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Canadian Pacific West Indies cruises Canadian Pacific Steamships Limited 1925

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 vn l_ JAMAICA
Printed in Canada 1924
a f
"Westward ho! with a rum-below
And hurrah for the Spanish Main Of"
74 AKE it "Southward ho!" instead—the old, fascinating adventure of the
West Indies and the Spanish Main still tempts you, as it tempted
Columbus, Ponce de Leon, Drake, Cortes, Hawkins, and a hundred
others. True, there are no pirates now, no rich galleons to sack, no
buried treasures to seek; but there is still the lure of sun-kissed seas, the beauty of
coral isles, the charm of tropical life, the countless memories of the storied past.
Do not some of these names stimulate your
imagination? Cuba, that lovely island that was
once the pride of Spain? Or Jamaica, headquarters, in the bad old days, of famous buccaneers? Or Panama, formerly the highway* of
Spanish treasure trains, now svnonvmous with
the greatest canal of history? To these places
you can cruise this winter; and to others—
Colombia, stronghold of Hispaniola; Curacao, a
little bit of Holland in the Caribbean; the South
American land of Venezuela, with its sky-nestling
capital of Caracas; Trinidad, "the land of the
humming bird"; Barbados, the beautiful coral
island; Martinique, an outpost of France, remembered for the devastation wrought .by Mont
Pelee; the black republic of Haiti; Porto Rico,
where Columbus rested and whence Ponce de
Leon set forth to find the Fountain of Youth;
Nassau, in the Bahamas, with its wonderful
coral formations and sea-gardens; and last, but
not least, Bermuda, the "Isles of the Blest/'
The Canadian Pacific, in announcing for this
winter a repetition of its popular cruises to the
West Indies and the Spanish Main, has pleasure
in presenting in this booklet a sketch of some
Hispaniolan history. History, indeed, is the
essential background to a proper appreciation of
this great Caribbean region. Hither in the centuries that immediately followed the voyages of
Columbus flocked the adventurous spirits ot
Europe; here were fought some prodigious sea-
fights, or ambitious colonization schemes were
launched. Spain, England, France—these three
jealous kingdoms clashed in the West Indies, and
part of their world-wide four-hundred-year strife
was fought in these island-strewn waters.
The history of the West Indies lays emphasis
on the axiom that all history is really biography.
It was not Spain who discovered America—it was
Columbus; it was not England who sacked Nombre
de Dios—it was Drake. These men, whose names
are writ large in the annals of the time, or strewn
over still surviving geographic features, were
thousands of miles from home. Their commissions, to say the least, were nebulous, and
when they acted they made quick decisions that
sometimes brought them rebuke or punishment
from their kings. Very few ever amassed
wealth; some were disgraced or executed. Most
of them were frankly pirates—even those who
were not professionals like Kidd were only too
eager to indulge in some amateur "privateering"
when encouraged by their government. But all
said and done, they were mostly great men.
They carried their countries' flag and influence
into unknown wildernesses, and even while
they pillaged were faithful to their trust.
Page Two "Lo> all our pomps of yesterday
Are one with Nineveh and Tyre!"
The ruins of San Juan Cathedral, in the
old city of Panama—-destroyed by the
famous pirate Sir Henry Morgan in 1671.
Photograph by Publishers1 Photo Service
Page  Three CORTES
^Itpon a peak
in Darien *
j HE life of Cortes can be easily
summed up in a statement which he
himself made to the King of Spain.^ "I
am the man who gave you more provinces
than your ancestors left you cities," he
said. Of an old but poverty-stricken
family, Hernando Cortes early decided to
seek his fortunes in the New World;
eventually, after several unsuccessful
attempts, he arrived at San Domingo in
1504. He was kindly received by Ovando,
the governor, who gave him several
lucrative appointments. He was Alcade
at Santiago, and whilst he was serving
under the governor of Cuba he was
given the command of an expedition
to the newly-discovered empire of Mexico.
Either from foresight or from a knowledge of his superior's character, Cortes
pushed his preparations and sailed just
before an order removing him from
command could be served.
Landing in Mexico in March, 1514,
Cortes learned from the natives of a
powerful Emperor, possessed of stupendous wealth, who ruled over the whole
country from a magnificent capital built
on an inland lake and paved with gold.
Vera Cruz was founded as a base camp;
literally burning his vessels as a sign to
his soldiers that they must conquer or
perish, Cortes set out for the capital.
His horses created amongst the natives
the same panic that the elephants of
Hannibal did in the ranks of the Romans,
centuries before. Alternately fighting
and cajoling the Caciques—viceroys of
the emperor—Cortes made his way to
the great city of Mexico.
Here he was graciously received
and almost treated as a god; but at the
same time the Emperor instructed his
commanders to attack Vera Cruz. This
was done; several of Cortes' men were
killed, and their heads were sent to
Mexico. Cortes, realizing from this
treachery the danger in which he stood,
demanded the punishment of the Caciques. Very steadfastly he remained until
this punishment was meted out. A
Spanish force under Narvaez had been
sent to force him to return; but them
Cortes attacked and defeated, enlisting
the soldiers under himself.
Upon his return to Spain his offences
were glossed over in appreciation of his
services, but he was deprived of much of
his authority in Mexico, being given
control of the military forces under a
civil governor. Disgusted, he returned
again to Spain to ask the King for a
restoration of his powers. When this
was refused he retired to Seville, the true
creator of Spain's power in the New
World, and died poor and disgraced.
Page Four Havana—Morro Castle
Havana, capital of Cuba, has been
called variously the Paris of the western
hemisphere and the key of the new
world. Occupying a lengthy peninsula, and backed by an amphitheatre
of hills, its promenades, drives, public
parks, clubs and cafes are filled at all
times with gay and pleasure-loving
crowds, living a life that is apparently
care-free. In customs and in architecture, too, the Cuban metropolis is
typically a Spanish city.
Steaming into the fine harbor—■
which gives shelter to large vessels of
all descriptions—the dominant features
that will be seen on the left are Morro
Castle and Cabanas Fortress, while on
the right stretches the city. The chief
trade is the tobacco industry, and there
are numerous cigar factories; sugar is
, also one of the principal products.
Ewing Galloway
Havana—The Prado
The finest street in Havana is the
Prado, a central avenue that connects
a system of parks with the seashore.
About Central Park, the Prado and the
Malecon the traveller can best study
the life and ways of the people of Cuba.
The Plaza de Armas, or Military
Square, dating back to 1519, was really
the beginning of Havana. The custom
of the Spanish conquerors was invariably to lay out a Plaza de Armas,
around which rose the civil, military
and ecclesiastical structures.
Havana is well supplied with
churches, the oldest being the Cathedral, the foundations of which were
laid in 1656. It is called the Columbus
Cathedral, for it is claimed that in 1795
the bones of the great discoverer were
brought here from San Domingo. La
Fuerza, an old fort, is the oldest structure in Havana; built in 1538, it has
walls 75 feet high, and from its roof a
fine view of the city and harbor can be
Publishers' Photo Service
Haiti, the " Black Republic," covers
an area of some 10,000 square miles
and has some two million odd inhabitants. A land of densely-wooded
mountains and beautiful valleys, it is a
heavy producer of sugar-cane, cotton,
cacao, tobacco and coffee—coffee,
indeed, of world-wide renown. In the
interior are considerable mineral deposits that merely await transportation to be developed. Port au Prince,
the capital and largest city, is well laid
out, with fine public buildings, and
possesses a splendid natural harbor.
Haiti was discovered by Columbus
on his first voyage, and for two hundred years was a Spanish possession.
In 1697 it was ceded to France. Later,
negro slaves were introduced from
Africa; in 1806 the negroes, defying
Napoleon, obtained their independence
and founded a republic, which—with
the exception of a temporary kingdom
—it has since remained. Haiti is one
of the most thickly populated countries
of the Americas.
Ewing Galloway
rfhe Subju&Hon of
Porto fl/coi
TO stay young! Almost as old as
civilization itself, that pathetic cry
has come down the ages, echoing in the
wistful phrases of pagan philosophers,
re-echoing in the mysterious mental processes  of mediaeval  conjurors.    Horace
with his "Eheu fugaces ," Cicero
with his "De Senectute," Faust with
his devil-traflickings—these, and monks,
students, scientists, even surgeons, of all
the centuries, have bewailed the approach
of old age, or abstracted themselves from
the world to solve the problem of arresting it.
To the people of the Middle Ages, the
source of eternal youth was an elixir,
heaven-sent, perhaps devil-concealed.
To find it, and drink of it, was the only
way to keep young. Sometimes the
mediaeval fancy replaced this elixir with
the conception of a magic spring, bubbling up joyously on golden sands; and
in a period when life itself was a grand
and vast adventure, when all voyagings
were dangerous and far-afield, so the
persistent thought was that this spring
could be found only at the end of some
adventurous, difficult voyage.
The Spaniards, immediately after the
discovery of the New World, convinced
themselves that somewhere here was
the " Fountain of Youth." Fired by this
thought, Juan, Ponce de Leon shipped
under Columbus, accompanying the admiral on his second voyage. He was
made governor of Espanola, the eastern
portion of the island now known as Haiti.
Stories of the Fountain of Youth came
constantly to his ears, placing it generally
on an island north of Espanola. At his
own request he was sent to discover and
conquer the unknown isle.
In 1513 he sailed from Porto Rico, in
a north-westerly direction, and after some
weeks landed near what is now the city
of St. Augustine. As it was on Easter
Sunday, called by the Spaniards Pascua
Florida (flowery Easter), de Leon gave to
what he thought was a new island the
name of "Florida." Some years elapsed
before he had an opportunity of revisiting
the country, but in 1521 he sailed again
for his "island," armed with a patent
empowering him to conquer and colonize
it. His private purpose was to hunt once
again for the Fountain of Youth.
But age has one alternative, and Ponce
de Leon, looking for youth, found it. The
poisoned arrow of a marauding Indian
cut short his promising career.
Page Six Jamaica
Jamaica, largest island of the British West Indies, is without doubt
amongst the most fascinating points
touched on the cruise. Its natural
scenery is wonderful. Its mountains
rise to high altitudes, reaching, in Blue
Mountain Peak, 7,423 feet; from its
green-clad hills pour down countless
rivers and streams, breaking into
beautiful cascades and waterfalls.
Kingston, the capital, is very interesting in many ways. A visit to its
markets, which contain supplies of
tropical fruit, vegetables, souvenirs
made from lace bark, and strings of red
and brown beans, will serve as an ideal
means to study the manners and customs of the Jamaicans, for these markets are the great gathering places of
natives from the interior. Good roads
connect Kingston with the interior
villages, offering many fine opportunities for excursions.
Publishers1 Photo Service
The Kingston Sea-shore
At the entrance to Kingston Harbor
is Port Royal, closely associated with
the early history of Jamacia. It was
at one time the most important place
on the island. Here came the Spanish,
who took possession of it in 1509—it
had been discovered previously by
Columbus—followed by the English
in 1655. Since 1670 it has been a
British possession. Afterwards Port
Royal became the rendezvous of noted
pirates and buccaneers, who brought
such treasures as to make it one of the
richest places in the world. It was
destroyed by earthquake in 1692, at
the height of its prosperity.
The soil of Jamaica is very rich and
fertile. Many kinds of trees are grown,
including mahogany and ebony, and
there is a flourishing trade in oranges,
bananas, pineapples and other fruits.
Very fine coffee is cultivated; other
products of the soil include tobacco
and ginger.
Publishers' Photo Service
Panama is the most southerly point
reached on the cruises. The port of
Colon is connected with the old city of
Panama by a railroad, from which views
of the most prominent features of the
canal may be obtained.
It was across the Isthmus that the
old Spanish gold trains of heavily laden
mules made their way towards the
Atlantic. Portions of this road still
exist. The city of Panama was
founded in 1516. Here came the gold
and silver from Peru for shipment to
Spain. The city has an interesting
Cathedral, built in 1760; but probably
the greatest attraction is the Sea Wall,
a part of the old fortification, the top
of which now forms a promenade.
The connection of Cortes with Panama
may be apocryphal, but it inspired one
of the happiest passages in the poems
of John Keats:—
Or like stout Cortes when, with eagle eyes,
He stared a t the Pacific, and all his men
Looked at each other with a wild surmise,
Silent, upon apeak in Darien.
Ewing Galloway
^Battle with Spaniards
at Vera Cruz * /567
" /^ENTLEMEN Adventurers"
Zf should be judged not by the standard of morality now prevailing but by that
which governed during their times. By
present-day standards Sir John Hawkins
was a thief, a liar, and a pirate, perhaps
even a "bootlegger" in slaves. But his
own generation respected him as a puritan
and a patriot.
Hawkins was the second son of
William Hawkins, a prosperous burgher
of Plymouth, who thrice represented that
town in Parliament. The family had
been for many generations ship-builders,
ship-owners and sea-captains, occupations
then more closely connected than now.
John Hawkins, bred to the sea in the
vessels of his family, served his apprenticeship under his elder brother and in company with his cousin Francis Drake.
When the great period of Elizabethan
maritime adventure began, he took an
active part by sailing to the Guinea coast,
where he first robbed the Portuguese
slavers and then smuggled the slaves into
the Spanish possessions of the New
In 1563 a venture of his went astray
and he found himself without ships or
funds. But Queen Elizabeth came to
the rescue, and lent him one of her own
vessels, and (it is said) agreed to accept
payment out of the proceeds of the voyage.
So successful was it that upon his return
he was accorded the privilege of assuming
a coat of arms, and with a candor strange
to our days he adopted as his crest a
chained negro.
Although he had the private support
of the Queen, these voyages were all
private ventures, and he was admittedly
little better than a pirate. In 1567,
however, he sailed under the orders of
the state. Again he kidnapped slaves.
Encouraged by the apparent weakness of
its defenses, he entered the port of Vera
Cruz, alleging that he had been driven in
by bad weather. The falsity of his story
was glaring, but the Spaniards were for
the moment too weak to contest it.
Unfortunately for him, a strong Spanish
force arrived, bringing the new Viceroy;
taking him off his guard, the Spaniards
attacked him, and only two vessels
An Admiralty appointment removed
him from the sea until the coming of the
Spanish Armada. For his part in this
action he was knighted, and created a
Rear-Admiral. In 1590 he was commissioned to intercept the Spanish treasure fleet which every year brought home
vast amounts of gold. But he was unsuccessful. His next journey was also
unsuccessful,   and   witnessed   his death.
Page Eight ". ?
Cartagena de Indias has a romantic
history. For three centuries the Spanish flag flew from her grey towers, which
were built with desperate and constant
care to keep her wealth from the buccaneers. Here came the great Spanish
galleons every year, to take away the
rich treasure that was so tempting to
the roving pirates; here, too, gathered
the merchants of the interior, and
hither came priests and inquisitors to
gather in their turn a harvest of souls.
Conquistadores in armour, governors,
bishops, Spanish nobles and their
ladies—all graced in its pride this ancient stronghold of the Caribbean.
Among the many points of interest
are the Fortress of San Filipe de Bara-
jas, completed in 1657; the Monastery
of Santa Cruz, completed in 1608, the
Monastery of the Jesuits; and Fort of
Pastelillo, built in 1568, and captured
in 1741 by Admiral Vernon, with whom
were troops from Virginia.
Publishers* Photo Service
Curacao, an island now belonging
to Holland, was discovered by the
Spaniards in 1527. It was captured
by the Dutch in 1634, captured by
the French in 1713, and again in
1800, but the French were driven out
by the British. In 1802, by the Treaty
of Amiens, Curacao was given back to
the Dutch, but was again taken by the
English in 1805. In 1815, by the
Treaty of Paris, it was restored to
Holland, and has since been the principal island of the Dutch Colonies in the
West  Indies.
Willemstad, the chief town, is "a
bit of Holland dropped in the Caribbean.' ' The population of the island
is about 35,000, and the language is
called Papiamento, a mixture of Dutch,
Spanish and Portuguese. The soil is
largely unproductive; but sugar, aloes,
and tobacco are cultivated in some
tracts. The liqueur named Curacao
was originally made here, but is now
manufactured chiefly in Holland.
Publishers' Photo Service
The port of La Guayra is the landing place for Venezuela, a republic on
the mainland of South America. A
magnificent view of the town can be
obtained as the ship enters the roadstead. Towering above the harbor
rises La Silla Mountain, three thousand
feet up which nestles Caracas, the
capital. The "air-line" distance between La Guayra and Caracas is only
six miles—there is, in fact, a mule path
trodden for centuries, which is twelve
miles in length—but it takes twenty-
three miles of railway to connect the
two places! This railway journey is a
wonderful one, through tunnels, along
the brow of precipices, zigzagging,
rising higher and higher, until at one
point the traveller can look down from
a height of three thousand feet.
Venezuela has an area of nearly
400,000 square miles, four-fifths of
which form part of the basin of the
great Orinoco River, and a population
of nearly 2,700,000
Publishers' Photo Service
{Continued on page Thirteen)
Page Nine %hWM\M% '^Mj^P^t^i
(Formerly the Empress of Britain) 550 feet long, 66 feet broad
15,650 registered tons, 23,500 tons displacement.
(Above—left to right)—The Palm Garden—The Lounge—The Smoking Room
Page Ten
*1he Gptufc and Sack
of Vera Ckuz *
to   the
of   the
j^R FRANCIS DRAKE, the first
Englishman to sail round the world, was
born near Tavistock, in Devon, that
home of so many of Great Britain's
sea-captains. His father, a vociferous
Protestant who had suffered many vicissitudes under Queen Mary, obtained soon
after the accession of Queen Elizabeth
a naval chaplaincy, and his son was
placed under the charge of his illustrious
kinsman, John Hawkins, then making a
name for himself as a courageous and
skilled seaman. At the age of twenty,
young Drake made a voyage
Guinea Coast, and when only
two was placed in command
In 1570 he obtained from the Queen
a privateering commission—or, as a
more scrupulous world would now probably call it, a license to commit piracy
against certain nations. He sailed at
once to the Spanish Main, where he
roved for several years. In 1572, he
plundered the Spanish town of Nombre
de Dios, and with several of his men
crossed the isthmus of Panama. From
the top of a tree he obtained his first
view of the Pacific, and then and there
resolved to "sail an English ship in these
Upon his return home Drake was
kindly received, and his plan for circumnavigating the globe received with
much favour. Queen Elizabeth, ever
eager to promote the greatness of England, furnished him with necessary capital,
while his own fame easily enabled him
to recruit his forces. The fleet with
which he planned to accomplish this
great feat consisted of only five small
vessels, manned by 166 men. Two of
the ships, in fact, were abandoned during
the voyage. The expedition sailed from
Plymouth in December, 1577, and, sailing
westward, entered the Straits of Magellan
in the following August. Later Drake
crossed the Pacific and rounded the Cape
of Good Hope in July, 1580, arriving at
Plymouth in September. The Queen
at first hesitated to recognize his achievements, because so doing would involve her
in a quarrel with Spain. But Drake
was knighted, attached to the regular
navy, and sent against the Spanish forces
in the western waters. In 1587 he
delayed the sailing of the Armada by
entering the port of Lisbon and destroying ten thousand tons of Spanish shipping
there. This he called "singeing the
beard of the King of Spain." He was
Vice-Admiral with the British fleet which
so successfully opposed the Armada in
the following year. A later voyage was
less successful, and while at anchor in
Nombre de Dios Bay Drake died.
Page Twelve Caracas
Venezuela was the first part of the
mainland of America sighted by
Columbus, and its early history is
connected with the piracy and slave
trade of the Spanish Main. In 1830
it seceded from the republic of Colombia and set up as an independent state.
Coffee, cacao, sugar and rubber are the
chief products of the land. The republic is very rich in minerals, including gold and copper.
Caracas was founded in 1567, lying
in a valley of the Andes; and although
it is within ten degrees of the equator,
its elevation gives it a climate of almost
perpetual spring. It is a beautiful and
modern city of about 90,000 people,
with broad and well-built streets,
a cathedral, university, government
buildings, library, and other notable
buildings. It is not a large manufacturing city, but is a very important commercial centre. In the plaza is a magnificent statue of Bolivar, the Liberator of South America.
Ewing Galloway
Trinidad is the most southerly of
the West Indies, and the point at which
the cruise begins to turn back. Situated off the coast of Venezuela, within
ten degrees of the equator, it is truly
tropical, with flowers and fruits in profusion. It is an island that was well
known to the old explorers; both
Columbus—who discovered it in 1498—
and Raleigh wrote of Trinidad and of
"the oysters that grew on trees.''
Port of Spain, the capital, lies on a
semi-circular plain backed by beautiful
hills. There is a large Savanna,
Queen's Park, on one side of which
stands the Governor's residence and
on the other many fine residences, each
with its own tropical setting. The
Botanical Gardens are also very lovely.
Near Port of Spain is the Coolie Village
of St. James, well worth a visit, for it
seerns almost a transplanted section of
Ewing Galloway
Husking Cacao Pods
Trinidad has an area of 1,754
square miles, with a population of
nearly 400,000, mostly colored. Its
contour varies greatly; the west coast
is low, with many harbors, but from
here the land rises gradually towards
the interior, with fertile plains, hills
and valleys. Three mountain ridges
traverse the island from east to west,
continuations almost of similar ranges
in Venezuela, of which Trinidad originally formed part until it was separated
by volcanic convulsion.
The island produces cacao and
copra in abundance, and cocoanut
palms and plantations of cacao are on
every side. Sugar and asphalt are also
exported, the former obtained from the
great lake of pitch in the interior for
which the island is well-known. The
Gulf of Paria, which separates Trinidad
from Venezuela, forms one vast harbor;
and Port of Spain handles the produce
not only of the island, but also of the
Orinoco region of Venezuela.
Publishers' Photo Service
SW|.^ <
^IR WALTER RALEIGH, poet,courtier, soldier, sailor, explorer, governor,
and erstwhile pirate—called variously the
protector of England's greatness and her
evil genuis—beloved by one sovereign and
executed by her successor—what a vivid
life was his!
His father was a country gentleman
of reduced fortunes, and his half-brother
was Sir Humphry Gilbert, discoverer
and colonizer of Newfoundland. The
gentry of Devon were frequently engaged
in maritime adventure of a privateering
or even of a piratical nature; and it
occasions no surprise to find Humphry
Gilbert sailing from Plymouth in 1578
armed with a commission to harass any
of the Queen's enemies. Raleigh, who
had already had a life of adventure in
many countries, accompanied him.
Two expeditions proved unsuccessful,
however, and Raleigh sought his fortune
at the court of Elizabeth. His tall,
handsome figure, his charming personality, and his quick wit attracted the
instant notice of the Virgin Queen.
History may not indeed support with
documents the picturesque story of
Raleigh's cloak and the mud-puddle;
but his rise to court favorite was quick,
and very soon he was firmly established
in Elizabeth's favor.
In 1584 his cousin appealed desperately to him for help. Raleigh at once
assisted him, and the two became interested in the settlement of the newly-
founded colony of Virginia. But Raleigh
showed little interest in the affairs of the
colony and a great deal more in the
treasure ships of the Spanish Main.
His star by now had come to decline
—was soon, indeed, in eclipse. Elizabeth,
stung by jealousy, forced him to marry
and dismissed him from court. In 1595 he
set sail for the west, ^ ostensibly to find
gold mines. Upon his return he wrote
an account of his voyages called "The
Discoverie of Guinea"—by far the most
brilliant of all the Elizabethan narratives
of discovery and adventure.
The accession of James I. was fatal to
Raleigh, who had been one of his foes.
Raleigh was stripped of his possessions
and sentenced to death for his share in
the conspiracies against the new king.
But James, always greedy for money,
pardoned him on condition that he would
discover a gold mine in the new world,
without encroaching upon the possessions
of Spain. Both knew that this was
impossible; nevertheless, Raleigh sailed
westward once more. His son was killed
in an encounter with the Spaniards, and
when the father returned with his confession of failure he was executed under
his old sentence.
Page Fourteen Barbados
These diving boys, scrambling for
coins in the translucent waters, will
welcome you to Barbados. This coral
island, the most easterly of the West
Indies group, is a beautiful but low-
lying one, with a broken surface. It is
the home of the flying fish, many of
which are taken from its waters by the
natives, cured, and offered for sale.
Flowers made from the scales of fish,
and walking canes made from the vertebrae of the shark, are also sold.
Barbados is the trade mart for the
Windward Isles, and the headquarters
of the British forces of the West Indies.
Its capital, Bridgetown, stretches along
the shores of Carlisle Bay—a well-
built town that might aptly be called a
"little bit of Old England," for it has
a Trafalgar Square, with a statue of
Lord Nelson. Surrounding Bridgetown are many sugar plantations, and
close by is the residence of the governor.
Publishers' Photo Service
A Sugar Plantation
Barbados has an area of some 166
square miles; outside of China it is the
most densely populated country of the
world, supporting about 1,180 people
to the square mile. Practically every
square foot that is not occupied by
buildings is under cultivation, the chief
product being sugar. The climate as
a rule is very warm, although the
warmth is moderated by the north-east
trade winds, particularly from January
to May. The island is well furnished
with such convenience as street-cars, a
railway and telephones.
The date of the discovery of Barbados is not definitely known, but it
is first mentioned in the year 1518, and
was occupied by the British in 1625.
It is said that the only foreign journey
ever made by George Washington was
to Barbados, which he visited during
the winter of 1751-52 with his brother
Lawrence, who had previously fought
in South America with troops from
Virginia, assisting at the capture of
Publishers' Photo Service
From Barbados the cruise proceeds
north-westerly towards Martinique.
This island of the Windward group
belongs to France; of very irregular
shape, and with a very uneven and
mountainous surface, it was discovered
by the Spanish in 1493, and colonized
by the French in 1635. Several times
subsequently it was captured by the
English. Martinique was the birthplace of Josephine, the Empress of
Napoleon, and her statue adorns the
Savanna at Fort de France.
The population is mainly colored,
very few white people remaining on the
island. The principal products are
sugar, coffee and cocoa; the coast,
being indented by numerous bays and
inlets, affords many fine harbors.
Since the destruction of St. Pierre, the
capital has been Fort de France, which
is also the principal naval station of
France in the West Indies. The island
has an area of about 382 square miles.
Publishers' Photo Service
C7"HE life of Sir Henry Morgan is very
closely linked with the West Indies
and Central America. Born probably in
Bristol, he was as a young boy kidnapped
and sold into slavery in Barbados, and
from this time he always considered the
New World as his home.
He escaped from slavery, made his
way to Jamaica, and joined the expedition under John Morris and Jackman
which resulted in the capture and looting
of Vildemos, Trujillo and Granada.
This first taste of a privateer's life
seemed so attractive that he lost no
time in accepting the post of captain
under Edward Mansfield in the expedition which in 1666 seized the Island of
Santa Catalina. When Mansfield was
killed, Morgan was chosen by the sailors
as their "Admiral."
This was Morgan's last venture in
the realms of piracy. From this time
on he acted only under the command of
his Government and against declared
enemies of his country; but while he
achieved his objects by magnificent
strategy and determination, his memory
is stained by the cruelty of which he was
frequently guilty.
In 1668 Sir Thomas Modyford, Governor of Jamaica, commissioned him to
repel an anticipated Spanish attack on
the Island. With a force of only five
hundred men, Morgan landed in ^ Cuba,
marched to Puerta Principe, which he
took and pillaged, and afterwards with
incredible daring stormed and captured
the well-armed fortress of Porto Bello.
He forced the Spanish to ransom the
fortress, and returned to Jamaica with
his prisoners.
In 1671 he commanded an expedition
against the Spanish city of Panama.
Overcoming enormous difficulties, he
ascended the Chagres River, defeated a
vastly superior force, and took the city
by storm; but with a callous disregard
for the consequences he turned it over to
his soldiers. Again his cruelty in the
hour of victory obscured the glory which
he had achieved.
Shortly after this he was knighted and
created Lieutenant-Governor of Jamaica.
After such a career, it is hardly surprising
that Morgan's conduct as a responsible
official of the Government was not very
creditable. Many broils with his superior
officers led to his ultimate dismissal; but
just before his death, which took place
on the island, he was restored to his
Page Sixteen ^
. :-yyZ:...
St. Pierre
Up till 1902 the principal town was
St. Pierre, but an eruption of the
volcano Mont Pelee in that year
entirely obliterated the town and
destroyed a population of 26,000 lives.
The island has several volcanoes, Mont
Pelee rising to a height of 4,450 feet.
The steamer proceds to St. Pierre,
and passengers have the opportunity
of going ashore to visit the ruins of the
once beautiful city, which was built in
terraces on the sides of the mountain,
with charming residences, public
squares and a fine cathedral. Streams
of water from the hills flowed down the
gutters of each side street, while others
supplied the fountains in the public
squares. All this was blotted out in
the space of a few hours, and only the
gaping ruins left, for the town has
never been rebuilt, and greets one now
like another Pompeii.
Publishers' Photo Service
Porto Rico
Porto Rico, one of the greater islands
of the Caribbean Sea, was discovered
by Columbus, who landed at Aguada
in 1493 on his way to San Domingo.
He did not revisit the island, but in
1508 Ponce de Leon went over from
eastern San Domingo and established
a settlement near the present San Juan.
It was from San Juan, in fact, that he
started on his search for the '' fountain
of youth."
The island had for long a stormy
existence. For years it was harassed
by pirates, and in 1595 it was attacked
by Hawkins and Drake. During the
seventeenth century Porto Rico was
attacked by the fleets of England and
Holland. The eighteenth and nineteenth centuries were comparatively
peaceful, but in 1898 it became a storm
centre of the Spanish-American War.
The island was captured by American
troops, and later ceded to the United
States. Owing to its beauty and fertility, it has sometimes been called a
second Garden of Eden.
Publishers' Photo Service
San Juan
The progress of Porto Rico under
American possession has been rapid.
San Juan, the capital, is a walled city
situated on an adjoining small island,
with a number of fortifications;
inside the walls are the executive
mansion and governmental headquarters, the Casa Blanca, or White
House, the ancient castle of Ponce de
Leon, and many other fine buildings.
There are several plazas, and here the
population of San Juan is wont to
gather to hear the band concerts which
are given on certain evenings of the
Porto Rico has an area of 3,606
square miles, and a population of over
a million. A mountain range traverses
the island, the peaks of which are often
snow-capped. The forests supply valuable timber, including sandal-wood
and ebony, and the fertile soil produces
sugar, coffee, tobacco, fruits, and sea-
island cotton. Minerals are found, but
little worked.
E. M. Newman
Page Seventeen CAPTAIN  KIDD
.      ..... ,.!~«:aa:.'..v--a«m'*~
<Buryiti% his treasure
/^APTAIN KIDD was of a different
JL/ character from thgge who have been
illustrated on preretang pages. They
were all more or less of the gentleman
type; Kidd was a thief, a traitor, a
murderer and a perjurer. Under the
guise of a pirate-chaser, he committed
more piracies than those he was commissioned to repulse; and he is almost as well
remembered for his savageries as for his
famous treasure.
Born probably in Scotland, Kidd is
first heard of when the Council of New
York awarded him £150 for his services
during the disturbances after the revolution of 1688. He was shortly after
commissioned to chase a hostile privateer
off the coast; in the patent he is described
as an owner of ships and is known to
have seen service against the French in the
West Indies.
In 1695 he left the colony for London
with a sloop of his own, acquired by
dubious means. As trade was both slow
and unprofitable he abandoned it, and
gained from Lord Bellomont the command of an expedition against the pirates
in the eastern seas; with the command
went a vessel of thirty guns and the
King's commission to arrest all pirates
and effect reprisals against the French,
who were at that time ravaging English
shipping. In 1697 Kidd reached the
Island of Madagascar, the pirate rendezvous. He made no attempt to hunt
them down, but on the contrary allied
himself with their leader, Culliford.
It would appear that Kidd intended
only to act against the French, who would
yield worth-while booty. When he found
none of their ships, he turned on the
native shipping and quickly amassed a
prodigious fortune. Driven from this
lucrative trade by the threats of Admiralty interference, he sailed to the West
Indies, changed ships again, and arrived
in New York with several of his old crew.
In spite of bribing the governor, he was
arrested in July, 1699, and sent to England
for trial. He was convicted on the evidence of one of his crew, and hung.
Where Kidd buried his treasure is still
a mystery. About £10,000 was found
on Gardiner's Island, off Long Island,
N.Y., and the rest is popularly supposed
to lie deep in the earth of some secluded
island in the W7est Indies. # Many expeditions have set out to find it, but more
has probably been spent to find Kidd's
treasure than he ever buried.
Page Eighteen ':    a  .;
The group known as the Bahamas
contains altogether about 3,000 islands,
of which only twenty are inhabited.
Of so temperate a climate that they
have come to be a popular winter
resort, the islands are exceeding fertile.
The chief products are corn, cotton,
oranges, pine-apples, grapes, olives and
spices. Sponges are found in large quantities along the shores.
Nassau, the capital, on New Providence Island, is built upon coral, its
white walls gleaming amongst cocoa-
nut palms and silk cotton trees. Its
perpetual sunshine and continuous fine
weather have made it a favorite resort.
Its sea-gardens are of more than passing interest, and the fish market and
the sponge market will most certainly
be visited—and also, if time permits,
the surf bathing at Hog Island.
Burton Holmes from Ewing Galloway
The Bermudas are a cluster of over
350 islands lying in the path of the Gulf
Stream, with an even temperature that
rarely descends below 60 degrees. The
wonderful colors of the waters, the
gleaming white of the coral-built houses,
the green of cedars, palms, the beauty
of sea-gardens, the brilliant-hued fish
swimming amongst coral formations,
will surely tempt the cruise traveller to
return to these enchanting isles, which
by tradition were the scene of Shakespeare's '■' Tempest."
Only fifteen of the islands are inhabited. Hamilton, on Great Bermuda island, is the principal port and
capital; from it excursions can be made
to St. George's, Harrington Sound, the
Devil's Hole, Gibbs' Hill Light, etc.
The total area of the inhabited islands
is 20 square miles. Tom Moore, the
Bard of Erin, lived in Bermuda in
1804; his house and "Tom Moore's
calabash tree" are still shown.
Publishers' Photo Service
A Coral Arch
The Bermudas were discovered by
Juan Bermudez, a Spaniard who was
wrecked on their shores in 1527. Exercising for many years after a legendary influence upon the imaginations of
mariners—the "still Bermoothes" of
the Elizabethan poet's song—they were
first settled in 1612, after Sir George
Somers, an English sailor, had suffered
shipwreck. Since that date they have
belonged to the British Empire. The
strategic position of the islands has led
to the creation of a military garrison
and a naval dockyard and station. At
St. George's is a great floating dock.
Bermuda, formed of limestone and
coral reefs, is the northern limit of the
coral builders. Its temperate climate
makes it a popular winter resort for
Americans, and there is besides a considerable export trade in early vegetables and spring flowers to the United
States. The islands are a British
Crown Colony, administered by a
Governor and a Legislative Assembly.
Publishers' Photo Service
c/ HERE will be two Canadian Pacific cruises
in   1925,   by   the   luxurious   ocean-going
steamship  Montroyal (formerly  the  Empress  of
Britain).    These cruises will appeal particularly
to those whose business compels them to take a
vacation during the winter, as they offer a splendid
opportunity of avoiding the cold blasts and snow
of the northern cities, and of spending the time
amid the glorious sunshine and balmy breezes of
the tropics in lands abloom with warmth and color.
January 20...
January 23.
"        27.
" 3o.
February    1.
"        15-
February  18.
New York	
Havana. .	
Port au Prince.
La Guayra	
Port of Spain. .
Fort de France
St. Pierre	
San Juan	
New York	
     February 21
Bahamas  February 24
Cuba  26
Haiti  March       1
Jamaica  "          2
Panama  5
Colombia.  7
Curacao  "          9
Venezuela  10
Trinidad  11
Barbados  13
Martinique  14
Martinique  14
Porto Rico  15
Bermuda  19
  March    22
The The Montroyal (formerly the Empress of Britain)
Montroyal has already made six cruises to the West Indies
and South America. The experience gained has
enabled the Canadian Pacific to fit her in such a way as to
make the ship ideal for such a trip. One outstanding feature is
that her engines are oil-burning, a feature that will appeal to
all those who have experienced the dust and dirt of coaling
at tropical ports.
The passenger accommodations are most attractive.
Many of the cabins are fitted with bedsteads, and have private
bath and toilet attached. A number of them are connected
so as to form suites. No more than two passengers will be
placed in a room, unless it is desired to accommodate a family
party, while those who wish to be alone will find a good proportion of single cabins. The rooms are fitted with electric
fans, insuring comfort at all times.
The ship is given over entirely to the cruise. Her spacious
promenade decks insure the fullest enjoyment of outdoor
life, while her public rooms provide facilities for music, dancing,
reading or card playing. Special entertainments during the
voyage will be arranged. An orchestra will be carried to play
at meal times, assist at concerts and provide music for dancing.
A fully-equipped gymnasium will afford exercise and recreation, while those who enjoy a dip will appreciate the saltwater swimming pool on deck.
The cuisine and service will be of Canadian Pacific service
throughout, which means the best. The tropical delicacies
of the season will be purchased at the different ports en route.
Representatives of the Canadian Pacific will accompany
the cruise to look after the comfort of passengers afloat and
From Winter Snows That cruises to the West Indies provide
to Summer a means of escaping  from  the rigors of
Sunshine northern   winter  climates   is borne out
by the thermometer.    On both Montroyal
cruises last  winter  temperature records  were made several
times each day. From these records three things were clearly
established. The thermometer begins to rise steadily from
the hour of leaving New York; there is very little variation
between daytime and night-time records in the tropics; and
there is practically no variation, in the two cruises, of readings
at each place.
When the ship left New York the thermometer was 27
degrees above zero on the first cruise and 29 degrees on the
second. The second day averaged a low of 42 and a high of
67; the third day, a low of 68 and a high of 74.
At the various places touched by the cruises, or in or near
them or in the seas around, the readings were as follows:
Highest        Lowest
Cuba         bi
Haiti*.. .	
Martinique ■	
Porto Rico	
*Not visited by 1924 cruises.
Shore Shore excursions are arranged for many of the
Excursions ports, and the time allotted at each is sufficient
to see the principal points and objects to the best
advantage, while the intervals of sailings between ports of
call afford time for rest. Full particulars of these shore
excursions, and much other useful information, are contained
in a supplementary booklet issued by the Canadian Pacific.
Atlanta, Ga	
Bellingham, Wash.
Boston, Mass	
Buffalo, N.Y	
Calgary, Alta	
Chicago, 111	
Cincinnati, Ohio. .
Cleveland, Ohio. . .
Detroit, Mich.....
Duluth, Minn	
Kansas City, Mo...
Los Angeles, Cal.. .
Minneapolis, Minn
Montreal, Que..
Nelson, B.C	
New York, N.Y..
North Bay, Ont.
Philadelphia, Pa
Pittsburgh, Pa. .
Portland, Ore. . .
Quebec, Que
St. John, N.B...
St. Louis, Mo...
San Francisco, Cal
Seattle, Wash.
Tacoma, Wash.
Toronto, Ont.. .
Vancouver, B.C.. .
Victoria, B.C	
Washington, D.C.
Winnipeg, Man...
. . .E. G. Chesbrough 49 N. Forsyth St.
. . . S. B. Freeman 1252 Elk Street.
. . .L. R. Hart 405 Boylston St.
. . .H. R. Mathewson 160 Pearl St.
. . .R. W. Greene Canadian Pacific Station.
. . .R. S. Elworthy 71 East Jackson Blvd.
. . .M. E. Malone .201 Dixie Terminal Bldg.
.. .G. H. Griffin  1040 Prospect Ave.
. . .G. G. McKay 1239 Griswold St.
. . . D. Bertie Soo Line Depot.
. . . R. G. Norris 601 Railway Exch. Bldg.
. . . Wm. Mcllroy 605 South Spring St.
. . .H. M. Tait 611 Second Ave. South.
.. .D. R. Kennedy 141 St. James St.
. . .J. S. Carter Cor. Baker and Ward Sts.
. . .E. T. Stebbing Madison Ave. at 44th St.
. . .L. O. Tremblay 87 Main Street West.
.. .J. A. McGill  83 Sparks St.
.. . R. C. Clayton 1500 Locust St.
. . .C. L. Williams 338 Sixth Ave.
. . . W. H. Deacon 55 Third St.
. . . C. A. Langevin Palais Station.
. . .G. B. Burpee. . 40 King St.
. . .G. P. Carbrey 420 Locust St.
. . .F. L. Nason 675 Market St.
. . .E. L. Sheehan 608 Second Ave.
. . .D. C. O'Keefe 1113 Pacific Ave.
. . .J. E. Parker  .Canadian Pacific Bldg.,
King and Yonge Sts.
. . .J. J. Forster Canadian Pacific Station.
. . .L. D. Chetham. 1102 Government St.
. . X. E. Phelps 905 Fifteenth St. N.W.
. ...W. C. Casev. . 364 Main St.
WM. WEBBER, General Agent, Atlantic Ports
WM. BALLANTYNE, Steamship General Passenger Agent
W. G. ANNABLE, Assistant Steamship Passenger Manager
WALTER MAUGHAN, Steamship Passenger Manager
■k ■ .:';::rryyriyy    .


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