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Report on Oriential activities within the province British Columbia Legislative Association 1927

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 ■"•>'       A:       •..■'-■'   -.                                                            '                                                                                                                                        '                                                                                                                                                       ■:.'.■
L
j *
PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
REPORT
ORIENTAL ACTIVITIES
WITHIN THE PROVINCE
Prepared for the
LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY
PRINTED BY
AUTHORITY OF THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY.
VICTORIA, B.C.:
Printed by Chables F.  Banfield, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1927.
1
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.,,.;■•/;.•,     "                                       ..■;■■'-.    '   ^' ^   ^"^                  j INTRODUCTION.
THE LAiCK of statistical and other information, in a readily available form has been found
by members of the Legislature when the question of Oriental penetration of British
Columbia has come up for deliberation. The information was known to be in existence, but
scattered through governmental and municipal records.
When the Advisory Board of Farmers' Institutes was in session during the legislative session
of 1925, considering representations to be made to the Select Standing Committee on Agriculture,
the need for a survey covering all fields of activity and including city, country, and unorganized
territory was a subject of discussion. The members of the Board expressed the opinion that
the resolutions presented and statements made from time to time on this important matter could
not be intelligently dealt with until a true presentation of the whole situation was available.
The following resolution was, therefore, adopted by the Board:—
" Whereas reports appear to indicate that serious and continued inroads by the Oriental
are being made into all lines of business activity throughout the Province:
" And whereas there is an absence of accurate information concerning the extent of the
hold gained by him in any and every direction in British Columbia:
" Therefore we request that your Committee recommend to the Legislature that a report
be prepared on this subject, making available this desired information, which should cover every
phase of activity."
On this resolution being presented to the Committee on Agriculture, that body at once
requested the Honourable the Minister of Agriculture to have the necessary data prepared before
another session, so' that the whole situation might be intelligently placed before the members
of the House. The Bureau of Provincial Information and the statistician to the Department
of Agriculture were instructed to give effect to the request, and the information contained in
the present report was assembled during the recess and placed before the Select Standing.
Committee on Agriculture as soon as it organized for the session of 1926-27.
Another resolution submitted by the Advisory Board at the same time as that quoted above
was in the following terms :—
" Resolved, That the Legislature be requested to investigate as to whether legislation can
be enacted to prevent Chinese and Japanese from owning, selling, leasing, or renting land in
British Columbia, or, in the alternative, imposing conditions upon their rights of ownership.",
In transmitting this resolution to the House with its endorsation the Committee stated the
opinion that it was absolutely reasonable and most desirable.
The opinion of the people of British Columbia upon the whole subject of Oriental immigration, land-holding, and competition in trade has been affirmed .and reaffirmed several times over
a long period of years by the voice of their representatives in the Legislative Assembly. The
last occasion upon which this considered declaration was made by the people of the Province
which suffers most from the evils of Oriental penetration was December 17th, 1924, when the
following resolution was supported from all parts of the House, and was adopted unanimously:—
" Whereas there were in British Columbia, according to the last Dominion census, 23,532
Chinese and 15,006 Japanese:
" And whereas statistics show that there is a very large natural increase of Orientals in
British Columbia, multiplying each succeeding year to an alarming extent:
" And whereas the standard of living of the average Oriental is far below that of the white
man, thus enabling him to live comfortably on a much lower wage than our white men:
" And whereas the Orientals have invaded many fields of industrial and commercial activities
to the serious detriment of our wbite citizens:
" And whereas considerable unemployment always exists in British Columbia, partly due
to the fact that large numbers of Orientals are filling situations in our industrial and commercial
life which could be filled by our white citizens:
" And whereas the Orientals are fast invading the commercial areas of many municipalities
and districts of British Columbia, carrying on commercial and industrial pursuits:
"And whereas many of our white merchants are being forced out of business by such
commercial and industrial invasion:
"Therefore be it Besolved, That this House go on record as being utterly opposed to the
further influx of Orientals into this Province;   and, further, that this House places itself on BRITISH COLUMBIA.
record as being in favour of the enactment of such amendment to the ' Immigration Act of
Canada ' as is necessary to completely prohibit Asiatic immigration into Canada.
" Be it further Resolved, That the Government of the Dominion of Canada be respectfully
requested to grant adherence on the part of Canada to no treaty or binding international obligation in any form whatsoever having the effect of limiting the authority or power of Provincial
Legislatures in respect of the regulation of social and industrial activities within the Provinces;
and, further, that the Government of the Dominion of Canada be respectfully requested to forthwith take the action necessary to bring about the denunciation of any and all treaties in so far
as the terms and provisions of the same have the effect of depriving the Dominion of Canada
of the power of regulation, control, and prohibition of Asiatic immigration.
" Be it further Resolved, That this House is also of the opinion that the field of industrial
and commercial activities of all Orientals now in Canada and particularly British Columbia
should be restricted by legislation.
"And be it further Resolved, That an humble Address be presented to His Honour the
Lieutenant-Governor, praying that he cause a copy of this resolution to be transmitted to the
Hon. the Secretary of State or other proper official at Ottawa, for presentation to His Excellency
the Governor-General in Council."
A copy of this was sent forward to the Federal Government and its receipt acknowledged
in due course.
The facts assembled by the Bureau of Provincial Information from official sources bring out
the following, among other, phases of the question:—
(1.) That at the beginning of 1927 the Oriental population of the Province is at least 46,500,
or, in other words, 1 in every 12 persons.
(2.) That the Japanese birth-rate is 40 per 1,000, as compared with a general birth-rate of
all races, except native Indians, of 18 per 1,000.
(3.) That the increase in the Japanese population through the excess of births over deaths
is greater by more than 2 to 1 than the immigration of people of that race.
(4.) That the arrivals of Japanese women have greatly outnumbered the arrivals of men
for several years past, and that at the present time two women come in for every man that enters.
(5.) That of the Oriental arrivals in Canada for the past twenty years British Columbia
got 80 per cent, of the Chinese, over 98 per cent, of the Japanese, and nearly 99 per cent, of the
Hindus.
(6.) That Orientals own land and improved property in British Columbia to an aggregate
value of $10,491,250 and lease property valued at $1,099,500.
(7.) That over 11,300 Orientals are employed in industries of the Province, and that, for
instance, while the proportion employed in the lumbering industry generally has been reduced
to 20 per cent., there are between 30 and 40 per cent, employed in saw and planing mills and
close on 50 per cent, in shingle-mills.
(8.) That in 1925 there were 3,231 Asiatics carrying on in licensed'trades and callings, and
that in the cities they constitute an incredibly large percentage of the total number of licensees
in some callings.
(9.) That in three years the number of Japanese children in the public schools has increased
by 74 per cent., while in the same time the number of white children has increased by 6 per cent.
(10.) That in the fishing industry, upon which the Orientals appeared to have a strangle-hold
a few years ago, the policy of a gradual reduction in the number of licences allowed to them is
bringing the industry back into the hands of white and native Indian fishermen.
The statistical branch of the Department of Agriculture brings out the following facts
regarding the Oriental in agriculture:—
(1.) That in the four years from 1921 to 1925 the acreage of land owned by Orientals
increased by approximately 5,000 acres and the land leased by approximately 1,500 acres.
(2.) That of the acreage in small fruits at the present time tbe proportion held by Oriental
growers is 30.6 per cent., while in number they constitute but one-seventh of the growers; the
holdings average 1% acres to each white grower and 4 acres to each Oriental grower.
(3.) That with the development of production under glass, which has been quite marked of
late years, the Oriental is more and more increasing his hold on this branch of the industry;
that where in 1923 he constituted 9 per cent, of growers with 28 per cent, of glass area, in 1925
he constituted 13 per cent, of growers with 37 per cent, of glass area. ORIENTAL ACTIVITIES.
(4.) That while the total increase in glass area between the 1923 and 1925 greenhouse
surveys was 22 per cent., the increase in white operation was but 8 per cent, and the increase
in Oriental' operation 58 per cent.
(5.) That the handling of produce and garden-truck by peddlers or hucksters is almost
entirely in the hands of Chinese, and that the same applies to the sale of vegetables in stores,
to the extent of 91 per cent, in one city.
ORIENTAL POPULATION OF BRITISH COLUMBIA.
There are no official statistics of the present population of the country in any particular.
It is possible, however, to get a fairly close approximation of the Oriental population of British
Columbia at, say, the end of 1925, by taking the Dominion census and immigration records and
the natural increase shown by the Provincial vital statistics.
On this basis it appears that at the date mentioned there would be in this Province 25,216
Chinese, 19,455 Japanese, and 1,103 Hindus, or a total of 45,774 people of Oriental races.
The Census Office estimate of the population of the Province at June 1st, 1925, was 560,500,
so that the approximate proportion of Orientals would be 82 in every 1,000., Per Cent
of Total in
Canada.
Chinese in British Columbia at census, 1901  14,885 86.0
Chinese in British Columbia at census, 1911 1  19,568
Hi)0
326
341
Chinese in British Columbia at census, June 1st, 1921  23,533
Immigration, fiscal year 1921-22	
Immigration, fiscal year 1922-23	
Immigration, fiscal year 1923-24	
Immigration, fiscal year 1924-25	
Immigration, April-December, 1925	
Births, 245; deaths, 227; natural increase, 1923	
Births, 228; deaths, 201; natural increase, 1924	
Births, 212; deaths, 195; natural increase, 1925	
18
27
17
25,257
Births, 197; deaths, 223; natural decrease, 1921  26
Births, 216; deaths, 231; natural decrease, 1922  15
41
Estimated Chinese in British Columbia, December 31st, 1925  25,216
Increase over census, 1901	
Japanese in British Columbia at census, 1901     4,597
Japanese in British Columbia at census, 1911     8,587
Japanese in British Columbia at census, June 1st, 1921 •.  15,006
Immigration,  fiscal year 1921-22	
Immigration,  fiscal year 1922-23 '.	
Immigration, fiscal year 1923-24	
Immigration, fiscal year 1924-25	
Immigration, April-December, 1925 (estimated)..
Births, 592; deaths, 142; natural increase, 1921..
Births, 585; deaths, 190; natural increase, 1922..
Births, 657; deaths, 161; natural increase, 1923..
Births, 672; deaths, 154; natural increase, 1924..
Births, 743; deaths, 178; natural increase, 1925..
452
350
422
481
320
450
395
496
518
565
Estimated Japanese in British Columbia, December 31st, 1925  19,455
Increase over census, 1901	
70.5
59.4
69.4%
Per Cent.
of Total in
Canada.
97.0
95.2
94.6
323.21% BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Hindus in British Columbia at census, 1901 (none given)	
Hindus in British Columbia at census, 1911    2,292
Hindus in British Columbia at census, June 1st, 1921  951
Immigration,  fiscal year 1921-22  13
Immigration, fiscal year 1922-23  21
Immigration,  fiscal year 1923-24  39
Immigration, fiscal year 1924^25  44
Immigration, April-December, 1925  (estimated)  35
The natural increase is negligible at present. 	
Estimated Hindus in British Columbia, December 31st, 1925  1,103
Per Cent.
of Total in
Canada.
98.0
93.6
Since the last census the natural increase of Chinese in the Province has practically been at.
a standstill, an aggregate surplus of 62 births in three years being offset, by an aggregate surplus
of 41 deaths in the other two years.
It is vastly different in the case of the Japanese. In the same period of time the aggregate
increase in the Japanese population of the Province through the excess of births over deaths has
exceeded that through immigration. In each year the births have greatly outnumbered the
arrivals from Japan, in 1925 the proportion being 15 births to every 8 arrivals by sea.
The birth-rate of Japanese in British Columbia is 40 per 1,000 of the population of that race.
The birth-rate of the whole population, excluding Indians, keeps about IS per 1,000, while the
rate of natural increase per 1,000 is between 9 and 10.
There has always been a certain amount of difficulty in securing registrations of Oriental
births, and there is some ground for the suspicion that even yet, with the greatest vigilance on
the part of officials of the Provincial Board of Health, there are births which are not reported.
Comparison of a series of the reports by the Registrar of Vital Statistics will show what a
number of births, chiefly of Orientals, are not registered until years after. The figures of actual
births for the years given above are as they stand at the end of 1925 registrations, but are
subject to addition every year hereafter as further births in these several years are registered.
For the past twenty years the arrivals of immigrants of Asiatic origin at the ocean ports of
Canada, chiefly on the Pacific Coast, segregated as to males, females, and children, and the
number destined for British Columbia, have been as shown for the several races in the following
tables:—•
CHINESE.
Fiscal Year.
Males.
Females.
Children.
Total.
Destined
for B.C.
1906-7 (0 mos.)
1907-8	
1908-9	
1909-10	
1910-11	
1911-12	
1912-13	
1913-14	
1914-15	
1915-16	
1916-17	
1917-18	
1918-19	
1919-20	
1920-21	
1921-22	
1922-23	
1923-24	
1924-25	
1925 (12 mos.)..
Totals...
63
1,719
1,695
1,866
4,859'
5,776
7,029
■5,230
1,147
42
297
695
4,095
389
2,001
1,125
232
59
9
39
36
58
77
80
85
89
40
18
33
26
63
67
135
114
59
36
20
126
156
232
342
391
331
193
71
28
63
48
175
88
299
507
420
579
92
■ 1,884
1,887
2,156
5,278
6,247
7,445
5,512
1,258
88
393
769
4,333
544
2,435
1,746
711
674
68
1,554
1,539
1,948
4,794
5,480
6,691
4,679
863
52
128
254
2,815
347
2,065
995
326
341
S,319
1,064
4,069
43,452
34,939
80.4% ORIENTAL ACTIVITIES.
JAPANESE.
,    Fiscal Year.
Males.
Females.
Children.
Total.
Destined
for B.C.
1906-7   (9 mos.)	
1,766
6,945
312
104
170
322
252
354
191
148
301
459
584
280
145
140
141
184
182
242
566
153
134
217
362
424
447
358
233
310
370
530
389
338
300
197
233
269
34
90
30
33
50
81
48
55
43
20
37
54
64
42
49
31
31
31
50
2,042
7,601
495
271
437
765
724
856
592
401
648
883
1,178
711
532
471
369
448
501
2,038
1907-8	
7,589
1908 9                    	
473
1909  10
250
1910-11.	
1911-12.....	
1912-13	
1913-14   	
1914-15 .:	
1915-16    	
1916 17                :	
432
763
718
844
579
392
622
1917-18                                          	
852
1918-19   	
1919-20	
1920  21        i            	
1,137
686
\       514
1921-22	
1922-23	
1923-24	
1924  25 	
452
350
',■■        422
481
Totals 	
12,980
114
6,072
214
873
%        72
19,925
400
19,594
1925   (11 mos.)	
98.34%
HINDUS.
Fiscal Year.
Males.
Females.
Children.
Total.
Destined
for B.C.
1906 7  (9 mos.)                   	
2,120
2,620
5
9
4
2
78
1
7
5
12
25-
21
2
i
1
1
2
2
2
4
5
11
14
2
3
1
3
8
1
4
4
4
11
2,124
2,623
6
10
5
3
5   .
88
1
10
13
21
40
46
2,112
1907-8                               	
2,619
1908-9  	
1909-10  	
1910-11  	
1911-12 :	
6
1
1
1912-13	
1913-14	
1914-15	
5
63
1915-16  	
1916-17...	
1917-18  	
1918 19	
1919-20	
1920-21	
9
1921-22	
1922-23 :.                      	
13
21
1923-24	
1924-25             . .        	
39
44
Totals	
4,909
45
41
4,995
4,933
98.79% BRITISH COLUMBIA.
The total immigration via ocean ports, destined for British Columbia, during these years
and the proportion of this which was Oriental, was as follows:—
Year.
Total.
Oriental.
All Other.
1906-7  (9 mos.)                                                      	
8,406
22,171
9,341
12,428
26,481
38,958
29,756
23,922   '
6,549
1,259
1,505
1,593
5,565
9,945
10,439
5,722
4,819
8,190
7,269
4,218
11,762
2,012
2,204
5,227
6,244
7,414
5,588
1,442
444
750
1,106
3,952
1,033
2,588
1,460
697
802
525
1907-8.                       ..          	
1908  9	
1909  10	
1910  11	
1911-12	
1912  13	
1913-14                                                                           	
1914  15                              	
1915-16..	
1916  17	
1917-18	
1918  19	
1919-20                  	
1920-21	
1921-22 -
1922  23                                                                          	
1923-24	
1924  25 .-.
Totals	
234,318
59,468
25.38%
174,850
74.62%
In view of the greatly reduced percentage of Chinese shown by the census of 1921 as residing
in British Columbia when compared with earlier years, and the smaller number of immigrants
destined for here since the beginning of the war, the Committee will doubtless be interested in
knowing what has become of the number who entered Canada of more recent years. According
to the reports of the Department of Immigration and Colonization they have been flocking to the
older Provinces.
Speaking generally of the surplus of Chinese immigrants who did not remain in this Province
since 1914, they have settled in Ontario and Quebec. In 1915-16 Quebec and Ontario got them,
with a scattering to the others. In 1916-17 Quebec and Ontario, in that order, got greater part
of the surplus, with Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and Alberta following. In 1918-19 Ontario and
Quebec, in reversed order from the year before, got 1,100 of the 1,500 surplus; Saskatchewan,
150; Alberta, Manitoba, and the Maritimes, the remainder. In 1919-20 the order was Ontario,
Alberta, Saskatchewan, Quebec, Manitoba; in 1921-22, Ontario, Alberta", Quebec, Saskatchewan,
Manitoba. In 1922-23 and the year following the order of preference of those who passed
through British Columbia was Ontario, Saskatchewan, Alberta, Quebec, Manitoba.
Since April 1st, 1924, no Chinese have been admitted into Canada as immigrants. The
" Chinese Immigration Act" of 1923 restricts the landing in Canada of persons of Chinese
origin or descent, irrespective of allegiance or citizenship, other than those born in Canada,
merchants, and students. The two classes last named must be in possession of valid passports
issued by the Government of China and endorsed by a Canadian immigration officer at the port
of departure, and they can land only at Vancouver or Victoria. "Merchant," for the purposes
of the Act, means one who devotes his undivided attention to mercantile pursuits, dealing exclusively in Chinese manufactures or produce or in exporting to China goods of Canadian
produce or manufacture, who has been in such business for at least three years, and who has
not less than $2,500 invested in it. The designation does not include any merchant's clerk, tailor,
mechanic, huckster, peddler, drier or curer of fish, or any one having any connection with a
restaurant, laundry, or rooming-house. Persons over lo must be able to read English, French,
or some other language.
Answering a question in the House of Commons last session, the Hon. the Minister of Immigration and Colonization stated that the only Chinese entering Canada during the year 1925 came
in under permit for a limited stay. Of these there were 80, of whom 33 had already passed out
of Canada when the answer was given. According to occupations there were 8 actors and
actresses, 10 amahs (nursemaids), a bank manager and his wife, a consul in training, a secretary ORIENTAL ACTIVITIES.
to a consul, 2 wives of consuls, 6 members of consuls' families, 5 servants of consul, 2 physicians,
an infant, a merchant, a missionary, a professor's wife, 5 servants of tourists, 30 students, 2 wives
of students, and 2 teachers.
As the figures for Japanese and Hindu immigration demonstrate, virtually every person of
these races who landed in Canada came with the intention of settling in British Columbia. It
will be observed that, while Hindu immigration is relatively very small, there has been an
increasing number each year since 1920, after an entire cessation of the East Indian influx to this
Province for six years.
Attention might be drawn to the immigration figures of Japanese, and their bearing on the
problems of increase in school population of this race. There has always been a high proportion
of female immigrants from that country, but since 1909, with the exception of two years, more
females than males have entered the Province annually. In the aggregate, from April 1st, 1909,
to March 31st, 1925, the proportions were 5,111 females to 3,957 males. To the end of 1925 this
continued in the ratio of 2 to 1 and presumably the same has been true of 1926. This has beeu
chiefly due, no doubt, to the admission of so-called " picture brides," and possibly in some cases
to wives of men already in the country coming later. ■
In regard to " children," it must be remembered that this description covers all under 18,
which age in the Oriental is marked by a greater advance towards adolescence than in the case
of the white races. There is little doubt that the great majority of these are not " children "
in the sense in which the word applies to most other immigrant races, but are potential competitors in industry from the moment of arrival.
The following comparative figures are taken from the reports of the Dominion census of
1921:—
Total.
British.
Chinese.
Japanese.
Others.
Population, Canada 	
8,677,887
4,869,090
39,587
15,868
3,753,342
Males 	
4,473,824
2,488,643
37,163
10,520
1,937,498
Females 	
4,204,063
2,380,447
2,424
5,348
1,815,844
Population, British Columbia 	
502,205
387,513
23,533
15,006
76,153
Males 	
281,945
205,030
21,820
9,863
45,432
Females 	
220,260
182,483
1,713
5,143
30,921
255,307
Births in British Columbia	
10,120
8,319
173
553
1,075
Rate per 1,000, Canada 	
Rate per 1,000, British Columbia 	
29.4
20.1
21.4
7.6
36.8
14.1
Rate per 1,000 of female population only
60.7
Rate per 1,000 of female population only
in British Columbia 	
40.5
45.5
100.9
107.5
34.7
Indians are not included in the above computations. At the time of the census there were
110,596 (56,121 males and 54,475 females) in Canada and 23,377 (11,404 males and 10,913
females) in British Columbia. Births totalling 343 gave a birth-rate per 1,000 total population
of 15.3 and a rate per 1,000 females only of 31.4.
ORIENTAL LAND-HOLDING IN BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Returns from municipal and provincial assessors, although not complete in all details in a
few instances, show that Oriental land-owners hold property in this Province to an assessed
value which in the aggregate is well over eleven and one-half million dollars. The statements
which follow account for a total of $11,590,796.
It is very difficult to say how much land or improved realty is held under lease by Orientals,
there being no statistics which record this. Municipal officials have given the benefit of their
personal knowledge of holdings thus leased, so far as it goes, and while the information so
obtained is necessarily very incomplete, it reports the holding under lease of at least 8,097 acres,
of an assessed value of considerably over $1,000,000, besides 6,195 .acres leased from the Crown
in unorganized districts, or 14,292 acres. 30
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Members of the Chinese race own within municipal limits 782 specified and sundry unspecified lots, assessed value (incomplete) $6,546,519, and 1,203.875 acres, assessed value
$412,240 (both incomplete). They lease 6,761.407 acres and 30 lots, assessed value (incomplete)
$567,312, besides 220 (incomplete) stores. So far as the information is contained below, they
own or lease property assessed at $7,526,071.
Japanese owners hold 5,736.639 acres (incomplete), assessed value $1,003,481, as well as
533 specified and sundry unspecified lots, assessed value (incomplete) $1,616,911. They lease
764.48 acres, assessed at $43,790 (incomplete), and 232 (incomplete) stores. The total value of
property owned or leased is $2,664,182.
Hindus are owners of 277.13 acres, assessed value $61,230, and 211 specified and sundry
unspecified lots, assessed value $130,380 (all figures incomplete). They lease 570.84 acres,
assessed value $18,699 (incomplete), 3 lots and 16 stores (latter figure incomplete). The total
value owned and leased is $210,309.
So far as information has been obtainable, and keeping in mind the deficiencies which
'render all final totals incomplete, the land-holding represented in municipalities is as follows in
assessed value :—■
Owned.
Leased.
Total.
$6,958,759
2,620,392
191,610
$567,312
43,790
18,699
$  7,526,071
2,664,182
210,309
Japanese	
Hindus	
Totals :	
$9,770,761
$629,801
$10,400,562
The aggregate value of property owned and leased in cities, districts, and villages by the
several Asiatic races was as follows:—
Cities.
Districts.
Villages.
Total.
$6,237,666
1,505,161
74,030
$1,258,980
1,104,532
135,539
$29,425
54,489
740
$  7,526,071
Japanese	
Hindus..	
2,664,182
210,309
Totals -	
$7,816,857
$2,499,051
$84,654
$10,400,562
In the unorganized districts Orientals own 11,710.76 acres, assessed value $720,546, and
lease from the Crown 6,195.11 acres, assessed value $469,688. The grand total in assessed value
of all property in the following statements, so far as the figures have been furnished, is
$11,590,796, owned or leased by people of the Asiatic races.
It is worth noting in regard to land-holding in rural municipalities that to a considerable
extent the Japanese are owners of the land they till, while the Chinese lease from, presumably,
white owners. The reason for this is, of course, the well-known fact that Chinese methods of
cultivation exhaust the soil, rendering it necessary for them to move on periodically to fresh
acreage.
(Note.—Information furnished by the city assessor of Victoria as this report is on the press materially
alters the figures originally supplied by that official and incorporated in this report. The information, now
given is that in the City of Victoria 95 Chinese own 128 parcels of land assessed at $745,260 ; 10 Japanese
own 10 parcels of land assessed at $25,720 ;  and 12 Hindus own 12 parcels of land assessed at $27,050.) ORIENTAL ACTIVITIES.
11
REAL PROPERTY OWNED BY ORIENTALS WITHIN THE MUNICIPALITIES AND, IN
THE UNORGANIZED DISTRICTS OF BRITISH COLUMBIA AT DECEMBER 31st, 1925,
WITH AN ESTIMATE OP THE AMOUNT OF PROPERTY LEASED TO ORIENTALS.
Cities.
Municipality.
Chinese.
Japanese.
Hindus.
Amount.
Value.
Amount.
Value.
Amount.
Value.
8 lots 	
$        3,175
6,660
13,350
14 lots 	
$           350
3 lots 	
$             75
Leased
(4 owners)
16 acres 	
(1 owner)
(1 owner)
200 acres
6,100
125
Leased
25 acres 	
11,150
59,165
1,200
19,195
Lots 	
4 stores 	
Leased
5,000
7,730
19 lots 	
3 lots 	
10 lots 	
30,850
5,575
31,650
400
3,775
8  lots  and 4
acres
2 lots	
470
3 lots
2,850
ftrnnd  Works*
76,830
8,270
2,330
3,600
53,350
5,050
17,200
75,875
59,510
Leased
1 lot
1 lot	
1,510
19 lots	
10 lots 	
7,725
1 lot	
125
(3 acres)
2 lots 	
Lots 	
(1.5 acres)
(0.14 acre)
97 lots 	
(abt. 35 owners)
Abt. 60 lots..
Abt. 30 acres
Not known ....
Lots 	
Not known....
50 to 60 lots
About 50 lots
Abt. 8 acres..
Not known....
Leased
Not known....
17,041
33,320
6,385
Leased
Not known ....
Not known....
2,485
1,981
880
10 acres ........
2 lots 	
5 lots 	
(4 owners)
8,685
4 lots 	
(3 owners)
2,160
16 lots	
4,790
Leased
(13 owners)
Prince   George
Lots 	
(7 owners)
73 lots 	
(4.4 acres)
20 lots
22,555
118,750
36,100
43 lots 	
(2.529acres)
2 lots
60,745
1,825
Leased
9 lots 	
2% acres	
30 acres 	
4 lots 	
(4 owners)
7,400
Trail
29,550
2,468,015
1,340,720
56,180
Leased
213 tenants ..
232 tenants ..
16 tenants ....
* Dining-rooms of two hotels run by Chinese.    There are no Chinese on the land in this district,
f No land leased to Orientals. 12
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
REAL PROPERTY OWNED BY  ORIENTALS WITHIN THE  MUNICIPALITIES AND IN
THE  UNORGANIZED  DISTRICTS   OF  BRITISH  COLUMBIA—Continued.
Cities—Continued.
Municipality.
Chinese.
Japanese.
Hindus.
Amount.
Value.
■
Amount.
Value.
Amount.
Value.
Lots   	
$     53,280
$        4,850
Leased
About 500
acres! 	
300 owners....
(estimated)
Not known....
Between
$2,500,000
and
$3,000,000
About a dozen
owners
Not known....
14,000
Half-dozen
owners
Not known....
$       5,000
240 lots
$   190,325 +
5,856,371
182,700 +
8,270 +
92 lots 	
$        8,695 +
1,420,266
76,200
71 4-    lots         I *       5.335 4-
68,570
125 +
73.525 acres..
Leased:
257+ acres
217+ stores
8.029 acres....
Leased:
8.14 acres
Leased:
232+ stores
16+ stores..
Districts.
23 acres 	
(33 owners)
200 acres
Lots  	
1,000 acres.-..
$     25,735
8.24 acres
(153 owners)
$     40,965
3.29 acres ....
(31 owners)
$    15,265
Leased
11,300
8.20 acres ....
142 acres
800
Leased
47 acres	
Leased
235.965 acres
27 lots 	
4,650
1,000
400
17,375
115.59 acres..
25,028
800
Leased
40 acres	
202 acres
590 acres
1 lot	
Delta
253 acres
60 acres 	
2 lots 	
33,120
65 acres 	
125 acres
1 lot	
11,980
Leased
500
1,000
500
Tfont                                    	
y2  acre 	
20 acres 	
5.25 acres ....
(2 owners)
71 acres 	
600
Leased
500
5,800
3,410
703 acres
(31 owners)
30,320
19.5 acres ....
(3 owners)
1,960
Leased
2,378 acres....
(192owners)
339,487
91 acres 	
(3 owners)
2,450
Leased
(4 owners)
680 acres
45,000
50 acres 	
68 acres 	
30 acres 	
6,800
Leased
50 acres 	
803 acres
6 lots 	
101,219
9,860
3,800
1,170
2 lots 	
1,120
1,575
Leased
8.15 acres
200 acres
184 lots
(110 owners)
160 acres ..
Not known....
2 lots    	
21 acres 	
65,403
33 lots 	
Leased
(27 owners)
Not known....
Not known....
6,220
1
_i
t To seventeen Chinese bosses, who sublet to sixty-three workers.
§ Ten Japanese, one Chinese, and one Hindu are non-resident owners of an aggregate of 283 acres of
unimproved land included in figures given.
II The C.M.C. states that there is not a single Oriental residing in this municipality. ORIENTAL ACTIVITIES.
13
REAL PROPERTY  OWNED BY  ORIENTALS  WITHIN THE  MUNICIPALITIES  AND  IN
THE  UNORGANIZED  DISTRICTS   OF  BRITISH   COLUMBIA—Continued.
Districts—Continued.
Municipality.
Chinese.
Japanese.
Hindus.
Amount.
Value.
Amount.
Value.
Amount.
Value.
8 lots
$      17,100
1,900
2,500
Leased
10.7 acres ....
7.242 acres.—
Pitt Meadowslj
225.41   acres..
$     38,890
Leased
235.84   acres-
Lots and acreage
Not known....
$      18,699
19,880
Lots and acreage
Not known....
310 acres
2,344 acres....
66 lots
10,855
Lots and acreage
Not known....
97 acres 	
100 acres
19 lots
156,397
Leased
50,805
384,667
180,125
19,140
97,890
65,485
£8,080
18,000
4,600
Leased
12 lots .
4,780
Leased
(43 owners)
153.85 acres..
(2 owners)
275.2 acres....
30 lots
(13 owners)
(7 owners)
147.48 acres..
25,780
85.37 acres....
6,100
Leased
250 acres
230 lots
105 acres
240 acres
87.9 acres ....
400 acres
175,000
105,000
400 lots,
158,000
91 lots 	
43,000
Leased
Leased
Spallumcheen
40 acres■	
250 acres
246 acres
160 acres
25,291
Leased
Leased
56 acres 	
575 acres
Surrey	
2,500
9,500
425
Lots 	
4,085
520 lots
Lots 	
l',130.35+ ac.
Leased :
6,504.407 ac.
30 lots
$   450,118
22,580
229,540 +
491,257 +
65,485
427+ lots ....
5,655.61+ ac.
$   177,545
883,197
137+   lots —
268.99+  ac...
$    55,735
61,105
Leased :
764.48 acres
43,790 +
Leased :
570.84 acres
Villages.
1   lot  	
$           180
3 lots 	
$           740
2 stores 	
$           800
12,000
1,500
Store
73   acres	
1-3 lots 	
44,084
10,225
20 lots
11,925
3,200
2 lots
22+  lots
$     27,125
73 acres 	
14 lots 	
$     44,084
10,405
$           740
•
Leased :
3 stores
2,300
■
U The C.M.C. gives the population of this municipality by actual count in April, 1926, as 399 whites,
81 Japanese, 6 Chinese, or a total of 486.    Exactly one person in every six is Japanese.
»* The Clerk states that the only Orientals in the village are three employed in hotels. 14
BRITISH
1
COLUMBIA.
REAL PROPERTY  OWNED BY  ORIENTALS  WITHIN THE  MUNICIPALITIES  AND  IN
THE  UNORGANIZED  DISTRICTS   OF  BRITISH   COLUMBIA—Continued.
Unorganized Territory.
Assessment District.
Chinese.
Japanese.
Hindus.
Farm Lands.
Improved Lands.
Wild Lands.
Amount.
Value.
Amount.
Value.
Amount.
Value.
Acres.
270.60   	
$      13,770
64,400
205,498
Acres.
378.80   	
$      26,584
44,150
Acres.
(2 owners)
1,857   	
(84 owners)
(19 owners)
Leased
Atlin i	
(6 owners)
1,968   	
(12  lessees)
728.23   	
18,036
128,699
94.16   	
24,525
26 	
(1 owner)
$         260
Timber lands
(10 owners)
2,252   	
(15 owners)
(3 owners)
oo
5,250
13,870
Fort  Steele	
(7 owners)
511.49   	
Galiano Island.     (See
Saltspring Island.)
(9 owners)
2.58   	
16,650
3,100
Leased
(14 owners)
40 	
(2 lessees)
751.17	
15,800
128,200
15,126
7,100
79,255
Leased
Kettle River and Prince-
(9 owners)
1,194   	
(2 lessees)
470.70   	
(11 owners) ..
3.06   	
A     7,900
16,400
500
37.65   	
40
(3 owners)
400 	
(1 owner)
Leased
Mayne Island.    (See Pender Island.)
(3 owners)
1,987.78
(14 lessees)
(12 owners)
148	
(1 lessee)
51.87  	
61,375
3,300
5,6S0
5.60   .
400
9.77   	
1,400
1,906
(22 owners)
(4 owners)....
(7 owners) —
(1 owner)
(1 owner)
45 	
600
(1 owner)
(3 owners)
Leased
430 	
41,565
(9 lessees)
(9 owners)....
6,525
669.50   	
23,300
4,200
Leased
(9 owners)
257 	
(1 lessee)
2.50   	
75
13,670
67,993
250
263.81	
2,807
179.34   	
3,020
(1 owner)
(10 owners)..
1,281   	
(32 owners)
160 	
800
(4 owners)
(1 owner)
Leased
(32 owners)
80 	
(1 lessee) ORIENTAL ACTIVITIES.
15
REAL PROPERTY  OWNED BY  ORIENTALS  WITHIN THE  MUNICIPALITIES  AND  IN
THE  UNORGANIZED  DISTRICTS   OF  BRITISH  COLUMBIA—Continued.
Unorganized Territory—Continued.
Assessment District.
Chinese.
Farm Lands.
Value.
Japanese.
Improved Lands.
Value.
Hindus.
Wild Land.
Amount.
Value.
Revelstoke..
Leased
Saltspring Island-
Leased
Slocan..
Telegraph  Creek-
Vancouver	
Vernon-
Victoria..
168   	
(2 owners)
8.33   	
(1 lessee)
50 	
(1 owner)
82 	
(4 lessees)
6.7  	
(1 owner)
322.89   	
(18 owners)
77.14   	
(6 owners)
7,800
2,800
3,500
4,320
1,875
52,900
22,400
(5   owners).
2,900
0.16   	
(3 owners)
(1 owner)	
206.99   	
(11 owners)
4 	
(4 owners)
163.50   	
(2 owners)
1,225
400
5,6S0
5,355
3,600
180   	
(1 owner)
1,500
J_
76 owners hold G,0O6.04 acres of farm land, valued at  $252,333
282 owners hold 2,722.11 acres plus town lots improved land, valued at    333,107
40 owners hold 730.61 acres wild land, valued at        6,407
3 owners hold 2,252 acres timber land, valued at     128,699
43 lessees hold 5,927.11 acres farm land, valued at     465,838
4 lessees hold 268 acres improved land, valued at        3,850
In other words: 448 Orientals occupy 17,905.87 acres in the unorganized districts, of an
assessed value of $1,190,234. By leased is to be understood leased from the Crown. There is
no estimate of the amount of Crown-granted land which is leased by the owners to Oriental
tenants, but it is known to be very considerable.
There are no lands owned or leased by Orientals within the cities of Greenwood or Slocan,
the district municipalities of Coldstream, Fraser Mills, Glenmore, Peachland, Sumas, or Tadanac,
or the village of Bums Lake.
Any lands in this Province owned by Chinese have been acquired by them from white owners,
by whom, or by some precedessor in title, they were obtained by Crown grant. The " Land Act "
contains a proviso against the pre-emption or purchase of Crown lands by any person of the
Chinese race, and this has been the law for more than forty years. Section 137 enacts: " It shall
not be lawful for a Commissioner or any other person to issue a pre-emption, record of any Crown
land, or sell any portion thereof, to any Chinese. Any record or grant made contrary to the
provisions of this section shall be void and of no effect."
ORIENTALS IN INDUSTRY.
On the closing day of the session of 1925 the Honourable the Minister of Labour filed
answers to certain questions regarding the number of Orientals in industrial employment over
a series of years.    The questions calling for statistical reply were as follows :—
1. At what figure does the Department of Labour estimate the number of Chinese, Japanese,
and Hindus employed in British Columbia industry in the first six months of 1925; in 1924, iD
1923, in 1922, in 1921, in 1920, in 1919, in 1918, in 1917, in 1910, in 1915, in 1914, in 1913, in 1932,
in 1911, in 1910, 1909, in 1908, in 1907, in 1906, in 1905, in 1904, in 1903, in 1902, in 1901, and
in 1900? 16 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
2. How many Chinese were employed in sawmills, in shingle-mills, in mines, in fishing, in
agriculture, and in other industries in the first sis months of 1925; in 1924, in 1923, in 1922, in
1921, in 1920, in 1910, and in 1900?
3. How many Japanese were employed in sawmills, in shingle-mills, in mines, in fishing, in
agriculture, and in other industries in the same years?
4. How. many Hindus were employed in sawmills, in shingle-mills, in mines, in fishing, in  .
agriculture, and in other industries in the same years?
The replies were as follows:—
1. Chinese:   1925 (six months), 2,556;   1924, 6,391;   1923, 7,241;   1922, 6,484;   1921, 5,691;
1920,5,917;   1919,5,437;   1918,5,928.     Japanese:   1925 (six months), 1,512;   1924,3,809;   1923,
4,536;   1922,3,832;   1921,3,368;   1920,3,001;   1919,2,514;   1918,2,759.     Hindus:   1925   (six
months), 392;  1924,980;  1923,1,151;  1922,1,134;  1921,784;  1920,742;  1919,685;   1918,567.
2. Sawmills:   1924, 1,797;   1923, 1,956;   1922, 1,817;   1921, 1,274;   1920, 1,487;   1919, 1,515;
1918, 1,071. Shingle-mills: 1924, 903; 1923, 1,233; 1922, 1,133; 1921, 1,019; 1920, S70; 1919,
801; 1918, 806. Mines: 1924, 621; 1923, 622; 1922, 795; 1921, 855; 1920, 948; 1919, 923';
1918,1,126.    Other Industries:  1924,3,070;   1923,3,430;   1922,2,739;   1921,2,443;   1920,2,612;
1919, 2,198;   1918, 2,607.-
3. Sawmills:  1924,1,384;  1923,1,287;   1922,1,180;  1921,973;   1920,916;   1919,972;   1918,
S61.    Shingle-mills: 1924,133;  1923,417;  1922,331;  1921,323;  1920,200;  1919, 115 ;  1918, 158.
Mines:   1924, 129;>  1923, 200;   1922, 105;   1921, 112;   1920, 133;   1919, 241;   1918, 231.     Other .
Industries:   1924,2,115;   1923,2,632;   1922,2,142;   1921,1,950;   1920,1,666;   1919,1,121;   1918,
1,103.
4. Sawmills: 1924,609; 1923,862; 1922, 5S3; 1921,445; 1920,392; 1919,476; 1918,226.
Shingle-mills: 1924, 21; 1923, 24; 1922, 37; 1921, 8 ; 1920, 45; 1919, —; 1918, 5. Mines : 1924,
—; 1923, 59; 1922, —; 1921, —; 1920, 1; 1919, —; 1918 —. Other Industries: 1924, 150;
1923,209;  1922,514;  1921,331;  1920,304;  1919,182;  1918,336.
Note.—No statistics are available in respect to years prior to 1918.
'The report of the Deputy Minister of Labour for the year ended December 31st, 1925, contained the following paragraphs :—
" The proportion of Asiatic workers in our industries also shows a decrease, and the 11.30
per cent, of Orientals is the smallest percentage recorded in any year since 1918, when the
compilation of these returns was begun. In that year 20.37 per cent, of our industrial workers
were of Asiatic origin. In the following year the percentage fell to 18.35, in 1920 to 16.64, and
in later years it was 14.45 in 1921, 14.61 in 1922, 13.85 in 1923', 11.97 in 1924, and now 11.30. It
is an odd circumstance that, while .the Chinese in our industries have increased their numbers
and kept up their proportion, both the Japanese and the Hindus are a smaller factor than in
1924. From this it would appear that, while there is a reserve of Chinese labour in the Province
which can be drawn upon when times are busy, the Japanese and Hindus are not in a position to
respond so readily to a demand for extra help.    .    .    .
" Lumbering employed more Chinese and fewer Hindus, as also did the manufacture of food
products, the miscellaneous group also showing a larger number of Chinese employed. The lower
percentage of Japanese employees was chiefly accounted for in the manufacture of explosives
and chemicals, food products, and the metal trades, little variation from the previous year being
witnessed in the lumbering industry. The latter, which employed 22.34 per cent, of Asiatics in
1923 and 21.78 per cent, in 1924, reduced the proportion to 20.46 per cent. last year. This
proportion differed greatly in the various branches of the industry. Thus, logging had 7.53 per
cent.; sawmills, 33.73 per cent.; planing-mills, 36.85 per cent.; and shingle-mille, 46.89 per cent." ORIENTAL ACTIVITIES.
17
The statistical tables in the report of the Department of Labour show the following figures
regarding Orientals in the several industries during 1925:—    •
Male.
Chinese.
Hindus.
Japanese.
Female.
Chinese.       Japanese.
Lumber industries	
Other wood manufacturing	
Pulp and paper	
Manufacturing food products	
Coal-mining	
Metal-mining	
Smelting	
Builders' materials	
Coast shipping	
Contracting	
Chemicals, etc	
Garment-making	
House furnishings	
Jewellery :	
Laundry, cleaning, dyeing	
Leather and fur	
Metal trades	
Oil-refining	
Printing and publishing	
Street-railways,   gas,   power,   and   tele
phones ;	
Totals	
3,865
99
83
1,272
522
54
46
260
413
93
116
28
1
1
47
1
1
1
1
24
728
23
1
1
13
2,437
83
554
72
71
73
1
71
53
76
9
14
3
1
111
33
6,974
788
3,560
131
These statistics are obtained from the returns submitted by 4,138 firms of employers and
do not include Orientals who may be employed by wholesale and retail firms, railway, express,
and ocean steamship companies, coal and wood yards, delivery and cartage services, or in
agricultural or domestic occupations.
On January 17th the Hon. the Minister of Labour gave the information following, replying
to the questions given :—
1. What is the percentage of employment of Orientals in the major industries of the Province
for the years 1900 to 1926 respectively?
2. What is the proportion of Chinese and Japanese for the corresponding period?
1. No information prior to establishment of Department of Labour in 1918; figures for
1926 not yet available.
Lumbering—1918, 39.68 per cent.; 1919, 40.71 per cent.; 1920, 30.10 per cent; 1921, 27.15
per cent.; 1922, 25.63 per cent.; 1923, 22.34 per cent.; 1924, 21.78 per cent.; 1925, 20.46 per cent.
Mining—1918, 14.52 per cent.; 1919, 15.62 per cent.; 1920, 11.55 per cent.; 1921, 15.46
per cent. ;■ 1922, 8.56 per cent.;  1923, 8.04 per cent.;  1924, 6.73 per cent.;  1925, 6.18 per cent.
Fishing.—1918, no information; 1919, 24.09 per cent.; 1920, 27.79 per cent.; 1921, 32.56
percent; 1922, 30.58 per cent.; 1923, 35.48 per cent.; 1924, 31.65 per cent.; 1925, 37.29 per cent.
2. Lumbering—Chinese :   1918, 24.18 per cent.;  1919, 25.47 per cent.;  1920, 18.16 per cent.;
1921, 15.49 per cent.; 1922, 14.46 per cent.; 1923, 12.68 per cent.; 1924, 11.40 per cent.; 1925,
11.06 per cent. Hindus : 1918, 3.41 per cent.; 1919, 4.76 per cent.; 1920, 3.38 per cent.; 1921,
3.19 per cent.; 1922, 3.61 per cent. ;j 1923, 2.79 per cent.; 1924, 3.47 per cent.; 1925, 2.42 per cent.
Japanese : 1918, 12.09 per cent!;. 1919, 10.48 per cent.;  1920, 8.56 per cent.;  1921, 8.47 per cent.;
1922, 7.56 per cent.; 1923, 6.87 per cent.;  1924, 6.91 per cent.;  1925, 6.98 per cent.
Miwintf.—^Chinese: 1918, 12.05 per cent.; 1919, 12.49 per cent.; 1920, 10.21 per cent.; 1921,
11.44 per cent.; 1922, 7.63 per cent.; 1923, 5.66 per cent.; 1924, 5.56 per cent.; 1925, 5 per cent.
Hindus: 1923, 0.54 per cent. Japanese: 1918, 2.47 per cent.; 1919, 3.13 per cent.; 1920, 1.34
per cent.; 1921, 4.02 per cent.;, 1922, 1.02 per cent.; 1923, 1.84 per cent.; 1924, 1.17 per cent.;
1925, 1.18 per cent.
2 18 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Fishing.—Chinese : 1918, no information; 1919, 16.18 per cent.; 1920, 22.41 per cent.; 1921,
12.35 per cent.; 1922, 12.29 per cent.;. 1923, 15.35 per cent.; 1924, 14.98 per cent; 1925, 22.33
per cent. Hindus: 1918, no information; 1922, 0.41 per cent.; 1923, 0.48 per cent.; 1924, 1.35
per cent.; 1925, 0.18 per cent. Japanese: 1918, no information; 1919, 7.84 per cent.; 1920,
4.65 per cent.; 1921, 19.71 per cent.; 1922, 19.60 per cent.; 1923, 17.86 per cent.; 1924, 15.42
per cent.; 1925, 14.78 per cent.
No information in Department concerning agriculture.
ORIENTALS IN THE FISHING INDUSTRY.
The regulation of the deep-sea fisheries coming under the control of the Federal authorities,
anything being done to reduce Oriental participation in that great industry of this Province,
which had gradually assumed very large proportions as compared with whites and native Indians,
is in their hands. Since 1922 a policy of reduction has been in effect. In regard to this policy
the Chief Inspector of Fisheries for this Coast, Major J. A. Motherwell, Vancouver, speaks as
follows in the annual report of the Fisheries Branch of the Department of Marine and Fisheries
for 1923-24:—
" The gradual elimination of the Orientals from the fisheries of the Province is primarily for
the purpose of providing greater encouragement to white men and Canadian Indians to take up
fishing for a living. By reference to the very interesting statement attached the results in connection with the salmon gill-net operations in the several areas will be observed. Extending over
the whole Province the increase in the number of whites was 9.5 per cent., and in the case of
Indians 7.4 per cent., and in the case of Orientals a decrease of 40 per cent., which was recommended by the 1922 Fisheries Commission. The total number of fishermen of all nationalities
decreased 534, or 11.9 per cent. On the Fraser River there was an increase of 6.2 per cent, in
whites, but a decrease of 20.6 per cent, in the ease of Indians. On the Skeena River the increase
in whites was 11.9 per cent, and 16.2 in Indians.
" In the case of salmon-trolling, while the reduction in Oriental licences was 25 per cent., the
increase in Indians was 13.9 per cent., but there was a decrease in whites of 6.1 per cent. Out of
1,446 trolling licences issued for the Province, 1,154 were issued for District No. 3, 579 for the
east coast and 575 for the west coast of Vancouver Island.
" It is interesting to note that on the east coast the increase in whites amount to 69.7 per
cent, and in the case of Indians 343.4 per cent., but on the west coast, where operations are considerably more difficult and hazardous, there was a decrease of 22.6 per cent, in the case of whites
and 14.1 per cent.- in the case of Indians in spite of the reduction of 25 per cent, in Orientals.
" Cod-fishing by means of lines was not licensed prior to 1923, but for the purpose of including this method of fishing in the general reduction in the case of Orientals licences were required
of all nationalities. It is the intention during 1924 to include cod hand-line licences in the
general policy of a 40-per-cent. reduction in the case of Orientals.
" Owing to the desirability of eliminating or greatly reducing the quantities of grayfish and
the necessity of every encouragement to this end, and which policy was recommended by the
Fisheries Commission of 1922, there is no limitation to the number of grayfish licences which
may be issued to Orientals or other nationalities providing they are British subjects.
" The policy of the elimination of the Oriental in salmon-seining operations naturally resulted
in the development of this class of fishing by whites. The experience has been that white seine
crews can be just as efficient, if not more so, than the Oriental, and this applies very largely to
the Oriental as well."
The following is the statement referred to by Major Motherwell:— ORIENTAL ACTIVITIES.
19
SALMON GILL-NET LICENCES ISSUED IN 1923.
Licences issued, 1923.
Increase or Decrease from 1922
and Per Cent.
Whites.
Indians.
Japanese.
Total.
Whites.
Indians.
Japanese.
Total, all
Nationalities.
1,642
414
33
178
614
349
1,174
54
1,122
27
116
337
463
120
1,036
59
1,193
523
95
385
95
66
641
29
3,957
964
244
900
1,172
535
2,851
142
+ 172
9.5
+   24
6.2
+     1
3.1
+   19
11.9
+  47
8.3
+ 114
48.5
+ 181
18.2
— 33
37.9
+   90
7.4
— 7
20.6
+     2
1.7
+   47
16.2
— 4
0.9
+   41
51.9
+  86
9.1
+   11
22.9
—796
40.0
—349
40.0
— 63
39.9
—257
40.0
— 62
39.5
— 45
40.5
—427
40.0
— 20
40.9
—534
11.9
District No. 1	
—332
25.6
District No. 2—
— 60
19.7
—191
17.5
Rivers and Smith Inlets
— 19
1.6
+ 110
25.9
Totals—
District No. 2	
—160
5.3
District No. 3	
Percentage	
— 42
22.8
SALMON-TROLLING LICENCES ISSUED IN 1923.
Whole Province-
Percentage.	
District No. 1	
Percentage	
District No. 2	
Percentage	
District No. 3—
East Coast	
Percentage..
West Coast	
Percentage..
Totals—
District No. 3-
Percentage..
698
25
162
336
175
511
499
104
139
256
395
249
104
144
248
1,446
25
267
579
1,154
— 45
6.1
+     S
47.1
—140
46.4
+ 138
69.7
— 51
22.6
+   87
20.5
+  61
13.9
4.6
+ 108
343.4
— 42
14.1
+   66
20.1
83
25.0
1
50.0
34
24.7
48
25.0
25.0
— 67
4.4
+     8
47.1
—146
35.3
+ 212
57.8
—141
19.7
+   71
6.6
BOAT LICENCES.
74
6
96
176
       O
3.9
— 69
41.9
— 72
29.0
BUYERS' LICENCES.
Whole Province-
Percentage	
132
162
47
55.3
— 16
39.0
+   36
28.6
Chief Inspector Motherwell in his report for 1925 has the following to say on the same
subject:—
" The Department's policy of eliminating the Oriental from the fisheries of the Province
with a view to placing the entire industry in the hands of white British subjects and Canadian
Indians appears to be working out well, as is shown by attached statements, which covers a
very large proportion of the total number of licences issued which Orientals were permitted to 20
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
hold. In the salmon gill-net operations the Orientals during the year 1925 held only 24 per cent,
and in the salmon-trolling 10.5 per cent, of the total number issued in the Province.
" In the herring dry-salting operations a further reduction of 25 per cent, was made during
the year, making a total of 50 per cent., and in the case of salmon dry-salting, a first reduction
of 25 per cent, went into effect, and it is the intention to continue this percentage each year
until these industries are entirely in the hands of whites or Canadian Indians."
A statement showing the number of salmon gill-net licences in District No. 2 using powerboats gives the following information :—
Division.
Whites.
Indians.
Japanese.
Total.
1
48
1
9
95
38
8
16
7
3
9
1
6
9
64
Central	
8
12
110
Smith Inlet	
39
Totals	
192
44
6
242
The statement showing the effect of the Department's policy of eliminating Orientals from
the fisheries, similar to that given above for 1923, gives the following details as to the increase
or decrease in the number of licences issued in 1925 over the number issued in 1922:—
SALMON GILL-NETS LICENCES ISSUED IN 1925.
Licences issued, 1925.
Whites.
Indians.
Japanese.
Total.
Increase or Decrease from 1922
and Per Cent.
Whites.
Indians. Japanese.
Total, all
Nationalities.
Whole Province	
Percentage	
District No. 1	
Percentage	
District No. 2—
Nass River	
Percentage	
Skeena River	
Percentage	
Rivers and Smith Inlets
Percentage	
Outlying	
Percentage	
Totals—
District No. 2	
Percentage	
District No. 3	
Percentage	
1,963
485
12
339
643
278
1,272
206
1,247
39
1,015
445
4,225
969
117
401
403
128
1,049
159
81
327
210
1,067
81
56
1,127
462
545
2,866
390
+ 493
33.5
+ 95
24.4
— 20
62.5
+ 1S0
113.2
+ 76
13.4
+ 43
18.3
+ 279
28.1
+ 119
136.3
+ 215
20.8
+ 5
14.7
+ 3
2.6
+ 111
38.3
— 64
13.7
+ 49
62.0
+ 99
10.4
+ 111
231.3
-974
48.9
-427
48.9
- 77
48.7
-315
49.1
- 76
48.4
- 55
49.5
-523
48.9
- 24
48.9
—266
5.9
—327
25.2
— 94
30.9
— 24 '
2.2
— 64
5.4
+ 37
—145
4.1
+ 206
111.!
SALMON-TROLLING LICENCES ISSDED IN 1925.
Whole Province-
Percentage	
District No. 1	
Percentage	
District No. 2	
Percentage	
District No. 3—
East Coast	
Percentage-
West Coast	
Percentage-
Totals—
. District No. 3-
Percentage..
1,091
50
328
503
210
713
539
182
103
254
357
191
SO
111
191
1,821
50
510
686
575
1,261
+ 482
'    79.1
+   26
108.3
+ 104
46.4
+ 265
111.3
+  87
70.7
+ 352
97.5
+ 200
58.9
— 1
100.0
+ 49
36.9
+ 38
58.4
+ 114
81.4
+ 152
74.1
-313
62.1
-    5
100.0
-113
58.5
-195
63.7
-308
61.7
+ 369
25.4
+  25
100.0
+ 148
40.9
+ 190
38.3
+     6
1.1
+ 196
18.4 ORIENTAL ACTIVITIES.
21
BOAT LICENCES.
L
CENCES   ISSUED,  1925
Increase or Decrease from 1922
Whites.
Indians.
Japanese.
Total.
Whites.
Indians.
1 Total, all
Japanese. National-
i    ities.
123
12
82
217
+  46
59.7
+    6
100.0
1
— 83        — 31
50.3            12.5
BUYERS' LICENCES.
Whole Province-
Percentage	
41
20
61
44
51.!
— 21
51.2
— 65
51.(
ORIENTALS IN SCHOOLS.
The following are the figures in regard to Oriental children attending the public schools of
British Columbia from the school-year 1922-23 onward, figures for earlier years not being obtainable :—
Year.
White.
Chinese.
Japanese.
Hindu.
1922-23	
1923-24	
92,120
93,156
94,228
97,794
1,346
1,423
1,312
1,397
1,422
1,725
2,414
2,477
16
30
1924-25	
1925-26   	
26
'20
From these figures it appears that Orientals were 2.9 per cent, of the school population in
1922-23, 3.3 per cent, in 1923-24, 3.9 per cent, in 1924-25, and 3.83 per cent, in 1925-26. These
percentages were more than double the rate of increase in the total school population, which
was 1.55 per cent, in 1923-24 over 1922-23 and 1.7 per cent, in 1924^25, and slightly greater than
the rate of 3.8 per cent, in 1925-26.
Startling are the figures of increase in the school population of the various Oriental races.
The attendance of children of Japanese parents was 21.31 per cent, greater in 1923-24 than
it was in 1922-23; there was an increase of 39.94 per cent, the next year, but the increase for
the school-year ended June 30th last was only 2.61 per cent, over the previous twelve months.
In three years the school attendance of this race has increased by 74 per cent.
The attendance of Chinese children in 1923-24 showed an increase of 5.72 per cent, over the
year before, but dropped off in 1924-25 to a point a little below the attendance of 1922-23. In
the school-year closing last June, however, there was an increase of 6% per cent, over the
previous year. ■    •
The Hindu school population appears negligible in point of numbers alongside the two other
races, but there was an increase in pupils of 87% per cent, in 1923-24 over 1922-23. While
there has been a falling-off in both 1924r-25 and 1925-26, the attendance in those years over
1922-23 still was 62% per cent, and 25 per cent, respectively.
The attendance of children of Oriental parentage at the public schools during 1925-26 was
as follows:—
Chinese.
Japanese.
Hindus.
City  schools	
Municipal   schools ...
Rural schools _■	
1,185
113
99
1,244
951
282
12
7
1
Totals	
1,397
2,477
20 22
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
SMALL-FRUIT ACREAGE IN BRITISH COLUMBIA.
SUMMARY OF PERSONS ENGAGED IN THE INDUSTRY AND ACREAGE, YEAR 1926.
Whole Province.
Lower Fraser
Valley.
Vancouver
Island.
White growers—
Number	
2,041
3,176%
344
1,401%  .
14.5%
30.6%
876
2,124
321
1,366
26.8%
39%
585
Acreage 1	
Oriental growers—
855
23
35%
Percentage of total growers	
Percentage of total acreage	
3.8%
4%
BRITISH COLUMBIA GREENHOUSE SURVEY, 1923.
District.
No. of Growers.
No. of Houses.
Area in Square Feet.
Lower Mainland  (whites)	
Lower Mainland (Chinese)...
Vancouver Island (whites) —
Vancouver Island  (Chinese).
Okanagan	
Kootenays	
Totals	
White growers	
Oriental growers	
45
2
51
9
8
237
28
218
92
35
16
120
626
109
11
506
120
690,480 \
163,670 f
570,930 \
382,382 /
67,770
29,948
854,150
953,312
1,905,180
1,359,128
546,052
Orientals, 9 per cent, of growers, 28 per cent, of glass area.
COLUMBIA GREENHOUSE SURVEY,
BRITISH
1925.
District.
No. of Growers.    No. of Houses.
Area in Square Feet.
Lower Mainland (whites) —
Lower Mainland (Chinese) ..
Vancouver Island (whitest-
Vancouver Island  (Chinese)
Okanagan	
Kootenays	
Totals ...
White growers t .....
Oriental growers	
56
6
15
12
162
141
21
284
48
246
158
44
23
782,154
208,794
990,948
567,357 ). O09 0''
654,664 J1'^'"-
80,650
33,737
803
2,327,356
597
206
1,463,898
863,458
Orientals, 13 per cent, of growers, 37 per cent, of glass area.
Percent.
Total increase in glass area, 1925 and 1923 survey      22
White increase in glass area, 1925 and 1923 survey        8
Oriental increase in glass area, 1925 and 1923 survey      58 ORIENTAL ACTIVITIES.
23
LAND OWNED AND LEASED BY JAPANESE AND CHINESE
IN B.C., 1921.
No. of Owners
or Lessees.
Total
Acreage.
Orchard.
Small-fruit
Growing.
Truck-   '
farming
Dairy-
farming.
Mixed
Farming.
Land owned by Japanese
Land owned by Chinese
Totals	
492
116
8,385.78
5,664.61
176.00
14.50
2,096.21
25.81
281.50
1,632.93
80
631.28
1,228.00
608
14,050.39
190.50
2,122.02
1,914.43
80
1,859.28
Land leased by Japanese
Land leased by Chinese
Totals	
103
369
1,781.26
11,087.12
139.00
37.50
155.00
64.00
560.25
8,184.55
435
236.75
1,581.00
472
12,868.38
176.50
219.00
8,744.80
435
1,817.75
Grand total, lands owned
1,080
26,918.77
367.00
2,341.02
10,659.23
515
3,677.03
ORIENTALS IN COAL-MINES.
The late Chief Inspector of Mines reported that during the year 1925 there were employed
underground in the coal-mines of the Province 288 Orientals, 226 of whom were Chinese and 62
Japanese. There were employed above ground 244, all Chinese. Employed in and about coalmines during the year mentioned there were, therefore, a total of 512 Orientals, 450 Chinese, and
62 Japanese.
RECAPITULATION.
Chinese.
Japanese.
Total.
Underground	
Above ground ...
Totals
226
224
450
62
62
288
224
512
NO ORIENTALS ON PUBLIC WORKS.
The Deputy Minister of Public Works reports that in so far as public works are concerned
no Oriental labour is permitted, either directly or indirectly, on any contract or day-labour work
on roads, bridges, buildings, or any public works whatever. Clause 45 in the Department's form
of contract agreement reads as follows, in specific language :—
, "The contractor shall not, directly or indirectly, employ any Asiatic upon, about, or in
connection with the works; and in the event of his so doing the Minister may declare forfeited
to His Majesty all moneys due or to accrue due the contractor."
No goods for use in the Department of Public Works are purchased from Oriental firms.
Once in a while small purchases have been made by new or subordinate officials who were
ignorant of this rule, but generally speaking this restrictive regulation is rigidly enforced.
ORIENTAL TRADING ACTIVITIES.
A survey of the trading activities of the Oriental races in British Columbia shows that in
the entire Province, in 1925, there were 3,231 Asiatics licensed to carry on business in the various
professions, commercial pursuits, trades, and callings for which licences are required. Of these,
2,122 were Chinese, 1,034 Japanese, and 75 Hindus. In the cities 2,647 licences were held, in
the rural municipalities 354, in the villages 20, and in unorganized territory 142.
In the appended table is summarized the information received from the several municipal
licensing officials and the Provincial Police regarding the number of licences held by each of the
Asiatic races in the year mentioned, with the trades which they carry on. In some cases the
classification of " general store, retail store, or general merchant" covers some of the trades
segregated under individual headings in other municipalities, but the figures in the recapitulation
■give the minimum engaged in each calling. -;-.■-. 24 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
In the case of the City of Vancouver, where 56 per cent, of the Oriental licence-holders in
the whole Province are found, it has been possible to make an analysis of the proportion they
bear to other races, thanks to the very full information furnished by the civic authorities. It is
thus evident that in 1925 Orientals constituted the given percentages of the total number of
licensees in each of the classes of trades following:—
Per Cent. Per Cent.
Laundries and laundry offices ". 82% Grocers   25
Greengrocers  91 Wood-dealers  25
Hawkers and peddlers   72 Hardware   20
Poulterers  62 Lodging-houses   23
Fish-dealers   45 Candy and fruit dealers   25
Restaurants   33 Dressmakers   16
Bath-parlours  53 Shoe-repairing  15
Cleaners and dyers 1 '... 39 Men's clothing  12%
Barbers  32 Printers and publishers  :  12
Dry-goods   29 Pool-rooms   12
Tailors     31 Licensed vehicles  14
Jewellers    .'. 26 Taxicabs  10
Tobacconists  26 Auto-drivers        9
Taking the Province as a whole, the Chinese are to the Japanese as 2 to 1 in the holding of
trade licences. In Victoria nearly all are held by Chinese. In Vancouver the Japanese licence-
holders are to the Chinese 5 to 6. Among the district municipalities Richmond has 87 out of the
total of 122 trade licences issued to Japanese in all districts, while the adjoining municipalities
of South Vancouver and Burnaby have between them more than one-third of the trade licences
issued to Chinese in all districts.
No trading licences of any kind are held by Orientals within the cities of Alberni or Slocan,
the district municipalities of Coldstream, Peachland, Salmon Arm, Spallumcheen, Sumas, or
Tadanac, or the village of Burns Lake.
The fact is pointed out, particularly in Vancouver and Victoria, that whereas until recent
years Chinese stores were only to be found in those quarters of the two cities which have for
many years been occupied by people of this race, stores and laundries conducted by Chinese are
now to be found spre'ad over all parts of the cities, in addition to the still existing Chinese
quarters. Municipal officials state that in numerous instances these stores, selling confectionery,
soft drinks, fruits, cigarettes, vegetables, canned goods, or small groceries, have replaced or driven
out white storekeepers who formerly made a livelihood, or supplemented the earnings of other
members of the family, in this manner. Chinese residence in other quarters than their own has
followed this business penetration. .,.-....■
20M-227-6689 /
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1
5
(2*   3t)
"it
6
(2*   4t)
72
(19*  53t)
1
18
(17*   It)
3
(2t 1*)
3
(1*   2t)
226
(104*   122t)
It
"it
■ It
It
6
(1*  5t)
It
1*
90
(20*  70t)
§
lilt
7
(2*  5f)
2*
it
It
21
(13* 8t)
3*
1
1*
2*
It
8
(3* 5t)
3*
3
2
6*
If
1*
5
(4*  It)
1*
1*
419
(248* 145t 20t)
6*
"
it
it
1*
It
2t
5t
"it
9
(4*5t)
1*
1
2*
....
1*
1*
24
(5*   19t)
2*
23
(1*   22t)
28
(11*   17t)
13
(7*   6t)
6*
1*
29
(15*   14t)
14*
6
(3*  3t)
3*
11
(9*  2t)
9*
10*
3*
73*
1
7
5
7
2
1
1
12
0
1
4
18
816
12
i
2
1
39
11
3
5
(3* 2t)
2
1
10
106
(01* 45t)
4
12*
87
(37* 50t)
2
19
(14* 5t>
2,647
1,700
893
54
170
238
199
273
23
192
136
45
18
118
114
232
11
91
11
i
25
4
12
11
1
1
432             I  ....
1 1 ....
1
9
2
5
1
10
2
1
1
24
2
23
28
13    |    6
1
1
43
9
20
10
3
73
DISTRICTS.
15
11
3
8
9
16
1
5
3
11
7
20
14
12
13
2
53
95
20
84
1
6
13
14
11
3
7
8
9
5
3
6
2
15
10
12
13
48
5
20
71
0
11
1
1
.7
1
5
2
5
2
2
4
87
4
1
1
3
2
1
3
9
2
2*
1
2*
1*
1
2
1*
4*
2
1*
3*
10
7*
8
(2* 6t)
1
3
1
18
(13* 5t)
4
2
9*
31
(30t 1*)
1*
2*
4*
3
(1* 2t)
2t
5*
3
7
(6* It)
5*
"<St
2*
4*
10
30
(38* It)
14t
20
68*
6
12
(10* 2t)
1*
2
(1*  It)
2*
3
(2* It)
2
it
14
(12t2*)
2t
1
2t
it
4
<3t  It)
8t
1*
5
5t
et
3
(2*   It)
2t
...
1*
2t
1
3
(2f It)
'
1*
It
12t
3t
it
...:
....
Chilliwack 	
Delta           	
Mission.     (See Mission
Village.)
2
3
(1* 2t)
Totals	
422
279
122
21
20
95
11
20«
25
5
2
1
15
6
6
6
5
4
3
1
1
12
3
1
....
VILLAGES.
3
1
9
.6
1
3
1
8
4
1
1
2
1
1*
It
1
5
(4* It)
2'
1
1*
2*
1
It
1
1*
1*
...
Totals	
20
17
3
3
8
1
4
1
1
1
1
....
....
....
UNORGANIZED TERRITORY.
1
2
16
1
2
2
34
1
1
5
1
1
4
6
1
10
2
1
1
23
1
5
4
1
1
2
1
2
3
5
1
2
1
2
15
2
o
30
5
1
4
5
1
10
2
1
1
22
1
5
1
1
2
1
2
1
15
1
2
1
4
1
1
1
1
1
4
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
12
1
2
2
33
(30* 3t)
1
4
1
1
4
.     6
(5*  It)
1
0
2
21
(20* It)
1
5
3
1
2
1
1
3
(1* 2t)
5
2
1
It
1
1
2*
1
1
1
2
-v
•►-
""
"«""
Cobble Hill	
Lillooet	
McBrlde	
Xelson	
Port Esslngton	
■  Qualicum Beach	
Sidney	
Squamlsh	
Terrace	
Ucluclet	
Wilmer	
Y«hk	
Yale	
Totals	
142
126
16
5
126
2
4
2
1
....
RECAPITULATION.
Cities	
2,647
422
20
142
1,700
279
17
126
893
122
3
16
54
21
170
20
3
5
238
95
8
126
199
11
2
273
200
1
4
23
25
192
5
4
2
203
136
2
1
1
45
1
1
18
15
118
0
1
2
114
6
1
232
ii
6
91
5
11
l
25
25
4
4
12
11
4
15
1
3
4
1
432
1
1
1
12
13
3
1
1
9
2
5
1
10
2
2
1
1
24
2
2
23
23
28
28
13
13
6
1
43
9
20
10
3
73
District municipalities.
Unorganized territory	
Chinese	
185
13
372
94
1
146
66
435
31
12
27
21
151
52
74
66
27
19
1
3
30
39
88
51
70
106
126
1
10
23
73
4
7
i
16
9
4
6
6
12
1
2
2
2
1
261
146
26
1
13
3
1
1
1
8
2
5
1
5
5
2
1
1
5
19
2
1
22
11
17
7
6
6
1
29
14
6
3
18
2
10
3
73
Japanese	
Hindus	
• Chinese.           t Japa
nese.
IHlii
dus.
81
'nder gener
al stores.

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