtless aware that this is our first attempt at farming, our business being railway contracting, and, considering this fact, I feel that we
have done remarkably well, as, barring our own work (we did not hire any labor), we realized enough from one crop to pay the original price of the land, and have
now the valuable property to the good, and our success this year has decided us to adopt farming in Manitoba as our future calling.
Tell this, if you like, to the suffering farmers of Ontario, and if your story is doubted, refer them to me and my brothers. E. E.
FROM  THE  BRANDON  DISTRICT.
Kemnay, January 16th, 1888.
I take great pleasure in giving a correct statement of all the crop I had on my farm, which is situated on the main line of the Canadian Pacific Railway,
seven miles west of the city of Brandon. I had 145 acres of wheat, from which the total yield the past season was 6,840 bushels. One piece of 45 acres of summer fallow gave 2,240 bushels, being an average of 5'i bushels per acre, and 100 acres averaged 45 bushels per acre. I had also 45 acres of oats,
which yielded 3,150 bushels, an average of TO bushels per acre. Ofl 6 acres of barley I had 387 bushels. I planted about % of an acre potatoes
and had 225 bushels good, dry, mealy potatoes. The yield of roots and garden vegetables was large and of good quality. In conclusion I would say that previous
to coming to Ontario, Canada, I had farmed in one of the best agricultural districts of Germany, and after coming to Canada I farmed twelve years in the county
of Waterloo, Ont. I removed to Manitoba in March, 1884 ; that summer I broke 190 acres, off which I reaped in 1885 a fine crop of wheat, fully as good as this
year. My two sons have farms joining mine, and their crops yield equally as large as mine. I must say that farming has paid me better in this Province than in
Ontario or the Fatherland.
(Signed), Christian Senkbeil. iir     ~^r~
42
from moosomin, n. w. t.
Moosomin, N. W. T.
Range 30 and 31, Township 14, four miles from station. Came to the country in 1883, and settled in present location. Amount of capital, $12,000.
Acreage now owned, 4,000. Under crop in 1887, 600 acres. Present capital, $40,000. Yield per acre, 1887, 30 bushels, average. Live stock, 14 horses. I
am pleased to give my experience since I came to this country. My success has been far beyond my expectations. I am fully convinced for extensive farming,
wholly grain or mixed farming, it cannot be surpassed. I think Moosomin district is equalled by few and surpassed by no other point in Manitoba or the North-
West Territories.    Moosomin is a first-class grain market and is growing rapidly in importance.
(Signed),       J. R. Neff.
EXTRACTS  FROM  OTHER LETTERS.
W. Govenlock—S. 27, T. 11, R. 23, near Griswold.   Had 60 bushels of wheat per acre on 5 acres, and 3? bushels per
acre on 250 acres.
Samuel Hanna—S. 7, T. 10, R. 22, near Griswold.    Had an average ot 40 bushels of wheat per acre, on 250 acres.
John Young—S. 1, T. 10, R. 23.   Had "75 bushels of wheat from one acre.
Alex. Johnston—Near Elkhorn.   An average of 41 bushels wheat per acre on 14 acres.
Geo. Freeman—Near Elkhorn.   An average of 37^ bushels of wheat per acre on 50 acres.
Thos. Wood—10 miles north of Virden. Had an average of 63 bushels ol wheat on 5 acres, (315 bushels ol wheat
from 5 acres).
Richard Tapp—South of Virden.   Had an average of 51 bushels of wheat on 20 acres.
Thos. Bobier—Half a mile north of Moosomin.   Had forty acres of wheat averaging 38 bushels to the acre.
J. R. Neff—Three miles north of Moosomin.   Had 115 acres of wheat, averaging 37 bushels to the acre.
G. T. Cheasley—Four miles north-east from Alexander.   Had an average of 45 bushels per acre on lOO acres of wheat.
A. Nichol—Four miles north-east of Alexander.   Had 150 acres wheat averaging 40 bushels per acre.
H. Touchbourne—Four miles north-west of Alexander.   Had an average of 40 bushels per acre on 100 acres of wheat.
W. Watt—South-west of Alexander.   Had §0 acres wheat with an average of 40 bushels per acre.
Robt. Rogers—Near Elkhorn.   Had 10 acres of wheat averaging 40 bushels per acre.
Wm. Wenman, from Kent, farmer, Plum Creek ; came 1881; capital about $1,000 ; took up homestead and pre-emption for self and two sons, 960 acres
in all; has over 8000 bushels of wheat this year ; three teams of horses worth $1,200 ; eight colts worth $1,000 ; cattle worth $500 ; implements, etc., $1,000.
His real estate at present is worth at least $8000.
H. Selby, from Leicester, office Clerk, 23 years old, came 1883, took up homestead and pre-emption ; capital nil; has this year 1,200 bushels wheat, some
oats and barley ; yoke cattle and implements worth $400 ; real estate worth $1,200.    (This is a worker.)
Michael Creedan, carpenter, from Cork, came 1882 with wife and six children; arrived at Plum Creek in debt ^80 ; has now good plastered house
and two lots in Souris town ; 160 acres good land ; four cows in calf, three heifers, pigs and fowl; no debts ; real estate worth $800 ; cattle worth $300, 43
DanIel Connolly, plasterer, from Cork, came 1883 ; brought out wife and seven children; has now a good plastered house in Souris town worth $600 ;
cash at least $500; no debts.
James Cowan, Irish, arrived in Manitoba 1882 without a dollar; hired out until he could earn enough to buy a yoke of oxen ; owns now 320 acres, of
which 200 are under cultivation ; comfortable frame house, two teams of horses, eight cows, and everything necessary for carrying on a large farm; also a wife and
two children ; has 9,000 bushels of grain this year.
Stephen Brown came out in 1882 ; was hired out until 1885 ; saved enough to buy a team of horses and make payments on land; broke land in 1885
and had his first crop in 1886; got his brother to come out, who also had a team and bought land alongside, so that they worked together; have each 160 acres
and good house and stock ; raised their second year 7,000 bushels of grain.
Morgan and Thomas Powell, Welsh miners, came in 1882, ,£80 capital; last year brought out their wives and families; have each about 4,000
bushels of,grain this year.
Patrick Buckley came out in 1882 ; has worked on a farm, hired ever since ; has ;£300 in the bank.
Phillips Brant, a Guernsey carpenter, ^200 capital; has 320 acres, 60 head of cattle, and three sons settled within four miles, all on their own farms of
320 acres, and raising large crops.
Donald Sutherland and Thomas Stewart came from Scotland in 1882 ; bought each a yoke of oxen and went to work breaking their land, their
wives meanwhile erecting sod houses, in which the families lived for two years. They are now independent; good frame houses, a quantity of stock and large
crops.
Glenboro, Manitoba, 1889.
Dear Sir : In reply to your letter requesting me to give you some of my experience since coming to this Province, I will try and give you a short sketch
of my career since coming to this country in June, '75.
I was so much pleased with the description of the country given by a brother of mine who came to the country in '72, that I wrote, asking him to secure me
a quarter section of land, which he did near High Bluff. I was then in one of the Western States, and had a position worth four dollars per day, when I left to
come to this country. No doubt some will think that was rather a good thing to leave, but I have made more than that on an average per day since coming to
Manitoba.
On my arrival at High Bluff I went to inspect my farm, and was very much pleased with it, as well as with the country. I never had any fancy for farming
until I came to Manitoba, but I assure you I soon changed my mind after coming to this Province, and in a few years had over one hundred acres under cultivation.
I sold the farm during the boom, and after travelling around a good deal, I decided to locate where I now am, in the Glenboro District, which I consider
is second to none in the Province, either as a wheat or a stock country. I now own a section and a-half, and have four hundred acres under cultivation : I have
succeeded beyond my expectations. With the exception of two seasons, I have always had an average of over 30 bushels of wheat to the acre, oats about 50 ;
wheat has averaged as high as 40 and oats 75. It is a very easy matter to farm in this country with such a rich soil, and so easily worked. I have been back to
my old home in Ontario several times, and once to California since coming to this country, and still think this the best country for the poor man or the capitalist.
I remain, yours truly,
Glenboro, November i8th, 1889. (Signed.) James Davidson. 44
Stockton, December nth, 1889.
Dear Sir :—In answer to your letter regarding my experience in this country would say, that I came to Manitoba in the month of March, 1880, had about
$25 left when I settled down on the farm on which I now live ; not being able to buy a yoke of oxen, I found it very hard to make a start on a farm. In about
18 months I bought a yoke of oxen on time; I very soon with my oxen made enough to pay for them and buy another yoke and pay for them ; I now have seven
horses, one yoke of oxen and a good stock of cattle on my farm; my average of wheat per acre has been about 28 bushels until this last year, when the average
was only 11^ bushels, owing to not having scarcely any rain all summer. I think the average of land in Manitoba is capable of producing at least 25 to 35 bushels
of wheat per acre, when it is properly managed ; the most part of the early settlers of this country knew nothing about farming at first, but now, having more
experience, and in many cases farms having changed hands, the average of crops is on the gain. One great benefit to this country is the frost going so deeply in the
ground in winter, in the spring it takes so long for the frost to get all out of the ground, thereby keeping a dampness continuously rising to the surface, until the
grain is nearly capable of shading the ground. I have lived in the Province of Ontario and in the United States for about 40 years, and can truthfully say that
this is the best farming country that I have ever been in. My opinion is that if a farmer cannot live and make money in farming in this country, he need not try
elsewhere.    In conclusion would say that I like the country very much in every way.
Yours respectfully,
(Signed) Wm. Abbott, Stockton, Manitoba.
Pine Creek, South of Calgary, 18th November, 1889.
Dear Sir : After a residence of 12 years in Manitoba, I came to Alberta in 1883 and took up a homestead and pre-emption in the neighborhood of Pine
Creek, about 12 miles south of Calgary and have since been farming there. My crops each year have been good, wheat and oats exceptionally so. In 1888, I
had 35 acres under crop of oats, wheat, barley, alfalfa, potatoes and garden vegetables. Oats returned a yield of 45 bushels per acre, wheat 30, barley 30. I had
under cultivation this year, 1889, about 50 acres of grain, and 3 of roots, and have now 1009 bushels of oats, 350 bushels of wheat, and 60 bushels of barley, 300
bushels of potatoes, and 200 bushels of turnips. I have grown alfalfa for two years and found it a good crop : during January 1889, it grew over half an inch, and
was green fully a month before the native grasses in the spring.    I believe the country is well adapted for its growth, and that it will be a valuable crop here.
From my experience of Alberta I consider it the best part of Canada for general farming, and think any practical farmer coming here with a little capital,
will never regret the move, as Alberta is bound to be the most prosperous province in the Dominion, as well as having the most enjoyable climate.
Yours truly,
' (Signed), Peter Cleland.
I raised my first crop in 1883 from land broken late in the season of 1882, and backset in the spring of 1883, and had from 5£ acres sown 196 bushels of
wheat No. 1 hard. In 1881 had 40 acres rented to another party that yielded 32 bushels per acre. In 1885, the yield was 34 bushels per acre. In 1886 (another
dry season) the yield was 20 bushels per acre. In 1887, 160 acres yielded 6,900 bushels, an average of 43 bushels per acre. In 1888 the average was 32 bushels
per acre.    In the present year the average was 15 bushels per acre on 220 acres sown.    I had 125 acres that yielded 20 bushels per acre; the balance on account 45
of a very hard stubble plowed under last fall and the season being dry, only yielded 10 bushels per acre. Now, for the seven years I have had crop, the average
for wheat was 29 bushels per acre, and oats 43 bushels. And for five years the average of barley has been 25 bushels per acre, with the exception of 1887 when
oats ranged 75 bushels, and the present season at 12 bushels, the general average was 50 bushels per acre.
Mine is not an exceptional case. There are plenty of others who have as good a record as mine, and some better. The present dry season may be
discouraging to new comers, yet it would be unfair to judge our country by the present dry season, and it convinces me that our soil with proper farming will raise
a fair crop, under almost any circumstances. My crop this year had almost no rain, as not an inch fell from seeding to harvest. I came here from near Guelph,
Ontario, with a capital of about $700 and now have a farm of about 1,000 acres of land, 450 under cultivation; will sow 350 acres next spring and break 100
more. I have 11 horses, 3 good colts rising 2 years old, 4 colts rising one year, 12 head of cattle and 20 hogs, in all worth $2,500. Implements worth $1,000.
Dwelling house, grainery and stable cost $1,500. Now, it would have taken me a long time in Ontario to have gathered this much together on my capital. The
difference with me between there and here is—six good crops and one poor one in seven years in Manitoba, and one good crop and six poor ones in seven years in
Ontario. I must say I am well pleased with the country and the prospects before me, and think that anyone who is able and willing to work and who has some
capital to start on, can do well in this new country a great deal easier than in an older country. I can point you to hundreds of settlers who seven years ago had
hardly money enough left after coming here to buy a yoke of oxen, who to-day have a good half section (320 acres) of land, two good teams and everything needed
to work their farms, and living comfortably. I would say to new settlers don't be discouraged, but put in all the crop you can the coming season. It may be a
repetition of 1887, as the ground is better plowed this fall than I have ever seen it before. In conclusion I would say that you are at perfect liberty to use this
letter or any part of it, if of use to you in the interests of emigration, as the statements I have made can be corroborated by plenty of my neighbors who have done
just as well as I have and some better.
Alex. Nichol,
Reeve of Whitehead, County of Brandon, Alexander Station, Manitoba.
Winnipeg, 16th January, 1889.
L. A. HAMILTON, Esq.,
Land Commissioner,  C. P. R.,   Winnipeg.
Dear Sir :    During the past season (1888) we had under cultivation on our Rosser farm 501 acres, divided as follows :—
330 acres of oats, from which we secured 49 bushels to the acre, equal to 16,170 bush.
140 acres of wheat, @ 18 bushels per acre ,  2,520     "
25 acres of barley, @ 40 bushels per acre   1,000     "
6 acres of roots, (potatoes and turnips)  2,000     "
We were offered $1.10 per bushel for our wheat, but declined to sell, and subsequently when the price had declined, accepted 95 cents per bushel. We sold
the barley at 40 cents per bushel. We sold about 9,000 bushels of our oats at 30 cents per bushel, and retained the balance, and also the roots, for our own use
in connection with our contracts.    We also put up 250 tons of hay, worth $9.00 per ton. IT
46
The total results of our farming operations for the year may be summarized as follows :—
16,170 bushels of oats, @ 30 cents $4,851
2,520 | wheat, @ 95 cents  2,394
1,000 " barley, @ 40 cents      400
2,000 I roots      400
250 tons of hay, @ $9.00  2,250
$9,295
The results taken in connection with those of 1887, show our farming operations to have been very satisfactory indeed.
Egan Bros.,
93 Garry Street, Winnipeg.
Gretna, January 16th, 1889.
L. A. HAMILTON, Esq.,
Land Commissioner, C. P. R., Winnipeg.
Dear Sir : I beg to send you a report of our farming operations :—Our farm consists of 640 acres of land, situated in Township 2, Range 3, West, being
about 15 miles from Gretna and 7 miles from Plum Coulee, on the C. P. R. South Western. We cultivate the entire section. The first crop was sown in 1884,
which was put in on breaking done the previous July, and consisted entirely of flax, which yielded 19 bushels to the acre and netted a very handsome profit for our
investment. Since that season we have mixed our crop, sowing only 500 acres of wheat, flax, barley and oats, and preparing the balance of about 140 acres as
Summer fallow, during the slack season before harvest, and enabling us to have sufficient plowing done in the Fall for all grain we wished to sow in the Spring.
Our farm is worked entirely by hired help, and the profits over all expenses has exceeded $3,000 yearly the past two years. The yield of wheat in the crop of 1889
was about 29 bushels per acre, of which we had 400 acres. The crop of 1888 did not yield so well, averaging only about 23 bushels to the acre, but the sample
was good, grading 1 Hard. Our barley yielded about 35 bushels to the acre, oats 55, and flax 15. The season of 1888 was not as favorable as former years, but
the results were very satisfactory, owing to good prices. Our plan of securing help in harvest proved very successful and profitable. We secured a number of men
in Ontario, under contract for 60 days, and made arrangements with the Canadian Pacific Railway Company for reduced rates for that time, and saved our grain
promptly, without loss by shelling or bad weather.    Farming, if properly attended to, is certain to give favorable results.
I have the honor to be, Sir, yours very truly,
M. Long,
Manitoba Manager for J. & J. Livingston.
Qu'Appelle, March 6th, 1889.
Sir :    I came to this country in the year 1878, and drove stage from Winnipeg to Battleford for four years, and in 1882 took up a farm in what is now the
Municipality of South Qu'Appelle, believing it the best land I had travelled over between these points, and have never regretted the choice I then made.    I have ""•"--'-g""<"""-"
47
every year had a good average crop, and last year an excellent one. Wheat yielded 30 bushels per acre and oats 60. I had 40 acres of wheat and 50 acres of
oats. I sold my wheat for $1.00 per bushel. I am worth now $6,000, all of which I made since I came here, excepting what I paid for team, waggon and plow. I
was raised in the County of Leeds. I like the climate and country well, and would not go back to live in Ontario. I would advise any young man who knows
anything of farming to come here. Yours, etc.,
Ed. Whalen.
South Qu'Appelle, March 5th, 1889.
Sir : I came to Qu'Appelle in April, 1882, and located on the S. J of Sec. 2, Tp. 18, R. 14, four miles South of Qu'Appelle. I had for some time before
my coming here, been looking over Manitoba and a portion of the Territories, but saw nothing that pleased me so well as this district. I had little or no means
when I settled on my land. At the present time I have 22 head of horned cattle, 3 working horses, self binder, and other implements necessary for farming, which
are all paid for.
In 1883 I farmed 10 acres, wheat returned me 20 bushels per acre, and oats 60 bushels. In '84 I had 30 acres under crop ; wheat 30 bushels per acre and
oats 62. In '85, 30 acres wheat which averaged me 50 bushels to the acre. In '86, did little or no farming, being away most of the summer. In '87, I cropped
10 acres wheat, averaging me 31 bushels per acre, 8 acres of oats 59 per acre, 15 of barley 35 per acre. In '88, 20 acres of wheat 23£ bushels per acre, barley 10
acres, 40 bushels per acre, and oats, 10 acres, which returned me 65 bushels per acre, The root crop, especially potatoes, yielding each year large returns. I am
more than satisfied with my lot and can strongly recommend settlers in coming to this district. Yours, etc.,
Andrew Dundas.
Oak Lake, May 27th, 1889.
In the fall of 1874 I made up my mind to go and visit the Northwest and Montana, and I never stopped travelling and visiting the great Montana country
and the Western part of Dakota for three years, to try and find a good place to settle in. The last place I went to see was the country lying between the Missouri
River and the little Rocky Mountains. There were something like three hundred families along with me then who were, like myself, trying to find a place to
settle in. After we had examined the whole country thoroughly, we decided that there was no land there fit for agricultural purposes, so I called a meeting of
those who accompanied me and moved a resolution that we should go to Oak Lake, Manitoba, and start a new settlement, and every man in the camp was of the
same opinion. I was 43 days on the road, travelling every day, coming to where I am now, and I built this old log house on the banks of Oak Lake, and it is
the first house that was built in this district. My nearest neighbors were Mr. McKinnon (30 miles on this side of Portage la Prairie) and Mr. Lariviere (30 miles
south east of this place). The readers of this letter will see by this that I knew what I was doing and knew that, one day, I would see a prosperous population
settled here near this beautiful Oak Lake, and I know to-day, that before many years I shall see all the land lying in Townships 6, 7, 8 and 9, from Range 22
right up to Range 20, W. 2nd Meridian, settled up with as good farmers as are settled at the present time between here and Portage la Prairie, for I know that
the tract of land mentioned will be one of the best wheat countries in the Dominion of Canada.
Now I wiH write a word on the climate. I have been here eleven years and I never had a bushel of frozen wheat, nor any other kind of grain, and as for
all kinds of vegetables, they can be produced to perfection.   Two years ago I exhibited at Oak Lake cabbages weighing 36 lbs. each; onions weighing 1 lb. each; [Iff
I
■
48
potatoes from 2J to 4 lbs. ; beets from 9 to 14 lbs. and turnips 22 lbs, I should think that immigrants would not delay a moment in coming to a country that
can produce vegetables of that enormous size, without the use of manure of any kind. At any rate they should come and see it. The C. P. R. gives you a good
chance to go over it. This is the time for you. Come ! Do not wait any longer, for in a few years all the land will be taken up for a hundred miles west. Now
you will see why I came to Oak Lake in preference to Dakota and Montana. Because this country is far ahead of anything I ever saw across the line, and I am
to-day still more convinced that Manitoba and the Northwest will surpass anything ever seen for mixed farming, and I know that if you will only take my advice
you will never be sorry.
If you want further particulars, write to me personally, and I will make it my duty to answer you immediately.
Amable Marion.
Oak Lake, May 28th, 1889.
After ten years in Manitoba and the Northwest my opinion of the country as affording a comfortable home to agricultural emigrants remains unchanged.
. I question if any country has fewer drawbacks to the farmer.    It is true we have sometimes been troubled with early and late frosts, but these are, I believe,
less frequent than they were in the older provinces at first, and older settlers unite in telling us that they are becoming less prevalent and will continue to do so,
as the country becomes settled and cultivated.
In this country a man has not to spend a life time in clearing his ground, as for the most part, the rich prairie is ready for the plough. We have also a most
healthful climate throughout the year, which speaks volumes for our country.
I must add, that I am particularly attached to Oak Lake as a farming district. Taking the district all through, I question if a more prosperous community
of farmers can be found in any new settlement, and the prospects were never brighter than at present; for the season forward, crops are looking well and our
people are happy.
R. Charles Quinney.
Ill, 1 V  l**BF™
All even numbered sections excepting 8 and 26 are open for homestead entry.    y|?;
'1 ■"•" brtot1.
Entry may be made personally at the local land office in which the land to be taken is situate, or, if the homesteader desires, he
may, on application to the Minister of the Interior, Ottawa, or the Commissioner of Dominion Lands, Winnipeg, receive authority for
some one near the loeal. office to make the entry for him.
**
Under the present law, homestead duties may be performed in three ways:
1. Three years' cultivation and residence, during which period the settler may not be absent for more than six months in any
one year without forfeiting the entry.
2. Residence for three years within two miles of the homestead quarter section and afterwards next prior to application for
patent residing for three months in a habitable house erected upon it. Ten acres must be broken the first year after entry, 15 acres
additional in the second, and 15 -acres in the third year; 10 acres to be in crop the second year, and 25 acres the third year.
3. A settler may reside anywhere for the first two years, in the first year breaking 5, in the second cropping said 5 and breaking
additional 10, also building a habitable house. The entry is, forfeited if residence is not commenced at the expiration of two years from
date of entry.    Thereafter the settler must reside upon and cultivate his homestead for at least six months in each year for three years.
• :ifAPFUCATZOXI   F0I   PATERT
may be made before the local agent, any homestead inspector, br the intelligence officer at Moosomin or QuAppelle station.
Six months' notice-must be given in writing to, the Commissioner of Dominion Lands by a settler of his intention, prior to making
application for patent.
Intelligence | ffices are situate at Winnipeg ai\d Qu'Appelle station. Newly arrived immigrants will receive at any of these
offices information as to the lands that are open for entry, and from the officers in charge, free of expense, advice and assistance in
securing lands to suit them. ^^
All communications having reference to lands under control of the Dominion Government, lying between the eastern boundary of
Manitoba and the Pacific Coast, should be addressed to
The Secretary of the Department of the Interior, Ottawa, or The Commissioner of Dominion Lands, Winnipeg, Man. The 1 Canadian ^ Pacific ♦ Railway
Provides for the
COMFORT AND  CONVENIENCE
OF   SETTLERS
-going to-
THE CANADIAN NORTHWEST
A Special Form of Passenger Equipment,
known as
Colonist  Cars
Which are run through to MANITOBA and
BRITISH COLUMBIA on the regular Express
Train leaving MONTREAL each week day. They
are really " Sleeping Cabs," modelled after the
style of the first-class "Pullman," with upper
and lower berths, closets, lavatories, etc > etc., the
only difference being that the seats and berths
are not upholstered. Occupants may supply
their own bedding, or can purchase of the Company's Agents at QUEBEC, MONTREAL, or
TORONTO, a mattress, pillow and blanket for
$2.50 (10 shillings), which, they can retain at the
end of their journey.
The accompanying cut shows the interior of a
Colonist Car, with a portion of the berths made
up for sleeping purposes.
Holders  of  COLONIST   or   SECOND-CLASS  TICKETS   are   allowed   FREE   USE   OF
THESE CARS^FROM THE BEGINNING TO THE END OF THEIR JOURNEY
OVER  THE   CANADIAN   PACIFIC .RAILWAY.

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