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The challenge of the mountains Canadian Pacific Railway Company Limited 1907

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 -;
THEvOHpLBNGa
wNlfUNW
il  CHALLENGE
OF THE
MOUNTAINS
<?Qs)
Mountain Re
sorts
CONTENTS
PAGE
2-6
The Canadian Rockies  7
Canadian National Park  16
Banff         .        . 17
•Lake Louise  29
Paradise Valley and Valley of the Ten Peaks         .        . 38
Moraine Lake           ......... 39
The Great Divide          .  41
Field         .       .       .                           44
Emerald Lake  47
Yoho Valley  49
Glacier          .......... 56
The Illecillewaet Valley          ....... 61
Caves of Nakimu • .                .        ; 64
Revelstoke to Kamloops  65
The Thompson and Fraser Canons  69
Yale to Pacific Coast  71
ISSUED BY THE
CANADIAN   PACIFIC   RAILWAY COMPANY Canadian Pacific Railway Hotel System
BANFF SPRINGS HOTEL
Some places of interest
near Banff
Buffalo Park
Lake Minnewanka
Spray Falls
Museum
Cave and Basin
Hot Sulphur Springs
Banknead Coal Mines
The Observatory on Sulphur Mountain Canadian Pacific Railway Hotel System
LAKE LOUISE FROM THE CHALET
Some places of interest
near Lake Louise
Mount Lefroy and Glacier
Victoria Hanging Glacier
Valley of the Ten Peaks
Saddleback Lookout
3
Lake Agnes
Mirror Lake
Moraine Lake'
Paradise Valley, Canadian Pacific Railway Hotel System
MOUNT STEPHEN HOUSE, FIELD, B.C.
Some places of interest
near Field
Drive to Emerald Lake
Yoho Road Drive
Cathedral Mountain
Fossil Beds
Natural Bridge
Monarch Mine Cabins
Mount Stephen
Burgess Pass Canadian Pacific Railway Hotel System
EMERALD LAKE FROM CHALET
Some places of interest
near Emerald Lake
Lookout Point
Takakkaw Falls
Twin Falls
Summit Lake
Yoho Glacier
Wapta Glacier
Yoho
Valley
5 ir
Canadian Pacific Railway Hotel System
GLACIER HOUSE, GLACIER, B.C.
Some places of interest
near Glacier
The Great Glacier
Mount Abbott
Cougar Valley
Lake Marion
Glacier Crest
Observation Point
Caves of Nakimu
Mount Sir Donald
The Loops of the Selkirks
6
m THE CHALLENGE
QFTHE MOUNTAINS
<?y=2
"The joy of life is steepness overcome,
And victories of ascent, and looking down
On all that had looked down on us."
—Tennyson.
N no other country in the world is there
such an attractive district to the tourist
and the lover of Alpine scenery as in
the Provinces of Alberta and British
Columbia, along the line of the Canadian Pacific Railway. It is a wonderful
land of natural beauty, mountain peaks,
rushing rivers, peaceful lakes, stupendous glaciers,
remarkable natural phenomena of caves, hot springs,
curious formations of rock and ice, interesting flora
and animal life, all combined making a holiday district
of unequalled attractiveness. It is a land whose boundaries would include fifty Switzerlands, where it has
been estimated only one mountain peak out of thousands has ever yet been climbed, for it is the newest of
the world's great natural playgrounds, and only that
portion contiguous to the railway has yet been fully
explored.
New and interesting discoveries are constantly
recorded of unknown peaks, beautiful lakes, charming
valleys, also new forms of bird and plant life. The
Canadian Government has set aside 5,732 square miles
as a national park, and the Canadian Pacific Railway f
have built in some of the most interesting places a
number of charming chalets and hotels at great cost,
which are furnished in the liberal manner for which
this Company has always been noted in all its departments. During last season many thousands of people
visited this great park, and each year in ever-increasing
numbers tourists from all over the world are attracted
The Shore of Lake Superior.   Wonderful scenery along the
Canadian Pacific Railway.
by this glorious mountain scenery. Only one regret
is expressed by visitors, and that is, they unfortunately
give themselves too little time to see this charming
country. A stay of at least several days should be
made at each of the resorts in order to fully realize
t the magnificence of the surrounding mountains, which
must   be   viewed   under   the   various   atmospheric
conditions so as to see the wonderful changes in light
and   shadow,   sunrise   and   sunset   in   the   Canadian
Rockies which, under favourable conditions, are scenes
never to be forgotten.      Unfortunately the average
tourist is all too prone to stop over only between trains
and thus catch but a hurried glance of these glorious
peaks, which is
W^^SPS^^^H^
regrettable,    in
liii^   jf^bf-^i^^'^^'^I^^M
asmuch   as   fre-
HBftfl$^
q u e n 11 y     the
C^'ilP^' J*-
greater    beauty
is missed entire
ly, though many
tyMT
thousands claim
WOfr- •'
travelling
through these
mountains without leaving the
train as the most
enjoyable   event
and greatest
scenic   treat   of
their lives.          sSfP
Seekers after
j   the grandest in
the way of what
Nature has pro
vided for man's
edification   need
not be  satisfied
The Alpine Club of Canada making an ascent               •. t                      . •
in the Canadian Rockies                             Wlth      repeating
9
■'■i the ascents of the well-known peaks of the old world.
Edward Whymper, with all the authority born of his
conquest of the Matterhorn, and a lifetime spent in
scaling the heights of Switzerland, the Andes, and the
Himalayas, has declared the Canadian Rockies to be
equivalent to " fifty or sixty Switzerlands rolled into
one." Here the geologist, the botanist, the mountaineer, the naturalist, the artist, the sportsman, the
health or pleasure seeker will find in these mountains
a region attractive and beautiful, with many other
advantages which make it unexcelled for his purpose
in all the world.
The Canadian Rockies are the culminating scenic
portion of the mighty Rocky Mountains called, " the
backbone of America." To the northward they gradually diminish in height until the Arctic circle is reached.
Southward they lack that ruggedness and glacier
beauty which gives them their attractiveness to the
lovers of Alpine scenery.
Every day new points of beauty are being revealed.
Celebrated mountain-climbers and topographers are
constantly visiting and exploring their recesses. This
is particularly the case with respect to scientific men
from Europe and the United States. There is no particular incentive for these men to go to Switzerland.
That country has been thoroughly explored, while in
the Canadian Rockies there are numbers of mountains
that have never been climbed that challenge the
mountaineer; and hundreds of valleys, gorges and
lakes, that have never been visited. Every visitor
carries a camera, and the many new scenes of grandeur
which are revealed after each trip do much to spread
the fame of The Canadian Rockies.
m Four great ranges are crossed by the Canadian
Pacific Railway, the Rockies proper, the Selkirks, the
Gold Range and the Coast Mountains, the latter standing like a great bulwark along the shores of the Pacific.
The traveller approaches this mighty series of ridges
across a country that makes their majesty doubly
imposing by reason of the contrast.
For a day or two he has traversed the prairies, a
country with many beauties of its own and marvellously rich in all that man requires. As the train
approaches the mountains their huge bulk seems to
il
Camping in the Canadian Rockies is a delightful and
beneficial vacation prohibit passage absolutely, and the clear air brings
them apparently close to the train, when they are still
miles away. Close by, the Kananaskis Falls of the
Bow are taking a mighty plunge, the roar of which is
distinctly heard from the track. The river has cut for
itself a deep gorge of naked, vertical cliff, and beyond
the woods that clothe the summit of the banks rise the
steeps of the Fairholme Range, shutting in the view
with a line of rocky precipices.
As one looks upon these peaks that seem to start
out of the plain, it is difficult to realize their stupendous
magnitude. Everything here is on such a gigantic
scale that it takes time and effort to weigh the immensity of the great upheavals. Here are mountains that
seem much higher than the diameter of their base; and
their dizzy heights as one gazes upon them is awe
inspiring; but one sees beyond almost interminable
ranges with snow-capped tops, bearing upon their
shoulders immense glaciers, the very plenitude of
which seems to detract from every individual object.
These mountains are tremendous uplifts of stratified
rocks of the Devonian and Carboniferous ages which
have broken out of the earth's surface, and heaved
aloft. There are sections miles in breadth, and
thousands of feet in thickness that have been pushed
straight up, so that the strata of rock remain in almost
as level a position as when they occupied their original
beds. Other sections seem to be tilted, and stand in
a more or less erect position, while others are crumbled
by the crowding of other peaks. All these vast piles
are doubtless worn away by the action of the elements
until they now present only a fragment of their original
magnitude. The strata are plainly marked on the
sides of the mountains by the various colors of the tf
Swiss Guides are brought to the resorts in the Canadian Rockies
each season by the Canadian Pacific Railway Co.
rocks that compose them, and often by broad ledges
that hold the ice and snow; or when not too greatly
elevated are covered with belts of trees which can gain
a foothold nowhere else. On the dizzy heights of
some of these peaks are piled great masses of rocks
which look as though there was scant room to hold
them, so sharp are the peaks on which they rest.
It would require but little of the mythology of the
past to picture these castellated heights as the home
of the gods, and imagine them hurling the huge
missiles about them for the purpose of crushing their
victims below.
13 f
The Gap where the Railroad enters the Canadian Rockies
The entrance to the Rockies is by The Gap. It
seems that the train has reached an impasse, and that
there is no way by which it can surmount the lordly
line of heights drawn up across its path. Suddenly,
however, it takes a sharp turn and finds itself between
two walls of vertical rock, and a passage is forced to
the world of mountains beyond.      It has found and
14 r
Immovable the Three Sisters stand, beautiful in
their purity, peaceful in their solitude, steadfast in
their guard. Like sentinels apart from their compeers,
they seem to the traveller to hold eternal watch and
ward over the wonders of the region through which
he is to pass.
Cascade Mountain, Banff
Cascade Mountain, at whose base a few miles away
from the railway track are the anthracite mines of
Bankhead, operated by the Canadian Pacific Railway
Company, which supply the country from Winnipeg
to Vancouver with hard coal. The powers of the eye
are greatly increased, and to one fresh from the plains,
things yet far off appear quite near. However, the
traveller gradualy understands his mistake, and the
track, following the course of the Bow River, turns
sharply to the west, just as the lowest spurs are
reached, and arrives at the Canadian National Park.
v. BANFF,
THE
BEAUTIFUL
m»
Headquarters of the Canadian National Park.
The whole of the town of Banff is the property of
the Canadian Government and, under the control of
the Park Superintendent, public improvements of all
kinds are being constantly carried on to the great
advantage of both residents and visitors. The main
streets are broad and splendidly kept, the residences are
in most instances tastefully designed and well maintained, and throughout the whole village there is an
air of sylvan leisure and careful comfort.
Few, if any, towns are more charmingly situated.
Few places have found such speedy recognition of their
attractiveness, and none have better deserved the
encomiums of enthusiastic visitors, than Banff, for of
all the lovely resorts on the American continent, it is
without a peer. Its surroundings are the mountain
steeps, beside whose immense crags and peaks the
works of man sink into insignificance. It is not a
question of one mountain or of two, but of many, for
they stretch away as far as the eye can follow them in
every direction, rolling back, one behind another, in
varied and sublime confusion.
The stores, while not pretentious, have from years
of experience and catering to visitors gained a complete
knowledge of their requirements, and few indeed will
be  the  needs,   in   the  way  of  camping  equipment, f
Banff from Tunnel Mountain
photography supplies, fishing tackle, and such like
necessities for tourists, that the Banff stores cannot
supply.
To the north, rises the swelling, rounded back of
Stony Squaw Mountain, with cliff-like buttresses projecting at its eastern end. Towering above this,
majestic in its strength, dominating the whole scene, is
Cascade Mountain, a huge black, timeworn pyramid,
its sides ribbed and scarred by avalanche and tempest.
A plane face looks toward the little town, and two
outward bastions, ridging back toward the centre of its
fall, have made a natural channel, marked, even in
August, by a winding trail of snow. To the west the
Bow River winds in a broad, open strath, the Sawback
range flanking it at the northern side, with Mount
Edith, a splendid dolomite peak, its symmetrical upper
cone glistening virgin white in its mantle of everlasting
18 snow, almost concealed, despite its superior height, by
intervening mountain masses. The Bourgeau and
Sulphur Ranges are contrasts, both of them, to the
craggy and precipitous peaks north of the river, for
they are rounding and hummocky in outline, with but
a few rock terraces protruding, till near the summit
outbulging bastions break the contours, revealing the
rugged strength underlying the harmony of many hued
forest with which they are clothed. Eastward lies
Tunnel Mountain, a knob shaped hill, with a precipitous face to the south, and with a zigzagging carriage
road traceable up its eastern side. Because of its ease
of access,—many a visitor climbs it as an appetizing
walk before breakfast—and the magnficent view, make
it the first and favorite trip of every tourist. Opposite
' it rise the up-tilted terraces of Mount Rundle, almost
10,000 feet high, its sides furrowed and trenched by
snowslides. From the valley it appears to have two
summits, and so it is sometimes called Twin Peaks.
Looking down the Bow Valley, Banff
J9 A Mountain Split in Two.
The northern one is some thousand feet or more
lower than the other. It is evident that time was when
Tunnel was merely a shoulder of Rundle, but some
tremendous cataclysm of nature split the huge mountain and Tunnel tilted northward—its rocky ribs being
plainly^ discernible in the lateral stratification—and the
sleepless, tireless Bow River forced and fought itself
through the opening, boring its way towards the limitless plain to the eastward. Above the murmur of pines
can be heard, rising and falling on the wind, the noise
of the boiling river, as it tears through the rapids, and
its roar as it leaps over Bow Falls.
It is a scene possessing almost every element of
beauty, and many of sublimity. Over-arched, as it is l
in summer, with a sky that in its deep azure outrivals
that of Italy, lit with the brilliant sunshine characteristic of Western Canada, and possessing an exhilarating
atmosphere, full of ozone, purified by frost and forest,
is it any wonder that overworked business men absorb
its quiet peace like a sponge, and declare it to be the
most invigorating spot on the Continent, or that
pilgrims in search of the beautiful, pronounce the
views superior to those of Zarmatt or the Engadine?
The Museum.
The Canadian Government maintains at Banff, a
museum of very great interest to visitors, as it contains
many splendidly preserved specimens of the animals,
fishes and birds to be found within the Park; a carefully mounted and classified herbarium are also among
its chief attractions. Indian relics and specimens of
Indian workmanship, many of them of extraordinary interest, are also to be seen. The official in charge
has for years taken a record of temperature, and the
meteorological charts will repay examination by the
weatherwise.
The Bow Falls at Banff
The Bow Falls.
Another of the sights that is sure to claim early
attention from the visitors is the Bow Falls, situated
beneath the Banff Springs Hotel. Almost as soon as
the Bow passes under the Banff bridge, it eddies and
rushes as if preparing for its final leap. Soon it begins
to foam and boil. Jagged black rocks, with their
softer tissues worn away by the rushing stream, stand
up here and there out of the roaring flood, dripping
and glistening like natural fangs. Churned to a
whiteness like that of milk, it roars and hisses through
the trench it has worn at the base of Tunnel Mountain,
leaps down to small ledges, and then hurls itself a
stream 80 feet wide, in a deafening cataract of wonderful beauty.     It is not, of course, comparable with the Falls of Niagara or the Yellowstone, but among the
lesser falls of the Continent it has few rivals. Comfortable rustic seats are placed at various points within
view, and at all hours of the day can be seen visitors
quietly reading, or gazing at the panorama of beauty of
which the Falls form so striking a centre.
Banff Hot Springs.
The Banff Hot Springs undoubtedly possess wonderful curative value for rheumatic and kindred
ailments and the cures recorded almost stagger belief.
It may be of interest to give an analysis of the hot
sulphur water effecting such marvellous cures. Mr.
McGill, assistant analyst of the Canadian Government,
who made a full examination of the Banff water
supplies, reports:
"The water is very free from organic impurities
and gives no albuminoid nitrogen. * * * Each
gallon contains dissolved sulphuretted hydrogen to the
amount of 0.3 grains (equivalent to 0.8 cubic inch).
Hoodoos, near Banff 1
" The dissolved solids are as follows:—
Chlorine (in chlorides)     0.42 grains.
Sulphuric Acid  (SO3)  38.50
Silica (SiOa)     2.31
Lime (CaO)  24.85
Magnesia (Mg°)     4.87
Alkalies "(As Soda, Na20) ........    0.62
Lithium A decided trace.
"The temperature of the spring is  114.3 degrees
Fahrenheit."
Banff Springs Hotel
Banff Springs Hotel
of the Canadian Pacific Railway Hotel System.
Located on a rocky elevation on the south bank of
the Bow River near the mouth of the Spray, this
splendid hotel commands a view perhaps unrivalled in
America. Many important improvements and additions have been made for the comfort and convenience
23 of guests. In the refinement of its appointments and
the completeness of detail marking the whole establishment, the Banff Springs Hotel ranks among the
finest summer hotels to be found anywhere. The
excellence of the cuisine, and the perfection of the
waiting—a characteristic of the Canadian Pacific
service—are enhanced by the magnificence of the
outlook from the dining hall and the music rendered
during dinner by an orchestra. In the evenings, after
the day excursions, when the guests are lounging in
the roomy rotunda, basking in the warmth of the huge
log fires in the big open fire-places on either side, a
charming concert is given by the orchestra.
On Tunnel Mountain Drive, Banff
Tunnel Mountain.
The drive on which is the finest in the park—
distance seven miles. A spiral drive known as the
Corkscrew, leads along the side of the mountain at an
altitude of over 5,000 feet, the return being made down
the further side on a steep grade passing the barracks
of the Mounted Police and through the town.
•_ The Lithia Spring.
On the way down to Banff from the Hot Springs,
another spring is passed locally known as the lithia
spring. It is as yet unimproved, though its curative
properties for kidney trouble have a wide reputation
in the Canadian West. Analyst McGill reports that
the quantity of Lithium in the spring is at least one
hundred times as great as in some of the so-called
lithia waters placed on the market. Many of the Banff
citizens bottle it for private use.
The Basin, Banff
The  Cave and  Basin.
A delightful drive for about a mile up the valley
of the Bow River along a winding road between tall
pines at the base of Sulphur Mountain and the Cave
and Basin are reached.
The cave itself is covered in by a natural roof of
rock and is fed by water from the springs still higher
up the mountain. It is not much larger than a good-
sized room, but the curious deposits of sulphur about
J its roof and wall make it well worth a visit. Adjoining it is a natural basin, at which the Government has
erected bathing houses, and so popular is this resort
that at almost any hour of the day can be heard the
splash of waters and the joyous shouts of the bathers.
Bankhead Coal Mines.
One of the most popular drives in the Park, and
a little more than half way to the Lake Minnewanka,
where the interesting operations of an anthracite coal
mine may be seen.
Buffalo at Banff
A large corral of 2,000 acres, in which is a magnificent   herd   of   fifty-six  buffalo   and   calves—the   last
remnant of the countless thousand bison which once
roamed the adjacent plains.      Bands of elk, moose,
26 antelope, deer and Angora goat, amongst which are
some fine specimens, have also been added to the Park,
which is one mile east of the railway station, on the
way to Lake Minnewanka.
Lake Minnewanka, near Banff
Lake Minnewanka.
Distance nine miles—drive skirting Cascade Mountain, and following Devil's Head River until the precipitous sides of Devil's Head Canon are crossed by a
rustic bridge. The lake is 16 miles long, with a width
of from one to two miles. On it is placed a launch,
which can be chartered by visitors at the rate of $1.00
per head for parties of five and over. The sail usually
occupies three hours.    Fishing tackle, boats, etc., may
27 be procured, this being a favorite resort for anglers. A
cluster of Hoodoos (natural concrete pillars) and the
Devil's Gap, on the way to Ghost River, are amongst
the points of interest in this locality.
The Loop
A beautiful drive around the Bow Valley in full
view of Bow Falls—distance about seven miles—
skirting the base of Mount Rundle, to the banks of the
Bow River.
The   Observatory.
The   Government  Observa-      - jhIb 121
tory on the summit of Sulphur
Mountain (8,000 ft.) is reached
by a bridle path by way of Hot
Springs, and is four miles from
the Banff S p r i n gs Hotel.
There are shelters en route, and
from the summit magnificent
views of the entire Bow Valley
are to be had.
The Observatory on Sulphur
Mountain
Attractions of Banff.
It is simply impossible to properly enumerate the
many attractions of this delightful spot. The carriage
drives along excellent roads with new beauties of
scenery unfolding with every turn of the road are
delightful.
28 LAKE LOUISE and-
LAKES IN THE  CLOUDS
1 Lakes of gray at dawn of day,
In soft shadows lying,
Lakes of gold with gems untold,
On thy bosom glowing.
Lakes of white,
At holy night,
Gleaming in the moonlight.''
M(L                                                                                      4\
^
%^%
—1
 TLWJ
ijSmi
The beautiful I*ake lionise
Thirty-four miles westward from Banff is Laggan
(the station for Lake Louise and Lakes in the Clouds).
Two and a half miles distance from the station by a
fine carriage road and Lake Louise (altitude 5,645 ft.)
29
j —the most winsome spot in the Canadian Rockies—is
reached. Of the beauty of this remarkable lake there
is no divided opinion; every visitor to its shores sings
its praises, and it is acknowledged by the most competent judges to be one of the great masterpieces in
the world's gallery of Nature. As a gem of composition and coloring.it has no rival. At every hour of
the day the view is ever-changing with the shadows.
This is especially true of the early morning and
evening hours. Walter Dwight Wilcox, F.R.G.S., in
his charming book, "The Rockies of Canada," describes
the colorings of Lake Louise as follows: " It is impossible to tell or paint the beautiful colors, the
kaleidoscopic change of light and shade under such
conditions. They are so exquisite that we refuse to
believe them even in their presence, so subtle in
change, so infinite in variety, that memory fails to
recall their varying moods. I have seen twenty shades
of green and several of blue in the waters of Lake
Louise at one time. Sometimes in the evening when
the quantity of light is rapidly diminishing, and the
lake lies calm, or partly tremulous with dying ripples,
marked vertically by the reflections of cliffs and trees,
there is a light green in the shallowest water of the
east shore, a more vivid color a little farther out, and
then a succession of deeper shades merging one into
another by imperceptible change, yet in irregular
patches according to the depth of water to the deep
bluish green and the blue of the middle lake. The
eye wanders from place to place and comes back a few
moments later to where the brightest colors were, but
no doubt they are gone now and the mirror surface is
dulled by a puff of air, while the sharp reflections have
been replaced by purple shadows, or the obscure repetition of the red brown cliffs above the water. It may
30
IL Monument to Sir James Hector at I^aggan
be that a day, a year or possibly a century will pass
before these identical glories of color will come again."
Lake Louise lies
at an elevation of
5,645 feet and is shut
in on every side by
rocky, snow-capped
heights, offering a
picture o f perfect
peace. Mr. Edward
Whymper has compared it to Lake
Oeshinen in Switzerland, but has declared it "is more picturesque and has more magnificent environments." It is about a mile and a half long
and half a mile broad, while its depth is over 200 feet.
Two miles across the
boulder covered glacier,
lake there begins to rise
southward the forefront
of the great glaciers
where the ice slants
away upward until it
reaches a depth possibly
five hundred feet of
solid blue and green, to
where it is fed by continuous avalanches from
the endless groups of
enormous heights beyond. At the upper
end of this brown,
rises    a   stern    black
On the trail to I,akes in the Clouds
31
i wall to a height fully half a mile, over which the
avalanches thunder. This wall is five miles away, but
looks to be but one, because of the clearness of the
atmosphere.
Above this black avalanche-wall there gradually
rises, like the roof of the universe, the pure white snow
field on Mount Victoria to a height of ten or twelve
thousand feet. Joining with Victoria in forming this
ice field are the towering heights of Lefroy, Beehive,
Whyte,Niblock, St.
Piran, Castle Crags,
and many other
lofty peaks. To the
east an upright
mountain forms a
perpendicular wall
of several thousand
feet.
From Lake
Louise the ascent
altitude of 6,280
to Mirror Lake and
Lake Agnes is made
easily on horseback
or afoot. Lake
Agnes, the higher
of the two, with an
feet, is about two
and a quarter miles
from the hotel by a ; ,
J One of the Chinese Waiters at
gOOd trail. i.ake Louise Chalet
32 1
I*ake I,ouise Chalet
Lake Louise Chalet.
Charmingly situated on the very verge of the water
in 'the midst of the evergreen wood, the Canadian
Pacific Railway has built a lovely chalet which has
since been enlarged to a great hotel. It is open from
-June to September, and at it Swiss guides, horses,
and packers can be hired for excursions near or
far. It affords most comfortable accommodation and
conveyances to meet every train. The rates are $3.50
a day, and by pre-arrangement the round trip can be
made from Banff at single fare, tickets being issued on
presentation of certificate signed by the manager of the
Banff Hotel. Telephonic communication exists
between the station and the chalet and telegrams may
be sent to any part of the world.
33 Lakes in the Clouds.
Mirror Lake is another of these beautiful gems
which has no visible outlet, its waters escaping through
an underground channel to Lake Louise 1,000 feet
below. The waters of this lake rise or fall as the
inflowing stream pours its flood into the lake more or
less rapidly than they are carried off. Lake Agnes is
much frequented by those who revel in the wild chaos
of erratic Nature, and at this charming lake is found
scenes which aspires* to the ideal in beauty, and the
grand in sublimity. On the side, like sentinels, stand
Mounts Whyte and Niblock, grim and silent; and the
irregular peaks running back tell of violent irruption
in that great and terrible day of upheaval far back in
the misty ages of the earth's infancy. A little way
down the valley nature smiles, not broadly but none
the less sweetly; for here among the mosses are found
the forget-me-nots, the wood anemones, the blue bells
of the Scottish Highlands, the ferns, the Alpine eidel-
weiss, (the bridal flower of the Swiss mountaineer)
and the heather that reminds the sons and daughters
of Bonnie Scotland of their native hills. It is an Alpine
garden, and the eternal hills seem worthy guardians of
this spot of peerless beauty.
34 1
Wild Flowers of the Canadian Rockies.
Orchid
Avalanche I41y
Harebell
Asters and Columbines
Among the many flowers found in the Lake Louise
region are moss campion, alpine campion, alpine dandelion, crepis, star thistle, erigeron, arnica, arctic
saxifrage, stonecrop and alpine willows, and harebells,
romanzoffia, grass of parnassus, pentstemon, anemones,
large thistle, chives, shooting-star.
35 ALPINE CLUB OF CANADA.
The Second Annual Meet of the Alpine Club of
Canada will be held in Paradise Valley, during the
second week in July, 1907. The President, Mr.
Wheeler, expects about two hundred climbers to be in
attendance. The camp will be very easy of access,
being but twelve miles distant from Laggan and nine
from Lake Louise. The usual route, is by the trail of
nine miles from Lake Louise. Paradise Valley is
bounded on the east and west by some splendid glacier
mountains, such as Mt. Temple, (11,607 ^eet above sea
level); Mt. Lefroy, (11,115); Mt. Aberdeen, (10,450);
Mt. Hungabee, (11,305) ; and Mt. Victoria, (11,600), is
nearby. The most difficult and most dangerous mountain in the whole region is Mt. Hungabee (Indian for
Chieftain) which has only been climbed once, and that
by one of the most
strenuous Alpinists
in America — Prof.
H. C. Parker, of
Columbia University, New York.
The glacier which
feeds Paradise River
is packed in the lap
of Mt. Hungabee
and is said to be one
of the most dangerous glaciers in the
Rockies.
The camp will be
situated on a lovely
Alpine meadow
right at the base of
Victory
36
IL this glacier. The meadow which is studded with
Lyall's larch} covers about a square mile. Excursions
will be made over the mountain passes to contiguous
valleys and lakes, and a round dozen of neighboring
peaks will be ascended by members of the club. Mount
Aberdeen has been chosen as the official climb; that is
to say, those who qualify for active membership will
climb this mountain. Swiss guides will be in attendance and also a dozen or so experienced mountain
climbers. No neophyte will be allowed to climb without proper mountaineering equipment or unless in fit
physical condition. Preparations will be made to
accommodate two hundred persons in addition to the
large staff of guides and outfitters. During the Alpine
Meet, the President, A. O. Wheeler, is in command of
the club, and everything is managed with military precision.
Since the Yoho camp of 1906, many new members
have been added to the club, and those persons who
are thinking of joining the club, ought to make application to the Secretary, Mrs. H.
J. Parker, 160 Furby street,
Winnipeg, Manitoba, at an early
date. Active members must have
climbed at least 10,000 feet above
sea level. Graduating members
have the privilege of qualifying
under the auspices of the club at
the Annual meet.
Many prominent people will
take part in the climb of Mount
Aberdeen, and this year's meet
of the Alpine Club of Canada
will be a time of rare enjoyment. In a high place
37
J Paradise- Valley.
To the east of Laggan run two mountain valleys,
both of which are noted for their exquisite scenery.
Paradise Valley, the nearer to Lake Louise, lies
between Mt. Sheol and Mt. Temple, while the Valley
of the Ten Peaks, as its name implies, is lined by ten
great peaks, and holds at its head, Moraine Lake.
Its entrance to Paradise Valley is under the
shadows of Mt. Sheol, that rises to nearly 10,000 feet.
The traveller as he gazes into the valley spread at his
very feet, cannot but be struck by the wondrous beauty
laid out before him, and the immensity of the scale and
the perfection of the symmetry of Nature's work.
Paradise Valley, near I^ake I/>uise
38
|L Moraine l^ake and Valley of the Ten Peaks
The valley of the Ten Peaks extends parallel to
Paradise Valley on the other side of Mt. Temple. In
it is Moraine Lake, two miles long and half a mile
wide, in which there is trout fishing. The Government
have recently constructed a splendid carriage road
from Lake Louise to Moraine Lake.
A great glacier has found its way down the heights
at the head of the lake and has forced its course between
and around the peaks. For a third of the distance from
the lake to the summit the ice is entirely covered by a
picturesque mass of rocks, piled in such disorder as
chance directed the ice should have them. It is a
picturesque and awe-inspiring sight, the effect of
which is magnificent in the extreme.
39 If
An interesting feature about this glacier is that it
seems to be advancing. For some reason that cannot
be explained, the glaciers, not only in the Canadian
mountains but the world over, have of late years been
receding, and the Moraine Lake ice-river is, therefore,
an exception to the usual rule. Its force is tremendous, and it is most impressive to note how the woods
have fallen before its resistless force.
Abbot Pass pierces the divide and by it are reached
Lakes O'Hara and Oesa, the latter of which is at so
great an altitude that its waters are released from the
grip of the frost for barely five weeks a year, and has,
therefore, received a name that means in the Indian
tongue the Lake of Ice. North of Lake O'Hara lie the
Wiwaxy Peaks, to the south the Ottertail and the
Prospectors' Valleys, lead on into a maze of mountains.
Soon after leaving Laggan the track quits the
valley of the Bow and turns south-west to cross the
divide. A fine view is obtained of the valley of the
Bow extending in a north-westerly direction to the
Bow Lakes, while, overtopping* the Slate and Wapu-
tekh ranges that the railway skirts, loom up the
enormous buttresses of Mt. Hector, named after Sir
James Hector, who as a member of the Palliser expedition of 1858, was one of the first to explore that pass.
Into the solitudes over which it broods, few have yet
penetrated, but it is known to be a land rich in beauties
and full of marvels, where ice-bound crags and
splendid glaciers shut in valleys of great beauty and
lakes of infinite charm.
Six miles from Laggan the summit of the Rockies
is reached, and the Great Divide is passed, 5,296 feet
above sea level. It is marked by a rustic arch spanning
a stream, under which the waters divide by one of The Great Divide
those curious freaks with which nature occasionally
diverts herself. For the two little brooks have
curiously different fates, though they have a common
origin. The waters that deviate to the east eventually
mingle with the ice-cold tides of Hudson Bay, while
the rivulet that turns to the west finally adds its mite
to the volume of the Pacific.
This is the region of mighty avalanches. It is said
that by actual count, and without the aid of a glass,
eighty distinct glaciers can be seen. In some of this
region the scenery is almost terrible.
Stephen, the most elevated station on the Canadian
Pacific Railway line, takes its name from the first
president of the Company, Lord Mount Stephen, while <r
the next on the westward slope, Hector, recalls Sir
James Hector. Of the latter the Kicking Horse River
also preserves the memory, for the " kicking horse "
was one that inflicted upon him serious injuries during
the Palliser expedition. The story is a curious one,
as it shows on what chances the success of an exploration may depend. The expedition was encamped on
the banks of the Wapta, where a pack horse broke
three of the leader's ribs by a kick. He lay unconscious for hours till his Indians thought him dead and
prepared to bury him, but as they bore him along he
regained his senses. When he recovered he went to
inspect his grave, that had been dug some little way
from the camp, and then fired by curiosity determined
to discover where led the valley in which it had been
intended to leave him for ever. He explored it further
and found it a practicable way of crossing the mountains.     Thus was the Kicking Horse River brought to
light and received the
name of a vicious
animal, which all unintentionally had led
to so important a discovery.
But soon all eyes
are centred on
Cathedral Mt., 10,204
feet high, that rises
on the south side of
the track, just before
Field is reached. It
is happily named, for
its summit bears a
wonderful    resem-
Pack Horses in the Canadian Rockies blance to Some  noble
42
% Kicking Horse Canyon
ruin of Gothic architecture. From the very verge of
the rise, where the gradual slope has given place to a
precipice, springs a great crag, like the shattered tower
of a cathedral. The eye can almost trace the windows,
their tracery gone, their mullions in pieces; the buttresses remain, but battered out of all shape and proportion, while the truncated shaft of an arch juts up
behind, solitary and desolate, speaking eloquently of
the noble fane that seems to have been demolished.
The illusion is made all the more realistic by a long,
low line of crags that extend along the summit of the
mount, the perpendicular sides of which might well be
the unroofed, half fallen nave of a cathedral.
43
J ^O"
FIELD	
AND THE
YOHO   VALLEY
At Field the prospect widens, and the Kicking
Horse River for a short distance flows across broad,
level flats, that are only covered when the water is
high. The place itself is a prosperous little village,
but is dwarfed into insignificance by the splendid
mountains that hem it in.    On one side is Mt. Burgess,
Hotel at Field, B.C.
on the other Mt. Stephen, one of the grandest of all
the Rockies. Field is the gateway of the wonderful
Yoho Valley, and the headquarters for mountaineers
of the more ambitious type. The Yoho Valley is now
included within the confines of the National Park.
44
i Looking from the shoulder of Mt. Burgess or Mt.
Stephen the valley seems narrow, the river a mere
stream, and the dwellings in the village dolls' houses.
From below Mt. Stephen fills all the view; so rounded,
so symmetrical that the spectator hardly realizes at
first that he has before him a rock mass towering
10,000 feet above sea level and 6,500 feet above the
valley. But as he gazes its majesty bears in on him
and he is filled with a sense of awe and wonder. One
great shoulder is
thrown forward, a
mountain in itself,
and then the dome
swells, gently,
easily, till it
reaches the
clouds. Sometimes, indeed, the
mist settles on it
and obscures half
its bulk, sometimes the sun
lights up its
crevices and
touches its peak
with gold, sometimes a cloud lies
like a mantle
across i t s face,
but with it all it
dominates everything and seems
to defy man and
nature.     There is
nothing broken or Field from Emerald I^ake
45 rugge(l in its outlines, no suggestion of wildness or
desolation; it impresses by its sheer bulk and massive-
ness and forces the admiration of the most careless.
To practised climbers the ascent of Mt. Stephen
presents no insuperable difficulties, and, indeed, the
trip to the summit and back from Mt. Stephen House
has been made in eight hours. Swiss guides are
stationed at the hotel, and will help the ambitious to
accomplish the feat. The lower slopes of the mountain have one spot well worth visiting, the Fossil bed,
where for 150 yards the side of the mountain for a
height of 300 or 400 feet has slid forward and broken
into   a   number   of  shaly,   shelving  limestone   slabs.
From the top of Mt. Stephen a magnificent view is
obtained, that well repays the toil and difficulty of the
ascent. The Van Home range is seen beyond the
Kicking Horse Valley to the west, the Emerald group
occupies the north, while on the east the peaks that
line the Yoho Valley, Mts. Habel, Collie, Gordon,
Balfour, and many another are in full view. Across
the river to the south a number of fine mountains are
in sight, Mts. Assiniboine, Goodsir, The Chancellor
and Vaux. For miles and miles the tourist can see
over valleys and peaks, and he realizes the immensity,
as well as the beauty of the Rockies.
As a centre for the numerous expeditions to be
made from Field, the Canadian Pacific Railway has
built there a comfortable hotel and has since been
called upon to enlarge it twice. It is planned cunningly, and has splendid accommodations, including
a billiard room and suites of rooms with private baths.
Moreover, at the livery, carriages, pack and saddle
horses, mountaineering outfits and Swiss guides can be
engaged at reasonable rates.
46
m Mount Burgess andt Emerald I^ake
Emerald Lake.
From Field a delightful drive of seven miles round
the spurs of Mt. Burgess to Emerald Lake, another of
those charming tarns that spangle the mountain side. Emerald I,ake Chalet
The road leads through a splendid spruce forest. In
one place the road has been cut straight as an arrow
for a mile in length. Snow Peak Avenue this stretch
is called, and the effect of the narrow way with the
mighty trunks standing bolt upright on either hand,
with a glimpse of the mountains at the end of the vista,
is curious and unique. At Emerald Lake is a charming
chalet operated by the Canadian Pacific Railway,
where tourists may find first-class accommodation, and
rest at the very entrance to the Yoho Valley. The
lake, apart from its beauty, is a favorite resort for
anglers, as the trout are many and gamey, and heavy
are the creels that have been filled from its waters.
Natural Bridge.
One of the most interesting of the short excursions
to be made from Field is a walk of two and a half miles
to the Natural Bridge, spanning the Kicking Horse
River. ' This is caused by the action of the water of
the river itself on the soft limestone rock.    Once upon a time the bed of the
river extended up to
the rocks that now
bridge it, and its
waters poured over
it in headlong fall.
Gradually, however,
the soft stone was
eaten away, and a
hole was formed in
the very rock. Once
the way was found-
nothing could stop
the flood, and day
by day it enlarged
the outlet, until now
it has carved a
tunnel for itself, and
the rocks that once
faced a waterfall
remain to bridge a
rapid. But the end
is not yet, and some
day the river will win. The rocks will be hurled down
from the position they have held so long, and will lie as
me*re boulders in the bed of the stream.
Natural Bridge, near Field
The Yoho Valley.
Emerald Lake is half way to the Yoho Valley, one
of the most beautiful mountain vales in all the world.
From the Chalet by the lake the tourist may take a
pony or can walk around the lake and up the mountain
beyond. He passes mighty glaciers, their surface lit
up and decked with many hues in the sunlight, and
49
j charming cascades, their waters leaping a scanty
thread-like line, 800 feet or more. Thick timber shuts
in the summit of the pass, but parts asunder to grant a
glimpse of Summit Lake, a stretch of water, 1,800 feet
above Emerald Lake.
Takakkaw Falls, Yoho Valley
A short walk brings one to the Look-Out Point,
where a superb view of the celebrated Takakkaw Falls,
the highest cataract in America, is obtained. In the
course of ages the water has worn for itself a regular
semi-circle in the face of the cliffs, and as the trees
stand well away on either side, its white foam stands
out magnificently against the brown, wrinkled surface
of the rock. As it begins its fall, it sparkles in the
sunlight; but soon it grazes a narrow ledge, widens out
and unravels into a fleecy foaming tangle, till at length,
all spray, it reaches the valley, and joins the Kicking
50 Horse River. Eight
times as high as
Niagara (1,200
feet), it compares
with anything in
the Y o s e m i t e
Valley, and fed
by the melted
snows of the glacier, it is at its
best in summer.
All up the valley
other cascades are
seen or heard. The
hills are crowned
with glaciers and
the water melted
from them seeks
the shortest way
to the valley,
even at the cost of
a plunge of hundreds of feet, and among them the
Laughing Falls charm particularly. Its leap is only
200 feet, but its waters seem to laugh with glee as they
go, and its milk-white flood smiles delightfully through
the dark evergreens around it. Further up the valley
on the left branch of its forked stream are the Twin
Falls, an almost unique phenomenon and as beautiful
as it is unexpected. Two streams plunge side by side
into the abyss. Every waterfall is beautiful and no
one can help marvelling at the ever-varying, ever-constant flow of a cascade with its wondrous force and
grace. But when there are two falls leaping side by
side, when there is life and motion in two separate
Twin Falls, Yoho Valley.
51
j cascades, when the light plays across them and the
rainbow tinges their spray, but remains still for not
two seconds together, then indeed the spectator is
entranced and he lingers long, loath to tear himself
from a sight that appeals to his deepest sense of
beauty.
But there is sterner scenery than any the waterfalls
present along the Yoho Valley. A great glacier too,
far larger even than the famous Illecillewaet Glacier of
the Selkirks, overhangs the right hand fork of the
valley. The Wapta Glacier, as it is named, is part of
the great Waputekh ice field guarded by Mt. Gordon,
Mt. Balfour and the broken crags of Trolltinderne
(The Elfin's Crown).
At the fork of the Yoho Valley another shelter has
been provided for visitors, and there will be^many that
take advantage of it. It is possible to make the trip
round the valley from Emerald Lake in a day, but all
who can will spare another day or two.
The return to Field may be varied by crossing the
Burgess Pass. From this lofty trail Emerald Lake is
seen thousands of feet below, with the Emerald Range
rising beyond, while on the other hand Mts. Cathedral,
Stephen and Dennis and the Ottertail Range excite
admiration. From this eminence a zig-zag path leads
down by easy stages to Mt. Stephen House.
FIELD TO GLACIER.
Field left behind, the train has to descend the
western slope of the Rockies to the valley of the
Columbia. To reach it the course of the Kicking Horse
River is followed through some of the finest mountain
scenery in the world.
52 ]
The track runs between the Ottertail and Van
Home ranges. The highest of the range, Mt. Goodsir,
a victim to the prowess of Professor Fay, of Tuft's
College, stands miles from the railroad, but its hoary
head is seen towering above its sisters. The Van Home
Range, just across the narrow valley, is less severe in
its outline; its slopes are ochre-hued, and its summit is
an alternating succession of crest and trough. To the
southeast the Beaverfoot Mountains, a splendid line of
peaks, stretch in regular array as far as the eye can
reach, and between them and the Ottertails rises the
mass of Mt. Hunter.
At Leanchoil, the canon of the Kicking Horse is
entered. Straight up and down the rocky sides extend
a well that seems impregnable. Thousands of feet in
the air they rise, and their summit is lined with a
number of peaks, perpetually covered with snow, to
which no names have yet been given. The cleft is a
bare stone's throw across, and through it river and
railway find their way. Ledges have been blasted in
the face of the rock; jutting spurs have been tunnelled
through; from side to side the track has been carried;
and always below is the river foaming and roaring,
breaking itself against the sides of the canon. The
effect is marvellous and stupendous, and the ingenuity
of man had to fight a great battle with the forces of
Nature.
All of a sudden there is a wonderful change. The
descent is completed and the track emerges in the
broad valley of the Columbia. One of the resting
places of the mountains has been reached and the
travellers gaze with pleasure upon the thriving little
town of Golden.
53 •
One of the principal difficulties in constructing this
part of the line was caused by the mountain torrents,
which rush down these mountain sides in deep narrow
gorges over which the railway must cross. The largest
of these bridges crosses Stony Creek, a noisy stream
flowing in a narrow V-shaped channel, 300 feet below
the rails. This is said to be one of the highest railway
bridges in the world.
Stoney Creek Bridge
Rogers' Pass was named after Major A. B. Rogers,
by whose energy it was discovered in 1883, prior to
which time no human foot had trod the summit of this
%. central range. Here
is a vast amphi-
theatre, where
seven or eight
thousand feet above
the valley half a
dozen glaciers may
be seen at once, and
so near that their
green fissures are
disincly visible.
Here one may behold the never-to-
be-forgotten spectacle of the rising
sun as it gilds the
mighty b ra 111 e -
ments; or look upon the green valleys, and see the
snowstorm trail--
ing along the crests
with perhaps a
peak or two standing sphynx-like and
serene above the
clouds.
Mt. Hermit, which takes its name from the cowled
figure that with a dog appears on the western spurs,
has regular strata, running in parallel rows across its
front, to which undulating waves just marked by snow
give grace and lightness. Mount Macdonald rises with
precipitous walls far above the railway.
Mt. Macdonald, over 6,000 feet above
the railway.
55 <?Qp>
GLACIER
Nestled in a niche of the narrow valley a few rods
from the railway, and surrounded by the beautiful
evergreen trees that everywhere thrive in this region,
is a charming hotel, the Glacier House, which has
become so popular that the Canadian Pacific Railway
Company has found it necessary to enlarge the
original structure, erect new buildings, and increase
the   capacity  of  the   annex,   so   that  now  over  one
Glacier House, Glacier, B.C.
56 On the Trail, near Glacier, B.C.
hundred guests can be accommodated. A Surgeon-
General in the Army wrote recently in the guests' book
at the hotel: " My wife and I have travelled for nearly
forty years all over the world, and are both agreed the
scenery at Glacier House is the finest we have seen in
Europe, Asia, Africa or America." The first to attract
the tourist is the Great Glacier of the Selkirks, which
crowds its tremendous head down the mountain gorge
within thirty minutes' walk of the hotel. At the left
Sir Donald rears his mighty head more than a mile and
a half above the railway. This monolith was named
after Sir Donald A. Smith (now Lord Strathcona and
Mt. Royal), who was one of the chief promoters of the
Canadian Pacific Railway. A mountain rivulet rushes
down the abruptly rocky sides of the mountain opposite the hotel, and a trail has been cut up the steep
incline to a spot beside the rushing stream, where a
rustic summer house has been erected. The effect
is novel and pleasing. The waters from this stream
have been utilized to supply the hotel and fountains
that play in the foreground. All the streams here are
simply ice water from the glaciers.     A tower has been f
Mountain Game.
erected near the annex of the
hotel, on which is a large
telescope commanding a view
of the great glacier and surrounding objects. As one
alights here a feeling of rest-
fulness comes over him. Everything conspires to a feeling
that all the cares and rush of
the business world are shut out
by the great mountain. The
trees, the streams, and even
the mountains speak of peace
and quiet. The mighty rushing winds never reach this
secluded spot. The ever-green
trees are restful to the eye, and
the mid-day sun is tempered by their emerald sheen.
Let the visitor step abroad, inhale the vitalizing air,
look at the mighty glaciers, where are stored the snows
of centuries; gaze upon the wild rage of the mountain
torrent as it takes its mad plunge from the rocks
among the clouds; look away and see the ice-bound
peaks of these mighty ranges as they stand sphynx-
like, serene and grim, as if man beheld a type of the
eternal.
At the west end of this range stands the pyramid
form of Cheops, and between two rugged peaks is the
Mount Bonney Glacier, known also as the Purity; and
to the right is the amphitheatre of the Cougar Range.
In the background may be seen the picturesque
Asulkan Glacier, and the two sharp peaks furthest
south are Castor and Pollux. It is said that from the
summit of Sir Donald, 120 glaciers may be seen.
58 The Great Glacier
The Great Glacier is a mile and a half from the
hotel, but among such gigantic surroundings looks
much nearer. Its slowly receding front with crevasses
of abysmal depths cutting across its crystal surface is
only a few hundred feet above the level of the railway.
Good trails have been made to it, and its exploration is
not difficult, although it is not wise to traverse some
portions of it without a guide to pilot the way among
yawning bergschrunds that slash its surface. This
Great Glacier is said to be greater than all those of
Switzerland combined. It is the centre of a group of
glaciers embracing more than 200 square miles, and
the hoary head seen from the hotel is one of several
outlets. The great ice peaks and glaciers are truly an
interesting study.    Solemn, stately, and serene, smiling
59
J Above the Snow I^ine.
not in the beautiful sunshine;
and still unmoved when the
fierce blasts of the tempests
strike. At times they clothe
themselves in thick clouds waiting only the bright rays of noonday sun to step forth armored in
glittering silver, or robed in the
gorgeous colors of evening; and
in the mysterious silent night
the moon and the stars look
down to see their faces in the glassy surface. The last
rays of departing day linger upon the lofty spires; and
when the night has passed and the moon has sunk
behind the grand old peaks, they catch the first gleam
of returning light, and their gilded tops herald the
coming morn. The elements combine to pay tribute to
such matchless beauty. The sun steals through the
srJarkling fountains which flutter over the crystal surface in summer, and the hues of the rainbow betray the
sun's warm kiss. In winter the hoar frosts gather as
a mantling shroud over the silent forms only to add
new beauty in the resurrection of spring. Good-bye,
grand old glaciers! * For untold ages you have lifted
your hoary heads among the clouds! For unnumbered
ages you will still remain! " Men may come, and men
may go," but you keep your silent vigils unmoved by
the lapse of Time!
Those interested in glaciers and glacial phenomena
should ask for a copy of a little handbook, " Glaciers,'
published by the Canadian Pacific Railway and kept
for gratuitous circulation at the company's agencies
and hotels. 1
Bfefii
The Illecillewaet Glacier, like nearly every other
observed glacier in the world, is receding. It is
reckoned the sun drives it back on the average 35 feet
a year, and recovers this much from the bonds of ice.
However, after the ice is gone, the moraine remains,
and it will be many centuries before the great rocks
carried down by the glacier are reduced to dust, and
the land thus reclaimed supports renewed vegetation.
From Glacier House other expeditions of great
interest may be made. One trail leads first to the
shores of Marion Lake, 1,750 feet above, and two miles
distant from the hotel, where a shelter is erected.
Splendid views are obtained on the way of the range
from Eagle Peak to Sir Donald, and a path strikes off
for Observation Point, where another shelter is built
for those who would dwell on the glories of Rogers'
Pass to the north-east and the Illecillewaet Valley to
61
J the west. Mt. Abbott is a day's climb, but it is an
easy one, and should be undertaken by all, for from it
a splendid view is obtained of the Asulkan Valley.
From Observation Point an extremely fine view is
obtained, adown the Illecillewaet Valley, down the
precipitous sides of which the track has had to make a
descent of 522 feet in seven miles. The feat taxed to
the utmost the skill of the engineers, and they accomplished it by means of the famous Loops of the
Selkirks.
The course the railway has to follow to gain the
valley has been called the Loops of the Selkirks. First,
the track crosses a valley leading from Mt. Bonney
glacier. Then it touches for a
moment tne base of Ross
Peak. It doubles back to the
right for a mile or more, and
so close are the tracks that a
stone might be tossed from
one to the other. Next it
sweeps around and reaches
the slope of Mt. Cougar on
the other side of the Illecillewaet, but it has to cross the -
stream once more before it
finally finds a way parallel to
the general trend of the
valley. The line has made a
double " S " in its course, and
has cut two long gashes on
the mountain side, one above
the other.
The Illecillewaet River is,
of  course,   of  glacial   origin,
62
Albert Canon
IL and takes its rise from the Great Glacier of the Selkirks ; it is, therefore, at first a pea-green color from the
glacial mud, but afterwards, as it flows through the
valley, it clarifies itself and in the end is perfectly pure.
Caribou are found all the way down the valley to the
Columbia in considerable numbers.
Twenty-two miles from Glacier, the Illecillewaet
River runs through the Albert Canon, a gorge so marvellous that several of the regular trains stop for a few
minutes to allow passengers to see its wonders. The
Illecillewaet issues from an exceedingly narrow pass,
through which the river must pass. The canon widens
a little, but it still remains deep, abrupt and narrow.
From its brink rocks torn, rent and split can be seen
300 feet straight below. It is but 20 feet across, and in
the gloom the white foam of the flood can be made out,
while the noise of its fury is redoubled by the closeness
of its confinement.
More mountains there are, and we shall not lose
sight of them all when the waters of the great Pacific
dash at our feet; for in the mighty upheaval the deep
waters of the sea were no barrier, as is seen by the
uplifting of the thousands of bold promontories and
mountain isles that cluster along the northwest coast
and stretch out in the great chain of the Aleutian
Islands. These mountain fastnesses will ever remain
a game preserve for the grizzly, cinnamon, and black
bears; the mountain sheep (big horn), the mountain
goat, the puma or mountain lion, the moose, elk,
caribou, and various species of smaller deer, wolverine,
and a great variety of smaller fur-bearing animals.
The mountains will remain a vast park, where man can
not only behold the rugged savage beasts, and the
beautiful creatures whose soft fur, fair women will
63 ever admire, but he may here find Nature as it passes
from the great Creator, untarnished by the hand of
man. Succeeding generations of the children of men
will gaze upon these majestic mountains, whose peaks
of eternal ice tower above the clouds that would hide
the sun; and will look with awe at the wild canons
and mountain torrents; and will behold with ecstacy
the many scenes of Edenic beauty, too sacred to remain
in the gaze of the multitude, but " sought out of all
those who have pleasure therein."
Entrance to the Caves of Nakimu
The Great Caves of Nakimu.*
These great caves which were recently discovered
by Charles H. Deutschman are-situated about six miles
from Glacier, B.C., at the head of a beautiful valley,
the altitude being 1,980 feet from the track and above
the snow line. The wonderful caverns are formed by
the action of water for ages upon the solid rock, and
are a series of chambers with large entrances, the
ceilings being polished strata of rock varying in height.
The main chamber is about 200 feet in height, with a
varying width of from 150 to 200 feet.      The walls
" Nakimu "—Indian for grumbling caves.
64 sparkle with the quartz crystals, and myriads of miniature lights are reflected from the darkness. In other
parts the walls are smooth as marble, the harder
portions of the formation showing like the rounded
rafters of a cathedral dome. Recesses are abundant
where the eddying waters found a softer and more
yielding rock. A natural bridge marks the point where
other streams in ages past have worn two other passages in the mountain. Vast bowls of water are all
that remain to show where former waterfalls existed.
None are deep, however, and flint-like ledges afford an
easy method of progress. No evidence has so far been
discovered that any portion of these caverns have ever
been used as the habitation of human beings.
Revelstoke to Kamloops.
Revelstoke is an important centre; from it there is
water communication with the rich Kootenay and
Boundary districts. It is on the Columbia River,
which has made a great bend since the train crossed it
• at Donald and, flowing now south instead of north, is
much increased in size.      Twenty-ei^ht miles below
Revelstoke i t expands into the
Arrow Lakes,
which fill the trough
between the Selkirk
and Gold ranges as
they run north and
south. A branch line
runs down to
Arrowhead, and
from there well-
appointed Canadian
Steamer Rossland.
65
Jr Pacific Railway steamboats carry travellers to Nakusp
and Robson, from which the Slocan, Kootenay, Boundary and Rossland districts are reached.
Down Arrow Lake the steamer plies to Nakusp and
Robson, passing near the head of the lake the famous
Halcyon Hot Springs. This is a favorite summer
resort, having a good hotel, while opposite is Halcyon
Peak, 10,400 feet high, and several fine waterfalls. A
spur of the Canadian Pacific Railway connects it with
Sandon on Slocan Lake, in the centre of the silver-lead
district and with Rosebery, to join the steamer that_
plies down the lake to Slocan City. Here again the
rails begin and communicate with Robson at the end
of the Lower Arrow on the west, and with Nelson on
an arm of Kootenay Lake on the east.
The Arrow Lake steamer has also come the full
length from Robson, 165 miles, through splendid mountain scenery, while from Robson trains run over a short
but important line to Trail and Rossland through one
of the richest mining regions in the world. Yet another
branch from Robson has been constructed through the ■
Boundary district to Midway and opens up another
prosperous mining locality.
The Crowsnest branch of the Canadian Pacific
Railway ends at Kootenay Landing, and from there to
Nelson there is communication by Canadian Pacific
Railway steamer. A steamboat line has been established from Nelson up Kootenay Lake to Lardo,
whence an isolated branch of railroad runs 32 miles
north to Gerrard, and a steamer plies across Trout
Lake to Trout Lake City, a matter of 17 miles, so that
every part of Southern British Columbia may be
reached by the Canadian Pacific Railway and its connections.
66 The thriving town of Revelstoke stands in the
broad valley of the Columbia, over which a bridge half
a mile long has been built.
As Craigellachie is passed a monument may be seen
which marks the spot where the last spike was driven
into the great line that joins the Atlantic and the
Pacific. The work had been begun from both ends of
the railroad, and it was on Nov. 7, 1885, that, with fitting
ceremonial, the last strokes were put to the truly
stupendous task—five years before the stipulated time.
The chain of lakes passed, the valley closes in until
Sicamous Junction is reached. Sicamous is at an
altitude of only 1,300 feet above sea level, and is
remarkable as a sporting resort and as the gateway.to
a splendid ranching and farming district. From it can
be visited by the Okanagan branch, Okanagan Lake,
down the 70 miles of which plies the Canadian Pacific
Railway steamers to Penticton, from which the mining
towns to the south may be reached by stage. The
whole region of the Okanagan is a land with a balmy
climate where fruit grows to perfection, and at Vernon
and at Kelowna on the lake shore Lord Aberdeen, late
Governor-General of Canada, has splendid farms.    The
Hotel at Sicamous, B.C.
67 names, Peaehland and Summerland, given to places not
far from Penticton, are suggestive and fully justified.
Shuswap Lake is a most beautiful sheet of water.
It runs up the valleys between the mountains wherever
its waters can find a level, and its long arms have been
compared to the tentacles of an octopus. Each of them
is many miles long and at places as much as two
miles broad, but they often narrow down to a few
hundred yards, and at one such spot the railway crosses
the Sicamous Narrow by a drawbridge. It then
follows the south shore of the Salmon Arm, crossings
the Salmon River.
At Tappen the Salmon Arm is left and the track
strikes boldly out for Shuswap Arm, though in so
doing a way has to be cut through the forest and
Notch Hill, 600 feet above the lake level, has to be
passed. From this elevation a charming view is
obtained. On every side the lake extends silvery arms
that wander along among rounded hills and thick
woods.
Shuswap Lake
gradually narrows
into the south
branch of the
Thompson River,
and steadily downhill along its banks
runs the line. The
country is an excellent ranching district and has been
long settled from the
Pacific Coast. ' ^    .
Near Kamloops
68 Kamloops is a thriving little town, and an air of
activity is given to the place by the numerous sawmills
and the steamboats, that ply on the lake. It draws
much profit from the mining fields, being a supply
point for them, and from the ranching district to the
south, communication being by stage.
The Thompson and Fraser Canons.
Nicomen is a little mining town where, on the
opposite side of the river, gold was first discovered in
British Columbia. The discovery was doubtless the
clue to the finding of the rich gold fields of Caribou, as
miners always prospect up stream to find the lode from
which the placer came. We are now in the Thompson
Canon, whose gold gorge narrows and deepens till the
Cariboo Bridge, Spuzzum, B.C.
69
J -JSarrison Sprii
scenery is wild
beyond description. At Lytton, a small
trading town,
the canon
widens to admit the Fraser,
which comes
from the north,
between two
ranges cf
mountain
peaks.
The old Government road to Cariboo is in evidence
all along the Fraser and Thompson valleys. Since
the building of the railway the use of the waggon
road has been discontinued except in some places
where local interests make it convenient. At Spuzzum
it crosses the river on a suspension bridge no feet
above low water; yet it is said that in 1881 the river
rose to such a height that it was only by the greatest
exertion that the bridge was saved from destruction by
driftwood.
For fifty-four miles between Lytton and Yale, the
river had cut through this lofty range of mountains,
thousands of feet below their summits. On this section of fifty-four miles, a construction army of 7,000
men worked.
During the building of this road, men were suspended by ropes hundreds of feet below the tops of the
cliffs to blast a foothold. Supplies were packed in on
the backs of mules and horses; and building materials
often had to be landed on the opposite bank of the
70 stream and taken across at great expense. It is estimated
that portions of this work cost $300,000 per mile. Below
the town of Lytton the river is spanned by a cantilever
bridge 530 feet long, the centre span being 315 feet.
The difficulty of its construction was great, owing to
the fact that the site could only be approached from
one end. One half the materials were sent across the
river on a steel cable one and one-fourth inches in
diameter. Several pieces of the structure weighed
over five tons each. It is claimed that in this respect
the bridge is without a rival.
North Bend is now reached, which is certainly a
place whose memory will long linger in the recollection
of those who have ever seen it from the car windows.
The Pacific Coast
At Yale he feels the balmy air of the Pacific. At
Spence's Bridge he saw a curious Indian cemetery,
with rudely carved birds perched even on the Cross,
the totem intruding on the Christian symbol. All
down the canons he has seen occasional natives fishing
for salmon or washing for gold, and at Agassiz he
finds a fine Government experimental fruit farm, while
1
Steamer Princess Victoria, Seattle, Victoria and Vancouver Service
71 five miles away to the north is Harrison Lake with its
hot sulphur springs, the visitors at which stay at
Harrison Springs Hotel.
At Mission Junction he can, if so disposed, change
to the branch line, that runs to the international boundary and there joins the Northern Pacific Railroad.
By this route he reaches Seattle and makes connection
with the Shasta route for San Francisco and all the
Pacific states. The main line, however, keeps on past
Westminster Junction, where a branch line leads tp
Westminster, and arrives at the terminus of the
Canadian Pacific Railway at Vancouver.
There he finds his long journey ended and himself
on the shores of Burrard Inlet, one of the finest
harbors on the Pacific. If the inducements of Vancouver and the splendid service of the Canadian Pacific
Canadian Pacific Vancouver Hotel
72 Railway Hotel, Vancouver, do not tempt him to stay,
he can embark at the very railway station on steamships that will take him to the ends of the earth. The
Canadian Pacific Railway Company's Empresses will
transport him swiftly and comfortably to Japan or
China, the Canadian-Australian line runs regularly to
Honolulu, Fiji, Australia, and New Zealand, while if
such long journeys do not suit his pleasure, he can sail
by a Canadian Pacific Railway steamer to Victoria on
Vancouver Island, or take longer coasting trips to the
golden Yukon, or to Seattle.
Station and Offices, Vancouver, B.C., Canadian Pacific Railway
Vancouver has a fine harbor, landlocked, well-
lighted and safe, to which resort, besides the liners
already mentioned, freighters from all parts of the
world. They bring silks and teas from the Orient;
they take away the lumber and canned fish of British
Columbia and the wheat and flour of the Canadian
73 I	
West; and they make the port one of the most important of the Pacific Coast.
The city, though only nineteen years old and burnt
to the ground in 1886, now numbers over 50,000 and is
the centre of flourishing industries.     Industries there
are in  plenty,  and  Vancouver  has   everywhere  the
appearance of a rapidly progressing community.     Its
well-built, wide streets add to the impression, and the
extremely picturesque surroundings of the city make it
pleasant as a residence and delightful to visit.    Stanley
Park is its crowning glory, in the depths of which the
Douglas fir and giant cedar are seen in all their magnificence and nature is allowed to display her unspoiled
beauty.
A few hours steam from Vancouver is Victoria, the
capital of British Columbia.      Across the Straits of
Georgia daily plies the fast new Canadian Pacific Rail-
^
m:us*mmkk*m
«3n!ii; [* 'Mi nm « u SB
.,,. ,    JmmmMmtoMmMIhI   ,..■•* ^ r..ir...^i*.±sm&
1
New Empress Hotel, Victoria, B.C.
74 way steamer " Princess Victoria," passing through a
world of small islands, comparable to the Thousand
Islands of the St. Lawrence, though with infinitely
finer timber. Victoria itself is acity of lovely homes and
the seat of the Provincial Government, its Parliament
buildings being one of the handsomest piles on the
continent. This city is of singular beauty and has a
population of over 30,000. There is now nearing
completion a palatial hotel by the Canadian Pacific
Railway Company, which will be completed during the
coming summer. Beacon Hill Park, 300 acres in
extent, is no less beautiful than Stanley Park.
Farewell, old mountains! Your vales with their
beautiful verdure, and your sunny slopes shut in from
the fierce winds, and fiercer business of the outside
world, have spoken of earthly peace, and given
glimpses of Edenic beauty too rarely seen on earth!
Your snowy crests, reaching above the clouds into the
purer atmosphere of the heavens, have been an inspiration, speaking to the inner consciousness with a "voice
as of a trumpet," ever pointing to the Infinite! Your
great glaciers with their enduring ice have been a
monitor of the Eternal. Grand old mountains! Your
frown is terrible!
75
J Canadian Pacific Ry. Co., Atlantic Service
EMPRESS OF BRITAIN
One of the palatial Royal Mail steamships of the Canadian Pacific Railway Company's
Atlantic Service. L,ength 570 feet, breadth 65 feet, displacement 20,000 tons. 18,000
horsepower, and makes the passage between Liverpool and Quebec in less than a week.
EMPRESS OF JAPAN—PACIFIC SERVICE, CANADIAN PACIFIC RAILWAY CO.
TO JAPAN AND CHINA
"Empress of India," " Empress of Japan,"        " Empress of China," Tartar     and]  FAthenian.
la,  B.C.. and Yokohama.   Kobe   and   Nagasaki,
a Vancouver and Vict
Japan, and Shanghai and Hong Kong,  Coin
THE SHORTEST AND SMOOTHEST ROUTE ACROSS THE PACIFIC
Sailing  betwee
1, and Shanghai The Canadian Pacific Railway
THE WORLD'S HIGHWAY BETWEEN THE ATLANTIC
AND THE PACIFIC
SPECIAL ATTENTION IS CALLED to the PARLOR, SLEEPING and
DINING CAR SERVICE—so important an accessory upon a
railway whose cars run upwards of THREE THOUSAND
MILES WITHOUT CHANGE.
These cars are of unusual strength and size, with berths, smoking and toilet
accommodation correspondingly roomy. The Transcontinental Sleeping Cars are
fitted with double doors and windows to exclude the dust in summer and the cold in
winter.   The seats are well upholstered, with high backs and arms.
The upper berths are provided with windows and ventilators. The exteriors are
of polished red mahogany and the interiors are of white mahogany and satin wood.
No expense is spared in providing the DINING CARS with the choicest viands and
seasonable delicacies, and the bill of fare and wine list will compare favorably with
those of the most prominent hotels.
OBSERVATION CARS, specially designed to allow an unbroken view of the
wonderful mountain scenery, are run on transcontinental trains during the Summer
Season (from May to about October 15thh--
THE FIRST CLASS DAY COACHES are proportionately elaborate in their arrangement for the comfort of the passengers; and for those who desire to travel at a
cheaper rate. TOURIST CARS, with bedding and porter in charge, are run at a small
additional charge : COLONIST SLEEPING CARS are run on transcontinental trains
without additional charge. The colonist cars are fitted with upper and lower berths
after the same general style as other sleeping cars, but are not upholstered, and the
passenger may furnish his own bedding, or purchase it of the Company's agents at
terminal stations at nominal rates.
The entire passenger equipment is MATCHLESS in elegance and comfort.
First Class Sleeping and Parlor Car Tariff
Halifax and Montreal	
St. John, N.B., and Montreal
Quebec and Montreal	
Montreal and Toronto	
Montreal and Chicago	
Montreal and Winnipeg	
Montreal and Calgary	
Montreal and Banff      14 00
Montreal and Revelstoke      15 50
Montreal and Vancouver      18 00
Ottawa and Toronto       2 00
Ottawa and Vancouver      T"
Fort William and Vam
Toronto and Chicago...
Toronto and Winnipeg.
Toronto and Calgary
TOURIST CAR
TARIFF
$400
250
150
200
500
800
$4 00
13 00
650
14 00
700
15 50
7 75
15.00
300
Toronto and Banff     13 00
Toronto and Revelstoke	
Toronto and Vancouver	
Boston and Montreal	
Boston and Vancouver	
New York and Montreal	
Boston and St. Paul	
Boston and Chicago	
Montreal and St. Pahl	
St. Paul and Winnipeg	
St. Paul and Vancouver	
Winnipeg and Vancouver	
Between other stations rates in proportion.
Bates for full section double the berth rate. Staterooms between three and four
times the berth rate.
Accommodation in First Class Sleeping Cars and Parlor Cars will be sold only to
holders of First Class transportation, and in Tourist Cars to holders of First or
Second Class accommodation.
800
400
12 00
600
13 00
650
14 50^
725
17 00
850
200
19 00
200
700
550
600
300
12 00
600
12 00
600 Canadian Pacific Hotels
While the sleeping and dialng car service of the Canadian Pacific Railway tarnishes every comfort and luxury for travellers making the continuous overland through
trip, it has been found necessary to provide comfortable well managed hotels at the
principal points of interest among the mountains, where tourists and others might
explore and enjoy the magnificent scenery.
ALGONQUIN   HOTEL-ST.   ANDREWS,   N.B.
(Open from June to September)
This popular Atlantic Seaside  Resort, is situated on a peninsula five miles long,
extending into Passamaquoddy Bay.   Good deep sea and fresh water fishing may be
enjoyed; the roads are perfect, making driving and cycling most enjoyable.   The
facilities for yachting and boating cannot be surpassed, and there are golf links v
that have no superior in Canada. •■'",     ., _J .
The hotel, on which a large expenditure has recently been made, in improvements,
offers every modern accommodation for tourists.
Rates, $3.50 per day and upward.   Special rates to those making prolonged visits.
McADAM   STATION   HOTEL—McADAM   JUNC,   N.B.,
offers the visitor in search of sport a choice of routes through the whole provinces.
It gives him, too, an outing at a summer retreat, free from the heat and crowds of the
fashionable resorts, whence the hunting and fishing grounds are easily accessible.
The rates are from $2.50 per day upwards. S^yggg?
THE CHATEAU FRONTENAC, QUEBEC,
in the quaintest and historically the most interesting city in America, is one of the
finest hotels on the continent. It is fireproof, and occupies a commanding position
overlooking the St. Lawrence, its site being, perhaps, the grandest in the world. The
Chateau Frontenac was erected at a cost of over a million of dollars. Great taste
marks the furnishing, fitting and decorating of this imposing structure, in which
comfort and elegance are combined to an unequalled extent.
Rates, $4.00 per day and upward, with special arrangements for large parties and
those making prolonged visits.
THE  PLACE  VICER,   MONTREAL,
is a handsome structure in which are combined, a hotel and station.    The building,
Ich faces Place Tiger, is most elaborately furnished and modernly appointed, the
ng the Chateau Frontenac, at Quebec, being
general style and elegance character)
followed.
Rates, $8.50 per day and upward, with special arrangements for large parties or
those making a prolonged stay.
CALEDONIA SPRINGS HOTEL—CALEDONIA SPRINGS, ONT.,
is situated at the famous Caledonia Springs, so well-known all over the American
Continent. r**^5S§
Rates, $3.00 per day and upward.
THE ROYAL ALEXANDRA-WINNIPEG, MAN.,
a newly completed 300 room house situated at the Railway station, furnished with
every modern convenience, including Cafe and Grill Room. European and American
plan.   Rates :—American plan, $4.00 per day up ; European plan, $2.00 per day up.
MOOSE  JAW   HOTEL-MOOSE   JAW,   SASK.,
in the Canadian North-West, at the junction of the Soo-Pacific road with the main
line of the C.P.R. The hotel is appointed in the most modern style and is elegantly
furnished.
Rates, $3.00 per day and upward, with reductions to those making prolonged visits.
BANFF   SPRINGS   HOTEL-BANFF,   ALBA.,
(Open from May to October)
In the Canadian National Park, on the eastern slope of the Rocky Mountains, is 4,500
feet above sea level, at the junction of the Bow and Spray Rivers. A large and
handsome structure, with every convenience that modern ingenuity can suggest,
costing about half a million dollars.
Rates, $3.50 per day and upward, according to the rooms.   Special rates by the week
or month will be given on application. Canadian  Pacific  Hotels.—Continued.
THE LAKE LOUISE HOTEL-LACGAN, ALBA.
(Open from June to October)
This quiet resting place in the mountains is situated on the margin of Lake
Louise, about two miles distant from the station at Laggan. from which there is a
good carriage drive and an excellent base for tourists and explorers desiring to see
the lakes and the adjacent scenery at their leisure.
The rates ire $3.o0 per day and upward.
MOUNT STEPHEN HOUSE—FIELD, B.C.,
is a magnificent mountain hotel, several times enlarged, fifty miles west of Banff in
Kicking Horse Canon, at the base of Mount Stephen, the chief peak of the Rockies,
towering 8,000 feet above. This is a favorite place for tourists, mountain climbers and
artists, and sport is plentiful. Emerald Lake, one of the most picturesque mountain
waters, being within eitsy distance. The newly-discovered Yoho Valley is reached
from Field.
Bates, $3.00 per day and upward, with special arrangements for parties making
prolonged visits.
EMERALD LAKE CHALET-NEAR FIELD, B.C.,
(Open from June to October)
is a Swiss Chalet Hotel, situated on the margin of Emerald Lake, near Field, and
affords splendid accommodation for those wishing to remain at the Lake or who
intend visiting the famous Yoho Valley, to which excellent trails lead from this
point.
Rates, $3.00 per day and upward.   Special rates to those making prolonged visits.
GLACIER HOUSE-GLACIER, B.C.,
is situated in the heart of the Selkirks, within forty-five minutes' walk of the Great
Glacier, which covers an area of about thirty-eight square miles.
The hotel, which has recently been enlarged several times to accommodate the
ever-increasing travel, is in a beautiful amphitheatre surrounded by lofty mountains,
of which Sir Donald rising 8.000 feet above the railway is the most prominent. The
dense forests all about are filled with the music of restless brooks, Which will
irresistibly attract the trout fisherman, and the hunter for large game can have his
choice of " big horn, mountain goat, grizzly and mountain bear. The main point
of interest, however, is the Great Glacier. One may safely climb upon its wrinkled
surface or penetrate its water-worn caves.
Rates. $3.50 per day and upward, with special arrangements for parties making
prolonged visits.
HOTEL REVELSTOKE—REVELSTOKE, B.C.,
at the portal of the West Kootenay gold fields and the Arrow Lakes, situated between
the Selkirk and Gold Ranges, is complete in all details.
Rates, $3.00 per day and upward.
HOTEL SICAMOUS—SICAMOUS, B.C.,
a fine structure, built on the shores of the Shuswap Lakes, where the Okanagan
branch of the Canadian Pacific Railway leads south to the- Okanagan Valley and the
contiguous mining country.   The hotel has all modern appointments and conveniences.
Rates, $3.50 per day and upward, with reductions to those making prolonged visits.
HOTEL VANCOUVER—VANCOUVER, B.C.,
is at the Pacific Coast terminus of the Railway. This magnificent hotel, lately much
enlarged, is designed to accommodate the large commercial business of the place, as
well as the great number of tourists who always find it profitable and interesting to
make here a stop of a day or two. It is situated near the centre of the city, and from
it there is a glorious outlook in every direction. Its accommodations and service are
perfect in every detail, and excel those of the best hotels in Eastern Canada or the
United States.
Rates, $3.00 per day and upward, with special terms for those making prolonged visits
The new Empress Hotel at Victoria, now in course of construction, and which
will be one of the grandest on the Continent, will be opened for guests during the
coming Summer.
Enquiries as to accommodation, rates, etc., at any of the Canadian Pacific Hotels
will be promptly answered by addressing managers of the different hotels, or
communicating direct with
The Manager-in-Chief of C.P.R. Hotels, MONTREAL. AGENCIES
Adelaide... South Aus.. Australasian United Steam Nav. Co. [Ltd.] 	
Antwerp Belgium. .H. Debenham, Agent 33 Quai Jordaens
Auckland N.Z.. Union S.$. Co. of New Zealand [Ltd.]	
Baltimore Md. . A. W. Robson, Passr. and Ticket Agent 127E Baltimore St..
Bellingham Wash. . W. H. Gordon, Passenger Agent 1225 Dock St.
Berlin Germany. . International Sleeping Car Co 71 Unter den Linden
Bombay India. . Ewart Latham & Co.   Thos. Cook and Son 13 Esplanade Rd.
n~.«... M.M 5 F. R. Perry, Dist. Passr. Agent 362 Washington St.
B0Sto" MASS-1 G. A. Titeomb, City Passr. Agent       ■
Brisbane Qd. . The British India and Queensland Agency Co. [Ltd.l
Bristol ENG..F. W. Forster, Agent 18 St. Augustine's Parade
b„.«..i.        BTTfcTrmJ International Sleeping Car Co Nord Station
Bpusse,s BELGIDM i Thos. Cook & Son. r.^T. .-. 41 Rue de la Madeleine
Buffalo N.Y..R. A. Burford. City Passenger Agent 233 Main St.
-.,„.„ Tt^taJ Thos. Cook & Son 9 Old Court House St.
Ca,cutta India} Ginanders, Arbuthnot & Co	
Canton China. . Jardine, Matheson & Co	
Chicago III..A. 0. Shaw, Gen. Agent, Passr. Dept 232South Clark St.
Clnelnattl OHIO..R. L. Thompson, G.A., P. D Sinton Hotel Block, 15e Fourth St.
^.i____ n^-om^t-vS International Sleeping Car Co Central Station
Coloone Germany} Thos Cook&Son IDomhof
Celombo Ceylon. . Bois Brothers &Co., Thos. Cook & Son	
Detroit MiOH.. A. E. Edmonds, City Passr. Agent 7 Fort Street W.
Duluth MOTN..M. Adson, Gen. Passr. Agt., D.S.S. &A. By Manhattan Bldg.
Frankfort...   Germany. . International Sleeping Car Co 1 Kaiserstrasse
Glasgow Scotland. . Thomas Russell, Agent 67 St. Vincent St. -
Halifax N.S..J. D. Chipman, City Passr. and Frt. Agent 107 Hollis St.
Hamburg Germany.. Thos. Cook& Son, Tourist Agents.... 39 Alsterdamm
Hamilton Ont. . W. J. Grant, Commercial Agent Cor. King and James Sts.
Hobart Tasmania..Union S.S. Co. of New Zealand [Ltd.]	
Hong Kong D. W. Craddock, General Traffic Agent. China, etc..
Honolulu H.L.Theo. H. Davies & Co. [Ltd.]	
Kobe Japan.. J. Rankin, Agent 14a Maye-Machi
Liverpool Enq. . J. J. Gilbertson, Agent 24 James St.
I Allan Cameron, Gen. Traffic Agt. (    «> cc rn,o~;»,~ n^^,» a w „*.*
London Eng. ] F. W. Flanagan, Gen. Passr. Ait. )   Jf"j§ g^Sfegfam St^B C^
( H. D. Amiable, Gen. Freight Agt. (   b7"b8 Kmg w*«iam »*• &-l>-
London ONT..W. Fulton, City Passr. Agt. 161 Dundas St.
Los Angeles Oal. . F. A. Valentine, Travelling Passr. Agent Room 349, Wilcox Bldg.
u..j.i.j aDATM 5 International Sleeping Car Co 18 Calle de Alcala [EquitableBldg.] .
■,a"r,d SPAIN I Thos. Cook&Son 5CarreradeS. Geronimo
Melbourne Aus.. Union S.S. Co. of Hew Zealand [Ltd.]	
Minneapolis Minn.. W. R. Callaway. General Passr. Agent, Soo Line	
u„_<-,...i or™ 5 E. J. Hebert,   Gen. Agt. Passr. Dept Windsor St. Station
Montreal <jue } A E jjaiande) City paggr. Agent 129 St.. James St.
Moscow Russia. . International Sleeping Car Co Hotel Metrqpole J
m..~ v«.i, w v i E. V. Skinner. Assistant Traffic Manager 458 Broadway
New Yoric w*} International Sleeping Oar Co 281 Fifth Avenue
Niagara Falls N. Y.. D. Isaacs Prospect House
.,,„„. -ei—.„,™ 5 International Sleeping Car Co. Avenue-Massena
M,ce FRANCE} Thog CookA Son 16 Avenue Massena
Ottawa Ont. . George Duncan, City Passr. Agent 42 Sparks St.
( International Sleeping Car Co 3 Place d'Opera
Paris France < Hernu, Peron &Co, [Ltd.l Ticket Agents 61 Boulevard Haussman
( Thos. Oook& Son 1 Plaood'Opera
Philadelphia Pa. . F. W. Huntington, Gen. Agent, Passr. Dept 629-631 Chestnut St. -
Portland Me. . H. A. Snow, Ticket Agt,, Main Central Rd v Union Depot
Portland Ore. . F. R. Johnson, Freight and Passr. Agent 142 Third St.
Quebec Que.. Jules Hone, City Passr. Agent 30 St. John St., cor. Palace Hill
b._. t^at-d-5 International Sleeping Car Co Place San Silvestro
Rome Italy} rpj^ Oook&Son 54 Piazza Esedra di Termini
Sault Ste. Marie. .MiOH.. W. J. Atchison, City Passr.Agt.; W. C. Sutherland, Depot Ticket Agent
St. John N.B..W. B. Howard, District Passr. Agent 8 King St.
St. Paul MINN..L. M. Harmsen, City Ticket Agent, Soo Line 879 Robert St.
St. Petersburg Rus.. International Sleeping Car Co 5 Perspective Newsky
San Francisco.... CAL...E. E. Penn, C.P.A.: J. H. Griffin, D.F.A. 77 Ellis St , James Flood Bldg.
Seattle Wash.. A. B. Calder, G.A.P.D Mutual Life Bldg., 609 First Avenue
Shanghai China. . A. R. Owen	
Suva Fhi. . Union S.S. Co. of New Zealand [Ltd.]	
Sydney Aus..Union S.S. Co. of New Zealand [Ltd.]	
Tacoma Wash. .. J. O'Grady Pas«r. Agent 1113 Pacific Avenue
Toronto Ont. . C. B. Foster, Dist. Passr. Agent 71 Yonge St., cor. King
Vancouver B.C.. E. J. Coyle, Asst. Gen. Passr. Agent:  W. R. Thomson, Ticket Agent
Victoria B.C.. Geo.' L. Courtney, Dist. Freight and Passr. Agent. .58 Government St. -
Warsaw: Russia.. International Sleeping Oar Co Hotel Bristol
Washington D.C.. Wm. Linson, C.F. & P.A.. .Bond Bldg., 14th St. and New York Avenue
Winnipeg Man. . A. C. Smith, OityTicket Agt Cor. Main St. and Portage Avenue
Yokohama Japan..Wm. T. Payne, General Traffic Agent for Japan, eto  14 Bund   Adela
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