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General instructions respecting measurement of streams Fleming, Sandford, 1827-1915 1870

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General Instructions (No. 1.)
Respecting  Measurement  of Streams.
1. In order to determine finally the number, the
character, and the clear waterway of Culverts and
Bridges on the Line of Railway, information respecting the freshet discharge of streams is required.
2. Books have been prepared for the purpose of recording information—No. 1 for entering in the field,
particulars as to the sectional area, velocity, and
volume of streams; and Book No. 2, for entering results obtained from No. 1, and in addition other
information bearing on the subject.
3. The observations and measurements for Book
No. 1 must be made, if practicable, when the snow
freshets are at, or near, their height; and if there be
more than one freshet, the observations should be
4. The sectional area, velocity, and volume may
be obtained with sufficient accuracy as follows :—
(1.) Select a place near where the Line of Railway
crosses the stream, and where its bed and sides are
tolerably regular, well defined and free from obstructions. Measure off a section of the stream, say 100
feet in length, in ordinary cases; at this place, drive
stakes at the water's edge on both sides, and at each
end of the section, until the heads of the stakes be
level with the water; these stakes will be left until
the water falls, and then the sectional area ascertained.
(2.) Take a piece of wood about the size of an egg,
drop this into the stream at the upper stakes, noting accurately the time by a second watch, that it takes
to float to the lower stakes. Repeat this, say five
times, entering each trial in the proper column in Book
No. 1. The mean time and velocity per second will
afterwards be found in the office.
5. The cross sections where the stakes are driven
will be measured by a line and rule or other means
when the water falls.
6. Special observations will be required for large
rivers, and full enquiries should be made with regard
to the effects of ice, the highest known floods, &c , &c.
7. The velocity of very small streams such as
those less than 2 feet wide and 6 inches deep need
not be ascertained, but these and streams of every description should be entered in columns A and C, Book
No. 2; and all but the exceptions named, in column B.
8. The inclination of streams may be ascertained
at any time before or after the freshet, and entered in
column A, Book No. 2; the tape and spirit-level
should be used in making these measurements.
9. All field measurements and observations should
be entered as they are made in the proper place in
the books provided for the purpose. Field notes
should be disdinctly made in pencil, and remain unaltered. Notes recorded in the office should be in
10. The mean sectional area, velocity, and volume,
when ascertained, will be transcribed from Book No.
1 to Book No. 2.
11. As much accuracy as possible is requested,
and it is especially enjoined that when a freshet
occurs, whatever the condition of the weather or the
travelling may be, the opportunity of obtaining the
information desired will not be allowed to pass, and
that means may be adopted to have every stream on
the line examined whilst the water is high.
12. In the event of the water in any stream having fallen before being reached, the Engineer making
the examination will judge from water-marks on the
banks as to the greatest height of the water, and
leave the cross section stakes driven at this height;
he should, however, ascertain the velocity of streams as he finds them, and enter the circumstances in the
column for remarks. He will also note in the column
for remarks the clear width and height of all common
Road Bridges over streams near the Line of Railway,
stating how long they may have been in use, and
other particulars.
13. The object being to make ample provision for
the easy flow of flood water across the Line of Railway, it is urged that every information bearing on
the subject will be obtained, and entered in the books
provided for the purpose. The Engineer making the
observations will date and sign the books, and hand
them to the District Engineer to be transmitted
to me.
Chief Mngineer.
Halifax, March 12, 1869.
ta (Book Form No. 1.)
Dateqfobs. 1869.
Stream at
General size of
Stream at date
within 150 feet
of line.
Cross See
No. of seconds to float distance
Mean. ■ ( Here enter No.
< of Contract or
( Division, &c.
* * * * These columns will be filled up in the c
up in the office.)
Cross Section at upper stake
>r . Cross Section at lower stakes. h • et
» °   I  la*-"   l_* M
J (Book Farm No. 2.)
Obs.for columns B and Cmade day of. 1869.
Elevation or depression of Surface of
Stream above or below the surface at
centre line.
Up Stream-
Down Stream-
Volume at date of 11 General size of
observations ascer- I Stream at date of
tained as per special instructions.
obs'n. within 150
ft. of centre line.
,3 a>
£•8 '
-"So, Information respecting Streams between.
Here indicate any circumstances that may appear to effect the flow of water or the
character of structure proposed. Where the line passes along sloping ground and the
works will intercept the flow of water on the surface of the ground, give the Stations
between which the ditches will draw the surface drainage to each proposed Culvert. In
some special cases a sketch of the relative position of streams and Railway may be useful.     


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