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Starting a farm in the Bow River Valley, Southern Alberta, Canada Canadian Pacific Railway Company Limited 1909

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SKI INTRODUCTION.
To the Landless Man.
The development-of the Canadian Pacific Railway Three
Million Acre Irrigation Block/east of Calgary, cannot be
measured by any known standard, for the simple reason, that
this huge colonization enterprise stands absolutely alone on
the Continent of America.
As a rule, when a corporation has sold a new settler a
farm, its interest in the transaction immediately ceases except in so far as deferred payments are concerned. The
Canadian Pacific Railway Company, being essentially neither
a "water selling" nor a "land selling" concern, is, however,
in an entirely different position. With the sale of the land,
the company's real interest in the farm practically only commences. This Company sells its lands at a low figure and
supplies water for irrigation at bare cost, It is not, by any
means, actuated by philanthropic motives in so doing. The
Company has undertaken the colonization and development
of the Three Million Acre Irrigation Block almost solely
with a view to creating the greatest possible amount of railway traffic on this area, which, it is a well known fact, is
invariably the result of colonization on irrigated and part
irrigated   land.
The Company's handbook, describing the Irrigation Block,
refers to it, on the front page, as follows:—
"The future home of the most closely settled and
prosperous mixed farming, stock raising and dairying
community in Western Canada/'
When these conditions are actually brought about, the
Company's ambition will be fulfilled,. The mere sale of the
land is only a means to the end—the successful settler is the
end the Company is striving to attain. Under the circumstances, it will be clear that " success makers" is the class
of men the Company seeks to interest The chronic failure
may go elsewhere.
The main object of this booklet is to present facts and
figures bearing on " Starting a Farm," which, it is hoped,
may be the means of so convincing those whose capital is
limited in dollars and cents, but plentiful in those qualities
(after all vastly more important), that characterise the successful home maker, that they ,may safely embark upon the
task of carving out a home for themselves in the fertile Bow
River Valley, Perchance, the effect of this booklet may also
be, that some of those who shrink from the toil of rural life
and the crudeness of pioneer existence, may decide that other
vocations are more alluring. In either case, the real mission
of this pamphlet is fulfilled.
The Company is earnestly anxious that every person who
acquires land in the Irrigation Block should do so fully
realizing the conditions prevailing there. Such being the
case, every care has been taken to embody in this booklet
nothing but verified statements, in order that the reader may
have intelligent information before him upon which to form
a decision as to whether or not it will be to his interest to
start farming in the Bow River Valley.
While our aim is to present information herein of value
to all classes, this booklet will perhaps be more carefully
read by those whose lives have been cast in cities and towns
and whose experience in farming is limited. A word specially
directed to the city dweller will not, therefore, be out of
place.
This is an age of invention, industrialism and commercialism. The cities and manufacturing centres have proved
veritable magnets, constantly drawing young men away from
the farm. Invention is continually supplying machinery by
means of which one man is able to do the work of many.
Multitudes are thus displaced from time to time, and would
be without employment were it not for the necessity of
greatly increasing production to meet increasing demands.
The output of American factories in recent years far exceeded that of any previous period.
Labor has thus been kept employed, but in many cases
under conditions hardly less than distressing. In the evolution of a business it comes to pass that space none too
liberally planned originally for the accommodation of one
hundred men, is made to answer for two hundred. Life under
such circumstances becomes more trying, the strain more
intense,  and  nervous  collapse  more frequent.
Capital and labor are arrayed against each other more
bitterly than ever. Strikes, with all their attendant evils, are
becoming more frequent, until it seems as though even the
privilege of working is frequently denied to honest manhood.
Rents, meats, foodstuffs, clothing, and, in fact, everything
entering into the cost of living, is advancing in price. Salary
and wages, however, remain stationary, so that in the rushing,
struggling, stifling life of the city, the average employee
finds it increasingly hard to " make ends meet," and to accumulate seems impossible. The work of tradesman and
clerk, mechanic and laborer, is subject to such extreme organization that the maximum wage which the ordinary man
can earn, even by the exercise of the greatest fidelity and
industry, is exceedingly limited. Increases in earnings are,
therefore, small and more than offset by increases in expenditures. Small savings, made by dint of grinding economy.
are quickly dissipated by an unlooked-for illness, loss of
position, accident, or some other misfortune. Such is the
condition of thousands upon thousands in the great  cities.
The Contrast.
In rural life, the home is not merely a few square feet
hedged in by a brick wall. The whole wide country-side, the
barns, the fields, the woods, the orchards, the animals, wild
and domesticated, the outlook over hill and valley—these all
constitute the farmer's home. Country life, has other advantages over the city. The comfortable simplicity, the air,
the sunlight of the open country, all tend towards the finest
development of the human frame. It is true, that on the
farm there are disadvantages, but at the worst, these cannot
be severe so long as the sun shines and the wind blows. Here
the child may be born right, and, nourished by pure food
and air, raised right.
Country life affords the opportunity for healthy family
relations.. Parents and children share the common labors
from the latters' babyhood, and work together for the advancement of mutual interests and ambitions. In such a
family, there is nothing to conceal. Life takes on dignity
instead of affectation, honesty instead of sham, simplicity,
pure affection and fidelity.
One of the greatest authorities on rural life, Professor
L. H. Bailey, says the following about the farm:—
" I do not believe that people are to become wealthy on the
farm, as a few do in manufacturing. I should not hold out
that hope to men. There are certain men, here and there,
who have great executive ability and see strategetic points and
take advantage of them, and who make a success of farming
the same as they would of making shoes, or harness, or
buttons, or anything else. But as a general thing the farmer
should be taught that the farm is not the place to become
wealthy. I do not believe it is. Certainly I should not go
on a farm with that idea in view. If I wanted a healthy,
happy life; if I wanted an independent and comfortable living, I do not know where I could better find it than on the
farm. For those very things which appeal to an educated
taste are the things which the farmer does not have to buy—
they are the things which he has already."
When it is considered that there is little or no direct
outgo for rent, and that nearly three-fourths of the food is
produced at home, it will be found that the farmer's income
is much greater than is usually estimated in money. In
other words, $500.00 income on a farm, under the conditions
which prevail, provides for a more comfortable living than
$2,000.00 in the city.
* Back to the Farm "
is the message which is ringing through the large cities of
the world, and is the call destined to be the means of transforming thousands of lives from conditions hardly better
than servitude into the fullness of independent manhood.
The last generation developed our great industries and
most of the enormous fortunes gained in financial and commercial pursuits. In the meanwhile, agriculture made strides
of a kind. But the urban population increased in greater
ratio than the rural population, until the world had unemployed problems, housing problems, and many others, indicating unhealthy economic conditions.
Now the city man joins the farmer in his " Back to the
Land " call. Our social system is out of balance. The congestion of cities must be relieved and the surplus population
diverted to the farm.
Many men have no hope of ever earning more than $1,500
a year; the limit of a much larger number is $1,200; a vastly
greater number still will never command more than $1,000;
while those whose maximum possibility is $800 are countless.
It is only a very small percentage in any of these classes
who are able to save any appreciable sum of money. Every
one of them who is able-bodied and industrious, could have
a much larger cash balance at the end of each year if he were
cultivating the land.
Rural life is becoming more and more convenient and
attractive, and, what is quite as important, more profitable,
and there can be no doubt that a reaction has set in and that
the tendency in the future will be towards the healthier and
more independent country life. "God made the country and
man made the city." It is the natural destiny of humanity
gradually to drift back to the soil and to those surroundings
most favorable for the creation of happy, prosperous homes.
To all such who desire to increase their net income; to
acquire a property and to be independent; to work for themselves rather than for another; to have for themselves the
total sum of their own labor instead of dividing it with an
employer; to live a larger and fuller and freer and healthier
life than that which is made up of days spent in the confinement of office or shop, and nights in the sunless chamber of
a city flat; to secure a home where children can have an
abundance of " out-of-doors," grass, flowers, trees and sunshine; where they can run and romp and play and make all
the noise they wish and be well, we extend an invitation to
investigate the special advantages offered in the Canadian
Pacific Railway Irrigation Block.
To the Practical Farmer.
We also have a few words to address to the practical
farmer. He has probably by this time carefully read the
general literature issued by the Company, and has made up
his mind as to whether Southern Alberta appeals to him or
not.   Whether or not, there is a business side to the question.
Are You the Owner of a Farm Clear of Incumbrances?  If
so, it is probably worth up to $100.00 an acre, perhaps more.
We would submit for your consideration, whether it would
not be good business on your part to dispose of this property
and with the proceeds therefrom purchase a farm within the
Canadian Pacific Railway Irrigation Block, from two to four
times larger than the area you now own. The chances are,
that the land thus purchased would give you, acre for acre,
net returns amounting to twice as much as your old farm
would, and where you can buy four acres with the amount
you now have invested in one acre, a very simple calculation
will demonstrate that you can practically increase your net
annual income eightfold by making the change.
You have probably old .friends and relatives living all
around you now, and your present conditions of life are quite
satisfactory, yet an increase of several  hundred per cent,  in
L
4-xy. ^/f3 your annual income is an attractive proposition. To gain
this,,, you can afford to forego some of the pleasures that now
are yours.
Or, perhaps, your family is growing up, and the problem
presents itself as to how they are to be provided for. Are
the boys to be sent to the city to swell the army of underpaid and underfed humanity? By securing more land, you
can start your boys in life, with chances of success equal to
what you had yourself. By sub-dividing your old farm, you
will probably doom them all to disappointment and poverty.
Are You the Owner of a Mortgaged Farm?    If so, the
remarks made above apply equally in your case. Furthermore, you are probably tired of paying so large a portion of
your net earnings out in interest. You may be able to effect
a sale of your farm and realize considerable capital, and in
addition, you have your equipment. The first payment you
will require to make upon a good sized farm purchased from
the Canadian Pacific Railway on a basis of one-tenth cash
and the balance in nine equal, annual instalments, will probably be a good deal less than you are now paying out annually in interest to a mortgage company.
Are You a Renter? If so, you are thrice welcome. A
large experience in western colonization has taught us that
the ex-renter makes, perhaps, all things considered, the most
successful colonist. You no doubt started on a rented farm
with very limited capital. If your capital had been ample,
you would never have been a renter. Since then, your landlord has taken most of the profits, and you have been face
to face not alone with paying rent and keeping your family,
but also with augmenting your slender capital as you went
along. You have probably by this time a considerable farm
equipment, some grain and live stock, and perhaps a little
balance in your bank. Fortunately, you are not tied up with
property interests, and you are, therefore, a free man, to go
or stay, just as you please. Of course, your lease is an
obstacle at present, but that will expire sooner or later. In
the meanwhile, like a wise man, you are looking around with
a view to bettering your condition. If your capital is very
limited, we can sell you land on the crop payment plan, provided that you have a working outfit and are prepared to go
into occupation of your farm within a reasonable time. On
the back page of this booklet will be found complete details
as to the manner in which this company disposes of its lands
on the crop payment plan. You will find that within a few
years your farm in the Canadian Pacific Railway Irrigation
Block will have paid for itself, and instead of paying half of
your profits out in rent every year, as you are now doing,
you will be an independent land owner in comfortable circumstances.
Making the Start.
This booklet will no doubt be largely read by farmers in
Eastern Canada and in the Eastern and Central States, and
it is, therefore, well to point out that the cost of starting a
farm on the plains of Southern Alberta and getting it to the
productive point is much less than it would be elsewhere.
There are no trees to cut down, no stumps to pull, or under
brush to clear; there is not in Southern Alberta any grease
wood or sage brush or other rank weeds to destroy; there
are no stones to pick. The prairie, usually covered with a
carpet of luxuriant grasses, is ready for the plow, harrow
and seeder, and, if the breaking is carefully done and performed in proper season, as good a grain crop can generally
be obtained the first year as at any future period.
Again, the climatic conditions of Southern Alberta are
such that no expensive stables or barns are required for the
accommodation of the live stock. The winter is dry and
bracing, and it has been clearly demonstrated by actual experiment here that stock wintered out in tight sheds do
better than those housed in closed stables. This is an important source  of economy.
A few words on the subject of the farmer's dwelling
would be appropriate here. Those who have the capital
available and can afford to do so, generally erect comfortable
houses on their holdings. Many Alberta farms boast of commodious mansions with every modern convenience and provided with every luxury that the most exacting could de-
/mand. These are often built by people in easy circumstances
who have been accustomed to similar surroundings where
they came from and had the means to provide them in their
new homes, but in most cases they are owned by farmers
and ranchers who have acquired a competency in Alberta,
and who, in many cases, started with little or no capital.
Thousands of colonists have, however, lived with a certain
amount of comfort in small shacks built by themselves, until
such time as they had the means available to provide adequate quarters. Lumber is fairly cheap, and if the means
are limited, it is surprising how comfortable a family can
make itself with an expenditure of less than $100.00 on lumber and a firm determination to make the best of things.
Home Making By Contract.
The Company, realizing that it will be of considerable
advantage to many of its clients to be able to get certain
preparatory work performed economically and expeditiously,
on land purchased by them prior to going into occupation
thereon, organized a development department as a branch
of the Company's service, which will take care of any such
work required by purchasers of land within the Irrigation
Block. This department is in the hands of men thoroughly
well qualified to obtain the best services for clients at the
minimum cost.
All work will be done under contract with responsible
parties. These contracts will at all times be available for
inspection by parties interested at the Company's offices. It
goes without saying that the Company, by reason of being
in a position to contract annually for thousands of acres of
breaking, discing, harrowing, seeding, etc., is able to demand
from contractors the very best class of work at the lowest
prices going.
In order to convey some idea of the cost of farm development work, we might state here that the average contract
prices have been as follows:—
Breaking, 3 inches deep     $3.00 per acre
Breaking, 5 inches deep  $4.00 per acre
Harrowing, each operation    25c. to 35c. per acre
Discing, 3 times $1.50 per acre /
Seeding (not including seed)   50c. per acre
Seed, per bushel    Market Prices
Fencing, per mile, 3 wires       $110 to $125
Fencing, per mile, 4 wires     $120 to $140
Hauling seed grain from nearest station to land,
per mile,, per bushel    ^c.
Treating grain  with  bluestone  or  formaline,  3c.  per  bushel
but not less than $2.
Clients wishing to have work performed will be able to
figure out very closely the probable cost. It is the invariable
rule of the Company that funds must be available before any
development contracts will be initiated. It is also a rule
that no development of areas smaller than forty acres or the
erection of less than one mile of fencing will be undertaken.
It is the intention of the Company that the personal services of its development staff should be given gratis to
purchasers of land within the Irrigation Block. No charge
will, therefore, be made for any time devoted by its employees to supervising and inspecting such work. The
Company, however, finds it necessary to charge a small
amount to cover actual cash expenses in the way of livery,
hotel bills, and other travelling expenses incurred by its employees in behalf of clients. The amount so charged is based
upon the average travelling expense outlay in connection
with such work during the present season, and has been fixed
at 5 per cent, of the total contract price.
In undertaking work of the kind referred to, the Company
is actuated solely by a desire to hasten the agricultural development of the lands embraced within the Irrigation Block,
and to assist new-comers to get upon a profitable footing as
soon as possible after going into actual occupation. It is
realized that a great many land purchasers are unable to
move on to their farms at once, and would prefer to have
the preliminary work done by contract, so as not to lose any
time, and to enable them to get a crop growing and a cash
revenue from the farm shortly after going into occupation
in time to take charge of the  harvesting.
The chief object of the Company's development policy is
to encourage purchasers to make their farms immediately
productive. It, therefore, agrees to initiate farming operations. It does not, however, undertake the further management of such lands. Once the farm has been fenced and the
land has been prepared for crop and seeded, the Company's
task ends. The harvesting and marketing of the crop must
be attended to by the owner or his representative. The
Comoany will not assume this responsibility.
8
The Company does not encourage purchasers of lands to
break the same after the end of July. The most favorable
time for breaking is generally between the middle of May
and the first week of July, when the prairie grasses are at
their best. Winter wheat should be sown as far as possible
during the last two weeks of July; spring wheat as early as
possible after the season opens; oats prior-to the first oi"
May; and barley during the first two weeks in May.
The Development Department stands for the best farming
practice only. The Company's ambition is, that any work
undertaken for absentee land owners should bring as good,
or even better, results than if such work were performed by
them personally. Such being the case, it positively refuses
to undertake any farm development work too far out of
season to give satisfaction to its clients. However anxious
the Company is to serve its purchasers and to promote the
most rapid development in the Irrigation Block, it respectfully declines to become a party to any expenditure on the
part of its clients that is almost certain to end in disappointment.
A form is provided which must be used by owners of land
desiring the Company to undertake development in their
behalf. This form, duly signed and .accompanied by the proper remittance, must be forwarded to the Company as early
in, the season as possible. Should there be a balance left
after the work ordered has been completed, owing to our
having been able to shade the contract prices and effect a
saving in any other direction, it will be promptly returned.
Home Making in Instalments.
The married man who cuts adrift from his old home,
gathers together his family and effects and settles on the
Irrigation Block to carve out a home for himself, is naturally
more or less dependent on his capital and the production of
his farm to succeed in this enterprise. The bachelor settler
with limited capital, is, however, able to supplement his
finances by leaving his holding during the winter time and
working out in the mines or lumber woods located in the
Rocky Mountain  Region  west  of Calgary.
During the summer time, there will be for years to come,
a considerable amount of construction work going on within
the Irrigation Block, where good wages will be paid to competent men. This opportunity of employment is, of course,
equally open to married and single men. The summer season
is not, however, a good time for the settler to be absent from
his holding, unless he is acting under compulsion, and we
would not advise men with families to locate on the land
unless they are largely independent of outside work to make
a living, until such time as they have a crop to realize on.
The bachelor, however, enjoys the advantage of coming and
going more or less as he pleases, and can proceed with the
development of his land as fast or as slowly as his means
will permit him.    There is, of course, always a considerable amount of work available locally, which can be taken advantage of by the family man. Thousands of acres are being
broken, harrowed and seeded every season by contract and
at remunerative prices.
Area of Land Required.
Generally speaking, old settled districts are devoted to
the small farm, and the older the settlement, the smaller the
farm. Western America has during the past been the home
of the large farm. The introduction of irrigation and what
follows in its train, namely, specialized and intensified farming, has had a tendency to reduce the size of holdings very
materially. It is expected that in the Irrigation Block, east
of Calgary, the farms will average less than 160 acres each,
and that the production per acre will be so great that such
an area will yield a comfortable living to a family.
It is a great mistake for any person to acquire more land
than his available capital will enable him to properly develop.
Eighty acres of irrigated land will yield as much, or more,
than twice that area of non-irrigated land in districts where
farming is carried on under natural rainfall. The higher
development of the dairy and sugar beet industries will
further reduce the area necessary to sustain the farmer and
his family. Apart from this, if there is any lesson in farm
economics that has been consistently and clearly proven, it is
the superiority, in point of production, of the small, but
highly developed, farm over the cruder methods of the large
farm.
Here again lies an essential difference between the Canadian Pacific Railway Company and the average land selling
concern. This company is vastly more interested in a successful farmer on a small area than in a speculative buyer
on a large scale. The latter is not wanted. The Company's
experts will be prepared to discuss the subject with any prospective settler and will not advise him, under any circumstances, to buy more land than he can successfully handle
with the capital he has available. His success is the Company's success and vice versa.
Home Making Under Irrigation.
If there is one thing above any other that places the
Canadian Pacific Railway Irrigation Block in a class by itself,
it is, that it is essentially a home-making enterprise. One
has only to travel through the highly developed irrigated
areas of Western America, and compare them with the non-
irrigated areas in the Dakotas, and wherever farming under
natural rainfall conditions is practised, to be struck with the
conviction that home-making where irrigation is available is
so quickly and efficiently accomplished that the irrigated farm
generally  looks  in  point of  development  ten  years further
10
advanced  than  the  non-irrigated  farm,  which  was,  perhaps,
started at the same time.
Trees, with an abundant supply of water, grow like weeds.
The banks of canals and ditches in a few years will be
covered with a dense growth of willows, which completely
changes the whole character of the landscape. Small fruits,
and hardier standard fruits of all sorts, strawberries and
garden truck, are produced without the slightest difficulty.
Periodical reverses, owing to dry seasons, encountered from
time to time, almost everywhere on the American continent,
and which put a stop to all expense of beautifying a home
and making it more comfortable, are unknown in the irrigated
sections. There are many apparent reasons why home-
making under irrigation is so much easier, and there are
evidently a great many reasons that do not appear on the
surface. The sum and substance is, however, that any irrigated community four or five years old, generally presents
the appearance of an old settlement, while colonies started
on non-irrigated lands often show little evidence of settled
conditions for two or three times that period.
The Capital Required.
After the foregoing general remarks, we will now endeavor to approach the real subject of this booklet, which is,
to attempt to convey an idea of the amount pi capital required to start a farm in the Canadian Pacific Irrigation
Block.    It is no easy task.   Arbitrary amounts will not apply.
The amount of capital required is a very elastic quantity
indeed. In no two cases almost will the requirements be
exactly the same. So many items affect the matter, that
when everything is said and done, the whole question must
be answered with generalities rather than with definite and
decisive information. In the first place, the size of the family
has an important bearing on the subject. Secondly, whether
or not the would-be colonist has had previous experience in
farming. Whether he has been used to manual labor of any
sort. Again, so much more depends upon the man than upon
the capital. We can point to men who came to Southern
Alberta years ago with only a few dollars, and who are now
worth upwards of $100,000.00. On the other hand, we can
cite any number of cases of men who came to the country
with almost an unlimited capital, and who have succeeded in
losing everything through bad business methods, irregular
habits, and lack of energy.
Under the circumstances, and desiring to present matters
exactly as new settlers in the Irrigation Block have actually
found the conditions entering into their early efforts to make
homes for themselves here, the Company has invited a number of them to embody their experiences in letters. We have
urged these people to deal with actual facts only, and itemize
as far as possible the expenditure they have thought fit to
make.
11
A careful reading of these letters will substantiate the
statement previously made, that the question of the capital
required to start a farm in Southern Alberta is not one that
can be answered with exact figures. We do not know that
we can submit any better advice than that contained in these
letters from settlers giving their actual experiences in the
matter, and which we commend to the most careful attention
of those who contemplate settling in the Irrigation Block.
Of course, these statements must be read and considered
with judgment, and sight must not be lost of the fact, that
there is scarcely any limit to the amount of capital that can
be expended in starting a farm. On the other hand, it will
be seen that a few hundred dollars will oftimes suffice where
the settler supplements his capital with hard work, determination and good sense.
In conclusion, we can only say that this company will,
upon application, be glad to take the matter up by way of
correspondence with any person interested. If we receive
a statement of the condition of the homeseeker, the size of
his family, the experience he has had, if any, in actual farming, whether he has been used to manual labor, and what
amount of capital he has at his disposal, we will undertake
to give careful consideration to his case and will not hesitate
to tell him if we consider his interests would be better served
by not starting a farm for the time being, but by waiting
until such time as he is able to augment bis capital.
All letters should be addressed to
CANADIAN PACIFIC RAILWAY,
COLONIZATION DEPARTMENT,
CALGARY, ALTA.
Langdon, Alta., Oct. 25, 1908.
The Canadian Pacific Irrigation Colonization Co.,
Calgary, Alta.
Gentlemen,—
Two Hundred and Fifty Dollars does not seem a very
heavy capital on which to start large farming operations, and
yet, that is the amount of cash I had when I landed at Langdon seven years ago, and began my farming venture.
I tell you it took lots of faith, but that I had in abundance,
and coupled with good health, as it was, even the hard luck
stories of the old ranchers failed to check my movements.
I have lived to see all the prophesies come to naught, and
have never witnessed that exodus which they so stoutly
claimed would depopulate this country, and leave it for ever
the unchallenged domain of the rancher.
I came from Cambridge, England, and had a vague idea
of what it meant to farm as it is done here. It makes me
smile now as I look back and see how little I actually did
know about farming.
12
The reason so few come from England is because they
lack either faith or backbone, and no one takes the trouble
to educate them. I think of the hundreds of thousands in
the cities, living in crowded quarters, and with no prospect
of ever being able to better their condition, when here in
this great country, there still remains fertile land, only waiting for a husbandman to till it to make it yield golden
harvests.
But to give some idea of my own operations, I purchased
the E.y2, Sec. 23-23-28 and the N.^ 14-23-28. Land does
not look good to me to own unless a good portion is broken
and in crops, so I have broken and am cropping 500 acres,
and will break more next spring. For the past seven years,
I have never seen a season when the crop did not pay over
$10.00 per acre, and, mind you, never a failure.
My crop this year consists of 350 acres of oats, which
turned me 60 bushels to the acre. They were very heavy,
too, and weighed 44 lbs. to the struck bushel. I expect to
crop 500 acres next year.
My experience is that it pays to summer-fallow, as it
gives you not only time to plow your land, but also keeps
it free from  weeds.
I have 30 head of horses, 30 cattle, and all sorts of implements, a threshing outfit, and with another year like this,
and we will get it, I can swing clear of debt. Not too bad
for a green Englishman, who started on a capital of $250.00,
is it?
To conclude, will say that I shall be pleased to answer
any questions I may be posted on, and can say as for myself,
the climate and country suit me perfectly.
(Sgd.)  P. HARRADENCE.
Strathmore, Alta., Oct. 20, 1908.
The Canadian' Pacific Railway Co., Sales Department,
Calgary, Alta.
Dear Sirs,—
Your letter of the 11th inst. to hand, and contents carefully npted, with reference to parties wishing to settle on
lands in the Irrigation Block and becoming practical
farmers, beginning in a small way, yet sufficiently large to
do considerable work.
It would first be necessary for the settler to erect a house
and barn, and if he is able to help at carpenter work, he
could get through with it for about $250.00, figuring on a
house 18 x 24, which is ordinarily large enough for a beginner. His barn could be put up with posts in the ground
covered with hay or straw. I would advise starting with as
little money put into buildings as possible, until he harvests
his first crop, which ordinarily puts him well on his feet.
13
L Three head of horses .... f. $400.00
Wagon  with  double  box .. 85.00
Disc Harrow  40.00
Plow  I    t  18.00
Harness for three horses  25.00
Cow fresh with calf  35.00
Fencing for 50 acres, 3 wires and  willow posts.... 90.00
Seed wheat $50.00, oats $50, barley $60, for 50 acres,
whichever you decide to sow.
Furniture,   stove, kitchen   utensils,   according   to   his
means.    Less money will buy them and do well
for a time   180.00
Horse feed  75.00
Living expenses about $15.00 per month
Two dozen chickens  12.00
This is practically all the expense with the exception of
the small cost of hiring a drill, which will cost about $1.00
per acre. The total would therefore be, including house,
$1,270, allowing for the more expensive seed.
My own expense was greater, as I began in a larger way,
but could have done with much less and lived with just as
much  comfort.
Hoping this will give you some idea as to cost,* I beg to
remain,
Yours truly,
O.  F.  BREMER.
Formerly of Three Oaks, Mich.
The  C;
Langdon, Alta., Oct. 4th, 1908.
The Canadian Pacific Irrigation Col. Co.,
Calgary, Alta.
Dear Sirs,—
Replying to your letter of Sept. 23rd, asking for information regarding the capital necessary to start a farm in the
Irrigation Block, will say:
From the limited but practical experience I have had so
far, the necessary capital should be invested as follows:—
Dwelling house (not including labor)   $125.00
This amount will build a small three-room house
which can be made comfortable for the first two
years.
Barn and small grain bin       50.00
Fencing, 3 wires, posts 33 ft. apart, 21c. per rod, 700
rods  (not including labor), say      150.00
Tools, carpenter and garden         15.00
Implements:
Breaking plow  (walking)       25.00
Disc  (4 horse)       45.00
Wagon  ,....      95.00
14
Other implements can   be rented   or  bought on
yearly payments.
Teams, 4 medium-sized horses  600.00
Harness,  two   sets  50.00
Cattle, one good  cow         35.00
Hogs  30.00
Poultry >  12.00
Household furniture     60.00
Well, dug and cased    40.00
Feed for horses  50.00
Seed 80 acres .'  80.00
Total.  .$1462.00
The above amount, while limited, will enable a person to
make a successful start on 160 acres of land, or perhaps more
by hiring some breaking done.
However, one can make a fair start on a much smaller
capital provided he will put up with a few inconveniences
for the first few years. Would say $500.00 would start a
farm and put 50 acres into grain the first year. Only ambition and hard work will do this.
The living expenses for a family of four will average
$8.00 each per month. This must be helped out by a well
kept garden.
Trusting the above will be of use to you,
Yours very truly,
GAYLORD GIBSON.
P.S.—Should you desire detailed information, do not
hesitate to write me. My former home was in Sawyer,
Kansas.
Ilkey Farm, Strathmore, Sept. 30, 1908.
The Canadian Pacific Irrigation  Col.  Co.,
Calgary, Alta.
Dear Sirs,—
Re yours of the 26th.
I will first give you a statement of my own expenses.
Team of 2 horses, $327.00; harness, $35.00; wagon, $75.00;
plough, $23.00; disc, $49.00; fencing, $55.00; house, $17.00.
In case you may think this is a mistake, I may add that I
dug my house a depth of 6 feet and just built two feet above
it, roofed it with rubberoid, and lined with building paper.
Unless one is situated as I am on a slope, it would hardly
be safe on account of the rains, but mine is perfectly free
from damp, and for the winter is far more comfortable than
a cheap shack built on the top of the ground. I have kitchen
utensils, $50.00; pigs (3), $25.00; poultry, $25.00; stable and
barn for 15 cows, $35.00. This also is just simply a shell
covered all over with hay. Cellar and root'house—cost of
lumber for roof about $16.00.    Feed for teams just short of
15
$1.00 per day, and my own living expenses from $12.00 to
$15.00 per month. I put about four acres of potatoes in, the
seed for same amounting to 40 bushels at 65c. per bushel,
$26.00; hog pen, $12.00; fowl house, $12.00. Well, sir, I
started on this place with $806.00, after paying my first instalment, and that should be a fair sum for a bachelor to
start with. Now, I will give what, in my opinion, is really
necessary for a married man to have. It is not absolutely
necessary to have a seeder, as one can generally be borrowed
or the seed can be sown broadcast. Team of three horses,
from $450.00 to $500.00; plough, $23.00; disc, $55.00; house
suitable for a woman and small family, at least $400.00;
harness for three horses, $50.00; horse feed for five months,
$180.00; kitchen utensils and stove included, $70.00. I cannot say as to other furniture. One cow, $30.00; two pigs,
$30.00; poultry, say $20.00. A man should also be in a position to fence his quarter, and a fence to be cattle proof will
cost $140.00. He should have a mowing machine and rake,
also a hay rack, costing I suppose about $8.00 or $9.00. Then
there is a hay fork, $2.50; post hole auger, $2.00; shovel, etc.,
say for small tools, $10.00, not a liberal estimate, but I notice
it is thought nothing of borrowing from a neighbor, and
everyone seems pleased to help one another so far as lending
is concerned. I think this is all. In my opinion a man,
especially if he is married, wants no less capital than $1500.00.
I have tried to give you an honest opinion of what is required, and I will admit that in my own case I was very
much at sea as to the prices of things, especially as regards
horses and buildings.
Yours truly,
H. R. KILN.
Mr. Kiln was born in England, but after several years in
Australia and South Africa, he decided, upon coming to
Southern Alberta, that this would be his future home.
Langdon, Alta., Oct. 19th, 1908.
The Canadian   Pacific  Irrigation  Colonization  Co.,
Calgary, Alta.
Gentlemen,—
In reply to your letter asking for information about
amount of money a man should have to make a start, on a
farm here, I give the following estimate:
3   horses $400.00
Wagon, harness, plow, harrow, disc  200.00
2 pigs     10.00
2 cows $60.00, chickens $24.00      84.00
Hay and grain for feed     7Q.00
Seed grain     50.00
House (4 rooms) $400.00, barn $50.00.... 450.00
Fencing    100.00
Living   (provisions)  200.00
16
With his team, he can get plenty of breaking to do at
$3.00 per acre, and can easily earn from $300.00 to $400.00 in
this way, after putting in his own crop. This is about as
close an estimate as I can make, but if he is the right kind
of man he should not be afraid to come in with considerably
less money than that, as there are so many opportunities for
him to make money here. I did not make an estimate of
amount needed for household furniture, as that depends so
much on   the people  themselves.
Yours truly,
ALBERT SNIDER.
Formerly of Atwood, Colo.
Strathmore,  Oct.   1st,   1908.
e Canadian Pacific Irrigation Colonization Co.,
Calgary, Alta.
ntlemen,—
In reply to yours of Sept. 19th, would say that I have
found that the following is cash required to start a farm of
160 acres in this country, counting on coming about the
First of April and having a crop available about Oct. 1st.:
Tools    $   5.00
Implements     400.00
Harness       88.00
Team of 4 horses....  540.00
Cow     30.00
Poultry         10.00
House    .     300.00
Barn ...100.00
Fencing     120.00
Stove     30.00
Furniture  40.00
Kitchen utensils  15.00
Living expenses    100.00
Seed grain     50.00
Feed  115.0C
Making a total of $1,943, although the kind of house and
barn may be more or less according to the fancy of the
builder.
Yours very truly,
ROY P. McELHOES.
Formerly of Home,  Penn.
Gleichen, Sept. 14th, 1908.
The  C.P.I.C.  Co.,
Calgary,  Alta.
Gentlemen,—-
Your letter received and contents noted.    To commence
to operate a farm, say 160 acres, the following is necessary:—
One 3-horse  team    ' $500.00
Implements,   breaking  plow     50.00
One disc harrow   .'.:..... ...,,',    50,00
17 One  disc  drill     100.00
Hand tools, fork, shovels   10.00
Harness for 3 horses  60.00
One cow  40.00
Three hogs    25.00
2 doz.  chickens or hens     12.00
Living house    300.00
Barn     100.00
Poultry house, hog pen, cowshed   100.00
Share of fence on 160 acres    110.00
Furniture, stove,  etc  150.00
Seed grain for 50 acres . 60.00
Feed for horses and hogs from seeding to
harvest    125.00
Hay till harvest     25.00
Living expenses, 4 persons, 6 months.... 144.00
Incidental expenses    39.00
Making a total of $2000.00
The above is a fair estimate of what I required to have.
Upon the other hand, a team of three good horses need not
spend all of the six months on 50 acres, and consequently
can earn some money outside breaking, say $150.00 to $200.00,
and the implements do not always require all cash down, so
that a person might venture on less than $2,000.00 if industrious and a good manager.
Yours truly,
(Signed)      P. J. UMBRITE.
Formerly  of   Chico,   Wash.
Strathmore, 6th October, 1908.
The  Canadian  Pacific Irrigation Colonization  Co.,
Calgary, Alta.
Dear Sirs,—
As we have started a farm of 160 acres as small as possible, we will give you our own expenditure, knowing the
statement  extremely moderate.
Tools and Implements.
Wagon $90, double plow $65, disc $45, mower
$65, single disc drill $140, binder $125... .$530.00
Hammer, chisel, plane, 3  hayforks, 2 spades,
saw,  fence  auger        10.00
Harness (6 horses)      108.00
Teams 3, 2 heavy, 1 light   700.00
Cattle, one milk cow       40.00
Hogs, two little ones         6.00
Poultry (we don't have)
House 240.00
18
Barn         80.00
Sheds (a few dollars)
Fencing, 336 poles y2 big, % small, every 11
yards    30.24
18 rolls of wire 3ft. high, at $5 the piece  90.00
Stoves (one)     50.00
Furniture, 4 beds (complete)    20.00
4 chairs  3.75
Sheets,  blankets,  pillows,    we   brought  from
Holland
Blinds  3.75
Kitchen utensils    50.00
Seed grain (50 acres)    93.75
2 acres potatoes (10 bus. per acre)    12.00
Feed grain, 3 horses for 6 months   60.00
Living expenses, 6 months, 4 persons  225.00
$2352.49
There is to be added sinking of well, which we did ourselves, threshing expenses, a part fenced in  for  caf.tle and
horses, first payment on land, buggy and saddle pony.
Yours truly,
(Signed)      A. BOERS.
Formerly of Holland.
Strathmore, Alta., Jan. 6th, 1909.
The Canadian Pacific Irrigation  Colonization  Company,
Calgary.
Sirs,—
In reply to your letter requesting a statement of capital
necessary for making a start on a farm in the Irrigation District, it is a rather difficult matter to answer, as opinions as
to " making a start" vary so much. The " start," however,
can be made in a small way for about $2700.00 for a family
of four, allowing for the requirements absolutely necessary
for putting in 50 acres of crop and building cheaply, until the
first crop is available.
The outfit required to handle 50 acres of crop will handle
a 160 acre farm as well.
The following is for a three horse outfit.   The house can
be made good and warm for winter for the amount specified.
Tools—saw, hammer, square, axe, shovel, 2 forks,
hoe, rake, wire stretcher, wire cutter, posthole
auger    $    15.00
Implements—plow $30,  wagon $85,  disc harrow
$40, disc drill $120, mower $65, rake $35, hay
rack $5, binder $160     540.00
Team of 3 horses      500.00
Harness for 3         60.00
Two cows       70.00
Two pigs       10.00
19
12 chickens  10.00
House, 14 x 24   300.00
Barn  100.00
Sheds  50.00
Fencing, 80 acres, 3 wires, posts 2 rods apart.. .. 95.00
Stove  :  40.00
Furniture      60.00
Kitchen utensils    20.00
Seed for 50 acres of fall wheat  60.00
Twine     20.00
Feed and seed oats  250.00
Living expenses for \y2 years, for family of four 500.00
$2700.00
Yours truly,
(Sgd.)      J. E. DILLABAUGH.
Gleichen, Nov. 1st., 1908.
The  Canadian  Pacific Irrigation  Colonization  Co.
Calgary, Alta.
Dear Sirs,—
Your letter of September 11th was laid aside in the rush
and forgotten for the time, and note what you say regarding
information about starting on a farm.
One requires two good cows, four good work horses, a
gang plow, disc, harrow, seeder, mower, rake, wagon, binder.
A person needs $2,000.00 to make a right start. There is
fencing and buildings. The fencing costs $100.00 a mile, a
small house to start with $600.00, small barn $100.00, well
$100.00. I would start in a small way for kitchen utensils
and furniture; for chicken coop, $25.00; harness, $80.00;
teams, $200.00 to $500.00; wagon, $90.00; gang plow, $135.00;
disc, $43.00; seeder, $110.00. I think a great deal depends on
the kind of man, as some men can do their own carpenter
work, that would save them quite a lot of money, as wages
are high. There are quite a lot of other expenses, such as
living, which would be $300.00 a year, at a low estimate, for
four of a family, with the aid of a couple of cows and some
hens. A man might start with $2,000.00, and come out all
right, but $3000.00 would be better in my opinion. I hope
this will be of some use to you.
Yours truly,
W. H. MACPHEE.
Gleichen, Alberta, October 5th, 1908.
The Canadian Pacific Irrigation Colonization Company,
Calgary, Alberta.
Gentlemen,—
Your letter of Sept. 26th to hand.    In  reply I  consider
that anyone with £400 or £500 (I give it in English money
20
so that people from Great Britain can better understand the
amount required) could take up a quarter section of land on
the Company's terms, breaking and planting fifty acres first
year.
A small house for four persons, £60; barn and stable,
£50; pig-sty, £5; fowl house and tool shed, £10; total,
£125; other buildings added after first year as required; one
team of horses, £60; harness, £10; wagon, £15; plow, £3;
disc, £8; harrow, £2 10s.; seeder, £20; sundry tools, £5;
total, £123 10s. Cows, four, £30; two brood sows, £6;
poultry, £10; furniture about £20; stove, £3; seed grain, 20
acres oats, present price 25 cents per bushel, 3 bushels to the
acre, £3; 20 acres wheat, 65 cents per bushel, 2 bushels per
acre, £5 8s. 4d.; 10 acres barley and potatoes, 5 acres each,
potatoes £1 10s. per acre, 5 acres barley £2; fencing first
year, £30. Total, £110 18s. 4d. This totals up to about £360
altogether. This, with a little extra assistance during seed
time and harvest would give a working man a fair start and
leave him about £140 for living, feed, etc. The cows and
poultry would bring in a big item toward housekeeping
expenses the first year. Of course, you will understand the
prices I quote are not for new implements, but good second
hand can be bought for the prices quoted. I think this is a
fair estimate of expenditure for a first year crop of 50 acres.
Some people would, of course, start with less capital than I
have and succeed.
I am, yours respectfully,
J. BENNETT.
Brush, Colo., Oct. 5th, 1908.
The Canadian Pacific Irrigation Colonization Co.,
Calgary, Alta.
Dear Sirs,—
I have your enquiry of Sept. 11, 1909, and will give you
the desired information as I find it.
Tools  which  a farmer  can make    $ 25.00
Implements for  the  first year's  crops   ;........ 600.00
Harness for 5 head of horses     100.00
Horses, 5 head, heavy enough to draw one 12m."
breaker   1000.00
2 cows   80.00
Hogs for use, 5 head  50.00
Chickens, 5  doz.,  at $8.00 per  doz  40.00
House, 18 x 24, with basement   350.00
Barn for 6 horses, 2 cows, and room of 8 x 12
granary in one side and room upstairs for 4
to 5 tons hay    .  200.00
Shed for machinery  75.00
Fencing for y2 sec, posts 3 rods apart, 3 droppers
to each post and 3 wires      175.00
Stove, furniture and cooking utensils  165.00
21 f
Disc Harrow   <  44.00
Plow (riding)  ,  63.00
Mower  63.50
Rake  39.00
Wagon (new)  92.50
Harrow  32.00
Wagon (second hand)     25.00
Buggy •  50.00
Potato Cultivator    12.00
Potato Plow (second hand)    5.00
Horses (7)    1130.00
Harness for four teams    134.00
Cedar Posts for 1 mile of fence    23.40
Barb Wire, 2,000 lbs  82.00
Wages  35.00
Cow and Calf  30.00
Hogs (5 small)  15.00
Chickens (10)     16.50
Ducks (2)  2.50
Furniture and 2 heating stoves    160.00
Cooking stove, kitchen utensils, etc., for 20 men.. 140.00
Living expenses per month   11.00
Seed wheat (50 bushels)  55.00
Seed oats ,  30.00
Cost of buildings—House, story and a half, 48 x
18, 5 rooms on first floor; stable, 28 x 18, for
8 horses; shed, 28 x 14  801.29
Wages of carpenters  151.00
Well, 38 feet deep, fitted with pump and cribbed 134.60
The  cost  of well  and buildings  would have been  much
less if we had done all the work ourselves.
Yours truly,
K. OTSUKI.
The City of Calgary.
The   Commercial   Centre   of  Alberta.
" And ever we come back to the pulsing heart of this
great foothill country, fascinating Calgary. One can study on
its streets London fashions and fat stock, prize horses and
beaded moccasins, the very newest capers in automobiles and
the most ancient and approved aroma of the Plain Indians."
(" Saturday Evening Post.")
Calgary is a live city, with 75 automobiles, upwards of 300
retail stores, 106 wholesalers, 43 manufacturers, 13 banks,
branches of practically all the friendly societies, one morning
and two afternoon daily papers, several weekly and monthly
publications, five clubs (The Ranchers, St. Mary's, Alberta,
Canadian and Young Men's), and Young Men's Christian Association building in course of construction, when completed will
cost $90,000; excellent public schools, and various other educa-
26
tional institutions, including High School, Western Canada
College for boys, St. Hilda's for girls, and Provincial Normal
School completed at a cost of over $150,000; General Offices of
the Canadian Pacific Railway western officials, Government
offices, such as Land Titles Office, Courthouse, and Provincial
Public Works Office, beautiful churches, street letter delivery, in
fact, everything necessary to make an up-to-date progressive
city of nearly 25,000 population. The famous Calgary sandstone,
which is used so extensively in the erection of business blocks,
public buildings, wholesale houses, and manufacturing plants,
gives the city a beautiful and substantial appearance, which is
most favorably commented upon by all visitors. Calgary's
business blocks, schools, churches, and many of its residences
would be a credit to the larger Eastern and United States
cities. A street car service is just being inaugurated, and will
add one more convenience to the city life of Calgary, and two
companies have only recently completed very large street paving contracts. The building campaign planned for 1909 will be
one of the most aggressive in the history of the city.
The city owns its sewer, electric light and waterworks
system, and is now completing a gravity water system at a
cost of $340,000. Water will by this means be taken from a
point ten miles west of the city, and in sufficient quantity to
supply a city of at least 200,000 people. Brick and tile clay
are to be found in large quantities in the immediate vicinity.
Cost of Living and Home-Making in
Southern Alberta.
In the preceding pages information has been given in
regard to the subject of starting a farm within the Irrigation
Block, and other information that may be of interest to the
homeseeker.
To the farmer with limited resources, however, it is important to know how far his capital will go and how it should
be expended. The cost of living is also a vital feature entering into his calculations. The company is anxious that every
person who settles in the Irrigation Block shall become prosperous and satisfied, and it is, therefore, important that they
should labor under no misapprehension in regard to the conditions prevailing in this country, so that they may not overestimate their resources or fail to lay out their capital to the
best advantage.
Wishing to obtain absolutely correct information, the
company is quoting below the actual prices prevailing at
Calgary on the 10th of November, 1908, as secured from the
retail merchants. It might be mentioned that a discount of
about 5 per cent, is often given for cash, and that there is no
reason why prices in the various towns throughout the Irrigation Block on the commodities quoted should be any
higher than they are at Calgary. In fact, owing to the
smaller expenses in connection with carrying on business in
a small town, the prices should, in some cases, at least, be
lower.
27
The wages paid ordinary farm laborers ranges from $15.00
per month upwards. Skilled hands generally receive $25.00
per month for a year's engagement and $30 to $40 per month
for a summer's job.
FUEL.
Lethbridge   Coal  $6.50
Clover Bar ;  6.50
Galbraith Domestic    5.50
Coal in Irrigation Block  ...'.  1.50 to $2 at mine
LUMBER AND  BUILDING   MATERIAL.
Brick    $12.00 to $15.00 per M.
Cement         3.20 per bbl.
Lime    ,          1.50 per bbl.
No.   1   Dimension.
2x4  12 to 16  S.I.S.I.E $23.00
2x6 ditto  23.00
2x8 ditto  23.00
2x10 ditto  23.00
2x12 ditto  24.00
Add $1.00 per M. for every 2
inches over 12 inches wide.
Add $1.00 per M for every 2 ft.
over 12 ft. long.
10 ft.  stock same price  as 20
ft.
Cedar   dimensions    $2.00   less
than above.
3 in. plank, 10 to 16, rough $25.00
4x4,   10  to  16,   rough 25.00
6x6 ditto  25.00
8x8   and   larger,   10   to  16,
rough     26.00
Add  $1.00  per M for  every  2
ft.  over 16 ft.
No. 1 Common Boards.
4 in.   wide,   S.I.S... $19.00
6 in.        ditto   21.00.
8 in.        ditto   23.00
10 in.        ditto    25.00
12 in.        ditto    24.00
Cedar boards, $1.00 per M less.
1-2 in.   Shiplap   ... .....$16.00
Hardware.
Nails    4i^c. per lb.
Barbed Wire ...... 41/£c. per lb.
Tar Paper   $1.00 per roll.
Building Paper 90c. per roll.
Gaspipe^  1-inch... .10c. per foot.
Gaspipe,   %-inch 6%c.  per ft.
Stoves,  Tools, Tinware
10 p.c. above St. Paul
Harness and Saddlery.
Good  average  work  harness
$40 per set.
Collars, hand-made $3.50 per set.
Single Buggy Harness
$15 and up.
4 in.  Shiplap           20.00
6 in.        "    23.00
8 in. and wider Snipiap.. 25.00
4 in.   and   6  in.   No.   1
Mountain Flooring   37.00
4 in.   and '6  in.   No.   2
Mountain Flooring    34.00
4 in.   and   6   in.   No.   3
Mountain Flooring    Z4.00
4 in.   and   6   in.   No.   1
Ceiling 37.00
4 in.   and   6  in.   No.   2
Ceiling   34.00
4 in.   and  6   in.   No.   3
Ceiling   24.00
1x6 No. 1 Drop Siding 37.00
1x6 No. 2 Drop Siding... .34.00
1x6   No.   3   Drop   Siding 24.00
No. 2 Stock.
No. 2 Boards and Dimen.  $18.00
No.  2  Shiplap     19.00
No. 1 Cedar Lath       6.00
No.  1 Pine Lath       t».50
No.  1  Fir,   Spruce and
Larch Lath      5.50
No. 1 XXX Shingles     3.50
No.  2 XXX Shingles    3.00
No.  2 Lath        4.00
Short Ceiling and Flooring 20.00
Short   Siding      22.00
Harness and Saddlery continued
Halters      85c.  to  $2.00
Saddles    $4.50 to $75.00
Robes, Whips, Blankets, etc.
Same as   St.   Paul
Meats.
Steaks, round   12 %c
Steaks, Porterhouse.. 18c
Roast Rib    15c
Roast        8c to 10c
Corned Beef        8c to 10c
Mutton, Side  14c
Mutton,  Chops   18c
Mutton,  Fore qrtr.   ..  15c
Pork    15c
Sausage 12%c
Meats continued
Dressed Chicken  .... 15c tc-25 c
Lard, Bulk   15c
Salmon Steaks ... ,.12%c to 15c
Turkeys     25c to 32c
Groceries and  Crockery.
Potatoes 60c per bush.
Butter.... 25c to 30c lb.
Eggs . .. 35c to 40c doz
Gran. Sugar 6c per lb.
Brown Sugar 5%c per lb.
Rolled Oats.... ZV2c per lb.
Fancy Flour	
$3.25 to $3.50 per 100 lbs.
Ham 20c per lb.
Bacon 20c per lb.
Tomatoes  3  tins 50c
Corn    .2  tins 25c
Evap. Apples.... ..2  lbs.   25c
"    Peaches & Pears
15c per lb.
"    Prunes 10c to 12^c lb
Oranges...........30c to 50c doz
Lemons 40c per doz.
Eating Apples... ..5c per lb.
Eating Apples, box $1.75  to  $2.00
Salt, bbl.. ..$3.50
Soda. Biscuitst..,.. 9c per lb.
Tea... 25c lb.   up.
Coffee .....25c lb up.
Rice.  ..5c to 6c lb.
Beans '. ..5c lb.
Onions..... .3c to be lb.
Tinned Salmon... .15c to 20c
Jams, pure \,..5 lbs. for 75c
Table and cookiftg Syrup
75c per gal.
Cheese  ..,20c per lb.     .
Baking Powder 25c per lb.
Kerosene Oil. 40c per gal.
Gasoline............40c per gal.
Vinegar.    . .80c per gal.
Starch............,10c per lb.
Turnips lc per lb.
Tinned Beef..... ..20c—2 for 35c
Condensed Milk... 15c—2 for 25c
Codfish  .15c—2 for 25c
Spices   Same as St. Paul
Crockery..,.    Same as St.  Paul
Live Stock.
Work Teams,   2,000  to
2400  lbs $250.00
Work  Teams,   2500  to
2800    lbs.      350.00
Work Teams, 3000 to
3400 lbs   500.00
Saddle Horses well broken 100.00
Steers selling on foot 3 to 3%c lb
Grade Cows, fat..$25.00 to $40.00
Sheep off car  ....$5.00 to    6.00
Hogs  off car      5%- to  6c
Milch Cows, good  $40.00 to $60.00
Pure   Bred   Stock.
Bulls    $50 to $20*
Heifers      40 to    100
Rams  15 to     40
Boars  12 to     30
Sows   10 to     40
Farm   Implements   (Canadian)
2-furrow 12-inch   Imperial
Gang  $ 65.00
16-disc 18-in. Disc Harrow    49.00
Three section spike tooth
Harrow        17.00
Single disc  10-ft. drill 100.00
Mower,   5-ft.   cut        65.00
Horse Rake, 10 ft     39.00
Binder complete,   8 ft.   .. 180.00
Wagon  complete, 3  ton..    90.00
Farm  Implements   (American)
Gang   Plow,    Emerson  2-
furrow    $ 90.00
Disc Harrow,  16-16       47.00
Harrow,    3-section    spike
tooth        30.00
Drill,  16 disc,  10 ft   115.00
Mower,   5  foot  cut        65.00
Horse Rake, 10 ft     38.00
Binder complete, 8 ft.  ... 175.00
Wagon complete, 3 ton  .'.    90.00
Dry Goods and Clothing.
Staple and Fancy Woollen
Goods    10   to  25   p.c.
cheaper than St. Paul
Cotton Goods 25 p.c. higher
Boots and Shoes... 10 p.c. higher
Silks     10 p.c. cheaper
Furniture.
Wood Seat  Chairs. .55c upwards
Leather Seated Chairs
$1.50
Common Kitchen Tables
$3.35
Dining   Tables   ...  6.90        "
Sideboards    13.40
Bureaus 8.85
Washstands   .. 3.85        "
Kitchen  Cupb'rds 12.50        "
Iron  Beds      3.55        "
Wire Springs    2.90
Mattresses   2.55        "
Wire Camp Cots.. 2.55
Canvas Camp Cots 2.00
Pillows, 3-lbs. each 60c
Couches      6.35        "
Window Shades .. 0.40
Sheeting, plain or twill,
per yard    30c        "
Sheets, per pair 1.50 ••
Blankets, white, pr. 3.65 "
Blankets, grey, pr. 2.10 "
Carpets,   All-Wool   and
Union      35-52c        "
Carpet    Squares,
All-Wooi     7.45
Carpet     Squares,
Union    4.45
Toilet  Sets      1.75
28
29 Conditions Governing Land Sales on Crop
Payment Plan.
One dollar and fifty cents per acre on non-irrigable lands
and two dollars on irrigable lands, is all that is asked as a first
payment on lands sold under the crop payment plan, the balance of the purchase money, with interest at six per cent, per
annum, being paid by delivery to the company each year of a
portion of the crop grown on the land purchased. The purchaser undertakes within a year from the date of sale to plovtf
and put in crop at least 50 acres of each 160 acres of the land
purchased, and to break a similar area annually thereafter*
but may, if he so desires, retain 25 per cent, of his holdings
for pasture.
The Company's development department is in the hands
oiL experts who have made a close study of agricultural conditions in Southern Alberta, a Certain conditions, insuring good
farming practise, are incorporated in the crop payment con-'
tract, which are based on many years' experience and observation; for instance, the Company specifies that no breaking shall
be done after July 1st. General practice has proven that
breaking after this date is not advisable. These conditions
protect the interests of the purchasers as much as those of the
Company. Summer fallowing or cultivation of the land will
be accepted in lieu of putting in crop on such land when such
summer  fallowing  or cultivation  is  necessary.
The Company will, upon satisfying itself that an applicant for lands under the Crop Payment Plan is financially able
to carry out his part of the agreement, sell such applicant any
area up to four hundred and eighty acres of non-irrigable land
and not exceeding one hundred and sixty acres of irrigable
land. These areas are ample for farming operations in
Southern Alberta.
Suitable buildings must be placed upon such land by the
purchaser, who agrees to erect a house worth not less than
$350, a barn worth $104), and to sink a good well, unless there
is a spring or other natural supply of water on the land. A
legal fence must also be erected within one year of purchase.
The buildings are required to be insured, and the purchaser
must pay all taxes and assessments  on his  holding.
The following conditions regarding payment for land sold
on the crop payment plan show with what ease the lands of
the Canadian Pacific Railway may be secured.
One-half of the grain grown upon the land of the purchaser is to be delivered annually to the Company, free of
charge, at the nearest elevator or on cars at the nearest station,
the market price ruling on the day Of delivery being allowed
by the Company. For each ton of sugar beets, alfalfa and
timothy produced on his land, one dollar is to be paid by the
purchaser.
The purchaser must agree to keep an accurate account of
ail crops raised on his land, and to render a report to the
Company by December 1st each year, of the quantity of grain,
sugar beets, alfalfa and timothy produced during the year..
As soon as the Company has realized a sufficient amount
to cover all payments due on any land sold on crop payment,
title will be issued to the purchaser as provided in the contract. Publications of the Canaidiin Pacific Railway
Colonization Department.
The following publications may be obtained, postage prepaid, on application to the Company, at Calgary,- Alberta,
Canada. * : :
" FACTS," a 72-page folder, profusely illustrated, dealing
with general agricultural conditions in Southern Alberta, and
the famous Bow River Valley. Treats on Soil, Climate, Combination Farms, Canadian Irrigation Laws, the production of
cereals, Alfalfa, Timothy, Stock Raising, and giving useful
hints to those who desire to farm either on the irrigated or
non-irrigated   lands   of   the   Company.    FREE.
/ "ANIMAL HUSBANDRY." Diversified farming and stock
raising is the foundation upon which all irrigation projects
rest. This book gives the business aspect of the industry on
the Irrigation Block, and shows that live stock feeding and
dairy production on the rich alfalfa, meadows there lead to
certain success. Every up-to-date farmer nowadays is a stockman, and this book will appeal to that class............FREE
"THE STAFF OF LIFE," a 45-page folder dealing with
winter wheat production, giving land values, markets, expert
opinions, and  comparative  crop statistics ......FREE
"PUBLIC OPINION CONCERNING THE BOW RIVER
VALLEY." A 40-page publication giving the opinions of the
most prominent writers on the continent, coupled with the
statements of farmers actually settled on the land .FREE
" SETTLER'S GUIDE/' A text book, useful to any farmer,,
giving valuable information in regard to farming practise upon
irrigated and non-irrigated lands in northerly latitudes. This
work was compiled for the Company at great expense both with
regard to time and money FIVE  CENTS
" HANDBOOK," a 92-page book, printed on heavy paper,
giving a splendid series of views of Calgary, farming on the
" Irrigation Block " of the Company and general farming operations throughout Southern Alberta. A book that is ornamental
and will be a source of pleasure to you... ..TWENTY CENTS
"PICTURESQUE BOW RIVER VALLEY." A splendid
album of views, measuring 10x12 inches, bound with heavy silk
cord, and in every respect a work of art, and an interesting
souvenir of Southern Alberta. These twenty-four views bring
the varied beauties and possibilities of the great Province of
Alberta and the Irrigation Block within the range of your
vision ONE DOLLAR For Further Information
apply TO
Canadian Pacific Railway
Colonization Department
Calgary, Alberta
Canada

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