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Words from the women of Western Canada Canadian Pacific Railway Company Limited 1913

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   trv
/&>*-
WORDS from the WOMEN
OF
WESTERN   CANADA
Issued by
She Canadian Pacific "RjiilWay
Company
190$
■SP7
Au
■%'^> sffy  Western ^ ^
Women    The Story  of Their
PionePf^    Struggles and Successes
Jis   Told by Themselves
HERE is an instinct which impels men
and women to deeds of heroism; that
instinct was surely inborn in those
brave-hearted women pioneers who
came to lay the foundation stone of
this prairie home-land of Western Canada. The
women pioneers of the west, when they came, came
to conquer; and, if the coming- seemed to them
nothing" remarkable or calling for praise, those coming
after, hearing the story of those early-day trials, the
trying circumstances encountered and difficulties overcome, can only say :—To the women pioneers of the
Canadian West, Posterity owes a debt of gratitude
which only Time and History can repay.
Let us visit these women pioneers ; let us go to
them in their homes ; let us hear them tell the tales
which shall have made the history of the past the
pride of the sons and daughters of the future. Mrs. Hunderdos in Her Home
A smart drive of some eighteen   miles,
over  prairie  trails  skirting  the  line  of the
North-Western    branch    of   the   Canadian
Pacific Railway, reveals an upland stretch
I   of ground,   where   thrown   in  rich  relief
against the parched  stubble of October
fields, and hedged in by stacks of yellow
grain, barns and granary, the comfortable
farmhouse of a woman pioneer stands.
Mrs. E. Hunderdos, with her husband
and three small children, left the Netherlands
in North Holland nine years ago. They landed in Winnipeg,
Manitoba, with a cash capital just sufficient to enable them
to purchase an ox and cart with which to begin life in a
new and unknown land. They struck across country in the
rude conveyance, the husband and father casting an anxious
eye, seeking where to stay wandering foot upon the. threshold
of the new home. Within two weeks of his arrival at Saltcoats, Assiniboia, he died, leaving penniless, without any knowledge of the speech or customs of the country, his wife, three
children and an unborn babe. Then it was that the sturdy
Dutch character proved itself. Kind neighbours offered sympathy and aid; the government officials, knowing the helplessness of the woman's case, offered to send her back, with
her little ones, to Holland, but she refused to go back,
saying that at home there was no future for her children,
no free lands for her people ; and by signs she expressed a
desire to stay and work out fortune or failure where she was so
bereaved. Thus handicapped the brave woman began the
struggle of life in Western Canada. Her case aroused attention.
The Legislative member for the district, himself a Hollander
and a pioneer settler, undertook to apply for a homestead under
the " Homestead Act" for the head of this poor family. She
fulfilled the duties of a settler, sleeping each night in a rude
shack upon the tract of land she now called " Home "; working
as house servant each day ; keeping her little ones about her,
earning food and clothes, and gaining slowly and steadily a right
and title to one hundred and sixty acres of good Canadian soil.
4 She plowed her fields, built her fences, sowed her grain ; and
three years from the date of arrival was a naturalized citizen of
Canada, a land owner, and the possessor of a few head of stock,
all earned by the labour of her two woman hands.
That was nine years ago—in 1893 ; in October, 1902, Mrs.
Hunderdos was the owner of a half-section of land under cultivation,.cattle and horses browsed on the hillside of her home, a
garden gave of its fruits, eight stacks of golden grain stood
sentinels against "Want" at her doorway. She was a partner
in an ex-Iowan's farm business, conducting the sales of grain,
purchase of stock, etc.; her eldest daughter was comfortably
married and settled on an adjoining farm, two little daughters
rode their ponies each day to a school three miles away ; and, in
the words of the ex-Iowan, her business partner : " Her like isn't
to be found ; she runs the farm like clock-work, going on the
stack, the reaper or the plow, when we are a man short, as is
often the case ; she attends to the shipping of the grain, keeping
the accounts, paying out and buying in with wisdom and judgment, and is to-day worth at least fifteen thousand dollars in cash,
stock, land and grain." In her own words she believes, "Canada
is the place for the man or woman who wants to get on." This
woman's name is Mrs. E. Hunderdos, her prairie home is in the
township of Theodore, eighteen miles from the town of Yorkton,
Assiniboia, in the North-West Territories.
What Esther Gainor Gained
Another woman pioneer is Mrs. Esther Gainor, who came
with her husband and ten children from Durham County in Ontario,
in 1S79. They had no capital whatsoever, but undertook home-
steading at Arnaud, on a branch line of the Canadian Pacific
Railway. Soon after they settled down the father of the family
died, leaving a penniless wife to undertake the safe conduct
through life of a helpless family. In what country under the sun
could such a heavy undertaking be accepted by a woman, save
in Canada ? The eldest boy was but eight years of age, and with
this little human prop Esther Gainor set out to win fortune in the
west. Did she succeed ? To-day, in October, 1902, she is to be
found successfully carrying on a grain, stock and dairy farm ; she
is the owner of three hundred and twenty acres of some of the best land in Manitoba ; every acre stands free of debt—she has
paid off, since the death of her husband, in 1889, a debt of $17001
and at Carlowrie, five miles from her little country estate, you'll
find her comfortably housed next door to the school house. There
she bought an acre of land, built a house to live in upon it, in
order that she may send her children to school. Willie Gainor,
now twelve years old, manages the farm.
Willie Gainor, the  12-year old Farmer
A Wiltshire Woman
Perhaps the most cheerful amongst all cheerful women
settlers finds her Canadian home next door to Esther Gainor.
She is an English lady, the wife of W. Doubleday, who is the
scion of a titled house in good old Wiltshire, England. "My
husband," said this lady " walked one hundred and fifty miles
looking for work, when he first came to the country ;" and then
she added with a smile, "when he had gone that distance he
discovered, that without knowing it, he had passed that which
he had sought many times. You see we English people have
much to learn when we come out to this country. How do I
like the prairies?" she asked brightly; "Well, looking at this
little white-washed shack, you'd think perhaps that we are very
poor, but we are not. I've been out six years," she said ; " I
went home with my babies last year ; my husband was going to
build a new house but he wanted me to go home and live for a few years there with my family ; he thought that I had earned a
holiday, he said, after a long working time. Well, I took the
money that was to have gone into the new house and I went back
home," here she laughed merrily. " I wasn't there a month till I
got restless. In London, where my sisters have very fine houses,
I felt   encompassed—-I   wanted   more   room,   more  air—more
I began to realize that though
breathing space—more freedom !
my friends lived in elegant
houses they really owned
nothing ; everything was
somebody else's, the house,
the grounds, nothing really
belonged to anybody; and
then I began to think of "my
broad acres—of my cozy little
prairie home—I wanted to
hear the tinkle of the cowbells—the wild bird's call, the
song of the reaper ; and oh,
how I wanted to see the sunrises and sunsets I had left
behind! I wrote to Will and
said I was coming back. My
people were awfully disgusted, of course, and were
really angry at me, for I only
remained a few months ; so
here I am, vexed at myself
for spending so much money
in a trip which I might have
taken later, but experience
teaches," she said cheerfully; °n a Pralrie Trail
" What we have here, our farm, stock, grain fields, and little
home, is our own—all earned by ourselves ; and my opinion?
well you can say to my compatriots, ' Canada is the right place
for those who wish for independence ; and the proverb ' Do
without' is the only motto one needs to follow for the first year
or so'; at least that's what we found when we came out here
without either cash or a knowledge of the world."
7 A See Farm
All kinds of industries have their place in the prairie-land,
but a Bee Farm at Carlowrie, Manitoba, claims attention chiefly
because it is worked and run by Mrs. George Devitt and her
daughter Nellie. Mrs. Devitt, a bright-faced, active little woman
of five-and-forty, was found gathering the honey from her bee-
fields. The odd little honey
workers were creating quite
an uproar at being robbed of
the season's toil, but Miss
Nellie, enveloped in netting
and long-wristed gloves, was
"smoking" the hives, while
her mother, with a deft dexterity, lifted the roof of each
hive and picked out the
combs which were transferred at once to the honey-
house—the honey-house being
a sort of dairy, where rows
upon rows of shining jars,
some filled and some waiting
to be filled, stood upon whitewashed shelves. An extractor, a patent machine,
stood upon a block in the
middle of the dairy, and upon
a table at hand some bee
knives lay. While the ladies
went on with the work of extracting the honey I learned
something of the gains of this odd industry. Mrs. Devitt states
that a single hive—the cost of which is $10 {£2)—gives in
a single season larger returns than that of a dairy cow. The
cost of bee-keeping is almost nil in the prairie-west, there being
such an abundance of wild-flowers—the early spring, the summer
season and the Indian summer following1 with its myriad wild
Manitoba Sweetness clover blossoms, which en-purple or whiten the fields from May
until November.
The outlay in starting her honey-farm had not exceeded $25
(^5), this covering the cost of the original hive, a patent honey
extractor, a bee knife and the small amount of wax necessary to
start the insects to work upon. Mrs. Devitt has now a numerous
progeny of bees. She finds she cannot fill all the orders for the
delicacy which come to her, and she referred the writer to a
neighbouring apiarist for testimony regarding the profits of a
Manitoba Bee Farm. This gentleman said :—" I am much interested in apiculture and am fully satisfied that Manitoba is second
to no part of the Dominion for the production of honey. Many
won't believe this, but my own f
experience in this work has fully
convinced me of it." Why not,
indeed, when the speaker gains
from this " sweet " labour an income of $1,000 (.£200)—the outcome of one summer's hive-work !
If verification is needed for this
statement, the reader is referred
to James Duncan, Roseaudale
Apiary, Dominion City, Manitoba.
A Scotchwoman's Success
Four miles out from the City of Brandon, Manitoba, beautiful
"Tullichewen," the home of a fine type of Scotchwoman of patrician descent, stands. "Tullichewen" is really an estate, as it comprises six hundred and forty acres of beautifully treed spruce and
maples, while its approach winds through a maze of willows extending far below. It was the threshing season—a time of fullness
in the land—and the mistress of this very beautiful home was found
busily engaged in preparations for the reception of six-and-twenty
threshers. A single serving woman was all the assistance she had,
and those who understand what a threshing-time is, will appreciate the undertaking of feeding and housing this hungry " gang."
"You've caught me at a very busy time," said Mrs. McEwen,
laying aside her baking apron, and leading the way to a parlor
as well-appointed as any city home. " What made us come to
the Canadian West ?    Well, it was for the sake of our boys we
9
mm S
c
O came. We gave up a good deal, of course, by coming in the
early days, but have we not been repaid ? On the prairie-farm
our boys grew strong and rugged in body, brave and healthy in
mind, quick and useful in hand. Even in those early days," said
the mother, "we found educational advantages ; schools, colleges
and universities were at the door, I may say. Our eldest boy
studied medicine, he is now superintending physician in the
Vancouver General Hospital ; our second boy graduated in Arts
in the Winnipeg University, he manages the farm now. My
daughters are both well-settled in life, one married to a leading
Winnipeg physician, the other lives only a few miles from me, in
one of the best farm-houses in the west."
" Oh, yes, we began small, like every one else in the west;
we lived in that small log shanty you see down there, for a number
of years, but as soon as we could afford to do so we built this
place, 'Tullichewen.' Yes, it is called after our old home in Scotland and is a blending of age and happy memories."
"A woman's work?" queried Mrs. McEwen, "why, of course,
a woman's true work is within the home. I can imagine no
greater life of pleasure than that found on a prairie farm ; the
difficulty is, of course, that help is so hard to be had. I wonder
that more hardy Scotchwomen, having a knowledge of farm work,
do not come out here ; wages are high and work to be had the
entire year round. Indeed, the only drawback to the west is its
few trained home-workers."
In answer to a further question the lady laughed and said :
"Bring out servants? What's the use? They marry almost
immediately after coming out to Canada, and instead of solving
the domestic problem, their coming only seems to deepen its
mystery, for the bachelor farmers are all rich, independent, and
they, in turn, when they marry, require help themselves. Do you
see the situation ?" asked the lady laughing merrily.
The interior of '' Tullichewen " would surprise an Old Country
visitor whose ideas of the " wild-and-woolly " west are fanciful.
The neat kitchen contained a modern range with every appliance
for cooking. The floors were painted and the walls were white ;
the dimity curtains, drawn apart, revealed a large vegetable
garden, lately robbed of its season's fruits ; these were found
stored in a stone-floor and walled basement, where a furnace gave
11  aw* rm
winter heat. The dining room was large and well appointed ;
family plate reflected from a mirrored sideboard, and a library
annexed showed in the choice of books there ranged, the trend
of thought to be both wise and learned. A boudoir on the second
floor gave an air of elegance, and the sleeping rooms were models
of housewifely pride and care. Pictures upon the walls, plants
taking in the sunshine, carpeted floors, and here and there some
little touch of daintiness that bespoke a Scottish home training,
down to the open writing-desk where was observed the crested
seal; it read,—" Reveresco," the design being a blasted oak out
of which springs the renewed leaf in flower.
Outside the house, its broad acres reached for a great distance on either side. " Father bought the place in 1884," said
the lady, "and he and the boys have put some elbow-grease in
it since then. Last year we shipped seven thousand bushels of
grain ; this year ? well, next week will tell the tale, for father,
with our two neighbours, bought a threshing-machine, and tomorrow they begin work upon the stacks. Father says that this
season is a record-breaker, though! "
" How does farm-life in the west compare with Old Country
farming? You can't compare the two," she said. "You see, at
home you rent the land, here you own it. No fertilization is needed
here; there you've got to buy fertilizers. At home you must have
capital to start; here, the only capital required is energy and will.
Aye, it's a grand country for a poor man, or a poor woman," said
Mrs. McEwen reflectively, "but if you want to prove that just
'call and see Jack Grant's wife on the adjoining farm."
Jack Grant's Bonnie Wife
The first glimpse you got of Jack
Grant's home proved the statement ;
it is a home with an air of pride as
well as prosperity about it. Well-
trained spruce and maple trees shelter
it's well-kept grounds ; barns and outbuildings, costing eighteen hundred
dollars this year, add to the fine
house a look of luxury, and yet, in
1880, Jack Grant walked into Brandon
town—then a town of tents—penniless!
13
In a Tiny Log Hut The little wife began the struggle of life in a tiny log hut; she
sang success into existence, it may be said, for, while her stouthearted young husband worked in the fields without, within, the
deft-handed little wife "kept things moving."
" Well," she laughed shyly, " you wouldn't have me sit down
and wait for fortune to come, would you ? Of course I worked
—worked hard. I had my dairy work and my poultry, and
although it was up-hill for the first few years—you see, we
started with nothing but our four hands—still we could see we
were getting ahead, and that was an encouragement to keep on
trying !"
" We had one bad set-back," she said, thoughtfully; "we
lost everything we had by fire after we got well started. That
did seem hard, and Jack felt as if there was no use beginning
again; indeed, he pretty nearly threw up the sponge and wanted
to move further west! But I'd got to love the old place—the
very fields seemed to hold me back—but then again there was
nothing but the ashes of all we had worked so hard for."
" We'll go west and begin again!" my husband said.
"Well, Jack," I said, " if we've got to begin again, why not
begin again right here ? "
" We did," said the bright little woman ; " we began again
without a dollar, and—" this with a laugh, " if you wanted to
buy us out to-day you'd have to dive down pretty deep in your
pocket!"
• "Why, you can't fail out west," said Mrs. Grant, " you
actually seem to succeed in spite of yourself!" and who will
contradict so alive an authority ?
A
A City Woman's Success
Within sight of the pretty town of Regina—the capital of the
Territories—the flying arms of a giant windmill attract the eye.
The windmill stands upon a farm known as the " Admiral's
Place." The Admiral was an English gentleman who sunk more
than a well upon the premises. This is only stated so as to show
that the monied man may miss success, while the woman without
money may find and secure it. A drive out to the '' Admiral's
Place " one day last October, found at the churn-dasher a lady
who is more frequently seen at social functions in town.    On that
14 I
particular day, however, she was " receiving," and a table
placed cat-a-corner to admit a double dozen of " guests," revealed the happy fact that the threshers were coming! There wasn't
a housemaid on the grounds; a Galician woman who " could only
talk English by signs " was " getting in the way," and a bright-
faced little daughter of the house busied herself about the long
dining table.
" Come to talk about the farm? " echoed the mistress of the
place ; " Don't you see the dozen of hungry men on the stacks
out there ? But if you don't mind the noise of the dasher, or a
few spats of cream, why ask away and I'll tell you all I know
about farm-life in the west ! "
Presently the lady warmed to her subject :—
" You see I feel responsible for this move on the farm," she
said; "sometimes I think I undertook a good deal, that's when I
get tired ! " she smiled ; " sometimes I'm very proud of the work,
that's when it's done ! " she laughed ; " but I'll tell you how we
came to be farmers. As you know, we lived in town and lived
right up to the last dollar of Mr. Pope's salary ; I began to see
how people on farms got on ; why, look at the Cullum's, the
Much's, the Wilkie's, the Hamilton's, look at everybody in the
district ! All began with nothing and are getting wealthy year
by year !" The churn-dasher having done its work, the lady
began the pretty process of forming the granules into a golden
mound. While she salted and shaped the rolls she talked :—
" One day I said to Mr. Pope, why don't you take the Admiral's
Place ; he's only playing at farming ; lets try what we can do
for one summer anyway ? That broke the ice and one day,
after considerable coaxing, I found myself packing up furniture
in town, and next day unpacking it in the country."
" I think it was the joy of the children that gave my husband
patience that first season ; of course he blistered his hands and I
blistered my hands and face, but we got a garden in the first
season, and, would you believe it, I made enough out of that
garden to—well, to buy half a cow ! My husband bought the
other half," the lady laughed, " but I had to mortgage the first
season"s butter on the debt."
" What dreadful bad butter it was, too ! " she said, gravely;
" we couldn't eat it ourselves !    Positively,  I   carried my own
m 15  Urttl
butter to the shops and bought butter for my table ; I was
ashamed to let Mr. Pope know I couldn't improve on my trials,
and I used to make a great show of making my butter, hide it
out of sight, and, bringing on the table the boughten article
freshly sprinkled with water, would say: ' There now, Coll, tell
me what you think of that!' "
" He always pronounced it ' excellent!' My conscience
pricked me worse than my currant bushes," said Mrs. Pope,
"and I knew I couldn't go on buying butter indefinitely; so
every day after Mr. Pope had gone to his office, I would hie me
away to the Government Creamery, and, putting on cap and
apron, I would take my lessons in the mysteries of butter-
making."
This lady has demonstrated how a city-bred woman, without
experience or capital, can make a practical success of farm life,
for to-day, four years after a timid start, her dairy butter is sold
at premium prices ; indeed, any traveller along the great transcontinental line of railway can test this statement, for the dining-
table of the Canadian Pacific Railway has contracted with this
lady for the delivery each week of one hundred pounds of butter
for its tables, and the imprint "J.OP." will be found on every
pound supplied. Mrs. Pope is a prize-winner each year in
butter-making contests at every agricultural fair.
Mr. J. C. Pope, having discovered that money was to be
made on a rented farm, considered more might be laid by on
one's own premises ! He accordingly purchased last year a half
section at four dollars an acre ; the rapid rise in land values now
rates the same property at twenty-five dollars an acre. Six
thousand bushels of grain has he shipped this season, and a fine
herd of Ayrshire cattle, with some splendid horse-flesh, swine
and poultry as well, are the outcome of a brave-hearted wife's
wish to try farm life for a single season !
The Mr. Pope referred to is a well-known official of the
North-West Government at Regina. A Relic of Early Days
From Cart to Carriage
When George MacBeth's wife made the overland trip from
Kildonan, Manitoba, to Prince Albert, Saskatchewan, it was in
the old Red River cart you see a cut of above. That was some
years ago. To-day Mrs. MacBeth rides in a fine carriage, and
when she visits Kildonan, where her family still lives, she takes a
palace sleeping car on the Canadian Pacific Railway.
"When my grandfather came to the country," said Mrs.
MacBeth, " things were different to what they are now. He was
one of Lord Selkirk's ' first settlers,' and the substantial comforts
which have come since the arrival of the ' first white man ' into
Fort Garry, have come through the first trip of those days of 1S15."
" You know," said Mrs. MacBeth, " the idea of the Kildonan
settler was that the boys and girls of the home belonged to father
and mother quite as much as the field and garden. They worked
both pretty industriously, and the consequence was that when
George and I decided to get married and begin life for ourselves,
we had nothing but the good training for a farm life which we
received at home."
" My own people," said the lady, " like my husband's people,
came to the country with the first settlement days of 1815. Nine
years ago we struck out for the Saskatchewan and took up a
homestead ; originally, we only had one hundred and sixty acres
18 BB2fl
of land, but as soon as we made enough off that to buy another
quarter section we did so, and now we have three hundred and
twenty acres under crop—pasture lands, and, as you see, a well-
wooded fringe of poplars. We carry on mixed farming," said
the lady, opening her account books; "see, here you find my
receipts from butter sales. Here again show my returns from
egg and poultry sales, and the fact is, I can't keep up with the
demands of an ever-growing market ! "
" Two thousand pounds of butter " was the record of twelve
months'sales ; " six hundred dozens of eggs had been disposed
of, and the column given to " dressed poultry," ranged from 12)4
cents per lb. to 18 cents for Thanksgiving and Christmas turkeys.
">a.X -^ * fUsSkJli
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vslf^   J^iB^ :
iKffiEH
" Does poultry-raising pay?" asked the lady; "Well, I should
say so! You see the home market is big enough for the settlement and if we had double the quantity we could make ready
cash sales."
"For a woman," said Mrs. MacBeth, "I can think of no
more independent life than that of a life on a western farm. We
hadn't a penny when we started ; we have our land free of debt,
eighty head of horned cattle stand at the stacks, we have all the
machinery needed for carrying on farm work—a binder, seeder,
mower, gang-plows, small plows, discs, rakes, wagons and
carriages for driving. This year my husband marketed three
thousand bushels of No. x grain and we hold enough to winter
our  stock, of course.    My own share of the work," said Mrs.
19 MacBeth, " seems small enough, but my start out in the poultry
business was with a brood of chickens. From that little capital
I gathered the barnyard full you see, and the cost of their keep?
well, they pick-up all summer, and in winter the refuse from the
grain-bins is all they require. Prizes ?" smiled the lady;
"there's scarcely a farmer's wife round here but has carried off
prizes for butter-making ; why, what's the use of making butter
if you don't make it best quality? "
Mrs. MacBeth when asked what capital she considered
necessary for an Old Country woman to bring to Canada, said:—
" First a fund of energy—£$o would be not only safe but an
assurance of success, but I would advise any woman coming out
West to first secure employment on a farm where she could get
into the ways of the country, for," said the astute littlelady, "it's
awfully easv to learn our simple ways ! One year's work on a
prairie farm will be all the experience any woman requires ;
£$o capital should, if rightly handled, double itself in compound
interest year after year."
Going to School
20 mat
I
-7^
4/ What Boggy Creek Boasts
" Boggy Creek," in Assiniboia, has nothing to boast in
sound or name, but Boggy Creek is proud in the possession of
many prosperous settlers. One only shall be named. An " Old-
timer " of this district is Malcolm King, who is an excellent
example of what Success upon the shoals of Failure may do.
"We've nothing to boast of about our start in life in the
prairie land," said Mr. King's smiling wife, " for when we came
into this place we had lost everything and had pretty well
decided that things couldn't be much worse. How much capital
had we when we came ? Malcolm had exactly $25 (£5) the day
we struck the Creek, and a wild bit of unbroken prairie waste it
was that summer day." -
"That was in 1882," chimed in King himself, "and the
wife had to rough it for the first few years pretty hard."
"Well, we went through that once, and that's enough," said
Malcolm's wife, sagely. "What the people want to know is
how we got along, not how we felt about it." There was much
to tell ; speaking for itself the tumble-down log shack in the rear
of the fine stone house, which cost $3,000 in the building, flanked
by a stone-built real old Ontario-patterned barn, costing $2,500
more, told the story of progress and of perseverance.
And the well-tilled fields, fenced in and stacked heavily
with an overflowing season's yield ; the home interior with its
prettily carpeted floors and daintily curtained walls ; books and
plants and music—for an old-fashioned spinet stood in a corner—
and then the story told itself. And the humble beginning of this
ample home? In 1882, capital twenty-five dollars. In 1902,
eight hundred and sixty acres of well-cultivated land, buildings
costing five thousand five hundred dollars, stock and grain.
How was it gained ? By the help of the brave-hearted wife who,
year by year, in that strenuous struggle, sat each harvest season
on the binder, and sometimes followed the plow as well! Many
a mile of fence line had her busy hands helped to build ; many a
day in the sun-scorched grain field, side by side with her husband
she toiled, and at evening around the lamp-lit table teaching her
little ones the lessons which the busy day had robbed of these necessary family joys. Six splendid boys and girls now brighten that
Boggy Creek home, and in answer to the query " What are you
21 going to bring your boys up ?" this splendid wife and mother's
prompt answer was, "Farmers, all of them ; farmers, of course!"
while to the further question, "And your daughters ?" "Farmers
wives !" came the smiling reply.
Malcolm King's success proves that failure may be overcome
and success won by simple effort and a fair share of will.
Where, save in Western Canada, could twenty years' work bring
greater reward ?
Mrs. Thomas McCloy
A  NORTH  OF   IRELAND  WOMAN'S  WORDS
" When we came out to the Saskatchewan from Belfast in
Ireland," said Mrs. McCloy, of Prince Albert, " we had the time-
honored notion that we were coming into winter quarters. Instead
of that we found ourselves offered a choice of superior lands
anywhere along the road we travelled, where from April until
November the grass is green. My! " said the lady, " the ignorance of the Old Country people concerning Canada out here is
amazing. There's no use telling the folks that the winter is
the western farmer's most valuable season ! The flesh-forming
cereals come from our winter snows; and as a money-making
season, why the winter frost-time is the day of the freighter's harvest ! We get our wood supply, do our fence rail cutting and
hauling, and if the Irish brewery builders could only have our soil
whereon to raise the barley used in the manufacture of their
famous malts, why, what a world of topers we would all be! Yes,
I like the North-West very much ; why shouldn't I ? We came
here without any capital to speak of; we had about five hundred
dollars, but there were four children to house and feed, remember ! At first we thought it rather strange, living on a prairie
farm, but the neighbours were just splendid, volunteering help in._
every way, and we began to feel at home almost directly. We
had a school-house and church at the door, wild fruits were plentiful, fish and game at all seasons, and although we lost our first
season owing to the rebellion breaking out, for we reached here
just before 1885—still the troubles of that time made work plentiful and money easy to get.
" But the season following we had a great crop ; prices were
good, the market was ready and as I have said, cash plentiful.
There was freighting to do in winter-time, and a day's work
22 BH2fl
always offered. On our modest capital we now find ourselves quite
at home in Canada ; we have half a section of land here ; our two
boys each have beautiful farms at Carrot River, forty miles away ;
my husband has over a hundred head of stock, eight fine
Canadian-bred horses, pigs and poultry, and those red tickets you
see hanging in a bunch are First Prizes I won for butter-making.
" Comparing life out west with farm life in Ireland ? Well,
in Ireland there's a living for the few in farming ; here there's a
fortune for the many ! As for health? I don't think I ever knew
of an outbreak of disease since I came to the country ; it seems
to me that health and wealth go hand-in-hand.
" No, I wouldn't go back to Ireland to live. Why ? On
account of my boys.
A Colleston Career
The curious sight of a
woman rounding-up cattle
on the rolling plains of Colleston, Saskatchewan, showed
the "stuff" of which one
little bit of a pioneer woman
was made. All the men folk
were busy in a field near by,
and the low hum-m-m of a
threshing machine, half-
hidden by a dozen fat stacks
of grain, told why even the
women-folk of the farm felt
the necessity for action.
" Queer to see me tending cattle ? " said the breathless little body, suddenly
addressed, " why every
man on the place, boys and
all, are needed on the stacks,
for if the frost comes, as it's
bound to do, why, what if
we're not ready ? "
The   house  inside  gave   every   evidence  of being   "ready";
23 for the supper of game, cooked meats and vegetables, pies and
cakes seemingly beyond count, stood in tempting display, while
a busy " mother "—just up for a visit—ladled out the steaming
coffee as the big horn sounded the call for supper. It was a
sight worth seeing ; four-and-twenty brawny-armed sons of toil,
tramping in from the outer air, every appetite whetted to the
sharpness of a keen edge. Such chaff in conversation and merry
badinaee   in   return—there   being no social distinctions made,
The School House
notwithstanding the fact that an English " son of a lord " elbowed
a " Barnado boy." It was "threshing time," and master and
man were one in thought and action. A crop of eighty
acres, the yield showing forty bushels to the acre in wheat
and barley, made cheerful topics of toil ; while argument ran
high as to whether the oats would go 70 or 73 bushels to the
acre ?
" It's the busy time of the year," whispered Neilson's active
wife, between waits ; " the long, jolly, lazy winter is coming when
we won't have "
24 " Anything to do ? " she broke out laughing. "Indeed but
we will; the winter is not the winter of 'our discontent,'" she
quoted, " but it is the time of our rest from active labor. We have
our sewing and knitting and mending to do—there's the covering
for little active hands and feet; and the men-folk? Oh,well, there's
rail-hauling, wood-chopping and curing for another winter, and
the little social ways we have of running around to visit with the
neighbors. It's the time of the ' Bee,' " she said, nodding ; " the
raising of barns and stables always means the gathering from
far and near of all the neighborhood around, for, although it
is a changed country in many ways, still the old plan of helping
each other "prevails ! "
" Our start out ?" she asked. "Well, when George and I
started life on this farm we began rather badly, we went in debt
$250.00 ; that is, we bought a team of horses and a plough,
mortgaged them, and, until the first crop came off the place, had
a pretty hard pull. There isn't a dollar owing on the place—land,
house, stock or implements—to-day ; indeed, we're thinking about
taking a holiday when winter comes. We've been nine years
' holding down the place' and we've about decided to take a run
down home. Stay there ? Land sakes ! do you think I could
live anywhere but on the Saskatchewan?    Well,  I guess not!"
The Wife of an M. L. A. Speaks
WHAT  A  SEWING-MACHINE  DID
"The best little wife that ever stepped in shoe-leather!"
said William Plaxton, ex-Member of the Legislative Assembly of
the Territorial Government, when he introduced a bright-faced
little lady of some five-and-forty years of age. And who should
know this better than the man who possesses so brave a wife ?
When Bill Plaxton went west from Woodstock in Ontario,
he went with two small sons, a brave-hearted little wife and a
pair of empty pockets.
" You run the farm-work," said the wife, " and I'll rustle the
cash to keep the table going! " And she did. Many a night the
sewing-machine sang the song of toil ; ten busy fingers evolved
the problem of " How to get along," and the little two-roomed
log house prospered, while byres and barns, stables and granaries
25 rose year by year about a well-fenced farm, where soon the
whirr of other machinery told that affluence had come to stay.
During the years of climbing upward, onward, had the little
woman dreams of higher honors still ? Perhaps ; for, when the
time came to choose a representative for the Provincial Parliament, the choice must, naturally*fall upon a man who could afford
the time to go. Then it was that the full strength of a woman's soul
showed. " I can't leave the farm," said Plaxton, " the boys are
too young to run it alone."
" You go," said the little wife, " I'll run the farm and the
sewing machine, too ! "   And so she did, and when, in later years
the little woman heard her
husband speak
in legislative
halls, don't you
think that it
was appropriate that his
speech should
be on '' giving
women the
privileges of
the ballot?"
Th e s ewing
machine is idle
now, for it won
the day and
deserves a
rest. William
"School's In" Plaxton       yet
lives in the town of Prince Albert, on the Saskatchewan, but
his early day labors have won the reward of a Government
position, and his deft-handed little wife shyly admits " anyone
can get along out west who is willing to roll up sleeves and work
with a will."
26 nam
A Bachelor's Home
Along the highway of the Saskatchewan valley many beautiful farm-homes may be found. One, being a model bachelor's
home, may be described ; its owner, Alexander Louden, a
County Armagh Irishman, who came out over twenty years ago,
admitted that his only fault with the country was " the scarcity of
wives !" Louden is the owner of section 20, Tp. 48, Rg. 24 West of
2nd Mer., and his start out in life was as a woods lumberman. Out
of a capital of two stout hands, he has evolved the problem "How
to get along," as he is the owner of 3,000 acres of land, has the best
stud of horses on the Saskatchewan, a large number of high-bred
cattle range his meadow-lands, and he has a bank account of the
bulging order.
This gentleman in an interview said :—" A married man has
a fine chance in this country, but a single man must learn to do
without the comforts of life. If we had more women out here
we men would be encouraged to work for a future, but it's dull
work going home to a fireless hearth when the day's work is
done. Why do not Old Country unmarried women come out and
take up farming as an occupation? Well, I can't answer that
question" said he, "unless it is that the North-West bachelors
won't let them stay single ! My!" he added enthusiastically, "If
some of those monied women in the Old Land only knew what
a splendid investment a prairie farm makes, what a rush there
would be to the west."
" What capital is needed for a woman farmer? Well, let us
calculate," said Mr. Louden, taking out a stub pencil and
envelope somewhere from a pocket sewed in by himself.
The passage out, say •. $ 45.00
Office fee, homestead entry (giving free
grant of land, 160 acres)  10.00
Building log house, say  80.00
Furnishing same  60.00
Experienced help hired first year  200.00
Purchase   of   plows,   wagon,   horses,
disc, etc  300.00
Seed grain  30.00
Cows, pigs, poultry, say  100.00
Supplies for first season  75 •°°
Total  $900.00 (£185) " Of course," said Louden, pocketing his pencil stub, "that's
a pretty liberal allowance, but with $1,000 (^200), any woman,
with even a limited knowledge of farming, could make a grand
start in life right here on the Saskatchewan."
"Ask Dunn, of Saskatoon," said Mr. Louden, "he'll tell you
what a wife is worth on the farm or ranch !" and then the story
of Dunn came out. Dunn is a Quebecer who lives at Saskatoon.
He is a large rancher and is the owner of the now famous pacer
"Howard S" and "Wild Het," the fastest running pony in
Canada.
Dunn had his horses entered last year on the Calgary racetrack, and with his wife he came into Prince Albert, intending to
catch the outgoing train to Calgary. He got to the station just
as the tail-end of the last car passed out of sight! Dunn began
to swear like a trooper, for losing that train meant losing the race;
he made the air blue for a while, and when his little wife could
get his ear she whispered into it! Dunn caught the message and
in five minutes he sent it speeding down the telegraph wire. In
an hour a special train left Moose Jaw and later reached Prince
Albert for its single passenger : Dunn was that passenger ! . He
paid $500.00 for the wife's whisper, but he won therace and the
money that day. Miss the money ? No, he's one of the biggest
ranchers in Canada, and he married a little native woman who
doesn't believe in losing a chance. " Oh, yes," said Louden, "a
wife and a farm in Saskatchewan reads Success ! "
A Maiden=Lake  Home
High on a grassy knoll, " Maiden-Lake Farm " on Red Deer
Hill, Saskatchewan, stands the beautiful home of a widow-woman
who conducts a large farm. Mrs. George Thompson is now
somewhat up in years, but a bright face reflects the active brain
of a woman worker. A family of five came to the west with
George Thompson and his young wife in 1885, and in the lady's
own words :—" The greatest drawback we found in those early
days was the distance between neighbours ; as the years went by
this objection was removed, and now, as you see, every half-mile
or so, fine farm-homes dot the highway. From the first we sent
the children to town to attend school; they drove in each
morning, returning at six o'clock, winter and summer, and indeed
28 ■sx the three miles, which at first seemed so great a distance, was,
after a while, just a fine walk to the boys and girls too ! Yes,
they were able to keep up their music ; and, taking it altogether,
we found we had lost nothing, but gained much in coming west.
When my husband died, his wish was that I should carry on the
farm ; the boys were able to manage quite well, having grown
up on the place, and being healthy and sound in body and limb,
enjoyed doing the duties about the farm. I myself attended to
the dairy work—yes," this with a shy laugh, "I'm considered
quite a butter-maker ; but here, where the creameries relieve the
farmers' wives of all care of the milk, etc., dairy-work is mere
pastime. If I were to answer your question as to what we are
now worth," said the lady, "you might think me boastful; but
indeed we started with only $200.00, five children were born
then, and our first crop was on 320 acres of Government land,
which we bought at $1.00 an acre. Now we count 40 head of
sheep, 10 horses, 10 cows with young heifers running, poultry
and a fine pen of pigs ; the new buildings you see—this house,
the granary, three stables and barns—have all been recently
built. We house our stock in winter; there's plenty of native
hay, and it is quite as nutritious as an Ontario clover field. We
don't owe a dollar on land, buildings or machinery, and indeed
we have nothing but good to say of the country. It is essentially
a young people's country—it is the only place in the world, I
think, where no capital is required. A mere farm hand can get
$15.00 a month with board and lodging, including winter time,
and during the summer season and harvest time he can easily get
twice that sum. As for women servants—they could claim any
wage if skilled in farm labour ; but the women all marry as soon
as they come to Canada."
Mrs. Thompson's home is an excellent sample of what refinement and womanly skill combined may accomplish. The homemade draped beds ; home-wrought carpets and rugs—the piano
open and showing classical selections thereon; the crayon
drawings upon the walls, a neat shelf of books (with English
classics peering between), all told of mental with material
growth. Three handsome daughters wrought busily upon some
pretty muslin stuff, for they were belles that same evening at the
wedding party of a girl friend.
30 A Bachelor Girl Speaks
Driving down the Regina trails, as hard as a city asphalt
pavement, a young lady holding taut rein on a spirited pony
was met. " There goes a bachelor-girl farmer ! " said the driver.
" What do you think of that for a country turn-out ? "
The lady was quite young in years ; she didn't give a
passer-by the idea of a toil-worn farm woman ; on the contrary,
she appeared a well-to-do business woman, clad in a handsome
seal jacket, a neat toque, completely up-to-date driving attire,
and the carriage she was seated in was quite as fine as any city
stable could show. Following the wheels of her dog-cart, the
interviewer came up to the door of the bachelor-girl's farm, which
lies about four miles from the military headquarters at Regina.
A more cozy home may not be found in all the west, the
first thing that claimed attention being an artist's easel with an
unfinished sketch upon its bars.
" You're looking at my undone work," said the lady, whose
name I may here state, is Marie Gilroy. " The scrubbing brush
is more in the line of my present duties," she added, laughing,
" for the threshers only left the house yesterday, and I haven't
begun to straighten up yet."
"Yes, I'm a genuine farmer," she admitted; "my art is
merely a winter's amusement, for I was obliged to give it up as a
means of livelihood some years ago. It was this way: I had
been travelling considerable, being in ill-health, and coming to
Toronto I consulted a physician. He ordered me at once to the
North-West, told me to burn my paint brushes and give myself a
chance for life by imbibing the pure prairie air. I asked him how
I was going to live, for I reminded him you can't live on air, even
if it's pure prairie air. He then said, ' Why don't you go to
work on one of the big farms out there ? Women are wanted,
and if you don't gain your lost health in less than a year,' said
he, 'you'll be the first one that didn't.'
" I took his advice, came west, took up this bit of land—it's
a half section—and, yes, I run it all alone. My brother, a student, lives with me, but I manage the work of the farm myself,
keeping one hired man the year round, and during the busy
seeding and threshing seasons, securing the help of three and
sometimes four men."
31 " My opinion of woman's work on the farm ? Well, to tell
you the truth, I think I made a mistake in beginning as a grain-
grower only ; I intend to get into mixed farming as soon as I
can, for, on the prairie, I find mixed farming pays best."
" What I wonder at is that the idea is prevalent that hoeing
and sowing go hand-in-hand with ' not knowing' anything!
Why, if there is a calling in life requiring quick intellect and
good taste with judgment, it is on the farm. How is a farmer
going to farm without knowledge of the chemical composition of
soils? Drainage is a scientific study, climatic changes require
watching, and certain cereals, like certain lines of trade and
commerce, vary in values at certain seasons, while substances
in soil change quite as readily as market quotations. How many
farmers understand the three necessary component parts of the
earth they till ? Why some of them scarcely know 'scrub-land'
when they see it! Why, harvesting the crop requires equal
knowledge as in sowing ; you can obtain a high yield or reap
indifferent returns according to your knowledge of reaping,
stooking and stacking ! I should say, general intelligence is the
most necessary attribute a man or woman going in for farming
needs."
" I've been farming seven years ; yes, I make my living by it ;
it's quite true that I sit on the binder in harvest time, that I've
followed the plow, and, you haven't heard the worst," she
laughed, "for I've cleaned my stables when the necessary man
wasn't about to do it! Yes," said the lady, " I'm an enthusiast on prairie farming; why not ? From a semi-invalid,
existing on a bare living brought in by my paintings, I've grown
to be the healthiest of women! Well, no not exactly the
' wealthiest' as well, but I've no reason to complain of my
financial standing. I don't owe a dollar, I've a clear title to my
320 acres; 240 acres are broken and 210 acres ready for crop
another season. I threshed from the stook this year and I've
just come from town where I arranged to ship my season's crop.
I'm not holding my grain for the 'rise' ; I'm taking fifty-five
cents a bushel, and I'm going away for a holiday trip in a few
weeks."
" Life on a prairie farm is an ideal existence ; that is if you
don't get into a ' rut.'    I believe no life is so elevating as farm
32 life ; there's no ' drudgery' about it unless you let it become
drudgery. Yes, it means close application; I am up at four
every summer morning, but when my day's work is done, I have
my books, music and my brush. I've made money from the
start; any one can do the same, and if you con over the list of
farmers in the district you won't find one failure !"
"Drawbacks?" asked the lady musingly; "well, perhaps
the only drawbacks now-a-days are the monied men who come
out from the Old Country and spend their substance in high-living ;
they go back and report the west as ' no good,' not realizing
that the failure lies in themselves."
A Mennonite Settlement
Mrs. Jacob Dyeke, Mrs. Caterina Abrams and Mrs. Esau
were drinking" coffee and making merry together in a social way
fflgf*'jk
A Mennonite Home at Rosthern, Western Canada
when the interviewer interrupted conversation. The three women
were well up in the fifties, having come to Canada twenty-five
years ago. They were very willing to talk of their experiences.
"In Southern Russia," said Mrs. Abrams, " there is too much
work and no money ! Here in Canada there is plenty of work but
33 there is plenty of money, too. When I came out from my
country," said she, "we had just 90 roubles ($45.00), and the
babies came so quick, five of them, that, I think, perhaps it is not
well."
Here the wife of Esau broke in : " Eight children came to
my house, and they are not too many ! In this country there is
plenty of room for people. When my man came here first he had
no money; now we have a fine house,big barns and plenty of grain.
My old mother and father last year spoke together; they said,
' we are twenty-five years in Canada and will now go home ; we
do not need to work any more.' They take 800 roubles ($400) and
buy tickets to Ostervick in Russia where they were born. Hoch !
You think they stay there? In four months they buy more tickets
and come back—yes, and they tell the people in Russia to come,
too ! "
Dame Esau's home is a model one. She has her driving
horse and a fine carriage, just as you see it, standing at her door
in the prairie land. " In Russia," she said meaningly, " the poor
man is his own horse ; here in Canada he is the master of the
horse !"
"Ach, yes!" broke in Mrs. Dyeke, "in Russia you pay
$6.00 rent for every acre of ground ; then you pay one dollar
every year to the government for every head of your family. A
man must give one day free work too, on his place, every year
(statute labour) for his land master, and then he has no money in
his pocket. In Russia two kinds of people ; very rich people,
very poor people!    Here in Canada everybody rich."
Then the coffee went round, and better made coffee was
surely never tasted ! The interior of the home was a model of
housewifely skill ; the big, high beds with their home-woven
blankets and home-wrought quilts, gay in color and pattern ; the
large "presses" for clothing and for dishes were made by the
men-folk ; and the stoves were built into the centre of the house,
of bricks and mortar with huge ovens ; the whole being made by
the men of the house on the Russian plan.
The large houses, well built and finished after modern styles,
might belong to any Canadian well-to-do business man. Barns
and granaries, stacks of grain and machinery of all kinds were
to be seen ; cattle and horses, swine and poultry at each dwelling,
34 waa
with the lands attached are estimated at a cash value of about
$16,000 for each family. They all reside within a few miles of
the town of Rosthern, are well-known and highly-respected
settlers.
A Doukhobor Home
The Doukhobor wife in Canada
is a sample of thrift, energy and
advancement under the favourable conditions of " equality in all
things human." Mrs. Simeon
Chernoff, of the village of Ter-
s pennie, Saskatchewan, was found
feeding her flocks. A neat home,
whitewashed till the walls shone,
the peculiar " plank " Bed^SStened to the mudded walls, and the
substantial fare of eggs, brown bread and coffee upon a shining
deal board. Dame Chernoff, with others of her fellow-countrywomen, came to the district three years ago, and having no
capital but willing hands, began the indoor work of farm servants
and undertook the outdoor work of farm hands. Splendid
physical types of what the Caucasian mountains sent out, these
women, from paupers have become not only wage-earners, but
home-owners in Western Canada. Mrs. Chernoff rates her
worth at between. $2,000 and
$3,000; owning and working a
farm, raising pigs and poultry,
and, during the hours of leisure,
going to schools provided for these
communal people, where they are
learning the English language.
Here is a snap-shot taken of a
class at work.
A  Roumanian  Group
At Arat, Assiniboia, a flourishing colony of Roumanian
women are housed comfortably in neat dwellings. The wife of
" old man Ehmann " tells how her husband came empty-handed
35 to the west ten years ago. In their old home-land fourteen
cents a day was considered good pay for labor, such "day"
being reckoned from sunrise till dark. To-day " old man
Ehmann" is one of the "best fixed " men in the district. Henry
Endeneyer's wife smiles when you ask her what she thinks of
Canada. " We borrowed the money to buy our tickets to this
country," she said. " Now we have a fine team of horses, we
bought in Regina a good house and fifty feet of ground—it runs
"Praise God from whom all blessings flow"
back  one  hundred  and thirty feet besides,   and  after we pay
back our passage money we have $300.00 in the bank."-
Arat has a prettystone-built church,the voluntary subscription
of these people. It is nicely furnished inside and out, and every
dollar on it is paid.
What a Small Beginning Did
Ten years ago Mrs. J. C. Wallis, of Frobyshire, invested in
a cow, a heifer and a calf, and from their proceeds she has
bought a half-section of land one-quarter each of 33-3-3-W-2 and
4-4-3-W-2, three miles from Alameda, N.W.T. This property
Mrs. Wallace rents to a tenant who pays her $300.00 a year, the
land going on increasing in value meantime. One hundred and
seventy  acres are already under cultivation, and  one hundred
36 SiisS
acres of the land is well-fenced pasture grounds. A forced sale
would at this time fetch $15.00 an acre, for the soil and the situation
are both good. Mrs. Wallis states, however, that she would
not take $25.00 an acre for the land. The lady referred to is an
Englishwoman, from Liverpool, and in her own words :—
"I would not trade this place for Liverpool : the climate is
all right, and here there are many opportunities for people who
are active ; but here, as elsewhere, money won't be got by sitting
down and waiting for it to fall into your hand !"
The Old House and the New
An 01d=Timer Talks
Seated in the pleasant C. P. R. sleeping car the returning
interviewer luckily became the vis-a-vis of an old-timer of the
West. Now, if there is anyone worth talking to it's a prairie old-
timer ; the old-timer lives on memory and waxes fat on reminiscences, and it is easier to start one talking than it is to get ■
them to stop.
" I came to Manitoba in 1879," said the lady. " Winnipeg
wasn't much to look at then. There was one street and two or
three indifferent hotels. The shops were small and of the general
store variety, and the only theatre in the place was used as a
Church on Sunday ;' it was a sort of hall over a meat-market,
and the odor on Sabbath was not altogether one of sanctity."
"The overland trip was the rule in those days ; everybody
37 started out in a big wagon ; the provision supply being confined
to necessaries. Everybody lived in tent houses in summer, and
in log-shacks—mudded, one-window affairs, put up without any
regard to geometrical lines. Ceilings were made of unbleached
cotton, the strips being tacked to the poles above, a pole floor or
an earthern one being the only choice."
'' It was the women who suffered those early-day times, but
it was the women who said nothing about it. Do you know,"
said the old-timer confidentially, " I once walked a few miles
down the trail to visit a neighbor,- and when I arrived at her little
log home it was to find a new baby had arrived an hour before,
and the only attendant the mother had was a ten-year-old girl,
the eldest of the family ! The doctor' came to the settlement
with later innovations, and only for the heroic hearts of the
women who settled the West, there wouldn't be an acre of
ground broken here to-day ! "
"Women's work in the west? Well, I believe the true
woman's work has not been undertaken yet in the west.
Farming is the thing out west. Poultry and bee raising, market
gardens and dairy work ; sewing, teaching, nursing; all these
branches of woman's work offer inducements to small-capitalled
women of the old lands. There's a great dearth of household
workers everywhere ; skilled cooks are in great demand. The
' general servant' is called for by thousands of homes, and the
wage offered ought to induce a big immigration to the west. A
cook gets from $20.00 to $40.00 a month out west ; a general
servant, whose duties include ordinary household tasks, receives
from $12.00 to $25.00, and on ranches in outlying districts, the
pay is, of course, higher. Seamstresses get $1.00 a day, with
meals ; teachers (qualified) receive from $35.00 to $45.00 in
country schools, but the skilled houseworker is in the greatest
demand, and any young woman coming .to Canada, to any part
of it, can, within two hours of landing, obtain situations."
"A woman with a capital of, say, $500 (j£ioo) would, in
Western Canada, be considered ' well-off.' With that amount
she may begin to gain not only a competence but fortune.
But the trouble is, as soon as these women immigrate they are
snatched up by the hordes of well-to-do bachelors who lack
nothing but some one to share their prairie joys !     Times have
38 S2&S
changed!" said the old-timer. "When I went west twenty
years ago the country was a waste ; to-day well-populated towns
dot the plains ; cities have arisen, and instead of the ' overland'
trip you can go anywhere you want to in a palace car on that
wonderful transcontinental giant of the western highway, the
Canadian Pacific Railway."
The Youngest Business Woman in the West
39 RAILWAY    LANDS
THE CANADIAN PACIFIC RAILWAY COMPANY
have 14,000,000 acres of choice farming lands for sale in Manitoba,
Assiniboia, Saskatchewan and Alberta. Manitoba lands and
Assiniboia lands east of third meridian, $3.00 to $8.00 per acre.
Lands west of third meridian, $3.00 to $5.00 per acre. Maps
showing the lands in detail will be sent free on application.
TERMS OF PAYMENT
An actual settler may purchase 640 acres, or less, on the ten
payment plan, by "which the aggregate amount of principal and
interest is divided into a cash instalment to be paid at the time of
purchase and nine equal deferred instalments annually thereafter,
a s follows:—
160  ACRES
At $4.00 per acre
"    4.50    "
"    5.00    "
"    5.50    "
"    6.00    "
1st INSTALMENT
$ 95.85 and 9 equal instalments of $ 80.00
J 07.85 and 9 equal instalments of 90.00
JJ9.85 and 9 equal instalments of 100.00
131.80 and 9 equal instalments of 110.00
143.80 and 9 equal instalments ci   120.00
Purchasers who do not undertake to go into residence on the
land are required to pay one-sixth of the purchase money down,
balance in five equal annual instalments with interest at the rate of
six per cent, per annum.
DISCOUNT FOR CASH
If land is paid for in full at time of purchase, a reduction from
price will be allowed equal to ten per cent, on five-sixths of the
purchase money.
Interest at six per cent, will be charged on overdue instalments.
F. T. GRIFFIN,
Land Commissioner, C.P.R. Co.,
Winnipeg.
CANADA NORTH-WEST LAND CO.
This Company have 1,000,000 acres of selected lands in
Manitoba and Assiniboia which offer excellent opportunities to
settlers and investors who desire to secure good lands in well settled
districts. These lands are on sale at the Company's Office at
Winnipeg, and at the various land agencies of the Canadian Pacific
Railway Company. I
wffinfflj        ■'*'£Z*BiF*'
i 

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