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Nationalist China Zhongguo guo min dang 1927

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Published by thb Secretariat,
The Kuomintangsof China,
The Central Political Council,
The Canton Branch.
Canton, China.
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1 V •
I (18664925)
The latefDr. Sun Yat=sen,
The Founder of the  Kuomintang and
The revered Father of the Republic of China.  Dr. Sun Yat=sen's Parting Message.
For forty years,  I   (Dr.  Sun)   devoted my \life to a
revolutionary cause in an attempt
elevate  China
a
state of freedom andfindependence.   My'experience of these
eventful years^has absolutely  convinced me that to attain
1
this cherished goal we must enlist the support of the great
mass   of people  at  home  and   work in cooperation with
those nations which treat-us on the basis of equality.
" The revolutionary movement has not as yet succeeded,    I
andMt is therefore  imperative that all  my fellow-workers
should do their utmost in order to  realize  my  " Recon
struction! Plan/'   '• Outlines of  Reconstructive   Policies,
i>
"The Three Principles of the People/' and the policies
enunciated in the manifesto of the Kuomintang at the first
national convention.
Fight on, my fellow-workers, with renewed vigor to
bring about a People's Convention} for the solution jof our
national problems and to abolish the unequal treaties with
foreign nations.   These things must be done in the shortest
time possible.
(Signed)  Sun Wen (Dr. Sun Yat-sen)
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** TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Page
Flag of the Republic of China (Right), and Flag of the Kuomintang
^      (Left)
• • •
...Cover
• • •
• • •
• ••
• • •
• • •
• • •
• • •
Portrait of the late Dr. Sun Yat-seu
Dr. Sun Yat-sen's Parting Message
■*■ ICttCS        ... ••• •«• «••
Marshal Chiang Kai-shih's Proclamation Announcing Policy of
• • •
• • •
* •
• • •
.Frontispiece
...    1
• ••       <3
The Nationalist Government at Nanking
• * *
• • •
• • •
• • •
Statement of Foreign Policy Issued by Dr, C. C. Wu
• • •
• • •
• # •
7
9
Mr. Wu Han-min
• • •
•• t
t • •
• •   •
•   •
...    11
Mr. Wu Chine-ban's Document to the Central Control Committee of the,
... 11
Kuomintang of China
•  V w
• • •
• • •
• • •
it
Ching Tang" Official Statement by Kuomintang
• • •
• • •
Purge the Party Slogans for the Chinese People       	
Marshal Chiang Kai-shih's Manifesto to the Nation ...
A Circular Telegram, Jointly Signed bv Marshal Chiang Kai-shih and
... 14
... 15
... 18
Marshal ^Feng Yu-hsiang
• 9 •
• • •
•  •  •
Marshal Feng Yu-hsiang's Telegram to Hankow       	
Marshal Chiang Kai-shih's Reply to the Various Organizations     ...
General Li T?ai-sum's Circular Telegram       ...   i i	
A Proclamation Issued by the Headquarters of the Twenty-sixth Nationalist
... 21
... 23
... 24
... 25
Army
...  25
•»rwjr  •
Mass Meeting fco Celebrate the "Ching Tang" Movement and the Bemoval
of the Nationalist Capital to Nanking    ...
• • •
• • •
w
• • •
• • •
• ••
• • •
• • •
• • •
... 27
... 28
lgs of The Women's Movement General Alliance of China to sne
Federation of Feminist Organizations of Other Countries     ™
 31
Origin,and Aims of the Nationalist Party      	
Two Interesting Proclamations Issued by the Nationalist Government
S^.     TkT^^l     •— —   mm* •••
in Nanking
.♦«   oD
Marshal Chiang Kai-shih's Address at the Reception held at The Shanghai
Chinese General Chamber of Commerce        ...       —       	
,>K
% i  NATIONALIST CHINA
PREFACE
The object of this pamphlet is tofgive our foreign friends an intelligent
insight? into the recent Nationalist Movement of China. It is hoped, that with
better International Understanding between China and the World Powers, genuine
goodwill and sympathy will exist, and Justice and Liberty will finally triumph in
this world of ours 1
I
The contents embrace the important phases of ^Nationalist China, and they
may be summarized under the following Main Topics:
(A)    The Nationalist Government at Nanking.
 . i ■ ■
(E) Foreign Policy.
(C) Purge the Party Movement.
(D) The Revolutionary War.    $ \
^(E) The Nationalist Party or Kuomintang.   t
i In  order  to  give  our  readers  a  concise  idea  regarding the Nationalist
Movement of "a living Chinese Nation," it is necessary to emphasize the following
facts of each phase for serious consideration: _
(A)   The Nationalist Government at Nanking.
Because of the "general welfare of the Nationalist Party, of political
expediency, military strategy, and geographical convenience," the Nationalist.
Government was formally moved from Wuchang to the historic capital of China,
Nanking.Jon April 18th, 1927.
The Government, guided  by j Dr. Sun Yat-sen's
H
Three   Principles   of
the{ People,"   has   faithfully   pledged   to J«\Preserve} the   Kuomintang|and
Salvate China.'
The Chinese people are wholeheartedly supporting this Government, which
constitutes the real Government of the Chinese people, by the Chinese people, an|
for the Chinesefpeople. *
k 4
Foreign Policy.
In accordance with the will of four hundred million Chinese people, the
Nationalist Government has decided tol adopt a foreign ^policy, the important
points mayjbe briefly stated as follows:
To use legitimate means to abrogate the unequal, treaties.
 [appeal   to fthe   Foreign   Powers   to   conclude new  treaties
immediately.        u*
To give proper protectionfto foreign life agd property.
To bring China into the position among nations to which her four
hundred   millions,   natufal   resources,   and   four   thousand   five
hundred years' culture entitle her.
The| treaties that bind China with the Foreign Powers are unequal,
anachronistic, and humiliating. In the name of Humanity, Justice, and Freedom,
will the Foreign Governments display ''farsighted statesmanship and practical
wisdom," in altering these existing treaty relations?
Purge the Party Movement. |
This so-called movement entitled in Chinese p Ching Tang" aims to purge the
Nationalist Party |(Kuomintang) of anti-revolutionists—the Communists,
Opportunists and the other undesirable elements.
The Communists led by the aggressive methods of Borodin, seized important
cities as their centres and usurpedltiie power of the Kuomintang. This action is
detrimental not ouly to the Nationalist Party, but also to the Revolutionary Cause
and the Chinese Nation^as a whole. %'
The Nationalist Government therefore calls upon Marshal Chiang Kai-shih
and the entire Chinese people^o rid China of all anti-revolutionists, in orcier to
solidfy the Nationalist Party, carry on the Revolutionary Cause to a successful end,
and gain Freedom, Independence uud Equality for China.
The Revolutionary War.
The Revolutionary War is a revolution of the Chinese people.   It is really
a war between the progressive Nationalists on one side, and the reactionaries,
militarists, and imperialists on the other. .  t
The entire Chinese people are eagerly hoping for the complete realization of
its aims, which are to secure Justice, Independence, Freedom, and Better Livelihood, and whichiwould completely eliminate Foreign Imperialism, the Militarists,
and the Anti-revolutionists.
This is a mighty task indeed, but there is every confidence *that ultimate
triumph will soon come, as Nationalists China now controls two-thirds of China
proper, ^including "the richest, most populous  and  most  progessive  cities and
provinces." (E)   The Nationalist Party or Kuomintang.
The late Dr. Sun Yat-sen was the Founder of the Kuonuntang, a Party
possessing nobles principles and sublime policies.
Nationalism, Democracy and Social Welfare constituted " The Three
Principles of the People" or "San-Min-Chui-I" and these principles have been
"formulated in the light of existing conditions in China, and the experience of
Western Nations."
The Kuomintang program may be summarized as anti-militarism, anti-
imperialism and social reform.
Throughout Nationalist China, the Kuomintang, which, constitutes "the
brain and nervous system of China," is making itself felt as a liberating, energizing
and elevating force.
The various phases have been frankly and briefly discussed, so that the
readers may have a clear conception of the Nationalist Movement in China.
In conclusion, it must be pointed out that while Nationalist China is
contriving to solve her serious problems in this greats National Movement for
Unification, Liberty and Reconstruction, it is earnestly hoped that the World
Powers will be solidly against armed intervention in the internal affairs of China.
Thus along the path of National Progress, will dawn a New China, unified
in thoughts and actions, and imbibed with noble principles and sublime purposes,
which will make for World Peace and Brotherhood I
May 1927.
The Secretariat,
The Kuomintang of-China,
The Central Political Council,
The Canton Branch.
Canton, China. Ill 7
I*
Marshal Chiang Kai-shih's Proclamation Announcing
*   *
iPolicy of The Nationalist; Government at Nankingj
(May 1927)
"At the present time when the revolution of the people is taking a rapid
development, and when the people are hoping eagerly for the complete realization
of the aims of the revolution, the Nationalist Government, in accordance with the
wish of Dr. Sun Yat-sen and with the*opinion of the majority cf members of the
Kuomintang, and also based on the resolution of the Central; Executive Committee,
was formally moved from Wuchang to Nanking on April 18, 1927.
The reasons for this measure1 are obvious. From the points of view of the
general welfare.of the Party, of political expediency, of military strategy, and of
geographical convenience, Nanking occupies a much more important position than
Wuchang. r •
(« In the midst of the^wave of revived imperialism, made still more dangerous
to the Nationalist movement of China through such instrumentalities as foreign
troops, compradores, etc., coupled with the. destructive machinations of the
CommunistsrPartyf which have proved disastrous to the ^revolutionary cause the
responsibility of the Nationalist Government has become more extensive and
heavy. ,
. But at .this critical moment there is, as has always been, one course of
action open to the Government, and that is continually to follow'the principles
laid down by Dr. Sun and to execute the policies of the Party.
\ On the one hand, while the Government is bringing all ihe nation's
revolutionary elements under the Party's "Three Principles of the People" so as
to make concerted action possible, on the other hand, it aims at the uprooting of
all foreign imperialism, militarism, and other anti-revolutionary movement	
The convening of a  People's Congress; the abrogation of unequal treaties,
and the execution of "The Three Principles of the People'* and the other matters
which the Government is striving to bring about within the shortest possible
period. *
In order to enable China to become an independent nation, and the Chinese
to become a free people possessing a government, for the people, of the people and
by the people, "The Three Principles of the People" will necessarily have to be
carried out in full. It is not only China's sole means of salvation, but also the way
to a new world.e
The Government, therefore, seeks the  thorough execution of this principle and cannot  but  regard  those opposed  to  it as well as those opposed to
.the Nationalist Movement with the purpose *of creating class distinctions, as
anti-revolutionary.
s. tf
The Government has faithfully 'pledged itself to the principles laul
down by Dr. Sun, to the preservation of the Party, .and to the salvation
of China, and ttias assumed >the full responsibility of ^putting an end to all
obstacles to the complete realization of its policies.
Such revolutionary principles are:
First,' a jclose co-operation between the  people and  the army; ,
Secondly, the. establishment of an  honest and clean  Government;
Thirdly, the  promoting and protecting of China's industries, and
Fourthly, the consolidating of organized agriculture and labour and
assistance in its extension.
These are the declared policies of the Nationalist Government which
will be carried out accordingly.
The Government, therefore, calls upon its military commanders, leaders,
and the whole' nation to purge the territory now under its jurisdictions
of all anti-revolutionists in order to solidify its organization, to funify law
and to maintain order, to unite in one with the express purpose of carrying out."The   Three   Principles  of the People*   under  the direction of the
Party. * '     $
Those opposed to the principle must be extinguished and the misguided elements set right, so that the raalevolents have no excuse for being
anti-revolutionary and the misguided may  befbrought  to their  proper places.
Let "The Three Principles of the People" be the guiding principle
of the Government." Let it pave the way for a new world. Make this
Government the  real government of the people.
May the strength of the Revolutionary array destroy imperialism from
abroad and do away with  militarism   and   anti-revolutionists at   home.    May
the   Nationalist   Government   in   the   shortest 'possible time  accomplish this
mighty task. 9
Statement of i Foreign Policy
*?~
•.
9
Tjie Following Official Statement has been Issued JJy Dr. Ckao-Ctiu
Wu9 The Minister of Foreign Affairs ofthe Nationalist
\ .    Government at Nanking: *
iJWiTH  the removal on  April  18,  1927, of the seat of the   Nationalist
Government   to    the    historic    capital   of    China,   Nanking,   another    stage
has been reached in the Chinese  Nationalist  movement. The opposing forces,
Progress and Reaction, which came to grips in  1911,   have continued   their
struggle up to the present time, but there  can  be no doubt as to  the ultimate
triumph of the cause  of Progress   which   has   been   consistently? championed
lded
by   the   Kuomintang.    The   principles   of   the   Kuomintang  fhave
mou
has
v ^
the thought <of new China, $and the Government? founded on these principles
[in the short space of two years extended its jurisdiction from* Canton
to more  than half of  China   including the  richest,   most   populous, 'and  most
_ Q         _ *     *■ -ft*         I
progressive cities and^provinces.
The rest of  -China   will  in  the   near ^future   also  be   delivered   from
militarism and  misgovernment.  The  presence in  the  party  of   communist
fluence  at variance
past few  weeks  brought  what {hitherto  has  been  an   internal*  schism   to  an
°pen split. Nevertheless,  as  these  influences ..are small,   there   is   every
fidence   that   they   will   very   shortly   be   completely    eliminated   and   that
solidarity  will  beire-established   in  the   ranks  of, the .followers   of Dr.  Sun
with  the   precepts, of the   Kuomintang  has   during
ftie
con-
Yat-
seu.
| The   installation  of the   Nationalist   Government   at   Nanking   affords
an opportunity to make a public statement of its foreign policy. The
Government guided by the teachings of Dr. Sun considers it its paramount
duty, in accordance with the will of the entire Chinese people, to emancipate
China from her state of international bondage and to secure for her an
equal status in the family of nations, a status to which her civilization, resources,
and population entitle |her. China is fettered on every hand by treaties
and conventions modelled after those imposed upon her nearly a hundred
year ago. There are few agreements between nations, evea when concluded
on terms of equality, which have survived after the lapse of a century;
is it reasonable to insist upon China's observance of antiquated and unequal
treaties when the political, social, and economic conditions of the country,
affecting both  Chiuese  and  foreigners,  have undergone  fundamental changes?
\ 10
These treaties have on the one hand  seriously  impeded the development
of the nation, on the other hand [they have failed to accomplish the supposed
foreign interests! and  promoting foreign trade. Foreign
object of protecting I	
and   foreign   trade   best   promoted  by mutual
good-will, and genuine   good-will   cannot   exist   so   long as anachronistic and
In   the common   interest of Chinese   and
interests    are   best   protected
humiliating   treaties   are   enforced.
foreigners alike, a fundamental readjustment of the existing   treaty  relations
is imperative.
The Nationalist Government addresses itself to the task of the abrogation of the unequal treaties, and will employ for that purpose all legitimate means. It has taken note of the statements emanating from authorised
spokesmen of the foreign governments as to the inapplicability of the existing
treaties and their readiness to meet the wishes of the Chinese people. With
every confidence in the good intentions of the foreign governments, this
government earnestly hopes that negotiations with a view to the conclusion
of new treaties will immediately be opened. Technicalities should be discarded
in order to achieve, in the shortest possible period, the aim of restoring
harmonious  relations  between  China  and  the  foreign   nations.
Meanwhile, the Nationalist Government will do all in its power to
protect foreign life and property according to the generally accepted rules
f international law. The resentment of the Chinese to the foreigner is not
to him individually but to the system under which he lives. The Chinese
object, not to the presence of the foreigner, but to his position of privilege.
They consider that the foreigner should be placed on a footing of equality
ith the people among whom he has voluntarily chosen to live and
trade.
In   the   forthcoming   negotiations    for
the   abrogation  of   the
cial
privileges of foreigners in China, the Nationalist Government trusts that
the foreign governments and peoples will display farsighted etatemanthip
and practical wisdom in the solution of the outstanding problem of the
world to-day. The Chinese people, irrespective of geographical situation and
political creed, are all united in demanding international justice and fairplay.
In  the  interest  of  the peace and  welfare  of the   world, such  a  simple   and
rpnable  request  by  a quarter  of the  human   race  ought  eat to  be  made
 vain.
Nanking, May 11, 1927. 11
Mr. Hu Han-Min.
One of the most prominent figures :in the Nationalist Government at
Nanking ^is Hu Hau-Min, chairman of the Central Executive ..'Council of the
Nationalist Government.    Mr.  Hu  is a faithful  adherent of Marshal
C hi an?
Kai-shih and was one of the first prominent Chinese to proceed to Nanking when
the Nationalist Government formally moved there.
Mr. Hu, as a member of fthe Central Administrative Committee, the
Political Assembly, the Committee of the Nationalist Government, aud Chief of
the Central Propaganda Department is taking a prominent part in political matters
at Nanking, together with Wu Ching-han, Li Sek-chan aud Tsa Yu-pei.
Nanking was the place selected by the late Dr. Sun Yat-sen as the capital of
China. It was there that Dr. Sun was inaugurated as the first president of China.
Mr. Hu has always been an ardent disciple of Dr. Sun, and had a distinguished
career under the famous leader, having acted as secretary to Dr. Sun at the time
the latter was inaugurated in I!) 12. After Dr. Sun's resignation Mr. Hu returned
to Kwangtung, where he was elected Tutuh and Civil Governor. At about that
time the Kuomintang succeeded to the party previously known as the Tung Men
Hui and Mr. Hu became the party's leader in Kwangtung.
During the intervening years he has had a distinguished career, always
a firm upholder of Dr. Sun's "Three Principles of the People," and it is a foregone
conclusion that his influence aud ability will be used at Nanking for the uplifting
and guidance of the Chinese people.
(The China fWeekly Review.)
Mr. Wu Ching^han's Document to the Central Control
Committee   of the   Kuomintang   of   China
(Issued   on April  2nd,  1927.)
Translated  by  (Mrs.)  Leung Yih  Su-chi, M. A.
Editor's   Note:  Mr.    Wu,    a    raei
nber   of   the    Kuomintang    Central
Control! Committee, was Director of the Headquarters of the Central
Political Department in Nanking. He. was foremost in issuing such an
urgent appeal, and pointed out that immediate and extraordinary steps must
he effectively taken to stop the demolition and treachery of the Communists
in order to' "Preserve the Kuomintang, and Salvate China.** The? full text consisting of about four thousand Chinese characters is
a startling disclosure of the treacherous plots of the Communists in China.
The following translation which is an important summary of the Document
merits careful  reading
When! the late Dr. Sun Yat-sen reorganized the Kuomintang in 1924,
Dr. Sun opened the Kuomintang ranks to admit the Chinese Communists.
The  Communists  were  admitted  on the following explicit! terms:
So  long as  the
actions  of
e   Communists   are   not   treacherous to
China and  the  Kuomintang,  the  Communists  will  be allowed to study
their  doctrines  freely. -
Those   Communists   who   were   ready   to   give   up their   Communistic
belief   were allowed to  be  members  of the  Kuomintang,  on   condition
that   they  would be  bound  by  the  discipline  of? the  Kuomintang.
Dr.  Sun  himself  formulated  "The Three Principles of  the  People,"  in
■
the light of China's existing conditions, because he was quite aware of the
fact 'that Communism was positively unfit for China. But the Communists,
after being admitted into the Kuomintang, gradually planned treason which
was evidenced  by the  following facts:
In the Manifesto of the Hupeh Communist Party ^to their JComrades
on October 10th, 1927,1 these treacherous statements were issued:
The Double Tenth Anniversary (National Day of the -{Republic of
Chiga) should be commemorated, but at present it is not worth
commemorating, because internally the Traitors are not yet completely
eradicated. In the future, when the "Soviet Russia Revolution Day"
is achieved,  then  it ps really worth! commemorating, '     i
The! steps taken  for  Communistic   Expansion  in  China   shouldi be   as
follows:
At the outset, besides winning over the proletariat, it is necessary
to try to win the confidence and support of the bourgeoise and
the intelligentsia, in order to hasten the overthrow of the
Militarists.
To organize "Specific Groups" within the Kuomintang in
order to superintend politics; then utilize politics to direct military
tactics.
After the Militarists were swept aside from the political arena, to
utilize the proletariat to deal freely with the bourgeoise, the intelligentsia, and finally the Kuomintangnites.       '}    |
To use the dictatorship of the proletariat (laboring classes) merely
as catpaws in the program. Eventually, get rid of the proletariat,
so that the "purely Communistic Elements" will establish
Communism in China.
a.
b.
c.
d 13
(B)     On March 6th 1927, at 8 p.m., I myself (Mr. Wu) and two comrades called
it
on Chen Tu-shiu, the leader of the Chinese Communist Party. In the
course of conversation, Chen Tu-shiu made this abrupt statement: "In twenty
years China will practice the Commuuistic Doctrines of Lenin."
(C)    Recently, the Hunan Provincial Kuomintang, under the influence of the
Communists, has issued Slogans supporting Borodin.
.J Thus taking into careful consideration, (A) The Hupeh Communist Party
Manifesto, (B) The Statement of the Communist Leader, Chen|Tu-shiu, and (C)
The Slogans Supporting Borodin, it was positive that the Communists^, were
planning Treason, namely, that after twenty years' time, China will be forced to
practice Communism, and that the Kuomintang of China will be exterminated.
This will be the greatest catastrophe to China, the consequence of which the true
Chinese Nationalists should never overlook !
It is ascertained that Borodin was a convicted-criminal, and has frequently
changed his nationality.    Borodin was not his real name,  but* only a name in
m
disguise. His position in the Soviet Communist Party was a Commissioner of the
Inflammatory Committee. Consequently, his plots of instigation and^segregation in
the affairs of China have been both malicious and treacherous. Borodin's manner
seemedlto be kind and congenital, but it was all being "put on." He is inclined
to tell lies, so Falsehood must be advocated in Chapter One of the " Communist
Testament." \
Borodin usurped the power of the Kuomintang and the Nationalist
Government. In Hankow, the exercised his Away, unhindered and unchallenged
by the group of Chinese "Political Opportunists" who affect to speak with the
voice of China.
The above evidences have pointed out these positive facts :
(1)    That Borodin has already been administering the part of China hinder the
Nationalist Government.
1(2)    That whenfthe power off the Communist Party is'strengthened and unified,
China will be forced to practise Communism under the sole administration
JL
of Soviet Russia.
The all impelling consciousness of the danger has driven|me, (Mr. Wu), to
sound the Note of Warning to the entire Chinese Patriots, and utter the following
statements in conclusion: ^^_^^^^^^^^_^^^^^^^^^^^^^^_      ^_^
(A)    The^Kuomintang of China absolutely  refused  to  be  exterminated  by  the
Communists.   Therefore it is necessary to stamp out the treacherous schemes
of the Communist Party.
r
i 14
 I The Kuomintang of China absolutely refused to allow ChinaJ to degenerate
to the undignified status of a mere appanage of Soviet Russia. Therefore it is
necessary to   prevent   this {Inequality and   Disgrace   by   exposing   and
denouncing the imperialistic machinations of the Communists in China.
It must be noted that the Imperialistic plots of Soviet Russia threaten the
sovereignty of China and strike at the very root of Chinese Political Freedom.
Also they threaten to retard the consummation of the Nationalist Cause.
Thus  the Treachery  of the Communists are detrimental   both   to   the
Kuomintang and China.
J Extraordinary steps must at once be taken to prevent
the occurrence ofjthis great calamity, in order to "Preserve the Kuomintang and
Salvate Nationalist China."
44
•
Ching Tang"—Purge the Party of all the
Undesirable Elements
OFFICIAL STATEMENT BY KUOMINTANG
(April, 1927.")
To|understand clearly the objects of the movement for the purification of
the Kuomintang Party, it is necessary to know first the actual conditions
of the present time.* We have not yet accomplished the aims of the Revolution.
We are only at jthe beginning of the task; and while victory is already in
sight, it is of I the utmost importance at this juncture tto carry on the
Revolution Ito a successful end. We must stand together and face the common cause with a united ■ mind. The slightest neglect on .our; part will not
only defeat the Revolution, but will also make it impossible to attain fthe
objects  of  liberty and equality, for Tthe  Chinese  nation.
Therefore, all! members of the party must know the gravity of} their
responsibility. At this: critical moment, the undesirable elements are unscrupulously" and untiringly doing the work *of destruction, and if we do not
check it in an* effective manner, it will not {only mean the fall* of the
Party but also the failure of' the Revolution. With this in view, we adopt
the following for the purification of the Party. First, to purge the Party
of the Communists, and Secondly, tof purge'the Party of the opportunists
and other undesirable elements. 15
' i It will be remembered! that when Dr. Sun Yat-sen admitted! members
of the Communist Party into the Kuomintang, he was quite aware of the fact that
Gommunisn* was not fit for China. But as the Communist Party were ready ?to
give up their Communistic belief, and willing to be directed by the Kuomintang in
order to co-operate in the work of the Revolution, it was only natural that they
shouldjbe admitted into the .Party. But since the beginning of the Northern
Expedition, while members of the Kuomintang have been labouring faithfully
either onlthe field of battle or elsewhere, and while the militarists of tjie country
have been gradually eliminated, Jthe Communists, taking advantage of our success,
have seized important cities as their centres for propaganda and usurped the power
of the Party, Our military successes are being utilized by them tp inflame the
undesirable sections of thejpopulace to undermine our forward! move and to create
disturbances in the rear.
Aside from the Communistic members who are to be condemned, there are
also the opportunists and other undesirable elements in the Party. It is they who
shamefully steal the name of ,ithe Party for their selfish gains, and it is also they
who falsely use the power of the party for their personal activities and aggrandise-
ment.   Theirs is a crime no less serious than that of the Communists.
For the welfare of the Revolution as well as thatjtof the Kuomintang, we are
forced to adopt this strong measure to purge the Party iof all th<*   undesirable
elements. * <? .#
Purge the Party Slogans for the Chinese People.
The Following Slogans, Prepared by the Publicity Commutes
op the Kwangtung Provincial Special Kuomintang, are
an Embodiment op the Aims and Spirit op the    ;'
it Nationalist Movement. *
«i
: •' (May, 1927.)
1.    Down with the Chinese Communist Party, whichlis treacherous to our
late director, Dr. Sun Yat-sen. *   ^
2.    Down with the Chinese. Communist Party which
Min-Chui-I, "The Th?ee Principles of the People."
is against
the San- — 116
3. Down withfthe Chinese Communist Party! which isldestroying   the
People's Revolution. r    :
4. Down with the Chinese Communist Party which is undoing the work of
the Northern Expedition.
5. Down with the Chinese Communist Party which is utilizing Ibandits
and labor usurpers to oppress the Peasants and- Labourers. i
6. Down with  the Chinese Communist Party which is insulting   and
disgracing our late Director, Dr. Sun, f
7. Down with the Chinese  Communist   Pattys which   is   plotting the
downfall and destruction of the Kuomintang. *
8. Tofbe against "The Three Principles of the People" is to be a Counter-
Revolutionary. »' *
9. To be against the Kuomintang is to be a Counter-Revolutionary.
10. All power and authority belong to the Kuomintang.
11. All true and loyal comrades of the Ktlpmintang must unite and rise.
12. Down with all Counter-Revolutionaries. i
13. Down with all Opportunists.)     '
14. Concentrate the powers of the Kuomintang.
15. Down with all forms of Imperialism.
16. Down with the Fengtien clique of Militarists. |
17. Eradicate   all   corrupt   officials,   greedy  gentries,. and unscrupulous
merchants.!
18. Purge the Kuomintang of all anti-revolutionists.
19.1 To ■ call     a
Strike    against
the     Kuomintang j| is ^Counter-
revolutionary.
20. Those   who   refuse  to  come under   the   direction  and  guidance  of
■
the Kuomintang are mot   Revolutionaries.
21. The masses of the  people  must rise   and   clean  up the . Counterrevolutionary  Chinese Communist  Party.
22. The   masses of the people must   rise   ami   support   the   Chinese
Kuomintang.
23. Support the Central Government at Nanking.
24. Support the advancing Nationalist Forces.
25. Down with  the! bogus governments  at  Wuhan? and  at Peking.
26. Down with the. most devilish Chinese Communist Party.
27. Down   with   the   Chinese   Communist   Party  which massacres the
Kuomintang members.
28. Down with the Chinese   Communist   Party   which   gives   up   the
Special District of Hankow.
29. Down with the Chinese Communist Party which  compromises with
the Fengtien militarists. 17
30.
Down with the Cninese Communist Party which utilizes the masses of
people as tools.
31, To clear out all the Chinese Communists who are in ambush.
32. To clear out all the Chinese Communists who are in disguise.
32,   The true revolutionary soldiers must rise up and overthrow the Chinese
Communist Party.
34. Down with those bad characters who take vengeance under Che pretext
of the " Ching Tang " Movement.
35. Down with those dishonest Kuomintang members who tolerate the
Communist elements.
36. Execute Hsu Chien, Tang Yen-ta and others who betray the party and
the country, and frustrate the Northern Punitive Expedition.
*
37. Execute those who are unworthy and covetous and; who betray jthe
Party and the country. %
38. Execute Borodin who c/urses and disturbs China and the Kuomintang.
39. To clean up all the corrupt officialsand politicaliopportunists.
40. To clean  up all the covetous officials, attendants, local Sharks, and
unscrupulous gentries.
>41.   To deal severely with all the reactionaries.
42. To dismiss those who betray the party, endanger the country and are
ungrateful to the masses of the people.
43. "The Three Principles of the People" are the principles for national
salvation.
44. To realize all thefparty principles of the Kuomintang.
45. It is  only' the tKuomintang  which  can  realize  the welfaie of"the
peasants and labourers.
46. To reclaim all concessions, leased and ceded territories.
47. To emancipate the Tibetans from the oppression of the Imperialists
and the Mogolians from that of the Communists.
48. To unite all the revolutionary and oppressed People and make joint
efforts to overthrow imperialism.
.   49.   Long live the Success of the National Revolution.
50.   Long live the Kuomintang of China. Mi-.
18
•
Marshal Chiang Kai-Shih's! Manifesto to the Nation
I \  (August, 1926.) '
W\mW
China is very backward because of Imperialism.   Imperialism, is preventing
6
China's economic development, bleeding her to death, to fatten its- own capitalists,
and further, to control her economic destiny.v By her economic, political,
educational, aud other metfiodsjfit is cutting off our territory, • opening ports,
controlling customs,  forcing  the  acceptance   of  unequal   treaties,   the   carryin
away of China's products, forcing delivery  of  raw   materials  at   minor  prices,
reducing our country to a mere market place of the   Imperialists.   Imperialism
is   using   our
militarists   to create   confusion,   and to   destroy development of
industries in China. This is done to .further protect their own special powers.
The militarists succeed to the ideas of the ancient monarchists, join with
Imperialists  in  sacrificing the interests  of the people  and the industry of the
nations.
Now in recent decades   Yuan Shih-kai tried
to,: be
Feng
 Emperor and  Chang
Kuah-chang  and  Hsu Hsi-chang
Hsun  tried   to   restore   the   Emperor, j	
tried to destroy:the constitution, f^and Tsao Kun and Wu Pei-fu usurped positions
and robbed the country. These all have trodden down- the people so that
China has become almost a. feudalfief.
'The purpose of the revolutionists is to break down Imperialism and
Militarism and?to create a free and independent nation, in order to protect the
interests of the State and of the people. This has been the life idea of ray
Master, Dr. Sun Yat-sen. Therefore our party has held the First, and Second
National Assembly and so I myself make this declaration.
Imperialism ?and Militarism keep each* other, hence if we wantVto accomplish our work we must break down these. To do this 7we must unite the
efforts of all] the people to sweep away the militarists of the country and the
influence of the Powers that oppose the revolution. When my Master waslabout
[to die he purged that we should go to fight with the ^Reactionaries. The aim of
his declaration is not only to put down Tsao and Wu, but also tojjmake once
for all a clean sweep/ of all anti-Revolutionists, so that there might befno
successions; not only to Ibreak, down the militarists but also to strike down
Imperialism on which the militarists rely. This, must be done to root out all
anti-Revolutionists forever, that China may come out of her feudalism! and
become a free and self-governing nation.
Also in my Master's declaration $t is plainly said that after our
victory we must use the power of the Revolutionary Government to sweep
away all powers ^and influence of the anti-Revolutionists, to set free the people
and to seek self-control, as regards foreigners, by abolishing all unequal treaties,
and the bringing about of mutual self-respect, thus to sweep away all Imperialism
in China that she may be elevated to a position of international equality. 19
The following are the concrete principles that are necessary ami which must
be realized: pfv
1. To call a preparatory National Assembly of citizens, through which a
true National Assembly of citizens may be called to solve the problem of the
country, and to establish a unified National Government.
2. With regard to foreign countries, to abolish the Unequal treaties, to revi»e
or make equal treaties mutually honouring each other's sovereignty,
3. To evacuate all the foreigu soldiers and warships which are domiciled in
the interior of China.
4. To cancel consular jurisdiction.
5.
To take back the Concessions.
6. To take back Customs autonomy.
7. To   standardize -the church  schools, and  to   take  back the rights of
education.
8. To see that alliforeigu nations, unless having secured the permission of
the Government of China, are not allowed freely to purchase and maintain any
property or to institute any bank or to issue banknotes.
9. To organize a clean and pure Government, and drive away covetous
officials and foul magistrates and clear out all accumulated corruptions of the
former Government.
10. To? confirm definitely the complete freedom of the people, as regards
publio assembly* organizing societies, aud freedom of speech, of'free press, and free
residence and religion.
11.    To unify the national finance, and to sweep away the corruption of
likin.
12.    To abolish the sur-ta:
on agricultural land, to discontinue the
collecting of the revenue in advance, to do away with all miscellaneous extortions,
and to prohibit the as?e>sing of military deficits on the poor people.
13. To remit all the revenue of debts iu the famine areas and place limit*
on rates of interest.
14. To prohibit the planting, transporting and smoking of opium.
15. Strictly urge co-operation between the armies and people,! an I to
forbid billeting of soldiers by force upon the people or in the schools.
16. To develop the public natural sources of raw products, both national
and provincial, and to develop industry.
17* The Government must find some means to grant certain amounts of
money to relieve the people from float, drought, catastrophe and famine, and keep
low the price of rice, and to confiscate the property of rebel* and enemies for relief*
bodies
force
with aU obstacles to their political rights. I 20  I
19. All the provinces, having settled their military problems, may immediately give orders, according to my Master's principles for. the founding of the
nation, to establish local self-control, to carry out the election by the people of
Provincial Civil Governors, the Magistrates, and Village Self-Controlling Bodies,
and to arrange for the calling of town meetings, district meetings and the Provincial
Assemblies in order to change and improve the politicaUcondition of each town,
district and province. / ¥
ftj
20. To change and improve the system of tenure of agriculturaMand, and to
determine by law the maximum limit of tax and rent, in order to improve the
living conditions of the farmers.
21. To establish laws for labourers, and manufacturers, and the rules of the
labour unions, to determine the minimum wages of labourers, and prohibit the
cruel treatment by both foreigu and.Chinese employers^and factory foremen; and
to ^improve the sanitation of factories and especially fprotect the children and
women workers.
22. 'Definitely fix educational expenses and disallow anybody to take pr
borrow school funds for any purpose; and to increase the salaries of the teachers
of the primary schools, aud decrease the tuition of students.
23. ^Improve the living conditions of soldiers, to f provide for better
education of the soldiers, and to confiscate the property of rebellious opponents to
be used in part for the old, impotent, andfmaimed soldiers,
24. Definitely fix and increase the salaries of the sub-officers of the
National Executive and Educational bodies and recognize their organizations.
25. To urge equality between man and woman and to enfranchise woman
and established her right to hold office and all other legal rights |on an equality
with those of men,
26. To make a thorough census.
27. To make accurate survey of agricultural land.
28. To organize local militia in every village or country for self-
protection.
29. To build highways in every district.
30.
To repair and deepen the rivers.
31. Reforestation.
32. To improve the system of currencyknd prohibit the excessive issuing
of banknotes.
33.   To give Government aid to co-operative societies among thef common
people in order to provide for co-operation as between producers and consumers, f 21
Of the above objects, all possible should be at once put into
practice, and of [the • remainder I and my fathers and brethren pledge
ourselves • to the utmost for their accomplishment. To all;' our people
(fathers and brethren) I state that the Revolution is for the benefit of both
the country and the people, and it isjtruly of the people themselves. The people
are the foundation of.the revolution, The goal of the revolution is to strike down
Imperialism. To do this we must have the support of all the people. Now the
gathering together of the Armies at Wuchang is to breakdown Imperialism. To
strike down Wu Pei-fu and a few other militarists cannot be regardedjas the sole
end of thejjRevolution. Hence, fathers and brethren, quickly come together under
the "Blue Sky and White Sun" (the revolutionary flag) and give yourselves to
this cause, for your own great benefit, to the organization of revolutionary bodies,
for the strengthening and establishment of the army and of the Kuomintang
Government. *^ Also all those people who are not yet under the swny of the
Kuomintang army should quickly organize and promote the work of Revolution.
Do not sit still, but accomplish your revolutionary duty."
A Circular Telegram, Jointly Signed by Marshal Chiang
* Kai-shih andt Marshall Feng Yu=hsiang.
(Hsuchowfu, June 21, 1927.)
Editor's Note: As a result of the jJHsuchowfu Conference, the following
telegram was issued as a farther testimony to the complete agreement between the
two Nationalist Commanders.    The joint statement rea'ls as follows:
"For -10 years our late leader had devoted his energy to  Nationalist  revolution, that national sovereignty and international equality he secured for China.
| . "This aim was almost realized in 1911, when the Manchu Dynasty fell and
when the Republic of China was established—which, as a matter of fact, must be
considered as the initial step leading &q ultimate liberation^ of our 400,000,000
brethren. i
| "Yet out of the dynastic vestige which |was still then evident autocratic
Imilifarism rearediits head. fFrom the date of Yuan's ascension, in alliance with
foreign  imperialism,  it  had "wrought such havoc among our people that for  more
than a decade their existence had been vegetating between fire and water. 22
"Out of their intense suffering, the people came to realize by whom they
have been victimized, and have, on the present occasion, given* expressionjto their
righteous indignation in popular uprising. I
"It is in compliance with such earnest demand of the people and in perpetuating the unfulfilled wish of our late leader that the Northern Punitive Expedition
was launched. We, Chiang Kai-shih and Feng Yu-hsiang, in the company of our
martial comrades, have not been unsuccessfully this effort; in! the campaign which
covered the distance of tens of thousands of miles, these erstwhile formidable,
militaristic robber-barons in turn met with their just desert.
"But for one day the militaristic partisans off imperialism still exist, for
one day,  we and  our  martial comrades should  consider  that our duties remain
undischarged.
41 At this most critical juncture,   when  our armies  are  gathering  on  the
v
Honan-Shantung border to administer the last blow in exterminating militarism,
therefore, we deem it important to declare again our attitude in all sincerity to our
brethren:
"That we, Chiang Kai-shih and Feng Yu-hsiang and the teus of thousands
of officers and soldiers under our command, are fervent believers in **The Three
Principles of the People."
*
"That in the company of the other revolutionary armies, we solemnly pledge
to fight to the last man for "The Three Principles of the People."
•'That we would not *i be moved by whatever temptations; would? not
dodge, however^overwhelming be the difficulties, and would not flinch, however
costly may be the sacrifice that we are called upon to make/ For, we are determined to wipe out the tools of the Imperialists off this fair land of ours.
" For, we are determined to bring the Nationalist Revolution to a successful
conclusion.
"Be our armies the armies of the People, be our success the success off the
People.
"This, we reverently address to our brethren.
' Chiang Kai-shih,"
" Feng Yu-hsiang." 23
Marshal Feng Yu-hsiang's Telegram to Hankow.
i (Juue 21st., 1927.)
Editor's Note: A message has been sent to Wang Ching-wei, Teng Yen-tab
and others in Hankow by Marshal Feng Yu-hsiang as a result of the Conferenceat
Hsuchowfu with Marshal Chiang Kai-shiW and other officials of the Nankin
Nationalist Government. Marshal Feng's firm staud against Communism clarifies the
Nanking Northern Offensive, aids the plan to continue the Northern Campaign,
and thus hastens the consummation of the Chiuese Nationalist ^Revolution. The
text of Marshal^Feng's Telegram is as follows:
"When I met you gentlemen in Chengchow, we talked of the oppression
of the merchauts, other members of the gentry and of labour oppressing factory
owners and farmers oppressing land-owners. The People wish'to suppress this
form of despotism. Many soldiers fighting at the frout have been suffering from
having their families mistreated in Honan and elsewhere in Central China. In
the name of the Nationalist Party many things have been done which are wrong.
There is an effort now being made to throw the country into further confusion
merely for the personal benefits of a few individuals. Many of the radical elemeut
have worked their way iuto jthe party organization in an effort to control the
Kuomintaugtniovement and have done all the. unlawful things they cau do.
"Members of the higher  party  organizations have sought to stop this
reaction of unrest in the partyfbut radicals have refused to obey orders.
" We also talked; of fthe remedies for this situation.! The only solution
which we discussed, is as I see it as follows: First. Borodin who already has resigned
should return to his own country immediately. Secondly, those members of the
Central Executive Committee of the Hankow Regime who wish to go abroad for
rest should be allowed to do so.    Others may join the Nationalist Government at
90      'ftf
Nanking if they desire.
"In Hsuchowfu I discussed this problem with the officials of the Nauking
Nationalist Government. When they heard the results of our conversatious iu
Cheugchow they were  both  joyous  and  sa 1.    They  have  welcomed  the  above
^   _   _ _   ^ •* • mm % 1 • 1
suggestions,
problems.
BothiNanking and  Haukow, I believe, understand  their mutual
         I do not need to remind you gentlemen, of course, that our country is facing
a severe crisis, but in view of this I feel constrained to insist that the present is
a good time to unite the Nationalist factions in a fight against our common enemies.
It is my desire that you accept the above solution and reach a conclusion immediately.
Individual conflicts may be easily overcome eo that the revolution may succeed
in the shortest possible time, and so that Dr. Sun Yat-sen's "Three Principles of
People" be put into effect, since the/ are the only salvation for our country. 24
" We must revere the memory of Dr. Sun, and we must remember those
brave soldiers who have given their livesfin the cause and who *have not yet *been
buried, and our wounded have not yet been healed. Thousands infthe North still
under the heels  of the ^militarists are anxious   for our help.    We must unite
forthwith. j
"General Tang Seng-chi is|patriotic and?is still a revolutionary so he should
send troops to Cheng-chow immediately to co-operate with me in order to capture
Peking and complete the task of our Northern expedition. I sincerely feel these
suggestions and expect you to accept them." •'•'
Marshal Chiang Kai=shih's Reply to the Various
Organizations
(April, 1927.)
Below is a reply by Marshal Chiang Kai-shih to The General Labour Union
of Kwangtung, The Mechanics Labour Union of Kwangtung, The Revolutionary
Workers Joint Federation of Kwangtung, The Oil Workers General fUnlon of
Kwangtung, The Students Union of Kwangtung, The Students Union of Canton
and The Women's Movement General Alliance :^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
"I have received comrade Hu Ching-an and duly noted your letter. You
have given me a quite clear account of the root«of the troubles in the present situation as well as the evil intrigues of the extremists. The measures to deal with same
as proposed by you are also practicable. You have therefore my highest esteem
for your enthusiasm towards the party and the nation.
Out of respect for the wishes of our late Director in admitting the Chinese
Communist, I have, since the North Expedition been treating them with sincerity
without discrimination, hoping that we could work hand-in hand to accomplish the
National Revolution. Quite unexpectedly, some elements of the C. P. were of
different opinion. They tried to disturb thenar and to discourage our forces when
the fighting was at its height before the capture of Shanghai and Nanking.
Being entrusted by the Party with a great responsibility,^ cannot throw my
duty over under such vexatious circumstances. All I have to do is to adhere to
my original resolution of sacrificing myself for the revolution and to support the
"Three Principles of the People" in order to console the spirit of our late Director
ir ^saven. I have again to thank you for your appreciation and hope that you will
n    e yourselves strenuously to save the party and the nation." 25
General ^Li  Tsai-sum's Circular Telegram
During forty years of work, our late director, Dr. Sun Yat-sen, Vas able to
organise the Kuomintang, so that comrades who follow his uncompleted work may
persevere in the struggle.. By sacrifice and struggle we have been able to extend
our influence over more than half of China. Just at this time when rejoicing that
success has at last been attained. China will surely not entangle itself in trouble.
A telegram has been received from Marshal Chiang Kai-shih saying that since Mr.
Wang Ching-wei's return they have had many talks together and plans of National
and Party importance have been made by Marshal Chiang and Mr. Wang.
Marshal Chiang Kai-shih and Mr. Wang Ching-wei having obviously shown
themselves in the past to be great leaders of the Kuomintang, my opinion is that
they should act together to accomplish the unfinished purpose of the late Dr. Sun
Yat-sen, and to save the nation.
(Signed)  Li  Tsai-sum.
(April   15th,   1927.)
A Proclamation.
HEADQUARTERS TWENTY-SIXTH NATIONALIST ARMY.
4]
Our Chinese workmen have been admired by the world!for their endurance
arid obedience, but with the increase in industrial activity there has come a menace
in the form of strikes and walkouts.
When Shanghai was recently taken by our armies, many workmen were
induced or forced by mutineers to leave their employment and to parade and join
various unlawful associations, and to otherwise countenance unlawful activities.
Through ray advice to workers and other steps which have been taken many
factories are again running. There are cases, however, where simple-minded workers
are still deluded by agitators.    To them I wish to offer this advice:
1. The manufacturing and commercial conditions of China are quite
different from those of Europe and America. Because of this difference the
treatment accorded to workmen must be different. Chinese workmen consequently,
cannot expect the same treatment a* that accorded to workmen in other countries.
■ 26
2. Chinese workmen are fortunate inkhat they can if they wish make
China a real industrial nation byfgaining full knowledge of the industries with
which they are affiliated. This fact has apparently been lost sight of in following
professional^ agitators who are very selfish and* who are seekiug to sacrifice the
laboring classes only for their own benefit.
3. If, in following the advice of these agitators and law-violators, a strike
occurs, the loss of valuable time and the money which that valuable time would
bring to the workmen i3 the only result. Although some of the workmen who go
on strike have money for the rainy day, others have not. These last: starved themselves and starve their families. It iai absolutely foolish to strike, for it is both
unlawful and a loss of livelihood. 't
4. When a strike is in effect the factories* are closed. Consequently the
Nationalist government and the Nationalist armies are forcedjto buy foreign /made
goods merely because there are no native productions. This is death not only to
the country's commerce, but to patriotism as well.
I^From the above four points it is plain fthat strikes are |not only harmful,
but they have not a single advantage. '•*■
The Nationalist Government is now facing and executing the task of clearing
away the bacteria which causes Ithe disturbances in| the laboring classes—and
making the source of this disturbance clear.
; Hereafter when professional agitators or others in the laboring classes plan
to induce otherwise good workmen to strike, commit unlawful acts or^ violence we
ask that the factories and the good workmen report them to the headquarters of this
army that they may be severely punished. Only by doing this may we be able to
protect the good workmen and see that they are well treated.       1 i
- m *
April[ 22,11927.
Chow Vung Chee,
Commander of The Twenty-Sixth
Nationalist Army; and
Vice-Cmmander of the Shanghai
and Sungkiang Defence Area.
I 27
M
M
"Ching Tang"
Movement and the Removal of the
Nationalist Capital to Nanking
"The mass meeting to celebrate the "Ching Tang" Movement and the
removal of the Nationalist capital to Nanking was held at East Parade Ground
Canton,  on  April  28th  commencing at  noon.    Brilliant  sunshine favored   the
celebration which was attended by over 50,000 people, including laborers, peasants
students, merchants, soldiers, and people of all classes.
Various platforms were erected on the Parade Ground. On every platform
was huug the picture of Dr. Sun Yat-sen surmounted by the Party and National
flag-*. After the formal ceremony of three bows and recital of Dr. Sun's Last Will,
addresses were delivered by high officials of the Party and Government expressing
the determination of the leaders and the people to adhere to the principles of Dr.
Sun and the Kuomintang which were the supreme authority behind the National
Revolution.
The following resolutions were read and enthusiastically supported by the
meeting.
1. Support the Executive and Control Committee of the Central Government at Nanking.
2. Support the C. P. Elimination Movement decided by the Central
Executive and Control Committee*
3. Support the removal of the National capital to Nanking.
4. Support  Marshal  Chiang   Kai-shih's    continuation  of  the Northern
Expedition. *
5. Repudiate all proposals passed at the illegitimate conference at Wuhan.
6. Appeal to the Central Executive Control Committee to prohibit the
announcement of the slogans of the Left and Right elements, since they tend to
split the Kuomintang.
7. Issue a circular telegram to call for united action of all the people of
China to rid China of Communist elements.
8. Support the Special Committee of Kwangtung.
9. Oppose armed intervention of the foreign Imperialists.
10.    Spread the •'Ching Tang" movement in Kwangtung, so as to be rid of
Communists and reactionary elements completely. .
Following the meeting the gathering formed into a procession; the parade,
led by a military and naval band, started from the East Parade Ground, passed -- T28
through*Waj Oi Road, WingjHon Road, The Bund, Tai Ping Road, and dismissed at
Sai Kwa Yuen at 4 o'clock in the afternoon.
All shops and stores, restaurants aud tea-shops, were closed for the day.     A
public holiday was declared, and the city was beflagged."
The   Revolutionary   War
*
.. The present war now waging in the central part of China and elsewhere is a
war between progressive Nationalists and reactionary militarists and NOT between
the North and the South, as invariably- described by foreign imperialists and
"running dogs" of imperialists. China is one nation—one whole undivided nation.
There is no line of d em ark a tion between the North and the South. In fact there is
no such thing as^he North and the South, for China is one and inseparable. More-
over there is no such thing* as Northern militarists and Southern militarists.
Militarists like Chanjg Tso-lin, Chang Tsung-cha'ng, Sun Chuah-fang, Wu Pei-fu
andfethers are merely militarists and must be gotten rid of. No matter from what
part of China they come, they are militarists.    Why should  they be differentiated
into Northern militarists and Southern militarists? r!
Foreign imperialists and all the reactionary "running dogs" of foreign
imperialists use such terms to^beset ou^'revolutionary plans, to1 keep our country
weak and in a divided condition for their own selfish exploitation and to create
antagonism among our'people of the various parts of our country. Such has been
and still is the aim  of foreign imperialists.    Foreign imperialistic newspapers of
m
Hongkong and elsewhere have always glibly and intentionally used the words "War
Between the North and the South." "Northerners/' "Southerners," "Cantonese"
and various other misleading terms. As far as the people are concerned, China is
not any more divided than any other* country. To use such grossly misleading
terras is really a fantastic perversion of facts. ;
This being the case, then what are we fighting for? In other words what is
this Revolutionary War?    For what purpose is it waged?  and against whom?
Correct answers to these questions are found in facts. The pres^nt'Kevolu-
tionary War is the people's Revolutionary War. The people are fighting for their
own political rights and justice which have been taken away from them by these
I 29
viscious foreign imperialists and reactionary militarists. They are fighting for their
territorial integrity and political independence. They are fighting for their very
freedom and better livelihood.   They are fighting against their immediate oppressoi'3
the cruel ''and reactionary militarists, land sharks, greedy merchants and local
ruffians. In short, they are fighting for the realization of the noble and sublime
principles and policies of the late Dr. Sun Yat-sen, the Founder of the Kuomintang
and the revered Father of the Republic of China. •      •
£ This being the purpose of the Revolutionary Wafr,  there is and there should
not be the slightest differentiation as to localities. No matter what part of China
one is from/ if he is a real faithful member of the Kuomintang, a loyal and true
follower of the late Dr. Sun, and practices the principles for which he stood, he is a
Nationalist. We repeat: a person with these qualifications is' a Nationalist. It
matters not where or what part of China he is from. He may be from Peking, in
the very territory of the bandit warlord Chang Tso-lin;iyet he is a Nationalist.
M From thirfBt is very clear that the present Revolutionary  War  is* NOT  a
war between the North  and  the  South,  as foreign'imperialists and others would
glibly say an i tiave us -believe, It is really, a war between progressive Nationalists
and reactionary militarists. Hence it is absolutely and.literally incorrect to say
that it is.a war between the North and the South.
I *
Editorial, The Canton Gazette.
May 23, 1927.
Greetings of The \ Women's Movement General Alliance
of China to The¥ederation of^Feminist Organizations
of Other Countries.
*? §f Canton, China,
May 24, 1927.
Dear  Friends ^^_^_^^^^^^^^^^^^_^^ ^^^^^^m^^^^^^^^^^^^™
The   Women's   Movement   General  Alliance of China cordially  sends
Greetings to The Federation of Feminist Organizations of Other Lands. V
30   I   	
We acknowledge with? thanks the letter (dated April 25th), and the
far-sighted resolutions of The British Section of the Women's International,League
for Peace and Freedom. We wish to express our heartfelt appreciation for your
friendly greetings, sympathy and goodwillfin China's Nationalist Cause. The dawn
of a New China is approaching;  and our hope for Peace and Freedom is just as
earnest as yours!
The Chinese women as a whole, have joined the ranks of the world feminists
in*the Fight for Freedom and Equality. Thus we wish to take this opportunity to
introduce ourselves to The Feminist Organizations of Other Lands..
We pledge to do our utmost for the Salvation of China'and the Kuomintang.
We concern ourselves with better International Understanding between
China and the Powers, so that genuine goodwill shall be achieved. We
assist in the women's emancipation movement; we help in the education of the
masses; and we participate in the National Revolution, which aims to elevate China
a
to a state of Freedom and Independence, and to promote the general wel fa re of the
Chinese people. ] 1
To-day, China is in the midst of a titanic struggle to take her entitled place
among the Family of Nations. The World will be better for a modern, progressive,
and independent China, hence the following points in regard to the relations between
China and the Powers, merit your serious considerations:
(a) Observance of strict neutrality in the internal affairs of China.
(b) Avoidance  of any threats or provocative displays of force and
war measures.
(c) Abiogation of the unequal and humiliating treaties.
(d) Saving the world from "Gigantic Blunder" in China.
In conclusion, we cordially invite your cooperation wiih us in the endeavour
to solve China's greatest problem by practical wisdom, and peaceful negotiations
with The Chinese Nationalist Government at Nanking. Surely an intelligent
and reasonable solution will contribute a great deal towards World Peace and
Freedom!
Sincerely yours, f
(Signed)    (Mrs.) Leung Yih Su-chi, M.A.
On behalf of the Executive Committee, 31
Origin and Aims of the Nationalist Party
BY   CHANG   WM   OHIU
Outside China the Kuomintang, or People's Party, which is now showing
its strength in so remarkable a manner, has been of late regarded as a Bolshevist
organization for the simple reason that it has accepted assistance from Soviet Russia.
To what extent the Kuomintang has been Bolshevized is not known. Even the
extent of material aid in money, munitions and strategists is a matter of conjecture.
In the meantime, however, it is possible to clear up some of this "Oriental
mystery" by an exposition of what the Kuomintang-stood for before—and therefore quite independently of—any possible Bolshevist influence.
As a party the Kuomintang is more than thirty years old. It was first,
though known by another name, a secret revolutionary organization under the
leadership of the late Dr. Sun Yat-sen. Until 1911 China was a monarchy under
the tyrannical grip of the non«Chinese|Manchus, who were impotent to deal with
both the internal and the external problems then confronting China. Within were
political corruption and racial hatred between Chinese and Manchus; without were
designing and aggressive foreign nations. The disintegration of China seemed
imminent. To |avert this impending catastrophe Dr. Sun led his party in a
revolutionary movement to overthrow the Manchu monarchy. The revolution had
been brewing since§1895, and$in 1911 the Manchu monarchy was deposed, in its
stead a modern republican form of government was inaugurated.
iFromf 1911 to 1912 the Kuomintang played a conspicuous part in the
formation of the republic, of whichiDr. Sun was the first President. Indeed, the
party was so powerful that Yuan Shi-kai,jfDr. Sun's successor, "dissolved" it.
With hundreds of his party^associates Dr. Sun was thus exiled td Japan, where he
reorganized the party on a revolutionary basis to rescue China from the reactionary
mandarin forces that had their centre in Peking Since 191-4 the Kuomintang has*
gone through varied experiences—experiences which have served to make clear to
its leaders the necessity for continuing its revolutionary activities so as to establish
China on the basis of certain definitejprinciples.
. These principles, which have been formulated in the light of existing
conditions in China and the experience of Western nations, are as old as the party
itself.! They^are three in number—"The Three Principles of tho People," as they
are popularly called in China. There is nothing strange to an American about
them. Dr. Sun, when an exile in the United States, being once asked to explain
to an American inquirer what "The Three Principles of the People" were,
answered simply, Government of the Chinese people, by the Chinese people, for the
Chinese people. The first principle is nationalism, that is, the emancipating! of the Chuiese
people from foreign |rule or control, and equality of allj racial groups within
China. Before 1911 the rallying cry of the party was " Down with the jManchus."
When however, the Manchus were overthrown, |the party had! to face a greater
peril European!and Japanese imperialism.    Hence the formulas, "Down with
Imperialism" and "China for the Chinese"—in other words, "government of the
people" the Chinese people.    In this formula we have the key |to the  rise of the
new nationalism—a new impulse in Chiua which  has had a cultural but not a
national consciousness, "patriotism," as it has been understood in the West. .
In .defining political democracy, the second principle, Dr. Sun made the
distinction between direct and indirect democracy.    By  the former jhe meant the
rights  of initiative,  referendum  and  recall;   by  the   latter the right   to |vote.
"These," he declared, "are the four essential rights of the people in a democracy,
Pin which the people not only vote candidates into offices, but, if need be, also recall
them after they are seated, and possess the right to initiate laws or to vote upon
them after these laws have passed the Legislature." Government under Dr. Sun's
^principles is? to be divided into five branches—the Legislature, the judiciary, the
lexecutive, the civil|service (with selection of both civil and military officers by
competitive examination) and an impeaching body, or censors (to bring any guilty
official, even the highest in the land, to the bar of justice).    "The establishment of
this independent impeaching body," Dr.fSun declared with emphiui&,»"wi]] tend to
lessenlparticularly the corruption practiced at elections prevailing in the so-called
■
parliamentary democracies in " the- West. The modern democratic system has
become a convenient tool of one class of the people, the capitalist class, to exploit
the poor. But under the principle of the Kuomintang we will establish a political
democracy not for the benefit of the few rich nieii but for the benefit of all.. ^Ours-]
• m   a
is a government by the people, the common people." •   '   $    ■
The third principle is that of economic democracy; which again has-two
aspects, the re-adjustment of land-ownership jand the regulation of capital. The
National Government, according to thi-? principle, should niake laws regulating the
rent of land, land taxation and the use and value of land based upon report of the:]
landowner himself. As, Dr. Sun put it, "A landowner will'neither underrate nor
overrate his "land, because if he underrates it he must sell at that valuation, while if
he overrates it he must ^bear the added  burden of taxation."    In an attempt at
a f
ridding China of the tenant evil the Kuomintang principle calls on the Government
to provide land for those in need of it, and also the, establishment of rural credit
banks. With regard to the regulation of capital, the party holds that all
enterprises of a monopolistic nature or conducted on such a scale as is beyond the
financial resources of individuals (for example,* railways, banks and shipping)
should be undertaken by the National Government. These two economic proposals
aim at securing "government for the people."
i 33
THE KUOMINTANG PLATFORM
? The present policies, or platform, of *the Kuomintang, formulated at the
national convention of the party in January, 1924, reaffirmed at the last convention
in February,|l926, are as follows:     '*' j 4 jf
? (A) FOREIGN POLICIES
1. All present treaties not based on the principle of equality between
China and any foreign power to be abrogated (thus co^vering extraterritoriality,
foreign control of tariff, "spheres of influence" and all other political privileges
enjoyed by foreign powers at the expense of China,)! and all other future treaties
to be based on such equality. ; j
2. Any nation voluntarily relinquishing such special* privileges is to be
treated by China as in actual fact a "most favored nation."
' 3. No foreign loan made to China to be repudiated unless detrimental to
the political and economic rights of China, or contracted |by an irresponsible
government for illegitimate uses.
4. A national convention of such groups as chambers of commerce, banking
associations aud educational associations, to be called to advise ways and means to
free China from economic bondage to forteign powers by refunding foreign loans.
(B) DOMESTIC POLICIES *
1. The Kuomintang advocates a middle course between a centralized and
m
a decentralized:form of government. j
2. Each Province to have the right to establish its own constitution and
elect its own officers as|itfsees fit. Whenever the National and the Provincial
constitutions are in conflict, the former prevails. The Governor of a Province to
have a dual  function as? executive of the Province and as   representative   of
National Government." ,j j
3. A Hsien, or district, shalljbe recognized as the local administrative unit
for self-government, electing and recalling its officers thereof, and initiating and
voting upon laws. 4
All taxes from lands and revenues from water power, forests aud mining to
go to the Treasury of the Hsien Government.
The National Government to give grant-in-aid to mnfiRsien for certain
public purposes. *
Each finWito contribute to the Treasury of the National Government a
certain percentage of its receipts, from 10 to 50 per cent.
f        4.    A universal suffrage law to be enacted, replacing the existing election
law based upon property ownership.
5.    A civil service system to be established. o34
i
6. Compulsory military ^conscription to Supersede the present recruiting
system, and the economic aud legal status of the army and navy to be raised, and
agricultural and vocational training to be given to soldiers.
7. The righo of the people to assemble, to organize and to express
themselves in speech or in writing to be guaranteed; and the right of residence and
freedom of belief to be protected.
"i 8.    The idle and the vicious to be putfto compulsory work.
9. Land revenues and [rents, to be regulated by law, and unnecessary taxe*
such as likin to be abolished.
10. A census to be taken; arable land conserved; aud both production
and consumption of the people regulated, so as*to distribute equitably the wealth of
the nation..
11.1 Labor laws to be enacted; working conditions improved, and labor
organizations protected.and encouraged.
12. Equality of sex in the legal, economic and educational fields te be
promoted. { v jj
Universal education to be provided.*
J Industrial enterprises of a monopolistic nature or beyond the financial
resources of individual entrepreneurs to be undertaken by the National Government.
These are the minimum demands of the Kuomintang, and "constitute the
first immediate step to the salvation of China."   That the Kuomintang is a nation-^
alistic party is evident.   The enthusiasm and vigor which the party has recently
manifested in its opposition tp[the Peking Government and to'the foreign imperialistic j
powers, show no direct inspiration by Bolshevism. * Other reasons plainly account
for the present hold of the Kuomintang upon the Chinese people.    Thei salvation
of China has been the party's definite and positive purpose from its beginning.  The
Canton Government, which has beeahinder the control of the party, has evidenced
a degree of efficiency, honesty and progressiveness in striking contrast to the dilapi-  *
dated Peking Government.    Furthermore, the Kuomintang has tenaciously and
successfully boycotted the Hongkong Government—in Chinese eyes, the only bright
page in the history of China's foreign relations. V
THE INSPIRATION OF SUN YAT-SEN.
Perhaps the ;inost important reasons for the phenomenal growth of thef
Kuomintang is the inspiring personality of its founder, Dr. Sun Yat-sen, patriot and
fighter,, who dedicated his life to the cause of China. To members Of the party Dr.
Sun is a martyr, the focus of a new national religion. His principles are being
taught in schools, includingSthe missionary schools in the Provinceof Kwangtung, as
a required course,  and are daily preached   to   the   youth,   to   the   army, \o 35
workingmeu and to the people as a whole. Whenever and wherever the Kuomintang
holds sway, Dr. San's parting message islrecited before the opening of any meeting.
Particularly in the Province of Kwangtung the daily routine of the school children
invariably begins with a bow to Dr. Sun's picture and a recitation of his parting
message. |This message, which is being thus graven on the minds of so many
millions of Chinese, reads:
[% For forty years I (Dr. Sun) devoted my life to a revolutionary cause in an
m
attempt to elevate China to a state of freedom and independence. My experience
of these eventful years has absolutely convinced nie that to attain this cherished
goal we must enlist the support of the great mass of people at home and work in
cooperation with those nations which treat us on the basis of equality.
The revolutionary movement has not as yet succeeded, and itjis therefore
imperative that all my-fellow-workers should do their utmost in order to realize ray
"Reconstruction Plan," "Outlines of Reconstructive Policies," "The Three Principles
of the People," and the policies enunciated in the manifesto of the Kuomintang at
the first national convention.
Fight on, my fellow-workers, with renewed vigor to bring about a People's
Convention for the solution of our national problems and to abolish the unequal!
treaties with ^foreign nations.   These things must be done in  the shortest time
possible. v
(SIGNED) SUN WEN (SUN YAT-SEN)
Nationalism, not Bolshevism, is the driving force that moves China to-day.
Two Interesting Proclamations Issued! by the ^Nationalist
Government in Nanking.
(May, 1927.)
(a)j Dealing with the Foreigners Generally.
ttr
rhe   aim- of   the   Anti-Northern   Punitive  Expedition  is  to  wij e out
the   militarists   inl order   to    put    into    practice
throughout
China    " The
Three Principles of the People"  laid  down   by   our   late   President, Dr. Sun
Yat-sen.   and   to   free   our   Northern    brothers,    from    hondage.      It   is   not 36
i
ji
/
our
 policy    to    make  foreigners   our  enemies. 1 Military^ officers .amLsaitdieMfr
naturally love their country, as do the people as a whole, and it is undesirable thatl
there  should  be factions which tend to strain the friendly relations existing now^
between tbe Nationalist Government and:the Powers.   *A11 concerxreepaTe hereby
warned  not to fire on foreign gunboats or meifchalftmeif, not to interfere with orj
molest foreigners^and notjto encUMigertfie lives and properties of foreign residents.
The Nationalist Government will not tolerate any such acts..  The authorities willl
be hel F fully responsible for the protectioujof the lives and properties of foreigners
and all steps must be taken to strengthen the fnendFjr refeffmrs^ircfW' exfsffrrg^ with
the Powers.0  All are hereby warned to take note."
■
(b)   Dealing with the Christian Religion.      jp
"The public is hereby notified that special care must be taken to
discriminate between the slogans *'Down with Imperialism " t and "Down with
Foreigners and Religion." While it is the duty and the aim of the Nationalists to
fight Imperialism, it is also the duty of the Nationalist Government to afford to the
public the right of freedom of religion, be they Chinese or ^foreigners. All
concerned are hereby warned that'any action adopted with a view to causing trouble
with missions will! not be allowed to pass with impunity.: ^The local officials
are hereby ordered to take note to this proclamation and to take special
precautions to see that it is obeyed to the letter."
Marshal Chiang Kai=shih's Address at the Reception
at The Shanghai Chinese General
§ J Chamber of Commerce,
>
(July 7, 1927.)
"L consider it is a glory for me to be the guest of honour to-day. At (he time
when I first started the anti-Northern expedition all communists condemned me,
saying that I would surely establish ija Government which would be under the
influence of capitalists. In order to avoid the struggle amongst the different classes
of people, it is absolutely necessary to overthrow the communists.    I have long been impressed that our merchants areiin a similar condition as labourers. Merchants
are  undergoing  the same  hardships   as  labourers.    Without  the   assistance of
■
merchants we can mever makelthe revolutionary work inl-China a success, and
bring about the unification of our {country. |The teachings of "The Three
Principles of the People" are entirely different to those of communism. If the
workjof the citizens' revolution comes to a conclusion, the communUtgparty is sure
to collapse and each and every member of the communist party must he got rid of.
This is simply because the teachingsjof "The Three Principles of the People " are
exactly contrary to the communistic principle?. The former allows each individual
the right of preserving his property, while the latter does not.
"What is the object of the present revolution? Our object is to attain financial
independence andiracial equality. If we succeed in obtaining financial independence
we can then secure racial equality. China is under the oppression of imperialists.
We must, therefore, carry out revolutionary activities. During the period of the
revolution our object is to secure freedom and equality for each individual. The
principle of the communist party is to produce class struggles among>t people in
various walks of life. In the meantime communists are endeavouring to injure the
revolutionary movement,
*
{"Shanghai is the commercial centrelin China.    Communists have detailed a
number of men to Shanghai to carry out propaganda, to foment struggles among
*
people in various walks of life, thus disturbing peace and good! order in this
locality, and hindering the progress of the revolutionary activities. Not only
merchants have suffered at their hands, but our national organization is also
greatly   affected.      Therefore    we have   no   alternative   but   to  overthrow
communists.
"Look  at Jthe   perilous situation   in   which   our  country   is   at
sent!
Foreign countries  have despatched  warships  to China.    They are oppressing us
Foreigners
harshly. How'can we avoid lamenting under such circumstances? ^^^^
have resorted to such activities on the plea that they desire to offer protection to
their nationals, but in reality they are hindering the progress of the revolutionary
movement. They are of the opinion that if once China succeeds in her
revolutionary work, she would undoubtedly demand financial independence, and
should China succeed infsecuring financial independence they would no longer be
able to. carry  out  their oppressive policy.    Therefore, the act on the part  of 38
foreigners in despatching warships to China is directed towards endangering the
success of the revolutionary work in China.    The are barring the progress of our
400,000,000 people. '
"As. regard fighting at the front, it is a very easy task. The army
comrades in the front dye their heads with blood.*' What appears to be the most
serious of problems is' the que-tion of finance.    I f we have no financial support, not
i
only we  could gain  no  victories, but the revolutionary  work is likely  to end
in failure. ?,
|<lIn conclusion, I would like to express my heartfelt thanks to you all for
the! welcome you have shown me and the Mayor of the Shanghai District
Government.    I am confident that" Mayor Wang will observe the directions of the
late Chief of the Kuomintang Party in order to secure freedom and equality for
the Shanghai people.    I presume in less than three years our object^ of restoring
foreign settlements can be attained on amicable terms." .4 *
Compliments of the Kuomintang of China,
m*'
The Central Political Council,
The Canton Branch,
t Canton. China.
« <v
JL
-Cv^fe^r
'TjWvO        Ov^=^^*
S>   ^Jk-ttc
J
M
YU
Likr.
-/V-€L<_
The Revolutionary Movement has not as
|   yet succeeded,
*
All my fellow-workers! should fight on
- ;
with renewed vigor
 Dr. SUN YAT-SEN.

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