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The New Canadian Folksong and Handicraft Festival, Winnipeg, June 19-23, 1928 Canadian Pacific Railway Company 1928

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'.■^vv-;.v.-.'.. NEW CANADIAN FOLK-SONG AND
HANDICRAFT FESTIVAL
Winnipeg — June 19-
Illustrating the songs and crafts of recent settlers of European
Continental Extraction, with the co-operation of numerous
racial groups, including Scandinavian, Slav, Magyar, Teutonic
and Romance.
Handicrafts organized by the Canadian Handicrafts Guild.
Folk-song Festival organized by the Canadian Pacific
Railway.
Headquarters: Royal Alexandra Hotel, Winnipeg.
INDIAN WEEK AT BANFF
July 23-28
Spectacular Pow Wow of Indian tribes from reserves in the
Canadian Rockies and Prairie Foothills.
Ceremonial Songs and Dances.
Decorated Tipis.   Indian Handicrafts.
HIGHLAND GATHERING AND SCOTTISH
MUSIC FESTIVAL
Banff— August 31 to Sept. 3
Highland Dancing, Piping and Games.
Scottish Concerts by Notable  Singers in the Heart of the
Canadian Rockies.
Burns-"Jolly Beggars" and other historic revivals.
Alberta Amateur Championship Meeting.
Headquarters: Banff Springs Hotel.
■..'■• .
SEA MUSIC FESTIVAL
Vancouver — September 20-22
j
Solo, Choral and Instrumental Interpretation of the World's
Sea Music at Canada's great port on the Pacific.
Sea Chanties bv Old Sailors.
Headquarters: Vancouver Hotel. NEW CANADIAN
FOLKSONG &
HANDICRAFT
n FEiTTBVAL o
^WINNIPEG-
JUNE 19-23
i
d
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Handicrafts organized by /Ac
CANADIAN HANDICRAFTS GUILD
folksong concerns organized by fhe
CANADIAN PACIFIC RAILWAY
Headquarters:
Royal Alexandra Hotel
Winnipeg
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A FOREWORD
FROM
THE CANADIAN HANDICRAFTS' GUILD
"Fine art must always be produced by the subtlest of all machines, which
is the human hand. No machine yet contrived or hereafter contrivable, will
ever equal the fine machinery of the human fingers."—John Ruskin.
Few countries can so readily and fully demonstrate this formula as
Canada demonstrates it today, with her ever-increasing family of New
Canadians from every craft-hire of ancient Europe.
They are here in their thousands to embellish the bareness of a new
world with the transported skill and taste of old centres of master-
craftsmanship. They are carding, and spinning, and weaving the fleece
and the flax of our prairies; they are hammering our metals, moulding
our clay, carving our woods, plaiting our straws, to the tune of every
peasant song that has echoed down the corridors of racial history through
the rural homes of Europe's people.
Here, they find a blue sky wide enough for all comers; a sweep of
pregnant prairie where men of any class and any race may sweat and eat
nobly; revel at their ploughs; and revel in the sunshine. And simple
hearths for winter days where Slav, and Magyar, Latin, Celt, and
Scandinavian, Pole and Ukrainian, Hungarian and Roumanian, Finn and
Russian, Doukhobor, Austrian, Czech, and the rest, may sit in peace,
weaving their memories into lovely things which all will assemble to
admire and enjoy together in the friendly arena of Canadian Folk-song
and Handicraft Festivals. There they may all meet in happy competition;
with song, and dance, and costume and craft, which no frontier obstructs;
for now all are equally members of a new household of the free; the
household of the Hostess of Two Seas to whose shores by the grace of
Providence   all  who  labour  and   are  heavy  burdened   may   turn  for
refreshment and hope.
j
Confidently, the old Canadian predicts that the Canada of tomorrow
will solve some racial problems which are the universal despair of today.
And she will do it in great part by quietly saving and blending the
missionary crafts of those beauty-loving missionary migrants who are
merging themselves into her family as New Canadians.
(2) >€>«■
A Doukhobor Group at Brilliant, B.C.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE WINNIPEG FESTIVAL
Some countries have a civilization which is mostly native, growing
by slow progression from century to century, according to the inventive
character of its inhabitants. Others are enriched more quickly by
assimilating and absorbing the ideas of other races which may be neighbours
or may be invaders or may be immigrant refugees. The civilization of the
English has been vastly changed from that of the original British by such
waves of invasion and immigration from other races—Romans, Anglo-
Saxons, Danes, Normans, Flemish, Huguenots, French emigres at the
time of the Revolution, and, in the last century particularly, by constant
intercourse with neighbouring peoples. The English have been wise to
encourage the newcomers who have come on peaceful mission to develop
such industries and qualities as they brought with them, always on the
understanding that they accepted the law, customs and language of their
adopted country, and English industry owes a great debt to the Flemish
weavers and Huguenot craftsmen.
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(3) ••€>««
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Photo, Solveig Lund
A Little Fairy of Hallingdal, Sweden
With this example in view, this
New Canadian Handicraft and Folksong Festival has been organized so
that Canadians of British and
French stock mav realise the wealth
•_/
of fine culture brought to this
country from Continental Europe
by newcomers of other races—particularly Scandinavian, Romance, Slav
Magyar and Teutonic. The handicrafts of these races are so intimately
bound up with their folk-songs, as the
songs in question are so often
work songs, that they could not very
well be separated. These handicrafts
and folk-songs will be illustrated by
nearly twrenty individual racial
groups, at Winnipeg, in the Royal
Alexandra Hotel and in the Walker
Theatre, from June 19th to 23rd; but
an inkling of what will be presented
in   craft,   in costume and in music
may be gained by a few extracts from authoritative works describing folk-
life in some of the countries from which the3^ come. Space does not permit
us to give more than a few quotations dealing with a fewr of these races.
Folk-Music
Sweden
"At the end of the day, when the work is done, the field mown clean
and the sheaves piled up high on the stack, the country fiddler will make
his appearance and, climbing to the top of the stack, take his seat there
and strike up a lively dance. The winning couple of reapers will have
the privilege of leading it, and the whole band will join hand-in-hand
and follow the lead in a boisterous round dance. In the evening the
aged grandfather, seated on the doorsteps of the barn, with his nyckelharpa,
or harp-harmonica, like a grand old Viking bard or Druid minstrel, will
draw from his quaint-looking primitive instrument strains lively and
weird, soft and melancholy, as he plays well known folkviser, or folk-songs.
The resting reapers, seated or lounging on the ground around him, will
join in singing the  popular  ditties, simple and touching, with an ever
(4) >c>i;
recurring minor note, the Northern tinge of melancholy, intermingling
with the joyful strain." —{Swedish Life in Town and Country)
"Bellman," says O. S. van Heidensham, "the national poet, is dear
to the heart of the Swede, and doubly so to the heart of the Stockholmer.
His songs are as household words throughout the land. To the Stockholm-
born they speak of their daily life and surroundings, of the green isles and
the shady banks of the Malar, the flowery woods of Haga, the smiling
park of Djurgarden. Burlesque scenes of the life of the people, street
tragedies, drinking bouts, and country junketings; broad humour and
Nature's philosophy; lively fancies and exquisite landscape painting—
A Swedish Loom in Canada
such are the themes of his spng, which from one generation to another
have held the heart of the people spellbound. Every man, woman, and
child knows his favourite ditties by heart, has sung or hummed them in
moments of joy or sorrow."
In the Folk Song Festival at Winnipeg,  the Bellman Quartette, in
Eighteenth Century costumes, will sing a group of Bellman songs.
(5)
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Poland
"Our peasants are almost all vegetarians by necessity. They are
poor and can only very seldom afford the luxury of meat, yet they are
strong, vigorous, always singing at work. Their songs are for the most
part improvizations, they are often witty and always melodious. These
people can no more help singing than the birds. They set all their feelings
to music—love, tears, joy, despair, oppression—all are expressed in the
various songs of these illiterate poets "
—(From "Memories and Impressions of
Helen Modjeska")
In September, 1917, when Pesident Poincare decreed an autonomous
Polish Army, thousands of Poles in America flocked to the recruiting
Camp at Niagara-on-the-Lake, and this automatically became the most
musical spot in Canada. A contemporary, writing in MacLean's Magazine,
describes the magnificence of their massed singing — the haunting charm of
the folk-songs. "From the very depths of their hearts came the solemn
stately 'Boze Cos Polske,' the National Hymn of Poland. Men and
women who have heard all that is most impressive in music have stood
with tear-filled eyes as thousands of Poles poured forth in this sublime
hymn the pent-up emotion of a hundred and fifty years of
persecution."
Russia
Nevin O. Winter in his book "The Russian Empire of Today and
Yesterday"- writes: "One will hear music everywhere in the villages. The
charm of many of the songs is indescribable. One who has heard several
regiments of soldiers singing will never forget the impression made upon
him. A body of workmen will likewise frequently sing while at their
task. The music has a peculiar cadence, and is hard to reduce to written
form. There are choral songs to celebrate the changes of the seasons,
festivals of the Church, and various peasant occupations."
This music has been brought by Russian settlers to Canada. "The
Doukhobors are very fond of singing," says Victoria Haywood in " Romantic
Canada" "and this carries one back to the daily life in the 'villages/
for at almost every meal the Doukhobors end the meal with the singing
of old religious chants. It is worth while going among these people just
to listen to the sweet community part-singing, gathering in volume as it
goes through the notes of the 'Valley of Consolation'/
(6)
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Basket Work from Poland
Ukraine
"The national genius of the Ukrainians," says Stephen Rudnitzky,
"has risen to the greatest height in their popular poetry. Beginning with
the historical epics (dumy) and the extremely ancient and yet living songs
of worship, as, for example, Christmas songs (Kolady), New Year's songs
Specimens of Polish Handicraft
"Oi
(7)
i^raggsgjstaggagqiiiniit^ {fftSgLj? (§■ 6 ••Oii-
~I<>'
(shchedrivki), spring songs (vessilni), harvest songs (obzinkovi), down to
the little songs for particular occasions (e.g., shumki, kozachki, kolomiyki),
wre find in .all the productions of Ukrainian popular epic and lyric poetry,
a rich content and a great perfection of form. In all of it the sympathy
for nature, spiritualization of nature, and a lively comprehension of her
moods, is superb; in all of it we find a fantastic but warm dreaminess;
in all of it we find the glorification of the loftiest and purest feelings of the
human soul."
Florence Randall Livesay describes the Ukrainians as "A race of poets,
musicians, artists, who have fixed for all time their national history in the
songs of the people which no centuries of oppression could silence. The
singers—-the Kobzars—accompany themselves on the kobza while they
sing the glories of the LTkraine. AU art with them is national, from the
building of their tiny huts to the embroideries which adorn their clothes
and which are distinguished for their originality all over the East.
"Immigrants, self-exiled, still sing, putting trivial incidents or dreadful
affrays, happenings in their old villages, into legend and song.    From
several of these living in Winnipeg I
obtained old ballads and folk-songs set
to minor airs."
Roumania
"The Bard of the LHmbovilza" is a
fascinating book of Roumanian folksongs, translated by the late Queen of
Roumania, who wrote under the name
Carmen Sylva.
Referring to the Roumanian spinning-
songs, she says: "The girls all stand in
a circle, spinning, the best spinner and
singer being in the middle. She begins to
improvise a song, and at any moment
she chooses, throws her spindle, holding
it by a long thread, to another girl, who
has to go on spinning while the first girl
pulls out the flax—a proceeding requiring
great dexterity—and, at the same time,
has to continue the improvization which
A Don Cossack of Winnipeg     has been begun."
(8) ,€>«.
1    ■'■■■■■■ ■
Capt. A. V. Seferovitch, Consul-
General for Jugo-Slavia in a lecture
under the auspices of the Canadian
Handicraft's Guild, Montreal.
" What our people could not
put down in writing they put
into their applied arts, and in
national songs and ballads
sung by minstrels travelling
from village to village."—
Top—Katherine Paluk, a
Ukrainian Singer
Right—Ukrainian Folk-dancers
Lower—A Favorite  Ukrainian
Folk-dancer of Winnipeg
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Norway
In the remote and isolated
valleys and rural districts of
Norway, there has grown a
pure folk-music as characteristic of the land as her mountains. Dr. J. O. Hall, in his
autobiography "When I Was
a Boy in Norway "s&ys: "There
is in this music an infinity of
varying moods, rhythms and
colors. Every one of the harp
strings is tuned. They sing of
heroic exploits in heathen ages,
of the kings and warriors of
the Middle Ages, and of the
beautiful 'huldre' (hill fairies),
of the 'draug'   (water spirit),
ir-.,.J   ed    l::'y..l   dd'd'"'*-"  "'tr-^f^.
I'^.fV'ddd     .d.  -.,,:■■;, ..- ■■'..■.■■■
Top—New Canadians from Norway, at Camrose, Alberta.    Lower-—Costumes
and houses of the Sudbrandsdal} Norway
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who presages the destruction of the
fishermen, of the brownie and the water-
sprite. There are also love-songs so deep
and ardent that they have few equals,
sarcastic comic songs, and children's
songs as pure and innocent as the
sleeping child itself.
'' The National Instruments of
Norway are the Hardanger violin, the
Lur, and the Langeleik. The Langeleik
is an old form of zither. It has a long,
flat body with sound holes and seven or
more strings, which are struck with a
plectrum. The Hardanger violin is
higher and more arched in its build than
the ordinary violin. The scroll is generally a dragon's head, and the body is
richly ornamented with ivory, mother-
of-pearl, and carvings. Beneath the
four upper strings (which are variously
tuned according to the music they wish
to produce), and under the fingerboard, there are four, sometimes more,
sympathetic strings of fine steel wire.
By the aid of this instrument, the
country people make their improvised
musical impressions of nature, interspersed with descriptive sketches
of midsummer, with the dawn of morning and the glow of evening,
huldre's song, thrush's trill, or the ringing of marriage-bells.
"The most popular of the folk-dances in the rural districts of Norway
are the springdans, polka, and the hailing.
"The Norwegian national dances have a natural and bold character,
which give them considerable musical worth. The springdans, so called
to distinguish it from the ganger (or walking dance), is in three-four measure,
and it has vigorous evolutions and gyrations. It is characterized by a
striking combination of binary ^and ternary rhythms, and a progressive
animation very exciting to the hearers."
Miss Mitzie Anderson
A New Canadian from Norway
assisting ai the Winnipeg Festival
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Hand-made Rug From Finland
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Finland
Martinengo Cesares-co, whose
book on "The Study of Folksongs" is a classic on this subject,
writes of Finnish Folk-Songs:
"Sleep acts the part of questioner in the lullaby of the
Finland peasant woman, who
sings to her child in its bark
cradle: 'Sleep, little field bird;
sleep sweetly, redbreast, God will
wake thee when it is time. Sleep
is at the door, and says to me,
"Is not there a sweet child here
who fain would sleep? a young
child wrapped in swaddling
clothes, a fair child resting
beneath his woollen coverlet?"
Hungary
The Hungarian nurse tells her
charge that his cot must be of
Towels Woven and Embroidered by Ukrainian Women Settled at Mundare, Alta.
Pottery  Made of Canadian  Clay  and
Embroidery by Doukhobor Women
rosewood and his swaddling
clothes of rainbow^ threads spun
by angels. The evening breeze
is to rock him, the kiss of the
falling star to awrake him; she
would have the breath of the lily
touch him gently, and the butterflies fan him wdth their brilliant wings. Like the Sicilian,
the Magyar has an innate love
of splendour.
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(13)
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Handicraft
Sweden a
No place in Europe is more fascinating than the great open-air Folk
Musuem (Skansen) in Stockholm.
"A visit to Skansen," says a writer in the Studio, "calls forth many
emotions.    Here are the  ancestral  homes  of the sons of those fathers *
whose names were never inscribed in the pages of history, but without
whose aid this Sweden would perhaps never have been a land. Here we
can follow the course of their lives amid their toil and their pleasures,
through solemn and mirthful hours, in cottages they themselves built with
hands long ago laid to rest. We see the furniture they used, the very
dresses they wore: all this recalls to new life the vanished past. Best it
is to wander about Skansen some beautiful autumn evening, when the
yelkw leaves rustle on the winding paths. As twilight deepens and the
lights begin to glimmer in the little cottages, it is as though wre heard the
quiet rhythm of a mighty song, the song of a people telling of the generations that have gone, and of days long since reckoned with the past."
The same writer says: "The Swedish peasant was, and, to some extent,
still is his own smith, carpenter, joiner and painter. During the long
winter months, when the snow lies deep on the ground, he has little to do
out-doors. The axe, big pocket-knife and plane provide him with work
then, while the women of the family sit at their looms. And when the
dark comes on early, everyone assembles in the cottage, where big logs
crackle on the open hearth. But no one is allowed to sit idle. The women
spin and sew, the master of the house and the farmer's men work at their
sloydj while the boys take their pocket-knives and make a first attempt
at forming an axe-helve. There is no hurry, for winter lasts four or five
months, and for that reason they endeavour with inexhaustible patience
to produce a wealth of most beautiful carving even for the most everyday
objects. When we nowadays examine these sloyded things from our
forefather's times, we hardly know which to admire most; the vast length
of time that was spent on the decoration of the various articles, or the
original manner in which every peasant sought to employ in his own compositions the styles of art that prevailed at different periods.
"The artistic labours of the Swedish peasant woman, whose sense
of beauty and technical ability we have had occasion to admire in the
woven hangings and other textile productions for the decoration of the
home, found a rich and fruitful field in the adornment of the popular
native costumes, which display an astonishing wealth of colour and
variety in design. It was not the various provinces alone whose dresses
differed  totally in  design  and  adornment;  the hundreds within  each
••&*>■ • ■ . (14) ■ nfr
• • ■*>«■
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Lower—
C>l
Top—Ukrainian Ballet of St. Boniface, Winnipeg
Mandolin Orchestra of Ukrainian Girls in High Schools at Winnipeg
(15)
riiiri)ifiiiiii'iViaw",nnnti-T_T;i7iTiir»i.TTinifiiTprii'iTirifLi
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Above—Mrs. Helga Stephanson, an
Icelandic New Canadian, with specimens
of her handicraft at Markerville, Alta.
Centre—Float representing the founding of the Icelandic Republic 930 A. Dy
at the Canadian Confederation Diamond
Jubilee Celebration, Winnipeg.
province, the parishes within each
hundred, nay, the very villages in
those parishes, not infrequently
had each a pronounced type of dress
from that of the others."— (From
"Peasant Art in Sweden")
"Until quite lately the women
used to provide the family clothing.
They spun and wove the wool
from the sheep, and the flax from
the   fields,   and   made   stuffs   and
linen enough to supply the whole household. In their leisure hours, during
the long winter evenings, men and women work instead at home sloyd
(Hemslojd); they carve wood and make caskets and toys, plait panniers
and reticules, or cut out bread platters and tankards, all of which can be
disposed of at the market town or bartered for trinkets and bright stuffs,
head-gear, and ready-made clothing, or solid bacon and good salt-herring.
"The farmhouse is generally built of wood, and painted in the invariable
dull red against dry-rot. It is rarely more than one story high, with a
verandah or archway over the entrance and consists of a large middle
parlour and smaller rooms adjacent. The parlour, which joins on to the
kitchen, is also the dining-room and general sitting-room, very often
bedroom besides, as there are alcoves or recesses in the walls around it,
each containing a couch, before which curtains are drawn.    The walls are
(16)
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bung with white linen stuffs, woven by their women on their looms in
archaic pictorial designs in red and blue; scenes from the Bible and country
life, trees, houses, and arabesques of a naive and childlike art."—-(From
"Swedish Life in Town and Country" by O. G. Van Heindenstam.)
Iceland
"Throughout the island," says a writer in The Studio, "carved wooden
and horn articles are on sale and in use. We find large peices of furniture,
like bedsteads, chests and chairs, as well as the utensils for eating—spoons,
dishes and plates. Notching is much practised for purpose of decoration.
Designs of real distinction are carved on the boxes, and on those in which the
haymakers carry their breakfast
•  ;      to the meadows.    Lovers often
display much skill in decorating the hand-mangles, and the
pretty little things they work
for their sweethearts. We
come across hand-mangles of
quite astonishing construction,
their bodies really architectural, with columns of
elaborate ridges, their top-
parts in the shape of the hand
raised in oath-taking, or an
animal's    head. We    find
delightful chests executed
entirely in pierced woodwork,
framed by pretty ornamental
borderings and often bearing the
record of the year of their origin.
'€>!■■
New Canadians from Iceland.
  (17)	
.«{»« ..€_>!!-
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"A peculiar kind of weaving was much practised in olden times, and
is still to be found. It is used on articles, such as ribbons, garters, dress-
suspenders, shoulder-straps, saddle-cushions and similar objects, and
the close study of these fabrics reveals most variegated designs and a
technique of such simplicity that lovers of the weaving-craft must hail its
renaissance with joy. Not only geometrical patterns, but also figures of
men and animals, as well as quotations, and congratulations are formed
by the threads. The production of such ribbons is quite a Sunday amusement for the women in Iceland. This kind of weaving requires a quantity
of small, thin, square beechwood slabs, which are put closely together.
Each slab has a hole at each corner, and the linen threads for the weft are
run through them. By turning and placing the boards the patterns can
be very easily varied, and the women, who, during their work, keep their
little weaving apparatus fastened to the girdle, are very inventive."
New Canadians From Finland
Denmark
"Spinning, carding, and weaving did, and still do, to some extent, play
an important part in the indoor winter life of the Danish peasant. In
order to get on quickly with the carding, the housewife often invited a
number of young girls ('Kartepiger/ they were called), generally all the
available girls of the village, to assist her for an afternoon and evening, and
later on, when the young men of the village had done work, they generally
managed to find their way to the house in question.
(18)
'IB* ••C>i.
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"The girls came early in the afternoon, and were well entertained;
tales were told and songs were sung, all about love and love affairs.   The
young man who first turned
up and the first comer amongst
the girls were 'carding sweethearts,' and for them there
were special songs, each singing
a verse in turn, the songs varying in the different provinces.
The carding over, the merriment increased and the evening
wound up with dancing and
manifold quaint games.
"Spinning is not, or in any
case was not, confined to the
women, in some places even
large farmers took in spinning,
to turn an honest penny and
wile away the long winter evenings. Then there was weaving
and knitting; the latter was of
no small importance, and in
some parts the knitting needles
used to feed the family, and
A Polish Beauty the  children early learned to
use them with much deftness; it was looked upon as a distinct honour to
be known as the fastest and cleverest knitter."
—(From " Danish Life in Town and Country"
bv J. Brockner)
Poland
"Much has been written about the peasant craft of Zakopane and the
Tatra Mountains, but very little has been said of the work of the peasants
in the Eastern marshes of the Polish Republic. These people also have
their handicraft, which is often quite distinctive and equally interesting
with the wrork of other sections. Wooden household utensils are used
quite extensively and these often bear the decorations and symbols of
the particular neighborhood where they are made. This also applies to
the hand woven textiles, which are made in practically every household."
—(Jan Bulhak in "Poland")
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Norwegian Glee Club, Winnipeg
Sicily
"From earliest girlhood to past middle age," says Marhinango Cesaresco
"the Sicilian women spend many hours every day at the loom. A woman
of eighty, Rosa Cataldi of Borgetto, made the noble boast to Salomone-
Marino: 'I have clothed with stuff woven by my hands from fourteen to
fifty years, myself, my brothers, my children, and their children.' A girl
who cannot, or will not, weave is not likely to find a husband. As they
ply the shuttle, the women hardly cease from singing, and many, and
excellent also are the songs composed in praise of the artive workers.
The girl, not yet affianced, who is weaving perhaps her modest marriage
clothes, may hear, coming up from the street, the first avowal of love."
Holland
The handicraft of Holland is particularly illustrated in the costumes
of the Dutch people. These are described in considerable detail by D. S.
Meldrum in "Home Life in Holland" from which the following are a few
extracts. "On market-day, Middelburg exhibits all the variety of costume
(and it is great) which Zeeland possesses from Axel to Brouwershaven, and a
skilled eye can tell at a glance from which island, and even corner of an
island, each peasant has come. Take that woman there, for example: her
hat proclaims that she is a native of Walcheren. It is of very fine straw,
trimmed with wide white ribbon, and white streamers of the same material,
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A New Canadian from the Black Forest {Schwarzwald)
fastened to the lining, are brought round in front. I see another Walcheren
woman close by, and she has blue streamers, attached to the hat by a
little hook of gold, hanging down her back. The significance of blue
instead of white is hid from me.
"The head-ornaments of this woman are numerous, and you may
be sure that they are of real gold. The Dutch peasant does not wear sham
jewelry. To the band of gold already mentioned, there are attached
firmly at the temples, but hanging free, corkscrew-looking ornaments
(krullen) of gold.    These have pendants of gold embossed, each with a
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Dutch Children from the Isle of Marken
tiny pearl drop. On special occasions, perhaps on the special occasion of
the kermis only, she will wear on her forehead a plate of flat gold, beautifully worked, curved to the shape of the head, and tapered to a point which
is stuck into the hair at the side. This ornament is known as the voor-
naald.   The necklace is of blood-red coral, and has a gold clasp.
"The Walcheren jacket or bodice, generally of black material, has
short sleeves, with bands of broad velvet that grip the arm tightly. Its
peculiarity is that it is fashioned of one piece, which is pleated into shape—
a very handsome shape often. It is cut low, even for winter wear sometimes, and pointed in front, and nowadays a kerchief is always worn under
it, but in such a manner as to allow the highly coloured plastron (beuk)
to be seen.
"Save where it peeps out of the foot, the skirt, generally of blue and
white stripe, is entirely covered by an apron of dark-coloured stuff, blue
on week days, black on Sundays as a rule, fastened at the back by a gold
hook. The shoes are of leather, with a black and white leather bow set
low upon the instep, and in the centre of the bow there is a silver buckle,
worked somewhat in the manner of the well-known Zeeland buttons."
Russia
"It is astonishing how cheap lace can be bought in Moscow. There
one learns that lace-making is one of the old established industries of
Russia. For centuries the peasants of Novgorod, Tver and other provinces
have been noted for their skill in this work.   Thousands of peasant women
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(22)
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Spinning Wheel at the Doukhobor Community, Brilliant, B.C.
spend the long winters in making the web-like laces, which later will
decorate some lady's garments, for there is always a market for it."
Little Russia
"In no part of European Russia will you see so much of national
costume as in Little Russia. This market in Kharkov is a study in colour.
Red is the prevailing colour among the women, but many other bright bits
will be seen. Their red turbans have embroidered borders, and their
skirts also have a border which reaches almost to the knee. The women
generally wear their skirts rather short, scarcely reaching to the ankles.
The waists are made out of pretty patterns, with unique designs worked
into the material. Even the heavy coats, which they wear for warmth,
have their own design, and all will be made after practically the same
pattern. The men likewise have their shirts embroidered in red and blue
designs, and the younger men have quite a dandified look. Both sexes
wear coarse boots, many of them being made of plaited straw. This is
the original style of boots, but more now wear the leather."
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Of the Doukhobor women in British Columbia, Victoria Hayward
writes in Romantic Canada: "Her spare moments are filled with knitting,
making rugs for her room, spinning and weaving, and embroidering her
own or her children's photoks or kerchiefs. The Doukhobor women are
especially clever at all work of this kind, showing exquisite taste in the
selection and blending of colours in their rug-making. Occasionally one
of the older women brings out to show you a Turkish rug which she wove,
in conjunction with a Turkish woman at the time when, by the Czar's
decree, they were banished to the wild parts of Southern Russia bordering
on Turkey; in the hope, perhaps, that the Turks would put them to the
sword. Instead, it seems, the women of each side took to making rugs
together."
Schwarzwald (Black Forest)
The exquisite wood-carving of the Schw7arzwald people is wTorld famous.
Living in the forest with   long   winters,   the  people  of   this  country
naturally took to wood-carving,
and with centuries of traditions
have produced a marvellous
handicraft. They are natural
singers too. The little colony
which will send a small choir
to the Festival at Winnipeg
sang the folk-song "Muss i denn"
as the train which carried them
to their port of departure steamed out of the station at Freiburg.
Czecho-Slovakia
The country that produced
Smetana and Dvorak has an unlimited wealth of handicraft and
lovely folk song.
Songs my mother taught me
In the days I long for;
Ever in her eyelids
Were the teardrops hanging.
Now when I the children
Teach myself to sing them
Tears again are flowing
Flowing down my face so sombre.
Emblematic figure of  Czecho-Slovakia
on a Winnipeg float
(24) .
■" ji»p®» Hungarians on Baron Czavossy\s
Farm, Cochrane, Alia.
Hungary
Adrian Stokes, the British
artist, has some fascinating descriptions of peasant costumes
in his book on Hungary, as for
instance: "On their heads the
women of Zsdjar wore handkerchiefs, red, orange, or green;
gold and silver embroidery in
broad bands sparkled on their
bodices; their sleeves were of
whitest linen, embroidered with
pale  crimson at the shoulders^
Iron Lantern and Candlesticks Made by
a New Canadian from Hungary
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their skirts were scarlet and their aprons black or green. They
wore black top boots, ornamented on the heels, as did also the young girls
walking in a separate group. These girls went bareheaded save for a
plaque of tomato-coloured satin which was fastened to the knot of hair
at the back, and developed into three streamers that passed under the
waistband and reached almost to the heels. Their smooth dark hair was
drawn tightly back and brushed or oiled down, so that not a single wave
existed over any brow. On their bodices gold and silver braid also gleamed;
but in many instances the effect was tempered by a thin white gauze veil
drawn tightly round the shoulders. The rest of their apparel resembled
that of their mothers, except that their skirts were sometimes white.
"The men wore low black hats with red ribbons; waistcoats of sheepskin, the wool turned inside, and the outside leather embroidered all over
with crimson and scarlet; flannel-coloured felt trousers, with red lines
down the seams; and shoes of soft leather, turned up and laced across the
insteps.
"We found the interiors of the houses to be kept in most perfect order,
and that they were patterns of cleanliness. The walls were lavishly hung,
with brightly coloured plates and rows of decorative earthenware jugss
many of which were very old. The beds were loaded up to the ceilingd
with mattresses and pillows with deep bands of rich red embroidery, and
in nearly every room there was a green-tiled stove. The women opened
for us heavy, gaily decorated chests and showed us their fine clothes,
among wrhich the many-pleated aprons, often scarlet, embroidered with
silks of various bright colours, especially pleased us; but everything was
in good taste."
Roumania
Describing a visit to a Roumanian district, Adrian Stokes writes: "We
found the houses of the farmers we visited to be picturesque and clean.
Outside they were white, or light blue, with small windows framed in
dark wood, and—the older ones—high roofs of rich dark-coloured thatch
which in shape resembled candle-extinguishers with blunted tips. Inside,
the principal rooms were hung round with towels with red embroidered
ends, and over these were rows of jugs and plates of rough earthenware,
most decorative and charming in colour. The clean white tablecloths
spread on the tables were embroidered in the centre, and richly round
the borders, with red Roumanian patterns of great variety. At that
time many oi them were weaving the great goat's-hair mantles, which,
when worn, give them very much the appearance of Polar bears. For
the rest, their costume was composed of red aprons, white skirts, and
handkerchiefs on their heads which were generally red."
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Folk Concerts—June 20-23
Folk-song concerts in which the various racial groups will each contribute
their own national folk music will be given on the evenings of Wednesday,
Thursday, Friday and Saturday, and at a Saturday Matinee (five
performances—June 20-23), at the Walker Theatre. Tickets ranging
from fifty cents to two ^dollars (plus tax) per concert may be had at the
box office of the Walker Theatre, which will be open for sale of tickets
commencing Wednesday, June 13th. Matinee performances will also be
given at the Royal Alexandra Hotel on the afternoons of Wednesday,
Thursday and Friday—tickets $1.50 for reserved seats, $1.00 (plus tax)
not reserved. The capacity of the concert hall at the Royal Alexandra
is limited to 600 seats. At the Handicraft Exhibition in the Royal
Alexandra Hotel, folk-workers, many of whom are also musicians, will
sing and play from time to time.
Programmes will be selected from contributions which will include
the following:—
Poland
National Dance:    Mazur.
Mixed Chorus:
Pod Bialim Orlem (Under the White Eagle)
Gorolu Czy Ci Nie Zal (Dirge)
Daleko, Daleko (Far Away, Far Away).
And other Folk-songs,
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Iceland
1. O, Gud Vors Lands (National Anthem).
2. (Six Folk-songs).
(a) Goda Veizlu Gjora Skal. (b) Olafur Og Alfamaer. (c) Sofdu
Unga Astin Min. (d) Fifil Brekka. (e) Fagurt Galadi Fuglirm Sa.
(f) Stod Eg Ut'iTunglsljosi.
Sung by the Icelandic Choral Society, Halldor Thorolfson (Conductor).
Folk-songs—Mr. Paul Bardal.
Denmark
King Christian (National Anthem).
Scene from a Danish National Play.
Two Folk-songs,    (a) Den Tappede Hone,    (b) Seksturen,
Sweden
Du Gamla, Du Fria (National Anthem).
Bellman Quartette—in a pot pourri of Bellman's Songs. The Singers
are—Mr. and Mrs. Arthur Anderson, Mr. Erick Soderberg, and
Mrs. Carl E. Rydberg.
3. Three  Folk-dances by   fourteen   Swedish   Folk-dancers,  under the
direction of Axel J. Carlson.
(a) "Frykdalspolska."   (b) "Vingakerdansen."   (c) "Skansk Kadrilj."
4. "Varmlandingarne" (Swedish Folk-pla}^).
5. Folk-dancers and thirty  children in  Dans lekar—Folk-dance games,
under the direction of Mrs. C. H. Nilson and Mr. Axel J. Carlson.
6. Solos by Folk-singers, under the direction of Mr. Manne Backman
and Mrs. Rydberg.
7. Selections by Swedish Orchestra, under the direction of Miss Simonson.
Norway
1. "Ja Vi Elskar Dette Landet" (National Anthem).
2. Three Folk-songs.
(a) Aa Kjori Vatten. (b) Store Hvide Flok. (c) Brumbasken i Bumba.
Sung by the Norwegian Glee Club—Aadne Hoines (Conductor).
Czecho-Slovakia
1. Kde domov muj (The Old H}^mn of Czechs).
2. Zasvit mi ty slunko zlate (Song of the 16th Century).
3. Na brehu Ryna (commemorating the great Master, John Huss).
Holland
Double Mixed Quartette, under the direction of Mr. Wijenberg—in
Folk-songs including:
(a) Bergen Op Zoom (Sixteenth Century). (b) Wilhelmus van
Nassouwe (Sixteenth Century),   (c) Kent gij het land der zee ontrunk#
Hungary
Under the direction of Mr. Dezso Mahalek.
1. Solo Dances—"Csardas," "Palotas," etc.
2. Folk-songs in original gypsy arrangements and modern arrangements
by Kodaly and Bartok.    This group will include Sarasate's "There's
On Earth But One True Precious Pearl."
(28) to**
3. Orchestral numbers as played by the Hungarian Gypsies.
4. Violin and 'Cello solos in "Folk Style."
5. Liszt's "Xllth Hungarian Rhapsocty," as a pianoforte solo.
Roumania
Mixed Chorus, conducted by the Rev. Ghenadi Ghiorghiu, with Folk-
dances.   Some of the songs to be sung are:
1. Rota Mori sa invar teste (The wheel of the mill turns around).
2. Hai sa dam mana cu mana (Come on, let us shake hands).
3. Desteaptate Romane (Wake up, Wroumanians).
Jugo-Slavia
Tamburica music (the National instrument), with Kolo.
1. Folk-songs:
2. Oj more duboko (Oh, the deep sea).
Divan je Kiceni srem (Beautiful, lovely is the Srem).
3. Kukuruzi vee se beru (The corn is already being harvested).
Don Cossacks
Male Chorus of eight voices, under the direction of Mr. L. Silkin, in
Folk-dances and Folk-songs, including:
1. "Ty Kouban ty nasha rodina" (Kouban, our native land).
2. "Kon bojevoj s pokhodnym vjukom" (Horse accoutred for battle).
3. "Iz-za ljessa ljessa kopiji mechej"   (Out from the bush appear a
multitude of lances).
Musical Quartette with Balalajka, Mandolina and Guitarre.
Ukraine
Comprehensive program of Folk-music by the Ukrainian Choir, with
chorus, ballet and quartettes, both mixed and male voice.
Folk-songs will include:
1.    Werchowyro (Mountain Song).   2. Spiw Staroho Melnika (Old Miller's
Song).    3. Oj Prjadu Prjadu (The Song of the Loom).     National
Ukrainian dances will also be given.
Schwarzwald
Mixed Choir of eight voices under the direction of Frau Dr. Schneider
in Folk-songs such as:
1. Muss i denn.
2. Jetzt geh'i ans Brunnele.
3. Am Brunnen vor dem Thore.
4. O Schwarzwald, o Heimat.
5. O Thaler weit, o Hohen.
Finland
Mixed Choir: Potellinen Ystava.
Tulatulla.
Duet: Valkoiset Tuomet.
Female Solo: Soumalainen Kansanlaulu.
Male Solo: Etela Pohjalainen Kansanlaulu.
Violin Solo: Kausanlauluja.
Folk Dance: Koviston Polska.
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Ukrainian Girl Dancers of Winnipeg
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THE CANADIAN HANDICRAFTS' GUILD
The first handicraft exhibition held in Montreal took place in 1900.
It wras composed of craftwork from many lands and the specimens shown
were of a very high order.
The second exhibition was in 1902 and only Canadian crafts were
shown.   It was a surprise to the public and aroused a great deal of interest.
Since those earlv days over 250 exhibitions have been sent out bv the
Guild. They have gone to the British Isles, the United States, Australia
and to every Province of the Dominion.
The Guild, from Headquarters alone, has paid out to the craftsmen of
Canada over $650,000.00.
The Guild aims at the conservation of all crafts, either those native
to Canada or those coming to the country with New Settlers.
Anyone who desires to help in this patriotic work may become a
member of the Guild or one of its Branches.
Canadian Handicrafts' Guild, Headquarters for the Dominion,  598 St.
Catherine Street, West, Montreal, Que.
Provincial Branch, Manitoba, Winnipeg, Man.
Provincial Branch, British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C.
Provincial Branch, Alberta, Edmonton, Alta.
Branch, Summerside, Summerside, P.E.I.
Branch, Cape Breton Island (Cape Breton Home Industries), Baddeck, N.S
Life Membership  .$50.00
Ordinary Membership, Annually     1.00
li tj||i_i.i ii.ii—n.m _____-i_i-._i_____i___.i_iMiii..ini.i ■■■■i_-_ii-.il.  i ———_—____iiiii iii_____ii i  \Ol/   jia-R-Bnium-in inn«»m-^«M———l^1———»»-■ _________■_______■ ■ irai_»_»ii-i__«:«Q_»a_B»am__l iini.iinm jfJDH >c>ii—; ___ . .—ii<_».
MANITOBA BRANCH
One of the objects of the Festival being the encouragement of handicraft work of Canadians of European Continental extraction, the Canadian
Handicrafts' Guild, through the recently organized Manitoba Branch, is
arranging a comprehensive display of the arts of the home.
The aim of the Guild being educational, the organization of the
Manitoba Branch was accomplished with the idea of maintaining the
historical background of the province. Agriculture is the basis of all
industrial and commercial progress, therefore handicrafts, with its
auxiliary arts, music and dancing, is the art expression of those who work
on the land, and will of necessity be the base on which is founded the
ultimate Canadian art.
To stimulate craftsmen by disposing of their wares, two surveys are
being made by the Guild, one of the crafts available and one of available
markets. The results of these surveys will be proven at the Festival.
Through the co-operation of the Provincial Government, the Women's
Institutes and the United Farm Women, an invitation is being given
workers of Continental European origin to display their art at the exhibition which will be shown at the Royal Alexandra Hotel, Winnipeg. This
work is limited to that produced since the artist has been resident in
Western Canada. Prizes to the amount of $400.00 will be allotted by the
judges for articles submitted, according to the standard set by the
Canadian Handicrafts' Guild. An Honourable Mention Ribbon of no
money value will also be awrarded for work of high standard.
In Western Canada where so much of the native art of older lands has
been transplanted in our soil, a very fine and distinctive' exhibition is
expected, and connoisseurs will find a most interesting study in tracing
the national differences in stitchery, colour and individual craftsmanship.
Under the patronage of the Honourable T. A. Burrows, Lieutenant-
Governor of Manitoba, the executive of the Manitoba Branch of the
Canadian Handicrafts' Guild has been chosen from local organizations,
with Lady Nanton as president. With her are associated well known
Manitoba women, such as Mrs. John Bracken, Mrs. C. E. Dafoe, Mrs.
R. F. McWilliams, Miss Esther Thompson, Mrs. G. H. Williams, Mrs.
H. M. Speechly, Mrs. J. E. Lehman, Miss Amy Roe, Mrs. Hallberg,
Mrs. D. C. Coleman, Mrs. P. C. Shepherd, Mrs. C. S. Riley, Mrs. W. F.
Osborne, Mrs. Edith Rogers, M.L.A., Mrs. H. A. Robson, Mrs. R. G.
Rogers, Miss Kennethe Haig, Mrs. M. C. Walston, Mrs. Peake, Miss
M. Finch, Mme. A. E. Moissan, Miss Kathleen Peters, Miss Bessie James.
FnaBEr^itff.; t »  . !B_wamm^mm*. ^..-i__BTpjiir,. __.__to[B^-^^ \ v7 +4 J     r':»-jlr.wiff;:aiPiiiMm '< - '". .irjM^^...»acfm»a»gaMe ■ :inuij.iii'rii:iMir-rr~~nn-sc5. The Royal Alexandra
Winnipeg
This roomy, compact hotel, well known for its
excellent service, adjoining the Canadian Pacific
Station, will be the headquarters during the period
June 19-23 for the New Canadian Handicraft and
Folk-song Festival.
This is a Canadian Pacific Hotel, with everything of Canadian Pacific standard, and has a
capacity of 408 rooms, with an auditorium seating 900. Make early reservations for the period
of the Festival at any Canadian Pacific office or
write to the manager, Royal Alexandra.
Canadian Pacific Hotels ^■iABsAA
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