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The new home land : St John Valley, New Brunswick, Canada Canadian Pacific Railway Company 1911

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St John Valley
New  Brunswick,  Canada
.      . .ISSUED    BY   THE
Cdna'dian Pacific Railway Company
^bj ti The   Advantages   and   Resources
FOURTH    EDITION  The New Home Land
Canada is a country of boundless resources. It possesses-
vast areas of virgin fertile lands, wonderful riches in its-
gold, silver, lead, copper and coal mines; untold wealth in'
its inexhaustible fisheries in ocean, lake and river, and great"
tracts of valuable forests.
The great strides Canada has made during the past
quarter of a century,-, its increasing wealth, wonderful prosperity and rapid development are attracting thousands of
people from the British Isles, the Continent of Europe, and
the United States of America to its shores, and these are
eagerly and profitably, seizing the many tempting opportunities that .are offered them in this new land.
It is not of Canada as a whole, however, that this booklet
is written; but of Xew Brunswick, one of its Maritime
Provinces, and more particularly of the St. John Valley—
a peculiarly favored section of the province.
Xew Brunswick lies in --the eastern part of Canada, with
Quebec on the north, the Gulf of St. Lawrence and the Bay
of Fundy—practically parts of the Atlantic Ocean—on the
east and south, and the State of Maine, one of the United
States, on the west. The province has an area of 27,500
square miles, or nearly 18,000,000 acres—a large portion of
which is good agricultural land, capable, under proper
cultivation, of producing bountiful crops, for which there
are always excellent markets. New Brunswick is a little
less in size than Scotland or Ireland, but, it is stated, the
area of its arable lands is about as great as in the Emerald
Isle and much greater than in Scotland.   The Province has THE ST. JOHN VALLEY
iron and, copper are known to exist.   There are also petroleum wells and salt springs.
The St. John Valley, with a length of 280 miles, and an
average breadth of 100 miles, occupies almost the entire
western side of the Province. It is unexcelled as an agricultural and fruit-growing country. The lower twenty miles
of valley much resembles, with its hills more or less wooded,
parts of Scotland. While this district is not adapted to
extensive farming, it is an excellent fruit-growing section,
and there is more or less land profitable for crop growing.
Above this region, a level area is found where the land is
admirably adapted for agriculture, apple-growing and stock-
raising. Here, for over fifty miles of its course, the river
is dotted with islands, and bordered by fertile alluvial intervales of wonderful richness, which produce heavy crops of
hay, undiminished from year to year, their fertility being
maintained by the rich alluvium carried down from the GREAT APPLE GROWING DISTRICT
upper silurian formation of its upper reaches. This is a
stock-raising country par excellence, where dairying is also
prosecuted under most favorable conditions. Large tributary streams flow into the St. John at frequent intervals,
and along their courses conditions are very similar to those
on the main river. The Belleisle, the Washademoak, the
Grand Lake and Salmon Biver, coming in from the eastern
side, and the Oromocto from the western side, are all navigable, and during the summer season furnish a cheap and
convenient mode of transportation as well as afford delightful summer trips on steam and sailing craft.
From Fredericton down to within a few miles of the
mouth of the St. John river, and extending back on either
side an undetermined distance is a territory which is each
year more plainly demonstrating itself to be one of the best
apple-growing districts known. Here can be grown, under
proper management, such varieties as the King of Tomkins,
American Baldwin, Bibston Pippin, Bhode Island Greening, and other winter varieties, which bring, highest prices
both in the local and English markets. Throughout that,
district and thence northerly up to the Grand Falls, 225
miles from the mouth of the river, flourish all the best fall
and early wiriter.yarieties, such as the Wealthy, Macintosh
Bed, Emperor Alexander, Fameuse, Duchess of' Oldenburg
and other varieties: among*them are some of the very best
dessert apples which can be and are placed on the English
market to good advantage. This -industry is capable of
great development.
Throughout the whole valley straAvberries, raspberries,
currents, blueberries, gooseberries and other small fruits
are profitably cultivated, particularly in the vicinity of
cities and towns, and wild fruits in great variety grow in'
A short dis'tance above Fredericton the intervale lands
terminate except for scattered areas here and there, and
the river current is more rapid, but the quality of the upland , THE ST. JOHN VALLEY
soil, situated as it is on the fertile upper silurian formation, improves, and under reasonably skilful farming
produces crops that compare favorably with the best
agricultural lands in the world. The upper part of the St.
John Valley has long been noted for its crop of oats and
wheat, and buckwheat and peas also yield profitable crops,
and Indian corn (maize) is grown by many progressive
fanners, and furnishes a sure crop of valuable stock food.
There is a bountiful hay crop which is cheaply produced and
easily harvested.
Live stock of all kinds thrive in this favored region.
Much of the country is especially adapted to sheep raising,
the natural summer pastures of clover and the best qualities
of grasses producing mutton and lamb that are famed for
their flavor in the United States markets as well as in
Canadian cities.
Poultry is raised on every farm ami in some sections
poultry specialists are making a grand success of the
industry. The products not only find a ready market at
home, but there is a large and growing demand for them
abroad, and no danger of over-production, as the supply
does not nearly meet the requirements.
The high quality of the potato and all field and garden
vegetables grown along the St. John Valley is proverbial,
and an export trade, especially for potatoes and turnips,
is assuming very large proportions. Potatoes from this
district are supplying the best trade in Montreal, Ottawa,
Toronto, and even as far west as Winnipeg, where they
command a higher price by reason of their superior quality.
They are also being shipped, as are turnips, in large
quantities to Boston and Xew York and other American
Coast cities and to the West India Islands. To the Island
of Cuba have gone in twelve months 325.000 bushels.
Farmers in Quebec and Ontario and the United States are
ascertaining that seed potatoes grown in Xew Brunswick HOW TO SECURE LANDS
give much better yield than other potatoes, and there is a
growing demand for this seed, as high as 60c. (2s. 6d.) per,
bushel being paid to farmers at shipping points. When
it is realized that the crop of potatoes in the St. John
Valley averages nearly 200 bushels per acre, and that good
farmers obtain yields of over 300 bushels, it will be seen
that very substantial profits are possible from this crop.
All this country is especially well watered with springs
and running brooks, a large proportion of the farm steadings being supplied with water led into the houses and barns
by gravitation. Where the country is too level for this to
be done, water is easily obtained from unfailing Avells, the
natural, moderate rainfall and abundant soil reservoirs
furnishing a constant supply of pure water.
The forests of the St. John Valley have almost a worldwide fame, the annual output sometimes exceeding 500,-
000,000 feet. Spruce, pine, hemlock, maple and birch grow-
in profusion and under proper management the supply
should be inexhaustible. The government is awake to the
necessity of protecting and conserving these forests both
in regard to the prevention of forest fires and to limiting
the annual cut to the annual'growth.
At Grand Falls there is a magnificent water power.
Over 200,000 horse power is available at this one point,
which will furnish cheap electric power. Many of the
tributaries also furnish large water powers and when these
are developed will make western Xew Brunswick one of
the cheapest manufacturing districts in the world.
There are plenty of opportunities for procuring cultivated lands, with building's already erected, at remarkably
reasonable figures and on very easy terms of payment.
These farms are eligibly situated in different parts of the
vaHey, and vary in price.    They are admirably suited for 10 THE ST. JOHN VALLEY
settlers with small capital, who with from £100 to £509
at their disposal are enabled to secure,hpmes whose value'
would rapidly increase. They are located near churches,
schools, post offices, etc., and, generally speaking, have 40
acres or more under cultivation, and usually there is growing
timber on them which increases the value of the property
as time goes on. These farms can be worked profitably
during the first year of occupancy. A list of these farms
may be obtained from Mr. A. B. Wilmot. Superintendent
of Immigration, St. John, X. B.
In the Blue Bell District there is a tract of fifty thousand
acres of fertile land within ten miles of the town of Grand
Falls and lying near the Canadian Pacific Railway,; which
is' particularly attractive to homesteaders.
This land can be.'acqui settlers in 100
acre lots for 4s. per acre,'payabj annual in
stalments. It is covered by a magnificent growth of hardwood free from underbush, and is connected with.-the railways and settled districts by good colonization roads.
Already many applications for these lots have been filed
and the Old Countrymen who have gone into possession
express their satisfaction at having done so.
Besides the watercourses, as means of communication,
Xew Brunswick is splendidly supplied with railways. The
Canadian Pacific, which crosses Canada to the Pacific
Ocean, has its eastern terminus at St. John, the chief city
of the province, and Canada's great Atlantic winter port.
This huge railway system has branch lines throughout Xew
Brunswick which make connection with the principal points
in the western portion of the province from St. Andrews
and St. Stephen in the south to Edmundston in the north.
The province is also served by the Government railway and
a dozen or so local railroads and other lines are projected. RELIGION AND EDUCATION.
Xew Brunswick is also favored with good roads, towards
the up keep of which the Provincial Government gives each
year substantial grants; and the rivers are spanned by well
- built Government bridges.
:ANKS  01="  THE  ST.  JOHN
There is the -
elsewhere in Cilia
telegraph line-, as
service to every to1
I al system in Xew Brunswick as
'     ( miadian Pacific and other
lephone systenu give a splendid
e and hamlet.
Churches ai
throughout the pn
rights, and then' is
tional system prev
grammar schools a:
teachers, and a I
ment. There are a;
is free to every chi
in great  numbers  are  scattered
— alL religions   enjoying   equal
>tate Church1.   An admirable educa-
comprising common, superior and
a normal school or training college for
i versify   maintained   by   the   Govern -
ut 1,700 elementary schools. Education
i of maintainina' schools being
raised by taxation on. property and by Government grants. 12 THE ST. JOHN VALLEY
Xew Brunswick stands pre-eminently first amongst the
game lands of the world. Its forests are alive with big. and
small game, and its streams 'afford the best of fishing, there ■
are moose — in more plentiful numbers than in any other
part of America — caribou, bear. deer, etc., and in feathered
game, wild geese, duck, grouse, 'curlew, plover, snipe and
wood-cock are but a few of the specimens to be found. The
angler will find salmon, (rout, pickerel, perch and other
kinds of fish in the waters. There are well-framed game
laws, and guides-are always procurable:
The lower part of the valley is a favorite summer resort
for visitor^ from other parts of Canada and from the United
States, man}- of whom take up their -.immer residences here.
There are splendid canoe trips to be taken5 and the camping
facilities for those desiring an tint-door summer life are
illimitable. ■
A well known authority describes the climate as one of
exceptional healthfulness. There is not, in fact, any country
more free from epidemic diseases-or where people live to
such a ripe old age. There is but a brief spring, the summers are delightfully warm, although not excessively so, and
the winters are cold and bracing, and especially in the interior — as in the St. John valley — free from sudden
changes. The climate is especially favorable for the production in their best form of the ordinary crops of the
temperate zone. The seasons differ from those of England
or Ireland. Summer soon follows winter, and the prolonged
autumn constitutes the most delightful months of the 'year.
There is plenty of sunshine at all seasons.
The chief centres of population in the Valley are St.
John, on the Bay of Fundy, with  a  population of over  14 WHAT SETTLERS SAY.
50,000 — a progressive city and a great shipping port.
Fredericton, the capital (population 8,000); Marysville,
with a large cotton factory and saw mills; Woodstock (population 4,000) the principal town in the upper St. John
region; Edmundston and several other places of less importance.
The great need of the St. John Valley today is an influex
of farmers who are experienced in their calling and especial-
1}' those who are accustomed to the methods of agriculture
which prevail in Great Britain. The tenant farmer who
finds himself unable to make any headway, owing to changed
conditions in the United Kingdom, and the farm laborer
who works year in and year out at low Avages, would find
splendid opportunities for making homes for themselves in
this great fertile valley7. With.,energy and industry they
would soon become landed proprietors and independent
owners of their own homes. The wages vary according to a
man's capacity, and range from $20 (£4) to $30 (£6) per
month with board and lodging for single man, and a free
cottage, with perhaps milk, vegetables and fuel free, for a
man with a family. Young women accustomed to household
work, whether on the farm or in towns, would readily find
employment at good wages averaging $10 (£2) a month;
and in fact any able-bodied person willing to work need not
be idle in the St. John Valley where the supply of labor,
especially in the country districts, is not equal to the demand.
During the first four months of the current year (1911)^
Xew Brunswick received more settlers than during the
whole of 1909. The demand for cultivated farms is rapidly
increasing, this being largely due to the satisfactory experience of those who came here last year and the year before
and made homes for themselves. WHAT TO DO UPON ARRIVAL. 15-
J. Hubbard, of Woodstock, X. B., says:
" I do not think I could have been landed in a better part of
Canada than I have. I have been here nearly a year and a half,
and am doing well."
Alex. Thompson, of Lerwick, Victoria County, X. B.,
" I have got along here all right. Went to work for J. D. McLaughlin, Red Rapids, and have been with him some time. I hav&
got a farm up here and am doing well."
John Gilmour, of Andover, Victoria County, X. B.,
"I have hired with Mr. J. W. James, who is paying me $20 (£4J
a month, which is a very good wage, as I have had only one year's
experience in farming."
J. H. Wilson, of Tracey Mills, Carleton County, writes:
"I am highly pleased with the country, and it suits us all right.
I have sent for my son and an aunt of mine, who are going to settle
with me, and with them comes a young lady for whom arrangements
have been made."
Charles Jones, of Milltown, X. B., Avrites:
" The suitability of New Brunswick as a home for settlers seems
to sum up in my opinion as follows: (1) Plenty of work, if you will
do it; (2) pay double that at home (especially Scotland); (3) price
of necessaries and tobacco half that at home—good tobacco being
3 shillings a pound, while poor tobacco at home is 4s. 8d.
" Our monthly bills are just under what the fortnightly ones
were in County of Edinboro. My wife and the boy and girls are
delighted. The eldest girl has a dozen ladies fighting for her services at her own price."
On arriving in St. John the intending settler should call
at the office of the Provincial Superintendent of Immigration, 4 Church street, where he will find available all information touching the farm and industrial offerings listed
at that office. The farms for sale, location, average yield,
buildings thereon, price—these and other facts will be supplied, and in addition the Superintendent will give his
personal attention' and advice in regard to every proposed
purchase in order that the purchaser may receive the best 16 THE ST. JOHN VALLEY
possible value for his money. Laborers, particularly those
who have some knowledge of farm work, will be quickly
placed with farmers at good wages.
The steamships of the Canadian Pacific Railway Co. and
other lines land the intending settler at the port of St. John
while navigation is closed on the St. Lawrence from the end
of Xovember to the beginning of May, and from St. John it
is but a comparatively short ride by the C. P. R. to the different points in the St. John Valley. In the summer months
the steamships land their passengers at Quebec or Montreal,
from which points in Xew Brunswick are easily reached by
the Canadian Pacific Railway.
Further information regarding the St. John Valley may
be obtained by applying to the Xew Brunswick Government
representative at 37 Southampton street, London, W. O, or
to Mr. A. B. Wilmot, Superintendent of Provincial Immigration, 4 Church street, St. John, Xew Brunswick, and full
particulars as to rate of passage, etc., may be procured from
the nearest agent of the Canadian Pacific Railway, or from
General Traffic Agent.
62 to 65  Charing Cross,  S.  W.,  and ~l
67 to 68 King William Street, E. C,  j London.
24 St.  James Street, Liverpool.
120 St.  Vincent Street,  Glasgow.
IS St.   Augustine's   Parade,   Bristol.
41 Victoria Street,   Belfast.
District Passenger Agent, C. P. R.,
C.  E.  E.  USSHER,
Passenger Traffic Manager, C. P. R.,
Between   Liverpool
•A N D-
Quebec, Montreal and St. John, N. B.
The Magnificent Royal Mail Steamships, EMPRESS OF BRITAIN
and EMPRESS OF IRELAND (14,500 tons) and the one-class cabin
Steamships, Lake Manitoba (10,000 tons), and Lake Champlain (7,392
tons), make regular sailings between Liverpool, Eng., and St. John,
N. B., during the winter months, and between Liverpool and Quebec and
Montreal  during the season of Navigation on   the  St.   Lawrence   River.
The Empresses carry first, second and third cabin passengers. The
Lake Manitoba and Lake Champlain carry only one class of cabin passengers. They are staunchly built modern vessels, with every requisite
for comfort, and the rates of passage are moderate.
All Canadian Pacific Steamships in the Atlantic service are equipped with Marconi Wireless Telegraphy, and also with a submarine signal
system,   thus   ensuring   perfect   safety   in   navigation. The     submarine
signal acts in foggy weather in the same cap3city as a light-house does
in  clear weather.
For  rates and  other  particulars  apply to
LONDON,  Eng.,  GEO.  McL.   BROWN,  G.T.A., 62 to 65 Charing Cross, S.W
and  67  to  68   King   William Street,   E.   C.
LIVERPOOL,   Eng    W.   J. PUGSLEY, 24 St.  James  Street
GLASGOW, Scot., CANADIAN PACIFIC R'Y Co., 120 St. Vincent Street
BELFAST, Ireland .. WM. McCALLA, Agent C. P. R., 41 Victoria Street
BRISTOL,   Eng .".   A.   S.   RAY,   18   St.   Augustin's   Parade


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