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British Columbia : farms, fisheries, forests, mines [unknown] 1890

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 HMLaU-*.-*! Stop Over
Between the
Fast and
*3ritish (Columbia
The Canadian |
Pacific Railway Co.
Have Millions
of Acres
Of Choice Farm Lands for Sale; $2.50 per Acre and upwards, along
the line of the Railway.   The Government also offer
Free Farms of 16Q Acres
to Settlers
STOP OVER AND EXAMINE
The Famous Red River Valley Lands of Manitoba
The Rich Wheat Lands of Assiniboia
The Incomparable Grass Lands of Alberta
Ample time is given to ail WESTBOUND PASSENGERS to visit the Company's Land Office at
Winnipeg, where they will receive valuable Maps and Pamphlets relating to the Country
West of Winnipeg.   Stop Over Tickets will be given to those desirous of inspecting
any portion of the Fertile Prairies of the North-West.
L. A. HAMILTON, C. P. R. Land Commissioner, Winnipeg, Man. ffm^^immmmm.
& 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31
_32 33 — **■■'■■■ '■• ■ ■-*- ■-'•■- ■"■-°"
■Urilrii THE PROVINCE OF
•^*^^«^*<^r'CM*
British Columbia
0-a.:n\a.:djAl
ITS RESOURCES, COMMERCIAL POSITION
AND CLIMATE
AND DESCRIPTION OF THE NEW FIELD OPENED UP BY
THE CANADIAN PACIFIC RAILWAY
WITH MAPS AND INFORMATION FOR
INTENDING SETTLERS
" A. Province which Canada should be proud to possess, and whose association with the
Dominion she ought to regard as the crowning triumph of Federation."
Eari, of Dvffebjn; British Columbia Forest Road. CONTENTS
4
Page
Introductory Remarks     ---........5
THE MAINLAND OF BRITISH COLUMBIA:
Description, Resources, Vancouver, New Westminster and Towns   - 7
VANCOUVER ISLAND:
Description, Victoria, Esquimalt, Nanaimo, etc.   -        -       -        -       -    22
Resources of Island, Climate, etc.       -------        26
The Islands of the Straits     -        -        -        -    ■   -       -       -        -        -        -28
Taxada, Queen Charlotte Islands, etc.       ------- 28
The Gold Fields of British Columbia, Coal, etc.         -       -        -        -       - 30
The Fisheries of the West Coast      -------- 33
The Forest Trees ,-       -        -       -        - 34
The Trade of the Province  38
"The Climate of British Columbia                                    - 39
Sport and Scenery -                -   -. -^  42
Land Regulatioi.s -        -        -        - 44
How to Reach British Columbia          -        -        -  47
Hints to Settlers   -                                          ....... 48
1
J River Steamers in British Columbia.
L British GeLamBiA
ITS POSITION, RESOURCES, AND CLIMATE
INTRODUCTORY REMARKS
CONCERNING the Province of British Columbia, which the Canadian
Pacific Railway so suddenly transformed into an easily accessible and
profitable field for commercial enterprise, the majority of people have
only very indistinct ideas. This publication may perhaps supply useful information.
Its object is to impart reliable information of the country, its present condition, its characteristics and capabilities, and the important position it now
holds, and in the future will more distinctly occupy, in its relations with the
other provinces of the Dominion, the trade of the Pacific Coast, and the commerce of the world at large.
The completion of the Canadian Pacific Railway was the dawn of a new era
on the North Pacific Coast. The province that has been lightly spoken of as a
"Sea of Mountains," deriving a certain majesty from its isolation, its wilder
attributes and undiscovered mysteries, is now traversed by a railway, accurately
described as the highway between Liverpool and Hong Kong. The completion of
this road dispelled the mists of British Columbian solitude, and allowed the current of trade to flow uninterruptedly between the Atlantic and the Pacific.
The trade of the past has been mere dabbling on the shores of the ocean of
commerce ; a handful of men essaying the work of a million, and that they
achieved success at all in the then far distant Pacific colony afforded a suggestive
indication of what is being rapidly accomplished under the new conditions.
The history of British Columbia may be-summed - up in a few sentences.
After a number of years, during which British Columbia, under various names,
was occupied only by Indians and Traders of the North-west Company, afterwards amalgamated with the Hudsons Bay Company; Vancouver Island, an
important part of the province, was made a colony in 1849. In 1858 the Mainland territory became a colony, with the name of British Columbia, and in 1866
the two colonies were united, and so remained until July 20th, 1871, when
British Columbia, retaining its appellation, entered the Confederation of Canada.
During the first years of its cofbnial phase of existence it was governed by Chief 6 BBITISH COLUMBIA
Factor James Douglas, afterwards Governor Sir James Douglas, with great
ability and unqualified success. To a just and kindly rule he added a courage and
firmness that made his word respected amongst the Indians from the Columbia to
the Skeena, and when the discovery of gold brought a rush of white men into the
country, he displayed the same ability in governing them.
Until the discovery of gold on the Columbia and the Fraser in 1856, the trade
of the country was almost exclusively in furs, which were collected at Fort
Victoria, on Vancouver Island, and shipped to England via Cape Horn. The
people of British Columbia, walled out of communication with Canada by four
ranges of mountains, and hampered in their intercourse with California by
national distinctions, were without any immediate prospect of improvement,
when the confederation of the British American colonies, with an invitation to
British Columbia to join, on terms of unexpected generosity, opened to them a
vista of possibilities that transformed their apathetic contentment into sanguine
expectation.
After the admission of the colony into the Dominion of Canada in 1871, considerable dissatisfaction arose from the inability of the Canadian Government to
construct a railway to the Pacific within the time specified in the conditions upon
which British Columbia had entered the confederation. Remonstrances were
followed by a re-arrangement of terms, which in their turn were not entirely fulfilled, and fresh bickerings arose.
At last in 1881 the Canadian Government entered into a contract with a syndicate of capitalists to build a railway from Ontario to the Pacific Ocean, and to
complete and operate it by the year 1891. An Act of Parliament was passed
embodying the contract with the Syndicate, a company was organized, and work
was immediately commenced and prosecuted with such vigor that the last rail in
the gigantic railway that now binds British Columbia to the Eastern provinces of
Canada was laid in November, 1885, six years before the time stipulated in the
contract between the Government and the Company. This road has pierced the successive ranges of the Rocky Mountains, Selkirk, Gold ranges, etc.; it has penetrated
the unknown country on the north of Lake Superior and opened a way from ocean
to ocean. The busy life that teems on either side of the Atlantic already surges
towards the west, impatient to reach the latent wealth of the Western provinces,
and to seek on the shores of the Pacific new fields for its enterprise and capital. THE MAINLAND OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
THE GEOGRAPHICAL POSITION OP THE PROVINCE.
British Columbia, the most westerly Province of Canada, lies between the
49th parallel of north latitude (the international boundary between Canada and
the United States) and latitude 60° N., and extends westward from the summit of
the Rockies to the Pacific Ocean, including Vancouver Island, Queen Charlotte
Islands, and others in the Straits of Georgia and on the coast north of it, as far
as the 54th parallel of latitude.
Even were there no Island of Vancouver, and no harbor at Esquimalt, British
Columbia would still be one of the most important provinces of the Dominion, as
well from a political as from a commercial point of view. With that island it is
to a maritime fnation invaluable, for the limits of British Columbian coal fields
can only be guessed at, while enough coal has already been discovered on Vancouver Island to cover the uses of a century. The harbors of this province are
unrivalled, and are so situated that the Straits of Georgia could, without difficulty,
be made impassable at either end to hostile ships. Their possession gives
command of the North Pacific, and that in its turn goes far towards dominating
the China Sea and the coasts of Japan. The commercial position of British
Columbia is not less commanding. Besides its coaling facilities, it affords the
shortest route between Europe and the East. It will soon be the highway to
Australasia. Its principal seaport must attract not only a large portion of the
China and Australian rapid transit trade, but must necessarily secure much of the
commerce of the Pacific Ocean. Its timber is unequalled in quantity, quality or
variety ; its mines already discovered, and its great extent of unexplored country,
speak of vast areas of rich mineral wealth; its waters, containing marvellous
quantities of most valuable fish, combine to give British Columbia a value that
has been little understood.
The author of " Greater Britain " says : " The position of the various stores
of coal in the Pacific is of extreme importance as an index to the future distribution of power in that portion of the world; but it is not* enough to know where
coal is to be found, without looking also to the quantity, quality, cheapness of
labor, and facility of transport. The three countries of the Pacific which must
rise to manufacturing greatness are Japan, British Columbia, and New South
Wales; but which of these will finally become wealthiest and most powerful
depends mainly on the amount of coal which they respectively possess, so situated
as to be cheaply raised. The future of the Pacific shores is inevitably brilliant,
but it is not New Zealand, the centre of the water hemisphere, which will occupy
the position that England has taken on the Atlantic, but some country such as
Japan or British Columbia, jutting out into the ocean from Asia or America as
England juts out from Europe."
The mainland of British Columbia is about 760 miles long and 500 broad, and
it contains a superficial area variously estimated from 230,000 to 350,000 square
miles. Of this a large portion is comprised in the mountains which in four
ranges traverse the greater length of the province. 8 BRITISH COLUMBIA
The Rocky Mountains rise abruptly at their eastern base from the plain or
prairie region of Central Canada. They are composed of a number of more or
less nearly parallel ranges, which have a general direction a little west of north
and a breadth of over sixty miles. Between the 51st and 52nd parallels the
ranges decrease rapidly in height.
The surface of the country between the Rocky Mountains and the Pacific
Ocean may be divided into two subordinate mountain districts, flanking on either
side an irregular belt of high plateau country, which extends, with an average
width of about 100 miles, up the interior of the province to about 55.30 N.L., and
is, in fact, a northerly continuation of the great basin of Utah and Nevada in the
United States. On the eastern side of this plateau are mountains that run
generally parallel to the Rocky Mountains. The large islands of Vancouver and
Queen Charlotte shelter the mainland coast. In the extreme north of the province
the mountains generally, except those of the coast range, diminish in height, and
the surface has a gentle northerly and north-easterly slope.
The coast of British Columbia has been well described by the Earl of Dufferin,
who, while Governor-General of Canada, visited the Pacific Province in 1876, and
in a speech at Victoria on his return from the north, said : " Such a spectacle as
" its coast line presents is not to be paralleled by any country in the world. Day
" after day for a whole week, in a vessel of nearly 2,000 tons, we threaded an
" interminable labyrinth of watery lanes and reaches that wound endlessly in and
" out of a network of islands, promontories, and peninsulas for thousands of
" miles, unruffled by the slightest swell from the adjoining ocean, and presenting
'" at every turn an ever shifting combination of rock, verdure, forest, glacier, and
" snow-capped mountain of unrivalled grandeur and beauty. When it is remem-
" bered that this wonderful system of navigation, equally well adapted to the
" largest line-of-battle ship and the frailest canoe, fringes the entire seaboard of
" your Province and communicates at points, sometimes more than a hundred
'' miles from the coast, with a multitude of valleys stretching eastward into the
" interior, while at the same time it is furnished with innumerable harbors on
" either hand, one is lost in admiration at the facilities for inter-communication
" which are thus provided for the future inhabitants of this wonderful region."
THE HARBORS.
Of the many harbors, the principal are English Bay and Coal Harbor, at the
entrance to Burrard Inlet, a few miles north of the Fraser River. Vancouver,
the terminus of the Canadian Pacific Railway, is situated between these harbors.
Port Essington, at the mouth of the Skeena, promises to be much used for the
northern gold field traffic, and Waddington Harbor, at the head of Bute Inlet, is
said to be the natural outlet for a large track of valuable country in the interior.
But numerous as are the harbors along the coast, their respective merits have all
been duly weighed, and all have been discarded in favor of the harbors in Burrard
Inlet, which have been adopted by the railway. For the coast trade the others
are all valuable.
THE RTVERS.
Of the rivers of British Columbia the principal are the Fraser, the Columbia
and the Peace.   The Fraser is the great water course of the province.   It rises I 10 BRITISH COLUMBIA
in the northern part of the Rocky Mountains, runs for about 200 miles in two
branches, in a westerly direction, and then in one stream runs due south for over
300 miles before turning to rush through the gorges of the coast range to the
Straits of Georgia. On its way it receives the waters of a number of other
streams, many of which would be rivers of some magnitude in other countries.
Amongst these are the north and south branches of the Thompson, the
Cbilicoten, the Lillooet, the Nicola, the Harrison, the Pitt, and numerous
others.
The Columbia is a large river rising in the southern part of the province, in
the neighborhood of the Rocky Mountains, near the Kootenay Lake. It runs
due north beyond the 52nd degree of latitude, when it takes a sudden turn and
runs due south into Washington State. It is this loop made by the abrupt
turn of the river that is known as the "great bend of the Columbia." The
Kootenay waters fall into the returning branch of this loop.
The Peace River rises some distance north of the north bend of the Fraser,
and flows eastwardly through the Rocky Mountains, draining the plains on the
other side. It more properly belongs to the district east of the mountains that
bears its name. In the far north are the Skeena River and the Stikeen flowing
into the Pacific, the latter being in the country of the latest gold mining
operations.
The Fraser River is navigable for river boats to Tale, a small town 110
miles from the mouth; and larger vessels, drawing 20 feet; can ascend to New
Westminster, situated about 15 miles from the mouth.
THE FRASER RIVER DISTRICT.,
On either side of the river below New Westminster is good arable land. It is
subject to occasional overflow, but this quickly subsides, and floods the land only
for a short distance from the banks. The whole of the lower Fraser country is
much esteemed for farming. The soil is rich and strong, and heavy yields are
obtained without much labor. Very large returns of wheat have been got from
land in this district—as much as 62 bushels from a measured acre, 75 bushels of
oats per acre, and hay that yielded 3J tons to the acre. Good prices are realized
for all farm produce. In some places near the river the land requires dyking.
This part of British Columbia is fairly well settled, but there is still ample room
for new coiners. Those having a little money to use, and desirous of obtaining
a ready-made farm, may find many to choose from. These' settlements are not
all on the Fraser; some are at a distance from it.on other streams.
The climate, described elsewhere, proves to be a great temptation to many.
The proximity of the great river and the Canadian Pacific Railway are additional
attractions. The Thompson is navigable from a point on the Canadian Pacific
Railway at Spence's Bridge, through Kamloops Lake to Clearwater on the North
Thompson, and through the South Thompson, and Shuswap Lake, to some distance up the Spallumcheen River. The Columbia is navigable between the point
at "which the Canadian Pacific Railway crosses the western side of the loop
which the river makes at Revelstoke, and ColviLle, a town in Washington
State. BRITISH  COLUMBIA 11
BURRARD INLET.
VANCOUVER, POPULATION 15,000, THE CANADIAN PACIFIC
TERMINUS.
About two or three miles from the delta formed by the double outfall of the
Fraser River is Burrard Inlet, a land-locked sheet of water accessible at all
times to vessels of all sizes, at the entrance to which are the harbors of
Coal Harbor and English Bay. Port Moody is at the head of the inlet,
14 miles above Vancouver City. Vancouver is 75 miles from Victoria and 35
from Nanaimo, on Vancouver Island. This, the most accessible and in several
ways best anchorage on the mainland, was the one selected by the Canadian
Pacific Railway at which to make their western terminus.
On a peninsula having Coal Harbor on the east and English Bay on the
west, the new city of Vancouver has arisen. Rising gently from the sea to an
undulating plateau thickly wooded with giants of the coniferous tribe, and trees
of deciduous growth, the site of the City of Vancouver is surrounded by a country
of rare beauty; and the climate is milder and less varying than that of Devonshire
and more pleasant than that of Delaware. Backed in the far distance by the
Olympian range, sheltered from the north by the mountains of the coast, and
sheltered from the ocean by the high lands of Vancouver Island, it is protected
on every side, while enjoying a constant sea breeze and a view of the Straits of
Georgia, whose tranquil waters bound the city on two sides. The inlet affords
unlimited space for sea-going ships, the land falls gradually to the sea; rendering
drainage easy, and the situation permits of indefinite expansion of the city in
two directions. The Canadian Pacific Railway was completed to Vancouver.in
May, 1887, when the first through train arrived in that city from Montreal.
That year, also, the Canadian Pacific Company put a line of steamships on the
route between Vancouver and China and Japan. Those two important projects
gave an impetus to the growth of the city, by placing its advantages entirely
beyond the realm of speculation, and the advancement made was truly
marvelous.
A great conflagration, in June, 1886, nearly wiped the young city out of
existence, but before the embers died, materials for rebuilding were on their way,
and, where small wooden structures were before, there arose grand edifices of
stone, brick and iron. Under the influence of the large transportation interests
which were established there the next year, the building of the city progressed
rapidly, and during 1887 most of the city plat was cleared of timber, and a large
amount of street work was done. Since that time its progress has been
unhindered by any disaster. The city is laid out on a magnificent scale,
and it is being built up in a style fully in accord with the plan. Its residences,
business blocks, hotels and public buildings of all classes would be creditable to
any city. During the year 1S88, buildings aggregating in value $1,350,000.00 were
erected within the corporation limits. The record for 1889 shows even a greater
result, the new buildings footing up to a sum of $1,400,000.00. In January, 1888,
the city assessment showed a taxable valuation of property aggregating nearly
$3,500,000.00. In January, 1889, the total assessed valuation of property was
$6,600,000.00.    For 1890 the figures exceed $9,000,000.00.   During 1888 $85,000.00 12 BRITISH  COLUMBIA
were expended in street improvements.    The total mileage of graded streets in
the city is 40J, and there are 40J miles of sidewalks.
Facts like these show how rapid the progress was. Vancouver has a thoroughly equipped paid fire department, and has also all the attributes of a live
modern city, such as water-works, electric light and gas, telephone, etc., etc.
Several miles of track for an electric street railway are laid. Early in the spring
of 1890 it is believed the cars will be in operation. Educational interests are
well looked after. The new high and central schools, the Roman Catholic
parochial school, and excellent public schools afford every facility for a cheap and
thorough education.
The business institutions of the city are of a stable character, many of them
being branches of old eastern establishments. There are three chartered
banking houses, these being the Bank of Montreal, the Bank of British North
America, and the Bank of British Columbia, as well as two private banks ; and
the total capital represented by them is $50,000,000.00. During the year 1889, the
Canadian Pacific Railway brought to the city nearly 51,000 tons of freight, and
forwarded about 40,000 tons. Over 516,000 packages of merchandise were exported
to China and Japan via the Canadian Pacific steamers, and the imports from the
same source aggregated over 574,000 packages; the total tonnage inwards being
34,427 tons, and outwards 21,801 tons. The Canadian Pacific Company disbursed
in Vancouver $648,234.65. The local Custom House records for 1889 showed that
for the last fiscal year there arrived in Vancouver marine craft carrying inwards
59,131 tons, and outwards some 214,947 tons ; a grand total of 274,078 tons. The
Custom House collections were $145,608.79, or double that of 1888. The
total imports were $525,275.00 against $74,868.00 in 1858, and the exports
$430,782.00, against $121,461.00 in the previous year. The goods shipped to the
United States were valued at $195,474.82 against $20,087.75, and the shipments
through Vancouver from the United States were valued at $1,500,000.00. The
Post Office business in 1888 was about 150 per cent, greater than in 1887, and last
year it was 35 per cent, over that again. These figures show specifically what
advancement the city made in the lines which are quoted, and when the fact that
the mercantile and manufacturing interests correspondingly increased in importance is considered, a definite idea may he formed of the rapid growth which
the city experienced, and this rate of advancement has not in the least abated,
but rather increased. Lumbering operations have attained immense importance,
Vancouver being the centre for this industry. The various mills employ 1,500
hands, and their combined output for 1889 was valued at $2,500,000.00.' Other
manufactories flourish in proportion. The city has a well organized Police
department, a hospital completed in 1888 at a cost of $10,000.00, and one of the
mostbeautiful parks in the world, known as Stanley Park, another, in the east end
and one on the south side of the city. Fraternal and benevolent organizations are
numerous, comprising lodges of Free Masons, Oddfellows, Good Templars, Knights
of Labor, Knights of Pythias, Locomotive Engineers, United Workmen, Foresters,
Sons of England, and a St. George's, St. Patrick's1, and a St. Andrew's Society.
There are also a Public Reading Room, Young Men's Christian Association, and a
Woman's Christian Temperance Union. In 1889 there were eleven churches: two
Methodist, three Presbyterian, three Episcopal, a Congregational, a Baptist, and
a Roman Catholic.   There are two flourishing daily and weekly newspapers.  14 BRITISH COLUMBIA
In addition to the great transportation lines of the Canadian Pacific Railway
and the steamship lines to China and Japan and to Australia, the city has connections with all important points along the Pacific Coast. The trans-Pacific
steamship lines each receive a subsidy of $500,000.00 from the British and Cana-.
dian Governments, and the boats that have been employed in the service during the
experimental stage of the line are soon to be superseded by new ones specially
designed for that trade. Steamers ply between Vancouver and Victoria daily, to
Nanaimo three times a week, and all Puget Sound ports and to Portland and San
Francisco. The Seattle, Lake Shore & Eastern and the Bellingham Bay Road, and
other valuable connecting systems, will soon be in working order and give closer
connections with the different cities and towns of the Pacific Coast.
The following table of distances will be useful for reference :
Miles.
Vancouver to Montreal  2,905
Vancouver to New York, via Brockville  3,162
Vancouver to Boston, via Montreal   3,222
Vancouver to Liverpool, via Montreal  5,713
San Francisco to New York   3,271
San Francisco to Boston  3,471
Yokohama, Japan, to Liverpool, via San Francisco    11,281
Yokohama, Japan, to Liverpool, via Vancouver 10,047
Melbourne to Liverpool, via Vancouver 13,707
Melbourne to Liverpool, via San Francisco 14,211
Liverpool to Hong Kong, via Vancouver 11,649
" " via San Francisco 12,883
" Yokohama, via San Francisco 11,281
" " via Vancouver 10,047
Vancouver to Yokohama   4,334
" Hong KoDg  5,936
" Calcutta   8,987
" London, via Suez Canal   15,735
NEW  WESTMINSTER.
This flourishing little city was founded by Colonel Moody during the Fraser
River gold excitement in 1858. It is the headquarters of the salmon canning
industry, and the population in 1889 was about 6,000. It is situated on the north
bank of the Fraser River, fifteen miles from its mouth, is accessible for deep
water shipping, and lies in the centre of a tract of country of rich and varied
resources.
New Westminster is chiefly known abroad for its salmon trade and its lumber business, but the agricultural interests of the district are now coming into
prominence and giving the city additional stability. The largest and most valuable tract of farming land in the province is in the south-west corner, in the
valley and delta of Fraser River, and New Westminster is situated in the midst
of that great garden. Lulu, Sea and Westham islands, comprising the delta of
the river, have an area of over fifty thousand acres of the choicest land. It is not
heavily timbered, and the rich, alluvial soil yields crops of first quality and in BRITISH  COLUMBIA
15
surprising quantity. Three tons of hay are taken from ah acre, ninety bushels of
oats, seventy-five of wheat, and of root crops four hundred to eight hundred
bushels. At the local fairs turnips weighing forty pounds each have been frequently exhibited ; and oats weighing fifty-five pounds to the measured bushel.
What is known as the municipality of Delta is a similar area lying between the
Fraser and Boundary Bay, on the south. Richmond municipality is to the south
of Vancouver and north of the Fraser River. The municipalities of Surrey,
Langley, Maple Ridge and Chilliwack occupy the valley on both sides of the river
above New Westminster, and embrace an area of nearly five hundred square
miles of the very best agricultural lands. These extend' northward from the
American boundary a distance of about twenty-five miles, but only include what
is in the political district of New Westminster. Farming lands reach much
farther up the Fraser and also up the valleys of its tributaries, the Pitt, the
Stave and the Siwash. A choice tract, comprising some fifty thousand acres, has
recently come into notice on the Stave, and is as yet almost entirely unoccupied.
These are all excellent farming lands. They are easily cleared for the plow, and
the soil is an alluvium mixed with a clay loam. The agricultural productions
include the common grains, roots, vegetables and a variety or-fruits. A failure of
crops'was never known in that region. Dairying is a profitable industry, and it is
growing in importance. While in the valley there is no government land to speak
of, a considerable portion of the area is yet unimproved and may be purchased at
moderate prices. On the northern branches of the Fraser there are still eligible
locations which may be obtained from the Government or from the Railroad Company on reasonable terms. In the interior there are large amounts of land of all
degrees of fertility and in all sorts of locations, that are waiting for settlers.
There are twelve large salmon canneries within easy reach of New Westminster. These establishments represent an invested capital of $500,000.00, they
employ over five thousand men during the fishing season, and pay out over
$400,000.00 a year for supplies. The Fraser River canneries turned out during
the season of 1889, 307,586 cases, against 66,616 in 1888. This is one of the most
important industries of that region. Lumbering operations are also extensive
and profitable. New Westminster has direct connections with all transcontinental trains, and the New Westminster Southern, to connect with the American
system at the boundary, will give that city ample shipping facilities. Here are
"located several Provincial and Dominion institutions, such as the Provincial Jail,
the Asylum for the Insane, the Royal Hospital, and the Provincial Penitentiary.
All the religious denominations are represented, as are also the benevolent and
secret societies.    The educational facilities are likewise excellent.
ALONG THE LINE OP THE CANADIAN PACIFIC RAILWAY.
At Yale, a small town about 90 miles from the head of Burrard Inlet, and at
the entrance to the mountain gorges through which the Fraser River rushes to
the sea, a change of the characteristics of the country appears. From this point
to the Gold Range, about 200 miles by rail, the rainfall is slight and uncertain.
Agriculture is carried on by means of irrigation, a mode preferred by many as
enabling the cultivator to regulate the growth of his crops, and certainly possessing advantages after the first slight outlay has been incurred. 16 BRITISH  COLUMBIA
i
Fifty-seven miles north of Yale, on the line of the railway, is Lytton, a small
town, owing its existence to a now washed out gold bar in its vicinity. Here the
Thompson flows into the Fraser, and from this valley a large district of arable
and pastoral land begins. In fact over very considerable areas, far -exceeding in
the aggregate the arable areas of the coast region, the interior is, in parts, a farm*
ing country up to 2,500 to 3,000 feet, so far as the soil is concerned, which has
been proved to be as fertile as the best on "the coast. Cultivation is, however,
restricted, as a rule, to the valleys and terraces. The soil consists commonly of
mixtures of clay and sand, varying with the character of the local formation, and
of white silty deposits. They everywhere yield large crops of all the cereals,
vegetables and roots, when favorably situated. The climate is much hotter in
summer than the climate of the coast regions. Tomatoes, melons and cucumbers
thrive in the open air in most parts. Very fine fruit can be grown. Now that
access to the markets on the Eastern side of the mountains has been opened by
the Canadian Pacific Railway, fruit growing will become one of the principal
industries both in this and other parts of the province.
As a grazing country this wide sweep of territory is unrivalled. Cattle and
sheep that feed on btmch-grass, which is the pasturage of this region, produce the
best beef and mutton on the continent. In the district where the heavier rainfall
occurs, the bunch-grass is supplanted by red-top, blue-joint and other more
familiar grasses. The bunch-grass country is equally valuable for horses ; it
affords them excellent pasturage during the winter, for though the outside may
be frosted, the heart remains sweet and good, and the animals keep in excellent
condition. There is a steady demand for British Columbian horses east of the
Rocky Mountains.
UP THE FRASER.
There are numerous small settlements in this district, particularly up the
valley of the Fraser, on the Lillooet, and between the Fraser and Kamloops Lake.
In summer a steamer runs on the Fraser from Soda Creek, 150 miles north of
Lytton, to Quesnelle, sixty miles farther up the river, the surrounding country,
which is traversed by the Government waggon road, producing heavy crops of
grain and fruit. Beyond this is the Cariboo country, from which a great deal of
gold has been taken. In 1860 and the following few years a number of gold bearing
creeks were discovered in the Cariboo district, great numbers of men flocked to
the place, and very large quantities of gold were taken out, but the work was
mainly confined to placer mining. Rich veins exist, and with the use of proper
machinery, which can now be taken into the country, large results will be obtained.
Westward of the Fraser lies the Chilicoten prairies of large extent, but they are
not likely to invite much settlement while quantities of excellent land nearer the
railway remain to be taken up.
KAMLOOPS AND THE SOUTHERN DISTRICT.
About 40 miles north of Lytton the Canadian Pacific Railway turns due east
to Kamloops, a thriving town situated on the South Thompson, a few miles above
its junction with Kamloops Lake. Kamloops was originally a Hudsons Bay
Company's post, and round this a prosperous little town has grown up, the popnla- BRITISH COLUMBIA 17
tion in 1889 being 2,000. It is in a good grazing neighborhood, and has been used
by the H. B. Co. as a horse breeding district. The country round is well settled,
a large number of farmers having established themselves in the neighborhood of
the lake, and on the banks of the Thompson, within the last two or three years.
This district has many attractions, but in the lateral valleys, as yet mostly
unoccupied, are tracts of land equally advantageous for farming. The lake is 25
miles long, and a steamer runs from Kamloops town to Savona's Ferry at the other
end. South of this is a hilly, well-timbered country, in which large numbers of
cattle are raised. In parts it is well-watered with lakes, marshes and small
streams, and in the Okanagan and Spallumcheen valleys, the soil is a deep, clayey
loam, producing good crops of cereals and roots without irrigation. The climate
of this southern part of the province is healthy, with moderate winters and.there is
plenty of timber for the use of settlers. A small steamer runs on the Spallumcheen River through the Shuswap Lakes, lying between Kamloops and the mountains, and down the South Thompson to Kamloops.
THE  NICOLA  VALLEY
Forms part of the Yale District and is due south of the main line of the Canadian
Pacific Railway, Spence's Bridge being the principal outlet for this fine section of
country. For many years the Nicola Valley was recognized as the principal grazing and stock-raising section of the province. It still maintains a high position
in respect of the lines above referred to. Whilst it is specially adapted to pastoral
pursuits, it is no less fitted for agriculture and the growth of all classes of cereals.
Of late years, now that a market is to be had for the products of the farm, greater
attention is being given to agricultural pursuits than has been the case in the
past. The crops already grown are excellent in quality and the yield unexception-
ally large. There is a greater tendency now to mixed farming than in the past.
In a few years Nicola Valley will become as famous for its grain, roots, vegetables
and fruit of all kinds, as it has been for its bunch-grass fed cattle.
This valley is also rich in its mineral deposits. Here are to be found gold and
silver bearing quartz, as well as placer fields; coal and iron deposits. The principal mines for the precious metals are at Stump Lake and at Coulter's. The coal
fields are at Coldwater, where magnetic iron ore is likewise found.
It is not improbable that one or more lines of railway will shortly pierce this
somewhat isolated section of country in the near future. When that is done
Nicola's beautiful valleys, through which run streams of the purest water, teeming with mountain brook trout, will become the home of hundreds of happy,
contented settlers.
The climate is all that could be desired. There are large tracts of land yet
to be taken up at Government prices, and under the conditions regulating the sale
and pre-emption of public lands, which are very liberal.
THE OKANAGAN DISTRICT.
South and south-east of Kamloops, and the lake of that name, and the Canadian Pacific Railway, is situated the Okanagan District, believed to be one of the
finest sections in the whole province for agricultural and stock-raising pursuits. 18 BRITISH  COLUMBIA
In this part of the province are to be found the most extensive farms in the pro.
vince, as well as the largest cattle ranges. Many can count their herds by thousands of head, and their broad fields by thousands of acres. The district is an
extensive one and within its borders are to be found large lakes, the principal one
being Okanagan, whilst such streams as the Spallumcheen, the Simelkameen and
other large rivers flow through the district.
Okanagan is famous as a grain growing country. For many years this
industry was not prosecuted with.either vigor or profit. Of late a marked change
has taken place in this respect. Samples of wheat raised in Okanagan, sent to
the Vienna Exposition in 1886, were awarded the highest premiums and bronze
medals.
One of the best flouring mills in the Dominion is now in operation at Ender-
by, some 35 miles south of Sicamous, a station on the line of the Canadian Pacific
Railway, which is reached by navigation for vessels of light draught. The flour
manufactured at these mills from Okanagan grown wheat is equal to any other
to be found on the Continent. The climate is specially adapted to the growth of
wheat, which is now reaching extensive dimensions—said to be several thousands of
tons a year. The capacity of the Enderby mill is 150 barrels of flour per day. It
" is operated to its utmost capacity. Farmers here find a ready cash market for all
the wheat they can possibly grow, an advantage which every farmer will fully
appreciate.
There are still to be taken up immense stretches of the very best land, which
is but lightly timbered and easily brought under cultivation. Water is abundant
in some sections, whilst in others it is scarce, rendering irrigation by artesian
wells a necessity.
Okanagan is also a very rich mineral district. Valuable mines are now
being operated within its limits, which extend southerly to the American boundary.
The early completion of the Shuswap & Okanagan Railway to Vernon, the
capital of the district, from the main line of the Canadian Pacific, a distance of
52 miles, will prove an immense impetus to this splendid section of country. When
this railway is completed it is to be operated by the Canadian Pacific Railway for
the owners on a percentage of the earnings. From Vernon there will be first-class
navigation up Lake Okanagan for a distance of 100 miles. The country tributary
to the lake throughout is capital, and will shortly become thickly populated.
There is room for many settlers in this southern area, and locations are
plenty where good soil, excellent pasturage, and an ample supply of timber are to
be found. This comprises pine, spruce,, cedar, hemlock, balsam and other
kinds. On the high lands that back the valleys, forest succeeds forest, the trees of
which attain the enormous growth for which this province is so famous. These
places, like many other desirable localities in British Columbia, were formerly
reached only by the adventurous who secured homesteads and founded settlements
that are now within a day's journey from the line of railway . Tn the region that
lies between the Shuswap Lakes and the coast range, there are two distinct climates, the dry and the humid ; the one to the north of the Thompson and Fraser,
and the other between the 49° and 50° parallel, each possessing its distinctive
attraction to settlers. A short distance east of the Shuswap Lakes the Canadian
Pacific enters the mountain passes of the Gold or Columbia Range. This is
another region of magnificent timber.     The fir and cedar attain dimensions far <
o"
o
5'
CD
b 20 BRITISH COLUMBIA
exceeding anything known in the east of America, and only equalled by those
found on the west side of the coast range. Their value is enhanced by proximity
to the prairies, where there is an ever-growing demand for this species of timber.
THE  KOOTENAY  DISTRICT.
The Kootenay District, including the Lower and Upper Kootenay valleys and
the Columbia Valley, is a most valuable region now attaining considerable prominence. Lying in the south-eastern corner of British Columbia, it is separated
from the North-West Territories of Canada by the Rocky Mountains, and is in
shape a huge triangle with a base line of some 150 miles resting on the 49° N. lat.,
which forms the international boundary between that portion of British Columbia and Montana, Idaho and Washington State. About the-centre of this
triangle is the Selkirk range of mountains, bending like a horseshoe with the
open end towards the south, and within the horseshoe lies the Lower Kootenay
Valley, while the two remaining valleys comprising the Kootenay District, i.e., the
Upper Kootenay and the Columbia valleys, are outside of this horseshoe, isolating
the Selkirks from the .Rocky Mountains and Gold Range. These valleys are
formed respectively by the Columbia and Kootenay rivers, and in addition to
splendid timber, possess considerable wealth of minerals and much valuable land
admirably suited to agriculture and grazing purposes.
THE VALLEY OP THE COLUMBIA.
Passing east from Shuswap Lake along the line of the road, there is a sudden
change of climate from the region where rain is seldom seen to that where it
falls frequently through all seasons of the year, except in the depth of winter,
when at times it becomes snow. This is the Gold Range, and in the valley of the
Columbia and its tributary streams, including Kootenay Lake and River. This
south-east corner of the province is remarkable for its pasturage lands. It is a
hilly country with rich grass lands and good soil. There is a great deal of prairie
land, and about an equal quantity of forest in which pine, cypress and cedar
grow luxuriantly, as well as birch and other deciduous trees. An excellent tract
of farming country is a belt along the Kootenay River, varying from two to ten
miles in width. Here the soil is light and bunch-grass grows. There is a series
of lakes near the river where the valley, which is about fifteen miles wide, has a
heavy soil, producing grain and vegetables of the ordinary kind in abundance.
Salmon from the Columbia make their way in great numbers into the Kootenay.
The ordinary brook trout are plentiful in the mountain streams. The country
produces some of the best timber in the province, and is a good district for
large game.
Considerable placer mining has been done in the Kootenay District, and
recently some rich quartz ledges have been discovered. Steamers run on the
Kootenay River and Lake, and a company has been chartered to construct a railway to connect these with the Columbia River, and so with the Canadian Pacific
Railway, which crosses that stream in two places, and with the towns in Washington State.
An English company is engaged in a scheme for widening the outlet of the
Kootenay Lake, with a view to reclaiming about 40,000 acres of first-class alluvial BRITISH  COLUMBIA 21
land, on which they intend to form a colony of ex-officers and other selected
persons. This district is well timbered, yet a splendid grazing country ; it has a
sufficient rainfall, yet is out of the constant rainfall peculiar to the mountains
further north ; it is a good game country, produces cereals and roots in abundance,
and is within easy reach of rail. Gold and silver have been found and mined in
this southern as well as in the northern parts of the province.
THE UPPER KOOTENAY VALLEY.
With the Rocky Mountains guarding it from the cold north and east winds,
and the warm breezes of the Pacific Ocean, the " Chinook Wind," to regulate all
extremes of temperature, the climate of the Upper Kootenay is healthful and
pleasant. The snow-fall is light, though at times the cold is severe, but cattle
and horses remain out all winter without shelter or fodder, and keep fat and
healthy. The springs are early, the summers warm and free from frosts, and the
winters moderate both in duration and range of cold. The valley is lower thari
the plains east of the Rockies, its elevation above the sea varying from 2,250 to
2,700 feet. The soil is good, producing fine crops of wheat, oats, peas, garden
produce, etc.; tomatoes, cucumbers, and such delicate growths do well anywhere
in the valley. Hop culture has not been tried extensively as yet, but wherever
the vines are grown as ornaments to houses they thrive surprisingly, proving that
more extensive planting would be both safe and profitable. Owing to the shelter
afforded by the mountains, except with occasional thunderstorms, high winds are
unknown in the Kootenay valleys. The timber is most valuable, including yellow
pine, fir and tamtirac, the former being a most useful and handsome tree, frequently attaining a girth of twenty feet. Large deposits of excellent steam coal
have been discovered in the Crow's Nest Pass, and it is confidently believed that
gold exists in paying quantities at many points in the valley, including Bui
River, Gold Creek, Moojea Creek, etc., dow in the.hands of enterprising companies. During 1863 and 1864 there was an invasion of miners and much placer
gold was taken out, over three million dollars being credited to Wild Horse Creek
alone. From latest reports, the prospects for future successful quartz mining
appear most encouraging.
THE LOWER KOOTENAY VALLEY.
Following the erratic course"of the Kootenay River in a southerly direction, it
is found to cross the international boundary and flow for a considerable distance
through American territory. Ere it bends again within the limits of British
Columbia, it enters the broad expanse known as the Lower Kootenay Valley, which
ends with Kootenay Lake, a beautiful sheet of water some 90 miles in length. The
river varies from 600 to 700 feet in width, and the average depth is about 45 feet,
rendering navigation by the largest steamers safe and easy, the current being slow.
Lofty elm and cottonwood trees line the banks, leaving the valley an unbroken
expanse of tall grass, without a tree until the level ends at the pine-covered hills on
either side. Above these hills rise the mountains to a height varying from 1,500 to
5,800 feet. There is no question but that this vallev contains some of the most
productive land known, and perhaps the heaviest crops of cereals, roots,.hops, etc. 22 BRITISH COLUMBIA
on record might be eclipsed here were it not for the overflow of Kootenay Lake and
River, which occurs nearly every season about June and July, and, while it certainly enriches the soil to a marvelous extent, seriously interferes with agricultural
operations. Dyking the bottom-lands would of course work admirably, as it has
done on the Fraser River, but a better method is now under consideration. The
outlet of Kootenay Lake is not sufficient to accommodate the surplus water coming
down from the mountains, hence the present overflow ; but it is proposed to widen
the natural outlet sufficiently to carry off all this water, and reports agree that
this can be done successfully. When accomplished, one of the most valuable
tracts in the province will be reclaimed. The valley is rich in minerals. On
Kootenay Lake immense galena deposits have been discovered, containing a valuable proportion of silver, and mining is easy. On Toad Mountain, near Kootenay
Lake outlet, rich deposits of copper and silver have been located and promise to
be of great importance. Two small steamers at present ply upon the lower
Kootenay River and the Lake, and offer a delightful trip. The lake is claimed to
■be one of the most beautiful in the world, and is a very attractive point for sportsmen. In its clear depths are land-locked salmon, and on the mountains in the
vicinity .are found grizzly bear, mountain goat and caribou.
THE BIG BEND OP THE COLUMBIA.
Between the Gold Range and the Selkirks is the west side of the great loop of
the Columbia River, that extends north above the 52nd parallel, or 200 miles from
its rise. This bend drains a gold region not yet well explored, but which has
every indication of great -mineral richness, and certainly possesses an amazing
quantity of fine timber. All the lower plateaus and valleys are covered with cedar
of enormous size, fir, spruce and white pine, and along the streams are cotton-
wood, birch and aspen. Within easy reach of the Canadian Pacific Railway is
enough timber to supply all the vast treeless plains east of the Rockies for ages to
come. Gold has been found in paying quantities at many points north of the
Bend, and indications of it on the Ulecilliwaet River and Beaver Creek. This \is
a region of frequent rains,, and snow in winter, and is characterized by a luxuriant
growth of vegetation.
VANCOUVER   ISLAND.
Vancouver is the largest island on the west coast of America, being about 300
miles long, with an average breadth of about fifty miles, and contains an estimated
area of from 12,000 to 20,000 square miles. The coast line, more particularly on
the west side, is broken by numerous inlets of the sea, some of which run up to
the interior of the island for many miles, between precipitous cliffs, backed by
high and rugged mountains, which are clothed in fir, hemlock and cedar. At
some points are sheltered bays which receive small streams watering an open
gladed country, having a growth of wild flowers and grasses—the white clover,
sweet grass, cowslip, wild timothy and a profusion of berries. The two ends of
Vancouver Island are, comparatively speaking, flat, but there are mountains in
the interior ranging from 6,000 to 8,000 feet on the highest ridges. The interior of
the island, still unsettled at any distance from the sea coast, is largely interspersed
with lakes and small streams.    The surface is beautifully diversified by mountains, BRITISH  COLUMBIA 23
hills and open prairies, and on the east coast the soil is  so good,   that   great
encouragement is offered to agricultural settlement.
In other parts the soil is light and of little depth, but it is heavily wooded.
The greater part of these arable tracts is found in the south-eastern portion of the
island, in the strip of land lying between the mountains and the eastern coast.
At the extreme north there is also some arable land, and a little on the west. In
the inland lakes, and in the indentations of the coast, there is a plentiful supply of
fish, and a fair variety of game on shore.
There are many harbors on both sides of the island in which large ships can
find anchorage, and very many more available to smaller coasting vessels. The
principal harbor is that at Esquimalt, which has long been the rendezvous of the
English squadron in the North Pacific. It is situated at the south end of the
island, on the eastern side, and can be approached in foggy weather by means of
soundings, which are marked on the admiralty charts, for a considerable distance
seaward, an advantage possessed by very few anchorages, and with the exception
of Burrard Inlet, at the terminus of the Canadian Pacific Railway, by no other
large harbor on that coast. The scenery of Vancouver Island is exceedingly varied
and picturesque.
VICTORIA.
Victoria (pop. 15,000) is the capital of British Columbia and the chief city of
Vancouver Island. It was formerly a stockaded post'of the Hudsons Bay Company
and was then called Fort Victoria. It is delightfully situated on a small arm of
the sea, commanding a superb view of the Straits of Georgia, the mountains o'f
the mainland, and snow-capped Mount Baker in the distance. The city's age
may date from 1858, when the discovery of gold on the mainland brought a rush
of miners from the south. It is now a wealthy, well-built, and very English city,
with business and shipping interests of great importance. Victoria is pre-eminently a place to delight tourists, and has ample accommodation for a large
floating population, having several comfortable hotels, one or two of which are
noted for the excellence of their tables. Various public buildings are also worthy
of more than passing notice. Prominent among the more important structures is
the provincial Capitol on the south side of James Bay, forming quite an imposing
group in the midst of tastefully laid out and well cared grounds. The new Court
House is a massive pile lately completed at a cost of about $60,000. Other good
buildings are the City Hall, city and provincial jails, college and school buildings,
several churches and business blocks. Some of the private residences and
grounds are remarkably attractive. Most of the manufacturing interests of the
province are centered at Victoria. It has the largest iron works on the Pacific
Coast outside of San Francisco, and several smaller foundries and machine shops,
also many factories, etc., etc. The city is amply provided with educational
facilities, both public and private. There are five ward schools, besides the large
central high school, and an efficient corps of instructors is employed. The public
schools are supported by the Government and controlled by a school board elected
by popular suffrage-. Besides these there are the ladies' college, under the auspices
of the Anglican Church, and an academic institution, as well as a primary school)
maintained by the Roman Catholic denomination. There are Protestant and
Roman Catholic  orphanages.    The   city has a public   library of  about 10,000 24 BRITISH  COLUMBIA
volumes, and several of the fraternal and benevolent societies also have libraries
of considerable size.
Victoria has command of a valuable and extensive steamship service, which
affords regular communication with China, Japan and Australia. One of the
finest steamers on the Pacific Coast plies daily between Victoria and Vancouver,
and the trip from city to city through the clustered isles of the Gulf of Georgia is
very pleasant. Daily boats ply to all important Puget Sound ports, and to points
northward on the island and mainland, and all regular San Francisco and Alaska
steamers call at Victoria.
The city has for many seasons been a favorite resort for tourists, and appears
to be steadily growing in popularity, the beauty of its surroundings and the many
delightful drives, facilities for boating, etc.,furnishing ample means of amusement.
The country for some miles about the city is called the district of Victoria,
and supports a scattered farming population and furnishes a portion of the
supplies of the city, but it is not a particularly, good farming country, being better
adapted to fruit culture. Here every variety of fruit grown in a temperate
climate attains peculiar excellence, and fruit culture promises to become a leading
industry in the near future.
ESQUIMALT.
Esquimalt harbor is about three miles long, and something under two miles
broad in the widest part; it has an average depth of six to eight fathoms and
affords excellent holding ground, the bottom being a tenacious blue clay. The*
Canadian Government has built a dry-dock at Esquimalt to accommodate vessels
of large size. Its length is 450 feet, depth 26 feet, and 90 feet wide at the entrance.
It is built of concrete, faced with sandstone, and was nearly three years in construction.
There- is a small town at the northern corner of the harbor bearing the same
name, Esquimalt. The nucleus of it are some British Government buildings,
consisting of a naval hospital, an arsenal and other dockyard buildings. In the
immediate vicinity of these the town has arisen. There are two churches, a public
school, two hotels or inns, and a number of residences and business buildings.
In the territorial division of Esquimalt there are several farming settlements and
one or two manufactories, including a boot and shoe manufactory and a sawmill.
Esquimalt is only three and a half miles from Victoria by land, and is connected
with it by an excellent macadamized road.
NANAIMO.
Situated on rising ground and overlooking a fine harbor on the east coast of
Vancouver Island, is the thriving city of Nanaimo, with a population of about
4,000, and, ranking next to Victoria in importance. It is seventy miles north of
Victoria, and depends chiefly upon its coaling interest and shipping business for
support. Nanaimo Harbor is connected by a deep channel with Departure Bay,
where the largest craft find safe anchorage. Vancouver Island bituminous coals
are now acknowledged to be superior for all practical purposes to any coals of the
Pacific Coast. Four companies operate mines in the immediate vicinity of
Nanaimo, the combined output for 1889 being about half a million tons, most of
which was exported.     Large quantities   are   sent to   San   Francisco, to the
I  r
26 . BRITISH  COLUMBIA
Sandwich Islands and China, being shipped from either Nanaimo or Departure
Bay. Nanaimo is also the coaling station for the British squadron in the
Pacific. A large number of men find employment in the mines and about the
docks, and the town for its siz3 is well supplied with the requirements of a growing population. It has churches, schools, hotels, water-works, telephone etc., and
such industries as a tannery, boot and shoe manufactory, sawmill, brewery, shipyard, etc., and weekly and semi-weekly newspapers. The present population of
the district of Nanaimo is about 8,000; much of the land is excellent for agricultural purposes. There is a daily train service between Nanaimo and Victoria, and
connections by steamers with the different island and mainland ports.
These three places, Victoria, Nanaimo and Esquimalt, all on the southeastern corner of Vancouver Island, are the principal centres. There are smaller
communities on the island, mainly on the south corner, and at no great distances
from the three principal places already spoken of. Such is Cowichan, a settlement on the east coast, about midway between Victoria and Nanaimo, where the
quality of the soil permits farming to be carried on to some advantage. Saanich,
another farming settlement at the extreme south-east. Maple Bay, Chemainus,
Somenos, all in the neighborhood of Cowichan ; Comox, some 60 miles north of
Nanaimo, in the vicinity of which are some of the principal logging camps;
Sooke, a short distance south-west of Esquimalt, are being gradually developed.
THE SOIL OF VANCOUVER ISLAND.
The soil of Vancouver Island varies considerably. In some parts are
deposits of clay, sand and gravel, sometimes partially mixed, and frequently with a
thick topsoil of vegetable mould of varying depth. At other places towards the
north of the island on the eastern shore are some rich loams, immediately avail-'
able for cultivation. The mixed soil with proper treatment bears heavy crops of
wheat; the sand and gravelly loams do well for oats, rye, barley, buckwheat,
roots, etc., and where the soil is a deep loamy one, fruit grows well. The following average of the yield of a properly cultivated farm in the Comox district is
given by a member of the Canadian Geological Survey. This is from the best
land in Comox, but there are other parts of the island not much inferior:
Wheat from 30 to 45 bushels per acre ; barley 30 to 35 bushels ; oats 50 to 60
bushels ; peas 40 to 45 bushels; potatoes 150 to 200 bushels; turnips 20 to 25
tons per acre.
Some of the rocks of the island furnish excellent building material, the grey
granite being equal to Scotch and English granites.
TIMBER.
The timber of Vancouver is one of its richest products. Throughout the
island the celebrated " Douglas Fir " is found, and a variety of coniferous trees
grow on all parts of the island. It is impossible to travel without marvelling at
the forest growth. This exuberance is not confined to the mammoth fir trees, or
the enormous cedars; trees of many of the deciduous varieties abound, so that
either for lumber and square timber, or for the settlers' immediate requirements
for the use of cities, and as arboreous adornments to the homes, the forests of
Vancouver Island have a value that every year will become more apparent. BRITISH  COLUMBIA   . 27
CLIMATE OF VANCOUVER ISLAND.
Concerning Vancouver Island, it only remains to say that in the important
matter of climate its inhabitants believe, and with some reason, that they enjoy
peculiar advantages. They have a mild and even winter, with rain ; the annual
rainfall is estimated at 45 inches ; and occasionally snow ; an early spring; a dry,
warm summer, and a clear, bright and enjoyable autumn. Sometimes the frost
is sufficiently hard to permit of skating, but this is exceptional. As a rule flowers
bloom in the gardens of Victoria throughout the year. It is spoken of as England
without its east winds; in reality it is Torquay in the Pacific. Fruits of all kinds
indigenous to the temperate climates ripen in the open air, and amongst them,
some that are in England brought to perfection only under glass. Thunder storms
seldom break over Vancouver. It is this climate, combined with the situation of
Victoria, that makes that city such a pleasant abiding place.
WAGES.
The wages earned in Victoria and other parts of the island are, of course,
governed by the demand for labor, and the amounts paid on the mainland, but it
is unlikely that they will be reduced for many years to the level of those paid in
Eastern Canada. Average figures are about as follows :—Carpenters and blacksmiths, $2.50 to $3.75 per day; laborers, $1.50 to $2.00; miners (contractwork),
$3.00 to $4.00 per day; fishermen, $50.00 to $60.00 per month; stonecutters,
stonemasons and bricklayers, $4.00 to $5.00 per day; plasterers, $4.00 to $4.50;
carpenters, $2.50 to $3.00; painters, $3.50 to $4.00; ship carpenters and caulkers,
$4.00 to $4.50; waggon makers, $3.50 to $4;00 ; machinists, $4.00 to $4.50;
tinsmiths ahd plumbers, $3.50 to $4.00 ; longshoremen, 50 cents an hour.
An ordinary unskilled laborer receives $1.50 a day ; if he can lay claim to skill
enough to attend to a garden he readily commands $2.00 a day.
Farm servants, engaged by the month, are paid at wages from $20.00 to $40.00
per month, with board and lodging,* according to the kind of work required of
them. A few Indians are employed in the seaboard districts, at $15.00 to $20.00
per month, with board and lodging, by farmers who understand their character.
In the interior, Indians are largely employed as herders and for farm work.
EMPLOYMENT FOR WOMEN.
Women servants are well paid. Nurse girls receive $10.00 to $12.00 per
month; general house servants $20.00 to $25.00 a month with board, if they have
some little knowledge of cooking and can wash. A great many people employ
Chinamen as cooks at $15.00 to $25.00 a month and board.
As in all backwoods settlements, the earlier work is done by men exclusively,
but a pioneer soon finds that his new home is not complete without a wife. The
consequence is that young women coming to the colony, and prepared to take
their share of the duties of life as the wives of settlers in the back districts, do not
long remain as servants or factory girls. They may at first miss some of the
attractions of a city life, but by industry and "orderly living, acquire a position in
their neighborhood, and gather about them much to occupy their time and give an
interest to their home, and as the years roll on positions of credit and responsibility
come to them, that in the early days did not even occur to them as possible. I
28 • BRITISH COLUMBIA
THE  ISLANDS OP THE STRAITS.
On the east side of Vancouver, in the Straits of Georgia, that is between the
island and the mainland, are innumerable islands of smaller size. Generally they
are wooded, and some of them have spots well fitted for agriculture. They are not
much sought for by white men at present, as there is plenty of land in places nearer
the settlements.
TAX AD A.
Near Vancouver is the island of Taxada, opposite the settlement at
Comox, which, from its wealth of iron ore, is destined to be of considerable
value.
It is largely owned by speculators. The ore is in a mountainous mass that
can be traced for miles, and it can be mined, smelted and shipped without difficulty. It is a coarse, granular magnetite, containing a large percentage of iron,
with only .003 per cent, of phosphorus.
A little to the north of Taxada is a small group of islands, and then the island
of Vancouver and the mainland approach one another to within two or three miles.
Here it was at one time intended to bring the Canadian Pacific Railway across by
way of Bute Inlet on the mainland, and Valdez Island to Vancouver, and down to
Victoria with the terminus at Esquimalt.
THE QUEEN CHARLOTTE ISLANDS.
North of Vancouver Island, and close to the coast of the mainland, there is a
succession of islands continuing to the extreme limits of British Columbia. Of
these, the Queen Charlotte Islands are the largest and most important. These
are a group of which there are three principal islands, Graham, Moresby and
Provost islands. They are the home of the remnant of the' Hydab Indians, once
the finest and most warlike tribe on the coast. They now only number about 800
people, who live in villages scattered about the three islands, their principal place
being at Massett and Skidegate, on Graham Island. They are expert canoemen
and fishermen, and find occupation in extracting oil rom the livers of the dog
fish, which abound on that coast. A company was started a few years ago called
the Skidegate Oil Company, which, by introducing proper machinery for extracting the oil, obtains an excellent article, especially for lubricating. It manufactures, about 40,000 gallons annually, and gives employment to the Indians during
the summer months.
These islands are heavily wooded, but not with the larger kinds of fir. The
interior is mountainous, and there are numerous small streams flowing into the
bays. Some of these bays afford good anchorage. The soil of the island is not
rich, and opinions differ as to the quantity of arable or grazing land in the
interior. It is believed that there is gold on the islands, and in years past several
attempts were made to find it; but, probably owing to imperfect methods and the
opposition of the then powerful Indians, with no success.
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BRITISH COLUMBIA
THE GOLD FIELDS OF BRITISH COLUMBIA.
It would be difficult to indicate any defined section of British Columbia in
which gold has not been, or will not be, found. The first mines discovered were
in the southern part of the province, the next in the Cariboo district, in the centre
of British Columbia, and at present the richest diggings in work are the Cassiar
mines in the far north.    Recently several new mines have been opened elsewhere.
Gold has been found on the eastern side of the Rocky Mountains, on Queen"
Charlotte islands, at the extreme west, and on every range ■ of mountains that
intervene between these two extrerfie points. Hitherto the work has been practically placer mining, a mere scratching of the surface, yet nearly fifty millions of
dollars have been scraped out of the rivers and creeks. Bars have been washed
out and abandoned, without sufficient effort being made to discover the quartz
vein from which the streams received their gold. Abandoned diggings have been
visited after a lapse of years, and new discoveries made in the neighborhood.
The railway now pierces the auriferous ranges ; men and material can be
carried into the heart of the mountains and with each succeeding season fresh
gold deposits will be found, or the old ones traced to the quartz rock, and capital
and adequate machinery be brought to bear upon them. There are hundreds of
miles open to the poor prospector, and there are, or shortly will be, numerous
openings for the capitalist. To the agricultural settler the existence of gold is of
double significance. He is certain of a market for his produce, he is not debarred
from mining a little on his own account, and he is never deprived of the hope that
he will one day become the fortunate discoverer of a bonanza.
' In giving evidence before a committee of the House of Commons, a member
of the Government Geological Survey said : "After having travelled over 1,000
" miles through British Columbia, I can say with safety that there will yet be
" taken out of her mines wealth enough to build the Pacific Railway." This
means many rpillions. Another gentleman in the same service said that, "it may
soon take its place as second to no other country in North America," which is
even stronger language than the other.
In 1860, Antler Creek (on the Fraser) yielded at one time not less than
$10,000 per day.    On one claim $1,000 was obtained by a single day's work.
In 1862 a more scientific system of working was adopted ; some companies
were formed, shafts were sunk and professional mining engineers employed. The
gold returns for 1870, for which year an official report was made, from the mines
of Columbia, Yale, Silionet, Lytton, Cariboo and Lillooet were $1,333,745, in
addition to large quantities carried away by individuals and purchasers of gold
dust. From 1862 to 1871 gold to the value of $16,650,036 was shipped from
British Columbia to the banks, and fully $60,000 more was taken out by miners
and others. The export of gold for 1874 was $1,072,422. Stickeen River, rising in
the north-west of Alaska, has been worked since 1875, and still yields well. It
must be remembered that these splendid results were obtained by a mere scratching, of a few river shallows then accessible. The total output of gold since its
first discovery in British Columbia, is estimated at $60,000,000. With present
facilities for prospecting much heavier returns are expected, for the era of scientific mining in British Columbia has only commenced. UTISH COLUMBIA
31
GOLD-BEARING ROCKS.
In British Columbia, a belt of rocks probably corresponding to the gold rocks
of California, has already been proved to be richly auriferous. With a general
similarity of topographical features in the disturbed belt of the west coast, a
great uniformity in the lithological character of the rocks is found to follow from
south-east to north-west. Geological explorations go to show a general resemblance
of the rocks to those of the typical sections of California and the Western States.
The general distribution of alluvial gold over the province may indicate that
several different rock formations produce it in greater or less quantity, though it
is only where "co'krse" or "heavy" gold occurs, that the original auriferous veins
must be supposed to exist in the immediate vicinity of the deposit. Colors, as the
finer particles of gold are called, travel far along the beds of the rapid rivers
before they are reduced by attrition to invisible shreds ; and the northern and
other system of distribution of drift material have, no doubt, also assisted in
spreading the fine gold. The gold formation proper, however, of the country,
consists of a series of talcose and chloritic blackish or greenish-grey slates or
schists, which occasionally become micaceous, and generally show evidence of
greater mstamorphism than the gold bearing slates of California. Their precise
geological horizon is not yet determined.
Silver has been discovered in several places, and its further discovery will
probably show that it follows the same rules as in Nevada and Colorado. The
best known argentiferous locality is that about six miles from Hope, on the
Fraser River.    The lodes occur at an elevation of about 5,000 feet.
Great iron deposits exist on Taxada Island, and copper deposits have been
found at several points on the coast of the mainland, Howe Sound, Jarvis Inlets,
the Queen Charlotte Islands, and other points. Mercury, cinnabar, and platinum
have been found in small quantities during the process of washing gold.
COAL ON THE MAINLAND.
Several seams of bituminous coal have been discovered on the mainland, and
some veins have been worked in the New Westminster and Nicola districts,
and other indications of coal have been found in several parts. The large quantities on Vancouver Island of such excellent quality and so well situated for shipment have probably discouraged the search for coal in the interior. The same
formation exists on the mainland as on the island, and the New Westminster and
Nicola coal-beds are probably small portions only of large areas.
Anthracite coal, comparing favorably with that of Pennsylvania, has been
found in seams of six feet and three feet, in Queen Charlotte Island. Fragments
of anthracite have been picked up on several parts of Vancouver Island, and this
would seem to indicate that the seams found in Queen Charlotte islands will be
traced to Vancouver.
And attention to the significance of British Columbian coal discoveries cannot
be drawn in a better manner than by quoting the remarks of Lord Dufferin on the
subject. "When it is further remembered that inexhaustible supplies of iron afe
'■ found in juxtaposition with your coal, no one can blame you for regarding the
"beautiful land in which you live as having been especially favored by Providence
" in the distribution of its natural gifts." WtmfmWi
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THE FISHERIES OP THE WEST COAST.
An important part of the future trade of British Columbia will arise from
the wealth of fish in the waters of her coast. Of these the most valuable at
present is the salmon. They literally teem in the Fraser and Columbia rivers,
and frequently passengers on the Canadian Pacific Railway are astounded by the
sight of broad expanses of river, or deep pools packed almost soKd with wriggling
masses of splendid, fish, their motions being distinctly visible from the platforms
or car windows as the trains roll along. The greater number of the canneries are
on the Fraser River, but there are some in the far north.
The salmon make their way for great distances up the rivers. The salmon of
the Columbia fill the streams of the Kootenay; those of the Fraser are found six
hundred miles in the interior. There are several kinds of this fish, and they arrive
from the sea at different dates. The silver salmon begin to arrive in March, or
early in April, and continue till the end of June. Their weight averages from four
to twenty-five pounds, but they have been caught weighing over seventy. The
second ■ kind are caught from June to August, and are considered the finest.
The average size is five to six pounds. The third, coming in August, average
seven pounds, and are an excellent fish. The humpback salmon comes every
second year, lasting from August till winter, weighing from six to fourteen
pounds. The hookbill arrives in September and remains till winter, its weight
ranges from twelve to forty-five pounds.
^The Government of Canada have taken some pains to acquire accurate information concerning these fisheries, and a statement published by them gives the
names of several other classes of fish. Amongst these is the oolachan, a valuable
delicate fish, about seven or eight inches long, which comes to the shore in spring.
It enters Fraser River in May in great numbers. Farther north it is fatter. It is
extremely oily and is caught by the natives in great numbers, who extract the
oil and use it for food grease, as some tribes do whale oil. These fish are also
dried and then burned for candles, being on that account known as " candle-fish."
The oil has been bottled and exported to some extent, and is pronounced superior
to cod-liver oil for medicinal purposes.
The black cod, a superior food fish, abounds from Cape Flattery northward.
It is very fat, and some of the native tribes use its oil in place of oolachan. Experiments in salting the black cod for eastern markets have proved successful.
Cod similar to the eastern variety, are taken on banks off the coast of Alaska, and
the same fish is said to haunt British Columbian waters. Halibut of fine quality
and large size are plentiful in the inner waters, on the banks off the west coast of
Vancouver Island, and further north. Sturgeon up to 1,000 pounds weight are
numerous in the Fraser and large rivers. The surf smelt and common smelt are
abundant, and valued for the table. Shad are taken occasionally, a result of
planting in the Sacramento River in 1878.
A fish closely resembling the common herring is very abundant. In the
interior, besides the brook and lake trout, the whitefish is found in the central and
northern parts of British Columbia. Next, however, to the salmon the most
valuable sea product is the fur seal—not found on the Atlantic coast—which has
yielded nearly $200,000 a year. 34
BRITISH  COLUMBIA
The native oysters of the province are small, but the large eastern oyster
probably would thrive. The eastern lobster should be introduced. Its food is
much the same as that of the crabs, which ■ are numerous on the coast of the
province, and the lobster, like the oyster, would be of great value commercially.
The fisheries, however, have been worked principally for the salmon, bat
many think that in the deeper waters of the west coast there are banks where
cod will be taken in quantities not less than those of the Atlantic. The country
is too inviting to fail in attracting men who have the means and the energy to
make their own fortunes. The combination o'f a few men each of small means
secures that which in the older east is reserved for millionaires. There are scores
of men in the fishing trade of England and Scotland who struggle year after year
for an uncertain percentage, who, in British Columbia, would find competency in
a few years' working, and hundreds who are no richer at the end of December
than they were at the beginning of January, who would experience a very different
condition of life on the coast of British Columbia.
This coast is peculiarly a land for Englishmen. The climate of Devonshire
and Cornwall, without the excessive rains, is reproduced along the Straits of
Georgia and the west coast of Vancouver; the colder climate of Scotland is
repeated from Queen Charlotte Sound to Alaska. These coasts afford wide
fields for occupation and dispense reward with less niggard hand than in
the older home where every loaf has many claimants. There is no rent to
pay, no leave to ask to run a boat ashore. The land is his who occupies it.
A man who in the British seas toils year in and year out for others may own
his own home, his piece of land and his boat, by no man's favor.
The chief consumer of British Columbia's salmon is Great Britain, but how
small does the quantity taken per annum appear to be when the vastness of the
market and the demand for cheap food is remembered. With a properly
organized system the waters of British Columbia could feed the large cities
of England with food that the poorer classes never taste, and a good profit
could be made at the business.
THE FOREST TREES.
It will be gathered from what has been already said that British Columbia
is rich in timber. In this respect there is no other province of Canada, no
country in Europe and no  state in North America, that  compares  with  it.
There are prairies here and there, valleys free from wood, and many
openings in the thickest country, which in the aggregate make many hundred
thousand acres of land on which no clearing is required. But near each open
spot is a luxurious growth of wood. A settler may be lavish as he pleases ; there
is enough and to spare.
The finest growth is on the coast, and in the Gold and Selkirk ranges.
Millions of millions of feet of lumber, locked up for centuries past, have now
become available for commerce. Tho Canadian Pacific Railway passes through
a part of this, and crosses streams that will bring untold quantities to the mills
and railway stations. The Government Department of Agriculture has published a catalogue and authoritative description of the trees of British Columbia,
in which the several species are ranked as follows :— BRITISH COLUMBIA 35
Douglas Spruce (otherwise called "Douglas Fir," "Douglas Pine," and
commercially, "Oregon Pine"). A well-known tree. It is straight, though
coarse-grained, exceedingly tough, rigid, and bears great transverse strain. For
lumber of all sizes, and planks, it is in great demand. Few woods equal it for
frames, bridges, ties, and strong work generally, and for shipbuilding. Its
length, straightness and strength specially fit it for masts and spars. Masts
specially ordered have been shipped, 130 feet long and 42 inches in diameter,
octagonally hewn. For butter and other boxes that require to be sweet and
odorless, it is very useful. There is a large export of the Douglas spruce to
Australia, South America, China, etc. Woodmen distinguish this species into
two kinds—red and yellow. The one has a red, hard, knotty heart; the other is
less hard, and with a feeble tinge of yellow—the latter is supposed to be
somewhat less lasting, though both are very durable. The Douglas spruce grows
best near the coast, close to the waters of the bays and inlets. There it
frequently exceeds eight feet in diameter, at a considerable height, and reaches
200 to 250 feet in length, forming prodigious, dark forests. Abounds on mainland
coast; also in Vancouver Island, but not on Queen Charlotte Islands. In the
southern interior of the province, it grows on the higher uplands, and in groves,
on lowlands, where the temperature, rainfall, etc., are suitable. Occurs abundantly on the Columbia, and irregularly in northern portions of the interior.
The Western Hemlock occurs everywhere in the vicinity of coast, and up the
Fraser and other rivers to the limit of abundant rainfall; reappears on the
Selkirk and Gold ranges ; on the coast (particularly Queen Charlotte Islands),
reaches 200 feet in height. Yields a good wood ; bark has been used in tanning.
Is like the eastern hemlock, but larger.
Englemann's Spru<:e (very like " white spruce"), tall, straight, often over
three feet in diameter—wood good and durable. Is in the eastern part of
province, and interior plateau (except dry southern portion), what the Douglas
spruce is on coast. Forms dense forests in the mountains; believed to be the
tree of the dense groves in upper Alpine valleys of Rocky Mountains ; also
borders all the streams and swamps in the northern interior, between about
2,500 and 3,500 feet in elevation.
Menzies' Spitwe chiefly clings to coast, a very large tree, wood white and useful
for general purposes.
The Great Silver Fir, so far as known, is specially a coast tree.     It grows to a
. great size, but the wood is said to be soft and liable to decay.
Balsam Spruce appears to take the place of the last-named in the region east of
coast range. Abounds on Gold and Selkirk ranges and east of McLeod's Lake.
Occurs in scattered groves in northern portion of interior plateau. Often exceeds
two feet in diameter.
Among the pines may be mentioned the familiar tree known locally as "red
pine," "yellow pine," or "pitch pine," considered to be a variety of the heavy
yellow pine (Pinus Ponderosa) of California and Oregon. It grows in open groves
in the valleys, and on the slopes up to about 3,000 feet. A very handsome tree ;
half the shaft branchless: seldom exceeds four feet in diameter. Is used for building and general purposes.
The White Pine (" Mountain Pine ") resembles the eastern white pine, and may
be used for the same purposes.     It is found in the Columbia region, on the Gold 36 BRITISH  COLUMBIA '
range and about Shuswap and Adams lakes, and scattered in the southern portion of the Coast range: also in the interior of Vancouver Island. On the coast,
the white pine reaches CO to 80 feet, and a diameter of 2 to 3 feet.
The Black Pine (" Bull " or " Western Scrub " Pine) ogpurs everywhere in the
province, at varying heights. It reaches 60 or even 100 feet in height, but seldom
exceeds a diameter of two feet.    The wood is white and fairly durable.
The Western Cedar (" Giant Cedar " or " Red Cedar ") is a valuable tree. The
wood is of a yellowish or reddish color, and very durable ; splits easily into plank;
has been used chiefly for shingles and rails. Abounds in the Columbia River
region; on slopes of Selkirk and Gold ranges; at north-eastern part of Shuswap
Lake, and portion of North Thompson Valley; abundantly along the coast and
lower parts of rivers of Coast range. Occurs sparingly in northern interior. On
coast, is often found 100 to 150 feet high and 15 feet thick.
Yellow Cypress (commonly known as " Yellow Cedar"). A strong, free, finegrained wood ; pale golden yellow tint; slight resinous smell; very durable ; has
been used in boat-building and for ornamental purposes; often exceeds 6 feet
in diameter. Occurs chiefly on coast; also in interior of Vancouver Island, and
abounds on west coast of Queen Charlotte Islands.
Western Larch (sometimes called "Tamarac "), occurs in Rocky Mountains and
valleys of Selkirk and Gold ranges. Stretches westward nearly to head of Okanagan Lake. Not found on the coast. A large tree, yielding a strong, coarse, durable
wood.
The Maple, a valuable hardwood, sometimes well adapted for cabinet-making.
Found on Vancouver and adjacent islands, also sparingly on mainland coast up to
55°, and on Queen Charlotte Islands. Occasionally attains a diameter of 4 feet.
The Vine Maple, seldom over a foot thick, yielding a very tough, strong, white
wood, suitable for helves, seems to be strictly confined to coast. The Yeto is found
in Vancouver Island and on opposite mainland 'shores. It goes up the Fraser
above Yale. Very tough, hard wood, of a beautiful rose color. Crab Apple occurs
along all the coasts as a small tree or shrub. Wood very hard, but liable to check,
takes a good polish and withstands great wear in mill machinery. Alder is found
two feet thick on the Lower Fraser, and occurs as a small tree along the whole
coast. A good furniture wood: easily worked and takes a good polish. There
are two birches—the Western Birch and the Paper or Canoe Birch. Both occur in a
number of localities. The " Western Birch " is a small tree, found in the Columbia region. The " Canoe Birch " is found sparingly in Vancouver Island and on
the Lower Fraser, but is common, and larger, on the Upper Fraser, and in the
Peace River District. The only Oak in the province, so far as known (except a few
trees above Yale), js on Vancouver Island. Reaches a diameter of 3 feet, and a
height of about 70 feet, and yields a hard wood, but not very tough, which has been
used for building purposes and in making kegs. The Dogwood, on the mainland
coast opposite Vancouver Island and on Vancouver Island? reaches the dimensions
of a small tree. The wood is close-grained and hard. Another close-grained
wood, heavy and resembling box, is furnished by the handsome evergreen Arbutus,
which reaches 50 feet in height and about 20 inches in diameter, but occurs often as a
shrub. It is found on Vancouver Island and neighboring islands, but never far
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The Aspen Poplar abounds over the whole interior, and reaches a thickness of
two feet. In the southern interior, occurs along streams and on the higher plateaux.   In the north, grows everywhere, preferring the most fertile soil.
There are three other varieties of poplars, commonly included under the
name of " Cottonwood." They attain sometimes a diameter of 4 to 5 feet. The
coast " Cottonwood" is the same wood that has been largely used in Puget Bound
to make staves for sugar barrels. The other kinds occur in the valleys throughout
the interior of the province.
The Mountain Ash, as a small tree or bush, has been noticed in the interior:
and the Juniper, or "Red Cedar," commonly known as "Pencil Cedar," has been
observed on the east coast of Vancouver Island, and, in a tree form, with a diameter of about a foot, along the shores of Kamloops, Francois and other lakes in the
interior.
The following list comprises shrubs met with :—
Hazel, red elder, willow, barberry, wild red cherry, wild blackberry, yellow
plum, choke cherry, black and red raspberry, white raspberry, prickly purple
raspberry, prickly gooseberry, swamp gooseberry, several kinds of currants, bear
berries, mooseberry, snowberry, blueberry, bilberry, cranberry, whortleberry,
red and white mulberry.
THE TIMBER REGION.
Between the mountains and the sea the Canadian Pacific Railway passes
through many forests of these valuable woods, and brings within reach of
lumbering operations, vast additional quantities growing in the neighborhood of
those streams that fall into the Columbia, the Thompson, and the Fraser. Timber
on the western plains of Canada will now be obtainable at considerable less prices
than those paid in the Western States. And such timber will be of a class, and in
such variety of kinds, as are unobtainable in any other market of America. What
the Canadian Pacific Railway has done for the Manitoba lumber market by its
construction round the north shore of Lake Superior, it will do for the centres
west of Manitoba by its passage through the mountains of British Columbia. The
distance from the Rocky Mountains to the great farming and cattle raising districts
of which Calgary, MacLeod, Medicine Hat, Maple Creek, Swift Current, Moosejaw
and Regina, are the centres, is less than that from Winnipeg to Minneapolis, from
which market the earlier settlers in Manitoba were supplied before the Canadian
Pacific Railway was built eastward to the Lake of the Woods. Cheap lumber, so
essential to the settler, is therefore secured by the opening up of British Columbia.
THE TRADE OF THE PROVINCE.
Though the trade of British Columbia is still unimportant when compared
with the extent, resources, and immense future possibilities of the province, still
it has improved and developed wonderfully during the past few years, showing an
increase since 1884 that speaks volumes for the progress and enterprise of the
people. '■ Prominent exports are fish, coal, gold, timber, masts and spars, furs and
skins, fish oil, wool, hops and spirits. A large proportion of the salmon, canned
and pickled, goes to Great Britain, the United States and Australia; the States BRITISH COLUMBIA 39
and Sandwich Islands consume a large share of the exported coal, and great
quantities of timber are shipped to Australia and ports in South America. To
Great Britain and the United States are sent the valuable furs and peltries of
land animals and the much prized seal and otter, etc. China also receives a considerable amount of lumber, timber and furs. Valuable shipments of fish oil,
principally obtained from the dog fish at the Queen Charlotte Islands, are consigned
to the States annually, and also to the Sandwich Islands. It must be borne in
mind that all these industries, though already of considerable importance, are but
the initial steps in what are surely destined to be most profitable enterprises. With
the shipping facilities offered by the Canadian Pacific Railway, and the new steamship lines to Japan, China and Australia, backed by her natural advantages of
climate and geographical position, and immense resources in timber and minerals,
British Columbia is now in a position to command her proper share of the commerce of the world, and demonstrate her importance and value as a province of the
Dominion. There is no other country on the globe more richly endowed with
varied sources of wealth, as fisheries, timber, minerals, pasture and arable lands,
etc., and all are open to those who choose to avail themselves of these new and
attractive fields for enterprise.
THE CLIMATE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
The climate is one of the greatest attractions of the province, and can hardly
fail to please, since in reality there are several climates to choose from. On Vancouver Island and the coast line of the mainland it is delightfully serene and mild,
greatly resembling the climate of Devonshire and Cornwall, without excessive
rains; and from Queen Charlotte Island to Alaska the climate of Scotland is
closely matched. Records show that the gooseberry buds have opened in February,
and native plants come into leaf early in March, and native hemp is then generally
grown several inches ; on April 13th strawberries have been seen in bloom, and by
May 1st strawberries are ripening, spring wheat, potatoes and peas showing well
above ground; the plains covered with wild flowers and native roses in
bloom.
It is on Vancouver Island and in the extensive districts west of the coast
range as well as in those in the southern strip of the province between the
parallels of 49° and 50° that the great fruit-raising farms of Canada will be
located. Apples, pears, plums, peaches, apricots, nectarines, the finer class of
grapes, berries of every description, fruits not common to the eastern coasts, a
profusion of flowers, and all the more delicate vegetables will grow luxuriantly.
The strawberry grows wild on the prairie lands, nearly of the same size as the
garden fruit. The demand for these is limited only by price, the market for
them begins at the eastern door of the province and extends for a thousand miles,
radiating as the distance increases.
The species and varieties of plants growing in this rich and fertile district
are exceedingly numerous.    Growing on the meadow lands are the following:—
White pea, wild bean, ground nuts, a species of white clover, reed meadow
grass, bent spear grass, wild oat, wild timothy, sweet grass, cowslip, crowsfoot,
winter cress, partridge berry, wild sunflower, marigold, wild lettuce, nettles, wild
angelica, wild lily, brown leaved rush. 40 BRITISH COLUMBIA
The fern attains the enormous height of from six to eight feet, and the
grasses have all a most vigorous growth.
This shows the climate of the country to be far removed from a tropical one,
where summer is eternal and proportionately enervating to man and beast. It
is, on the contrary, though drier and steadier than England, in ordinary seasons
not unlike the western counties, more particularly Devon and Cornwall. What
strikes an Englishman most about the climate is its serenity, and the absence
of the biting east wind. He notices, also, with surprise and pleasure, that rainy
weather here does not tend to depress the spirits as it does in England. The
invigorating quality of the climate remains throughout the year. These remarks
apply more particularly to the mainland coast and the eastern side of Vancouver
Island.
North along the coast of the mainland, which generally is mountainous,
there is a great rainfall—greater than on the west coasts of the British Isles—on
that part of the coast of the mainland lying open to the westerly winds between
Vancouver and Queen Charlotte Islands.    This also is the case further north
The coast further south including Burrard Inlet, the south of the Fraser
River, and in fact all those parts sheltered by Vancouver Island, resembles the •
east coast of Vancouver; although the settlers on the mainland assert that theirs
is the finer climate of the two. No general description will serve the purpose in
speaking of the climate of the mainland of British Columbia. On the coast it
varies considerably, while in the interior the differences are yet more plainly
marked.     It may be divided into the southern, middle and northern zones.
THE SOUTHERN ZONE.
The southern zone, taking that to be between the international boundary
line (49°), and 51° north latitude, and east of the coast range beginning at Yale,
comprises much but not all of that Country in which irrigation is essential to the
growth of cereals. This arises of course from the air losing moisture in crossing
the range.
It is in this zone that so much bunch-grass country exists, which offers so
many advantages for cattle and sheep raising. The mean annual temperature
differs little from that of the coast region; a greater difference is observed, however, between the mean summer and winter temperature and a still greater
contrast when the extremes of heat and cold are compared. The rainfall at a
point on the Thompson, 700 feet above the sea, was measured in the year 1875 and
showed 7.99 inches together with melted snow making 11.84, while at Esquimalt
it was 35.87. The winter is shorter and milder than the districts further north,
and though snow falls, the wind-swept slopes are usually very thinly covered.
Cattle as well as horses winter out, and as the former, unlike the latter, will not
scrape for their food, this circumstance serves in some degree as a guide to the
nature of the climate.
The report of the Geological Survey of Canada, says of it: "The whole of
British Columbia south of latitude 52° and east of the Cascades is really a grazing
country up to an altitude of 3,500 and a farming country up to 2,500 feet, where
water can be conveyed for irrigating purposes. The question of water in this
district must be ever kept in sight."   Some years ago General Moody, R.E., for-
% BRITISH COLUMBIA 41
merly Lieut-Governor of the colony, in speaking of the interior and its advantages
for settlement said : " It will demand not a little faith by those living in the same
parallels of latitude in Europe to believe that wheat will ripen anywhere at all, at.
altitudes from 2,500 to 3,500 feet, and other grain at even more.    *    *    *    Nevertheless such is the fact."
THE MIDDLE ZONE.
This comprises the region between 51° and 53° north latitude and contains
much,of the^mountainous parts of the province, including the Cariboo Mountains
the, locality of the most celebrated gold-fields yet discovered in British Columbia.
The rainfall is 'heavier here than in the southern zone and the forest growth
therefore becomes more dense. The altitude of the settlements in this division
varies from 1,900 to 2,500 feet above the level of the sea : 3,000 feet being about
the maximum height for wheat, though other grains ripen at a greater altitude.
From longitude 122° the land falls toward the valley of the Fraser, the climate
becomes milder than in the mountains, and bunch-grass grows in the valleys and
on the benches. The climate, if less attractive than that of the two great
divisions east and west of the coast range, is particularly healthy.
THE NORTHERN ZONE.
A consideration of this country hardly falls within the scope of this pamphlet.
It is necessarily remote from the line of the Canadian Pacific Railway and except
for its gold mines and the fish in its waters will not by reason of its distance
attract immediate settlement. Of its climate, however, an authentic record
states that from July 17th to August 5th, the mean of the observed minima in
this part of the country is 39.7°. The mean of the early morning and evening
readings of the thermometer, 49.4°. This must be much below the actual mean
temperature, for the thermometer seldom rises much above its minimum when
observed at 6 a.m.    The heat is sometimes great in the middle of the day.
It will be seen from the foregoing that British Columbia possesses a greater
variety of climate than any country of its size, and that the lines of demarcation
between one and the other are singularly abrupt and well defined. There is the
equable genial climate of Vancouver Island and the mainland coast, in which
every fruit, from the wild strawberry to the finer kinds of grape, grows luxuriantly, in which every flower, from the wild crocus to the orchid, blossoms in profusion, and the enormous Douglas fir grows side by side with the mountain ash.
Within a few miles of the border of this land is a territory in which rain seldom
falls, where the sky is ever clear and the air bracing, with sharper differences
between the winter aDd the summer temperatures, but with a mean differing but
little from the adjoining region. Close on the edge of this is a climate of almost
constant rain where timber grows so thickly as to induce the belief that the
valleys are impenetrable, and where the trees attain the stupendous size that
makes them a marvel of the forest world. North of all these are further variations of climate intermingling to a certain extent from local causes and each
adapted for the development of one or other of the many resources of that bounteously endowed country. 42 BRITISH COLUMBIA
SPORT IN BRITISH COLUMBIA.
In addition to its many advantages already referred to, British Columbia
offers unequalled attractions to the lover of rod and gun, and perhaps no country
in the world is better entitled to that much-abused term "Sportsman's Paradise."
Those who consider that the ideal of human happiness is attained while flogging
a stream, can find plenty of occupation for their finest tackle in killing the beautiful mountain trout—fish every whit as game and toothsome as the brook-trout of
the-East, and plentiful in the majority of streams throughout the province. Of
game, large and small, there is a great variety. On the mainland are grizzly,
black and brown bears, panther, lynx, elk, cariboo, deer, mountain sheep and
goat, heads and skins of which are the finest trophies of a sportsman's rifle.
Water fowl, geese, duck, etc., are very abundant on the larger lakes, and these
and several varieties of grouse, are the principal feathered game, and can always
be found in the season. On Vancouver Island bear and deer can be found within
easy distance of lines of travel, snipe afford rare good sport, and the valley quail
is as swift of wing and as fascinating an ob ct of pursuit as his famous cousin
"Bob White" of Ontario. The English phea j,nt was introduced some years ago,
and the golden plumaged strangers took kin ly to their new home, and are now
numerous on the island. The soft climate suits them admirably, and sportsmen
from England can forget for the time that t ley have left the "tight little island"
far away, while stopping their "rocketers," as the long-tailed beauties whirr
away above the tangled covers of Vancouver. For big game, bear, cariboo, sheep,
goat, etc., there is no part of the continent that offers a more promising chance
than the Selkirk Range, and taken all in all, with its great variety of game and
noble scenery, there are no such shooting grounds now open to sportsmen as are
awaiting all coiners in the picturesque western province.
THE SCENERY OP BRITISH COLUMBIA.
To attempt to convey a proper idea of the marvellous beauty of the scenery of
British Columbia in a work of this description would be sheer folly. Within the
limits of the province are crowded all the mountain ranges of Western America,
forming a combination of scenic magnificence that simply baffles portrayal.
Blest with natural resources of immense value, the province also excels all others
for beauty, and the journey from the extreme eastern boundary to the coast, is
something that once enjoyed will never be forgotten. Traversing the passes of
the Rocky Mountains, and continuing through the Selkirks and Columbian
ranges, the eye wanders from peak to peak, gorge to gorge, and valley after
valley, as they are revealed in endless succession for nearly 300 miles before the
branches of the Fraser are reached. On the coast the scenery is softer, but none
the less attractive. The natural canals of these tranquil waters and the deep
inlets of the coast are in some places flanked on either side by precipitous mountains rising. sheer out of unfathomable water, and they look like strips of pale
green riband curling about between mounds of a darker hue. The summits of
these mountains are at one moment visible and at the next hidden in some passing cloud, and down their sides, from points far towards the summit, long lines
of silver streaks of foaming water fall into the sea. Between the ocean and these
inlets are islands which shield them from the force of any storm, so that a boat
may travel for a thousand miles in absolute safety.
JL  44 BRITISH COLUMBIA
LANDS.
For the information of intending settlers a few words concerning the acquirement of lands in .the Province of British Columbia may be useful. Along the
Canadian Pacific Railway and within twenty miles on each side of the line is a
tract of land known.as the Railway Belt, the regulations concerning which differ
slightly from those governing other portions of the country. This belt is vested
in the Government of the Dominion as distinguished from the Government of
the Province of British Columbia, whose regulations are in force for all other
parts. " The country is laid out in townships of six miles square, and each of the
thirty-sixth enclosed square miles (called sections, and numbered 1 to 36) is
divided into four quarter-sections, containing 160 acres each. These quarter-
sections may be purchased at a price now fixed at $2.50 (10s.) per acre, subject to
change by order-in-council. They may be "homesteaded" by settlers who intend
to reside on them, in which case no money is paid for the land, the only charge
being a fee of $10 (£2) at the time of application. Six months are allowed in which
to take possession, and at the end of three years if the settler can show to the
local agent that he has cultivated the land, he acquires a patent on easy terms
and becomes owner of the homestead in fee simple. In case of illness, or of
necessary absence from the homestead during the three years, additional time
will be granted to the settler to conform to the Government regulations. These
conditions apply to agricultural lands.
GRAZING LANDS.
Persons desiring to engage in cattle raising can acquire leases from the Government on easy terms, subject to a termination of their lease by two years
notice from the Government.
Stock raising is a pleasant as well as profitable occupation in British Columbia. A settler pre-empts 320 acres of land, for which he pays one dollar an acre,
in four equal instalments. He can put up a small lodge at little expense, and use
the balance of his money in purchasing cattle. These he will brand and turn loose
to graze where they will. In due course, the calves must be branded, and steers
sold, and with little care or anxiety a man grows rich.
TIMBER LANDS.
The timber lands within the Railway Belt may be acquired from the Dominion
Government on payment of an annual fee of 150 (£10), and thirty cents (Is. 3d.)
for each tree felled. This refers to the large timber-making trees cut for sale, and
not to the smaller deciduous trees that may be required for use. These terms
apply to licenses granted for "timber limits " east of the 120° parallel of longitude, all timber west of that to the sea being governed by the regulations of the
Provincial Government. Mining and mineral lands within the Railway Belt are
disposed of by the Dominion Government on special terms governed by the circumstances of the case.
The following are the regulations of the Provincial Government of British
Columbia governing lands not in the Railway Belt. BRITISH COLUMBIA 45
PROVINCIAL GOVERNMENT LANDS.
Crown lands in British Columbia are classified as either surveyed or unsur-
veyed lands, and may be acquired either by record and pre-emption, or
purchase.
.   PRE-EMPTIONS.
The following persons may record or pre-empt Crown lands:—Any person,
being the head of a family, a widow, or a single man over 18 years of age, being a
British subject, may record surveyed or unsurveyed Crown lands, which are
unoccupied, or unreserved, and unrecorded.
- Aliens may also record such surveyed or unsurveyed lands, on making a
declaration of intention to become a British subject.
The quantity of land which may be recorded or pre-empted is not to exceed
320 acres northward and eastward of the Cascade or Coast Mountains, or 160
acres in the rest of the province.
No person can hold more than one pre-emption claim at a time. Prior record
or pre-emption of one claim, and all rights under it, are forfeited by subsequent
record or pre-emption of another claim.
Land recorded or pre-empted cannot be transferred or conveyed till after a
Crown grant has been issued.
Such land, until the Crown grant is issued, is held by occupation. Such
occupation must be a bona fide personal residence of the settler or homestead
settler, or his family or agent.    Indians or Chinese cannot be agents.
The settler must enter into occupation of the land within thirty days after
recording, and must continue to occupy it.
Continuous absence for a longer period than two months consecutively of the
settler or homestead settler, and his agent or family, is deemed cessation of
occupation; but leave of absence may be granted not exceeding four months in
any one year, inclusive of the two months' absence.
Land is considered abandoned if unoccupied for more than four months in
the aggregate in one year, of for more than two months consecutively.
If so abandoned, the land becomes waste lands of the Crown, without any
cancellation of the record.
The fee on recording is two dollars (8s.)
The settler may either have the land surveyed at his own instance (subject to
rectification of boundaries), or wait till the Chief Commissioner causes it to be
surveyed.
After survey has been made, upon proof, by declaration in writing of himself
and two other persons, of occupation from date of pre-emption, and of having
made permanent improvements on the land to the value of two dollars and fifty
cents per acre, the settler, on producing the pre-emption certificate, obtains a
certificate of improvement.
After obtaining the certificate of improvement and paying for the land, the
settler is entitled to" a Crown grant in fee simple. He pays five dollars
therefor. 46 BRITISH COLUMBIA
PAYMENT FOR LAND AND CROWN GRANT.
The price of Crown lands, pre-empted, is one dollar per acre, which must be
paid in four equal instalments, as follows: First instalment, two years from date
of record or pre-emption, and each other instalment- is not payable till after the
survey.
The Crown grant excludes gold and silver ore, and reserves to the Crown a
royalty of five cents per ton on every ton of merchantable coal raised or gotten
from the land, not including dross or fine slack.
No CrOwn grant can be issued to an alien who may have recorded or preempted by virtue of his declaring his intention to become a British subject, unless
he has become naturalized.
The heirs or devisees of the homestead settler are, if resident in the province,
entitled to the Crown grant on his decease.
SALE OF SURVEYED LANDS.
Vacant surveyed lands, which are not the sites of towns or the suburbs thereof, and not Indian settlements, may be purchased at the rate of two dollars and
fifty cents per acre. Surveyed lands purchased under the provisions of this
section must be paid for in full at the time of the purchase thereof.
SALE OF UNSURVEYED LANDS.
The applicant to purchase unsurveyed Crown lands, after staking, posting,
etc., must give two months'notice of his intended application in the "Government
Gazette,'' and in any newspaper circulating in the district where the land is situated.
He must also have the land surveyed at his own expense, by a surveyor
approved of and acting under the instructions of the Chief Commissioner.
The price is two dollars and fifty cents per acre, to be paid as follows : Ten per
cent, at the'time of application, and ninety per cent, on completion and acceptance
of survey.
The quarttity of land must be not less than 160 acres, nor more than 640 acres.
The purchase must be completed within six months from date of application.
WATER RIGHTS.
Landlords may divert, for agricuftural or other purposes, the required quantity
of unrecorded and unappropriated water from the natural channel of any stream,
lake, etc., adjacent to or passing through their land, upon obtaining a written
authority of the Commissioner.
HOMESTEAD ACT.
The farm and buildings, when registered, cannot be taken for debt incurred
after the registration; it is free from seizure up to a value not greater than $2,500
(£500 English); goods and chattels are also.free up to $500 (£100 English); cattle
"farmed on shares" are also protected by an Exemption Act.
TEHjES.
Not unfrequently settlers are anxious about their titles to property, when
locating in a new land. There need be no uneasiness on this score in British
Columbia.   Titles are secure.
%. BRITISH COLUMBIA 47
GOVERNMENT.
The Canadian Government regulates all matters connected with trade and
navigation, the customs and excise, the administration of justice, militia and
defence, and the postal service; but the Provincial Government of British Columbia
has. control of all local matters. The province is at present represented in the
Canadian Parliament by three Senators and six members of the House of Commons.
Its own Legislature consists of a Lieutenant-Governor, appointed by the Governor-
General of Canada, an Executive Council of four members and a Legislative
Assembly of twenty-seven members, elected by the people for a term of four years.
In practice the Executive Council holds office at the will of the Assembly, precisely
as the English Ministry does at the will of the House of Commons. There are
thirteen districts for electoral purposes. A short period of residence, with registration, qualifies voters, and every settler who shows an aptitude for public
business, and enjoys the confidence of his neighbors, has as good a chance as
another of representing his locality in the Provincial Legislature or the House of
Commons at Ottawa.
HOW TO REACH BRITISH COLUMBIA.
The best, cheapest, safest and only direct route is as follows :—
By steamer across the Atlantic to Canada (Quebec in summer ; Halifax, Nova
Scotia, in winter). Thence by the Canadian Pacific Railway across the continent
to Vancouver.
The Atlantic passage takes from eight to ten days, and the railway trip from
Quebec across the continent five days. A first class passenger can go through to
British Columbia from England in fourteen days, by crossing the continent on the
Canadian Pacific line.
It is best to take " Through Tickets " to Vancouver, or as far as-possible. Efforts
may be made to induce passengers to take tickets by some roundabout route, which
oftentimes necessitates expensive stoppages by the way. A passenger should insist
upon having a ticket by the Canadian PacificRailway, which is the only dibect route.
Third class passengers should provide at least part of the necessary food for
themselves for the railway trip across America? as provisions  at the way-side
stations are expensive, and the " through " ticket price does not include provisions
except on the steamers.    Colonist's meals are 50 to 75 cents each.
Surplus money should be sent through the Post Office, or a Bank, to avoid
risk from loss on the way.
It is the practice in North America, on the part of interested or dishonest
persons, to fill the ears of passing colonists with stories about the places they are
going to.    No attention should be given to these men.
While passing through Eastern Canada, colonists for British Columbia will
apply, in case of need, to the local immigration officers of the Dominion of Canada,
who will give honest advice and information. The coin and paper money of
Canada is of  a uniform standard and is current throughout the*Dominion.
Intending passengers can obtain tickets through to all points in British
Columbia, together with the fullest information relative to the most desirable
places of location for farming, cattle growing, mining, and trading, by applying to
the Agents of the Canadian Pacific Railway Company in London, Liverpool and
Amsterdam. —
48 BRITISH COLUMBIA
HOW TO SEND MONEY TO BRITISH COLUMBIA.
The colonist is recommended not to take English coin to British Columbia.
In Great Britain, he should pay that portion of his money not wanted on the
passage to the Post Office, and get a money order for it payable in Vancouver or
Victoria; or he may pay his money either to the Bank of British Columbia,
London (the bankers for the Government of British Columbia), or to the Bank of
British North America, London, and get from the bank, in exchange for his
. money, an order payable on demand from its branch bank in Vancouver
or Victoria, British Columbia, for the equivalent of his money in dollars and
cents.
The colonist, on paying his money to the Bank, must sign his name on a separate
piece of paper, and ask the Bank to send the signature to their Branch Bank in
Vancouver or Victoria, so that the person who applies for the money in Vancouver or
Victoria may be known to be the proper person. If this is neglected, the colonist may
not be able to get his money readily.
The above banks have agents in England, Scotland, and Ireland. The Bank
of British North America has its own branches in the Dominion of Canada, New
York, and San Francisco. The Bank of Montreal is the agent of ihe Bank of British
Columbia throughout Canada and New York. The Bank of British Columbia has
a branch in San Francisco.
ON ARRIVING IN BRITISH COLUMBIA.
It is sometimes better for an intending farmer of moderate means to place
his money, on first arrival, in the Government Savings Bank (which allows
interest), to take lodgings, and to work for wages for some time, in order to gain
a knowledge of colonial life and modes of management.
Colonists are recommended not to linger about the towns at which they may
arrive, but to proceed, with as little delay as possible, either to j their friends, if
they have any in the province, or to the localities where they'are likely to meet
with employment.
The Immigration Agent, at port of arrival, will furnish information as to
lands open for settlement in the respective districts, farms for sale, demand for
labor, rates of wages, routes of travel, distances, expense of conveyance, etc.
The colonist should be careful of his cash capital, and not put it into investments
hastily.    There are Canadian Government Savings Banks in the province.
PRICE OP BOARD AND LODGING.
Very erroneous ideas prevail in some quarters as to the actual expense
of living in the province. In old days, during the mining boom and prior to the
opening of- the Canadian Pacific Railway, rates were undeniably high. But at
present the increased shipping facilities and livelier competition have lowered
prices all round, and necessaries of life cost much less than in the adjacent
American territory, and can be purchased at a very reasonable advance upon
ruling prices in Ontario and the older provinces. Good board and lodging at hotels
(meat at every meal) costs from about $5 to $6.50 per week, or 20s. to 26s.
Sterling currency. Board and lodging per day, $1-00, or 4s. Sterling; single
meal, 25c, Is. Sterling; beds, 50c. and 25c, 2s. and Is. Sterling.  sSabw yk f/A    7^* AA'k'"'a" " ^ a-A^\\ : ! • \\ ■■■ "■■ ■■■*&xfjvMt.y^y-*ry'. . '.>rudJps''"dV'*'     \ 'yaye x   X*    '*'•*■")      't "~^^^°L-r^^^f^j£Jr^f^f^''sk'■' { ^3£L   ^
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,WKSI  VIRGINIA
AND ITS CONNECTIONS.
(IVIECROATOR   PROJEOTION.) —
■=»! C
A,
y\Jxft£i:',       •  ...     .-AiMAoV
P*MiA .
I
en
bf«f?fo
Mr
:v.-,>i«yj^ ^
K»« *Roflal 'Road
iHE^anadian
••• Pacific *Ry.
Is the Most Substantial and Perfectly Built Railway on the Continent of
America, and superbly equipped with the finest rolling stock modern skill
can produce. Coaches, Dining and Sleeping Cars.are triumphs
of luxurious elegance, and excel m Stability and Beauty of Finish any
in the world. J J
TOURISTS
Will find the New Route through Canada from the Atlantic to the Pacific
unapproached for magnificence and variety of scenery by any other line of
travel. The rugged wildness of the North Shore of Lake Superior, the
picturesque Lake of the Woods Region, the Billowy Prairies of the Canadian North-West, the stately grandeur of the Rockies, the marvels of the
Selkirks and Gold Range, and the wonderous beauty of the Pacific Coast,
are traversed by The Great Dustless Route. Being entirely controlled
and managed by one Company, the Canadian Pacific Railway offers
special advantages to transcontinental travellers that cannot be granted by
any other Une. It is the Best, the Safest and Fastest route from Ocean to
Ocean. The Company have spared no expense in providing for the wants
and comfort of their patrons, as their line of Dining Cars and Mountain
Hotels will at all times testify, being supplied with all that the most
fastidious can desire.   Their
Trai)scoi}tii)ei}i;a) Sleeping Cars
Are provided with Sofa Sections and Bathing Accommodation, and offer
all the comfort and convenience of First-class Hotels.   They are specially
constructed to admit of the Scenery being viewed in all directions.
Passenger Fares as Low as any other Line.
Through Tickets from Halifax, Quebec, Montreal, Ottawa, Prescott,
Brockvtlle, Toronto, Hamilton, London and all points in Canada; also
from New York, Boston and all the principal points in New England
States, to Vancouver, Victoria and other points in British Columbia,
and to Portland, Ore., Puget Sound Ports, San Francisco, etc.
Insist on getting your tickets via the Canadian Pacific Railway.
Colonists receive special attention by this route, Free Colonist Sleeping
Cars being supplied for their accommodation.
Freight Shippers can have their goods transported without the vexatious
delays and damage incidental to the frequent transfers necessary by other
routes, and without the expense and annoyance of Customs requirements.
Rates are Lower than by any other Route
Business Correspondence invited, and
attention if addressed to any of the
«. M. BOSWOKTH, Asst. Freight Traffic Mjrr.,
0. &A. andE Divisions, TORONTO.
W. K. CAM AWAY. District Passenger Agent,
118 King Street West, TOBONTO.
IV. F. EGG, District Passenger Agent,
Windsor Street Station, MONTREAL.
C. SHEER Y, District Passenger Agent,
11 Fort Street West, DETROIT, JIlCB.
tl EORGE ©H»8, General Traffic Manager,
M0NTRE.iL.
will meet with prompt and courteous
undermentioned Officers or Agents.
It. KERR, General Passenger Agent,
W. & P. Divisions, WINNIPEG.
E. V. SKIXXEK, General Eastern Agent,
353 Broadway, NEW YORK.
C. E. Mc 1*11 ERSOX, District Passenger Agt,
211 Washington Street, BOSTON.
J. F. IEE, Commercial Agent, '
232 South' Clark Street, CHICAGO, ILL.
I». McX ICOIX, General Passenger Agent,
MONTREAL. The • "J—| ighway
Pacific
To the
The "Best, (Cheapest and
/^) Quickest way to
British • Columbia
and the Puget Sound Country
IS BY THE
Canadian Pacific
Railway
The Great Rail Route through Picturesque Canada.
Luxurious Through Sleeping Cars are run from the
•' Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean.
Handsome Dining Cars on all Transcontinental Trains.
Comfortable Free Sleepers for Colonists.
No Customs troubles, no Transfers, no Delays, no Worry.
The Best Route for Tourist, Merchant or Colonist
Rates are Lower, Time is Quicker, Accommodation is Better, Travel
Safer, and Scenery Grander than by any other Route.

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