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A handbook of information regarding the prairie provinces of Canada and the opportunities offered you… Canadian Pacific Railway Company Limited 1922

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A HANDBOOK ^INFORMATION
REGARD INQ
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PRAIRIE PROVINCES
OF CANADA
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CANADIAN PACIFIC RAILWAY
IN THESE PROVINCES
THE   CANADIAN   PACIFIC   RAILWAY
1922 ANSWERS TO SOME SETTLERS' QUESTIONS
Question—Can I get a special railway rate to Canada?
Answer—See information under settlers' rates in this booklet.
Question—Can I get employment on a farm in Western Canada?
Answer—Any industrious person in good health and with some farm experience
need not fear lack of employment except, perhaps, during the winter
months. There is a brisk demand for farm help from March 1st to
November 30th, and in many cases good men are employed by the year.
Question—What is the rate of farm wages?
Answer—It is dependent on the season and the locality.    As high as $50 a
month was being paid for good farm help for the whole growing season;
during harvest wages are higher.
Question—What are the chances of employment in the cities and towns?
Answer—This depends on your trade or profession, and local conditions.    If
you can afford a trip, make one and investigate these things for yourself.
If you cannot afford the trip very well, investigation should be made by
correspondence.
Question—Will the Canadian Pacific Railway Company accept my property
here in part payment for farm land in Western Canada?
Answer—No. It is not a real estate company, but it is handling land for the.;
purpose of colonization. It, therefore, is not interested in becoming
owner of lands located elsewhere.
Question—When does spring farm work begin?
Answer—About middle of March. Most of the wheat seeding is done in
April; oats, barley and flax are sown in May.
Question—When does harvest begin?
Answer—In August. Threshing commences about the first of September and
continues until late in the season. The hay crop is harvested mostly in
July. .     ,
Question—What sholild a man do who is short of capital?
Answer—If you are increasing your capital where you are you should stay in
your present position until you have enough to start you on a farm in
Western Canada. If you are not increasing your capital where you are
you might do better to seek farm employment in Western Canada. If
you have some equipment you could probably rent a farm from a private
owner and soon get into a position to buy one for yourself.
Question—Is corn used for fodder in Western Canada?
Answer—To a limited but increasing extent. The principal fodder is the
natural prairie grass. Timothy, rye, oat hay and sunflowers are extensively used.    In the irrigation districts alfalfa is the principal fodder crop.
Question—What is the usual snowfall?
Answer—It varies in different parts of the country. In Southern Alberta
there is seldom enough snow to make sleighing possible. Most of the
farmers do not have sleighs. In Central and Northern Alberta and the
more eastern provinces the snowfall is heavier.
Question—Should I make a personal investigation before buying land from
the Canadian Pacific Railway?
Answer—Yes.    You should make a personal investigation before buying land
from anyone.    This Company wants you to get land that will suit your
purposes, and for that reason will not complete a sale to you until you
nave inspected the land and found it satisfactory.
Question—Can I deal with your representative to as good advantage as direct
with you?
Answer—Yes. Our District Representatives are salaried employees. They
do not get any commission on sales, but are paid a salary to give information and assistance to intending settlers.
Question—Where are your lands located?
Answer—We have lands throughout a very large territory and can meet the
desires of almost everyone as to location. Tell us the district you prefer
and we will advise you what lands are available there.
Question—Is not the climate of Western Canada a big disadvantage?
Answer—No. Those who live in Western Canada are the best judge of the
climate and few of them would now consider removing either east or
south. They consider the climate of the country one of its greatest
advantages.
Question—Will you reserve land for me until I can sell my property here?
Answer—Take the matter up with the District Representative for your territory, who will do everything possible to accommodate you.
Question—I am a farmer but have no capital. Will the Canadian Pacific
Railway assist me?
Answer—The Company sells its lands to good settlers on very easy terms, but
it realizes that to have a fair prospect of success the farmer should have a
little capital of his own in addition to any assistance given him by this
Company.
Question—How much capital do I need?
Answer—About $3,000 will be necessary to give you a fair start. If you are
well supplied with your own implements and live stock you may get along
on somewhat less, but as a rule it is true that the more capital a settler
has the greater are his advantages.
Question—Will the Canadian Pacific Railway rent me land?
Answer—The payments on Canadian Pacific Railway lands extended over the
long terms offered make it as easy to buy the land as to rent it, and as
the Company wants permanent settlers its policy is to sell the land on
easy terms rather than to rent it.
Question—If Western Canadian lands grow good crops without irrigation,
why is irrigation necessary in some parts?
Answer—The Provinces of Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba comprise an
area of over 750,000 square miles.    This block of land is about 1,000 miles
from east to west and 700 miles from north to south.    In such a vast area
there are differences of natural conditions, and the fact that irrigation is
practised in one district is no argument against farming without irrigation
in other districts.
Question—What are the prices of horses, cattle, sheep and hogs?
Answer—All forms of live stock command fair prices in Western  Canada.
Bring your horses, cattle and sheep with you if you can.    Local markets
fluctuate but current prices will be quoted upon request.
Question—Can I get land with running water?
Answer—Out of the great area of lands owned by this Company almost every
individual preference can be met.
Question—I would like-to--come to Western Canada, but cannot get the price
I want for my property here.    What should I do?
Answer—Do not lose the opportunity of success in Western Canada for a
small consideration as to price of your present holdings.    The question
is not so much whether you can get your price for your property as whether
the money you can get for it would earn you greater profits in Western
Canada than your present property does.
"Question—Should I bring my farm implements to Canada?
Answer—If they are in serviceable condition and you can make up a carload,
bring them.    You will find it cheaper than buying new implements.
Question—Can a widow take up a farm from your Company on the same terms
as a man?
Answer—Explain   your   position   to   the   District   Representative   for   your
territory.
Question—What does it cost to build fences in Western Canada?
Answer—The following costs are approximate for material only:    Three-strand
barbed wire, $150 a mile. .
Question—If I take up land from you and change my mind can I cancel my
agreement?
Answer—The settler would doubtless expect the Company to carry out its
part of the agreement and he is under the same obligation.     In case of
settlers who meet with misfortune, however, the Company asks only to
be judged by its record.
Question—When is the best time to visit Western Canada?
Answer—Almost any time that suits your convenience.    Get into touch with
the District Representative for your territory and find out when his next
party will be going to Western Canada.
Question—Is live stock raising more profitable than grain farming?
Answer—The two should be combined.    In seasons of high grain prices and
other favorable conditions, grain farming is very profitable, but the farmer
who has a few horses, beef steers, hogs, sheep, cows and* poultry for sale
every year is in the best position.
Question—Should I try to make up a party of neighbors to settle in one
district?
Answer—That is a  good  plan.    Such  neighbors can co-operate in the  use
of machinery and in farm operations in such a way as to considerably
reduce their expenses.
Question—Is it necessary to become a British subject in order to hold land in
Canada?
Answer—No, you are not required to change your citizenship.     It is only
in the case of the homesteader that the Dominion inists on the oath of
allegiance being taken.    All property holders, without question, may vote
in municipal and school elections.
Question—If I make my inspection trip to Canada by auto, shall I have to
pay duty on my car?
Answer—Not if you intend returning to the United States within six months.
Your car can be bonded at the port of entry into Canada and the bond,
redeemed when you leave the Dominion.    Before you leave for Canada,
however, you should get in touch with our nearest District Representative
since Customs regulations may be changed at that time.
Question—What is the smallest area of land I can buy?
Answer—One hundred and sixty acres.
Question—Can I take up a free government homestead, and can I buy land
with a homestead adjoining?
Answer—Yes, this is possible in some parts of the country, but it is impossible
to get a homestead within sixteen miles of a railway.
Question—How do the prices of grain and.livestock compare with those paid
in the United States?
Answer—Generally, there is not much difference in the prices of grain and
livestock in Canada and the United States.    Sometimes they are higher
in Canada and at other times they are higher in the United States.    It
costs less to grow grain and raise livestock in Western Canada however.
Write for fuller information on any point to
DEPARTMENT OF COLONIZATION AND DEVELOPMENT
Canadian Pacific Railway
Calgary, Canada
or
List of District Representatives, including Canada, shown on
last page of cover. THE PRAIRIE PROVINCES
OF CANADA
The World's Greatest Field of Opportunity
THE desire to have a piece of land of one's own is a natural instinct in the heart of every
properly developed man and woman. In earlier years, on account of the great areas of land
available in the United States, no great difficulty was experienced by any ambitious settler
of that country who wished to become his own land-holder, but the rapid increase in population,
combined with the corresponding rise in the price of land, has completely changed this condition.
Land, which a generation ago might be had for the homesteading, now commands prices ranging
to $300.00 an acre and over. At such prices it is quite hopeless for the tenant farmer or the
farmer's son in moderate circumstances, or the city man with limited capital, to attempt to buy
a farm of his own. To pay for it becomes a life-long task, and the probability is that he will never
do more than meet the interest charges. If he is serious in his desire to secure a farm home, he
must look to countries where there is still abundant fertile land available at moderate cost, and
where these lands are to be purchased on terms which make it possible for the settler with small
capital to become a farm owner, as the result of a few years' labor. He will also want land in a
country where the practices of the people are similar to those to which he has been accustomed;
a country with the same language, same religion, same general habits of living, with laws, currency, weights and measures, etc., based on the same principles as those with which he is familiar.
He wants a country where he can buy land at prices averaging about $18.00 an acre, which will
produce as big or bigger crops than those he has been accustomed to from lands at $100.00 and
more an acre. He wants this land where social conditions will be attractive to himself and his
family, and where he can look forward with confidence to being in a few years independent, and
well started on the road to financial success.
All these conditions he will find in Western Canada, and nowhere else. The provinces of
Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba, described in this booklet, provide the one and only answer
to the land-hungry. The land is here; it is the kind of land he wants; the conditions are as nearly
ideal as is possible; and the prices and terms are such that the man of moderate capital has an
opportunity not available to him elsewhere. The following pages will explain that opportunity
in detail, and make clear the way of prosperity to all who have the ambition and enterprise,
combined with a moderate amount of capital, to undertake the betterment of their conditions.
1                             Mms FfNiAYson: leeifr       J^
 , • astoria! QBFCf>M :y ALBERTA, SASKATCHEWAN, MANITOBA
The Canadian Provinces of Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba are commonly called "The Prairie Provinces" on account of the great area of fertile prairie land within their borders. They are by no means all prairie,
as their territory includes mighty lakes and rivers, vast stretches of forest and towering mountains, but it is for
their prairies they have become famous throughout the world. The prairie region stretches roughly from the
Red River in Manitoba to the foothills of the Rocky Mountains in Southern Alberta, a distance of approximately
800 miles. At its northern edge it merges into a park-like country, part prairie and part light timber, which gradually becomes thicker and heavier until it is unbroken forest. The area of these three provinces is 756,052
square miles, which is more than the combined area of France, Germany, Spain, and Italy.
According to a Dominion estimate there are in these three provinces 272,892,000 acres of land suitable
for agriculture, without taking into account forest land that may ultimately be tilled. Of this vast acreage
there were in 1920 only 34,129,890 acres under crop.
In the great area of Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba, the Canadian Pacific Railway owns some four and
a half million acres of the finest land, most carefully selected before the incoming settlers had taken up the choicest
parts, and it is this land which the Company now offers on terms which have never been surpassed in the history
of colonization. The Canadian Pacific Railway Company is not a land-selling organization in the ordinary sense
of the word. Its chief business is to handle traffic, and in order to produce traffic it desires industrious,
successful settlers located along its lines. For that reason it is able to give terms and assistance more favorable
to the settler than is possible for any company which aims to make its profits simply out of the sale of land.
FOR THOSE WHO DO NOT WISH TO FARM
Although the greatest resource of Alberta, Saskatchewan
and Manitoba is agriculture, the prosperity which has come
to the farmer has opened many other profitable fields of business
and labor. This booklet is intended for those who are seeking
an opportunity of making a home of their own on the land, and
we cannot go into great detail in explaining the other opportunities, but it may be said that no man who has health, industry,
and good habits need be afraid of his future in Western Canada.
For those who can command some capital there are many opportunities to start up in some profitable business in which they may
have had experience. Canada is prospering, and it is the kind
of prosperity which will continue because it is based on the
universal need of the products of the farm.
With the rapid increase of farmers on the land must come
an increase of business and professional men to serve them.
Every new community calls for its quota of carpenters, plasterers, blacksmiths, caterers, implement, lumber and hardware
dealers, grocers, general merchants, doctors, lawyers and clergymen. And the development of the country as a whole opens
the way for men engaged in the grain trade, mining, lumbering, wholesale merchandise and manufactures suitable to
the country, particularly flour milling and the industries connected with the livestock and meat trades. The field for women
is as wide as it is for men. Western Canada is aggressive and
liberal; it is willing to afford women in business and the professions, a sphere of absolute equality with men. Women vote on
all matters of Dominion, provincial and municipal legislation,
and many sit in the Dominion and provincial houses on the same
terms as men.
All who are interested in opportunities of a business or in
dustrial nature should communicate with the Bureau of Information, Department of Colonization and Development, Canadian Pacific Railway, at Montreal, New York or Chicago, or
to any of the offices of the Department whose addresses are
shown on the cover. This Bureau undertakes to furnish, either
directly or through its agents, authentic information regarding
the natural resources of Canada and the opportunities for commercial and industrial development.
THE CLIMATE OF THE PRAIRIE PROVINCES
One of the first questions asked by the home-seekers who
may become interested in Western Canada concerns the climate.
There has been a general impression which has been fostered by
romances, and a popular opinion that has little foundation in fact,
that the climate of Western Canada is so rigorous as to be a
disadvantage to the country. As a matter of fact, the climate
of these three provinces constitutes one of their greatest attractions. Anyone who will take the trouble to glance at a map
of the world will observe that Western Canada lies in the same
latitude as the virile white races of Europe, and there can be no
question that the climate of the northern temperate latitude is
more favorable to the development of healthy white races than
are the more southern climes. The same may be said of the
production of the cereals and food products required for the sustenance of white races, and nowhere are they produced so successfully as in these Canadian provinces. If the climate were
not exceptionally favorable to farm operations, such yields as
have been established in this territory for a period of years would
be impossible. It is not denied that at times and places there is
severe weather, although there is considerable difference in
localities. Alberta and the south-western portions of Saskatchewan have shorter winters, less snowfall and usually milder SOME FARM OPERATIONS.—There is no life so healthy and happy as that of the farmer in the Canadian west, building a home for his family and advancing towards prosperity. temperatures than the more northern and eastern districts.
This is due to the Chinook winds—warm south-westerly breezes
which come up through the passes in the Rocky Mountains, and
have a wonderfully modifying effect on the temperature.
Throughout the west of these provinces a heavier snowfall prevails, and the winter is longer, but by no means unbearable, or,
for the most part, even unpleasant. The sky is almost always
bright and cloudless, and the dry pure air makes the cold more
bearable than a temperature many degrees higher in damp
climates. The winter months are from December to March
inclusive, although, particularly in the Chinook regions, there are
numerous warm spells during this period.
The table following shows the mean temperature in Southern
Alberta each month for a period of seven years:
1914 1915 1916 1917 1918 1919 1920
Tanuary  16.30 17.06 8.90 13.20 13.80 34.27 11.31
February.  16.50 19.98 18.50 11.10 17.40 14.30 24.21
March  31.00 28.67 31.65 26.30 32.30 16.40 26.58
April  42.80 49.23 44.35 38.00 41.90 44.94 30.59
May  50.80 49.99 46.95 49.00 47.80 52.10 46.99
June  57.70 53.60 56.10 55.90 61.50 59.48 55.66
July "  66.50 58.63 63.30 66.70 62.60 64.41 66.91
August  61.80 67.00 60.00 61.30 62.50 64.74 64.10
September  53.30 49.00 53.00 54.50 54.40 53.35 53.00
October  44.60 47.30 40.00 41.50 46.16 31.95 42.50
November..... 32.00 29.33 32.25 44.60 32.77 22.32 31.20
December  14.10 24.80 12.00 8.60 29.20 18.23 21.90
Lest it be argued that Southern Alberta is not representative
of the whole territory we give below also the mean temperature at
Brandon, Manitoba, for the same period:
1914 1915 1916 1917 1918 1919 1920
January  3.30 1.00 13.00 9.80 4.06 10.10 -6.90
February...... 9.90 14.10 1.16 6.80 .09 4.30 3.00
March  19.02 23.10 7.70 20.30 28.00 9.30 14.10
April  35.90 46.40 34.77 32.10 41.05 37.70 27.70
May  45.60 47.00 48.90 47.10 46.01 55.70 42.80
June  57.60 55.60 56.20 58.10 60.08 65.20 58.40
July  70.30 60.50 66.80 67.20 60.06 66.80 62.40
August  62.50 64.60 60.10 62.20 60.04 64.80 64.80
September  55.10 50.80 52.10 55.10 46.09 52.70 54.80
October  47.00 42.40 35.80 31.80 42.03 29.70 43.80
November  22.10 20.80 24.10 33.40 26.01 12.80 23.40
December  2.70 8.30 -1.60 6.30 10.00 -5.20 7.60
THE CROPS OF THE PRAIRIE PROVINCES
OF CANADA
The provinces of Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta
are noted for the first class quality and the heavy yields of the
crops on their farms. This applies not only to the leading cereal
crops but to the fodder and root crops as well. The greater
part of the land under cultivation is, of course, sown to grain,
and while the grain area is steadily increasing, each year also
shows a proportionately greater area being sown to fodder and
root crops.
The high quality of the grain of these three provinces is
recognized in all large wheat-consuming centres, and the reason is
not hard to seek. It is a well-known fact that the farther north
wheat can be matured the better is its quality for milling purposes. This is largely due to the long period of daylight during
the growing season, while another factor is the extremely fertile
soil. Exhaustive experiments have shown that the percentage
of gluten in the wheat grown in the Prairie Provinces of Canada
is much higher than in wheat grown elsewhere on the American
continent.
Whenever hard spring wheat has been shown at any of the
leading international agricultural exhibitions during recent
years, the first, second and third prizes and the sweepstakes have
invariably been awarded to a farmer from one of the three
Prairie Provinces of Canada. Farmers of these three provinces
have been equally successful in their exhibits of oats, and have
made a superior showing with barley and flax to any state in the
Union against which they have competed.
Space will not permit of an enumeration of all the successes farmers of the Prairie Provinces of Canada have had with
their grain at international exhibitions, but a few of them ought
to be mentioned to show that the claims of these provinces regarding the high quality of their crops rest on a solid foundation.
One of the earliest successes with grain grown in Western
Canada was made more than twenty-five years ago, when wheat
grown in the Peace River Valley in northern Alberta captured the
first prize at the World's Columbian Exhibition at Chicago. At
the big land and irrigation show held in the Madison Square
Gardens, New York, in November, 1911, the three leading prizes
for the best sample of hard spring wheat grown in the two Americas were won by farmers of the Prairie Provinces of Canada.
Seager Wheeler, of Rosthern, Saskatchewan, won the first, W.
J. Glass, of Macleod, Alberta, the second, and Thomas Maynard,
of Deloraine, Manitoba, the third prize. The wheat that won
the first prize weighed six and a half pounds per bushel above
the standard, and was taken from a field that had yielded from
seventy and one-fifth to eighty and two-thirds bushels to the acre.
Since then farmers from these three provinces have carried
everything before them when showing their grains in competition
with that grown in other parts of the American continent. In
1912 the first prize for wheat went to an Alberta farmer, for oats
to a Saskatchewan farmer, and for barley to an Alberta farmer.
The first prizes for wheat and oats and the majority of the prizes
for other grains offered at the leading agricultural shows in the
United States have come to farmers in the Canadian Prairie Provinces each succeeding year wherever they have been allowed to
compete. The farmers of these three provinces have also been
successful in capturing the premier prizes for many other crops
in competition with farmers in the United States. In recent
years first prizes have been won for potatoes, field peas, corn,
rye, alfalfa, timothy, sweet clover, parsnips, beets, turnips, carrots, onions, mangel wurzels, cauliflowers, squash, watermelon
and so on.
With such results as these there cannot be any doubt about
the superior quality of the grain and other crops grown in the
Prairie Provinces of Canada. An idea of the high average yields
of the grain in these three provinces will be gained by a comparison of the yields of the different parts of the British Isles and of
the leading grain growing states of the Union. It must be
remembered, however, in comparing the yields of the different
parts of the United Kingdom that farming is carried on more
intensively there than on the other side of the Atlantic and that
the areas planted to grain in Western Canada are considerably
larger, while the cost of production is correspondingly smaller.
The question of precipitation—of the rainfall and snowfall—
is also one of first importance to intending settlers. The table
below shows the average precipitation in inches at Lethbridge,
Alberta, and Brandon, Manitoba, for twelve years:
Lethbridge. Brandon.
1909  16.15 18.01
1910.  11.89 13.98
1911  20.04 26.03
1912  21.30 18.04
1913  17.38 12.00
1914  17.36 16.79 WESTERN CANADA HARVEST SCENES.—The rich fields of Western Canada yield larger harvests
year in and year out than any other part of North America. Lethbridge.
1915  17.27
1916  24.61
1917...  11.95
1918  7.62
1919  12.28
1920  14.05
Brandon.
18.18
20.98
11.20
15.25
17.76
19.83
Average for 12 years 16.00
17.34
Lethbridge and Brandon have been chosen for the foregoing statistics as Dominion Government reports have been
kept at the Experimental Stations there for a long period of
years. The average, however, will apply generally to the
country as a whole. It is true that rainfall at Lethbridge is
considerably less than in Central Alberta and many parts of
the other provinces, as there is an area of comparatively light
precipitation in Southern Alberta.
It must be said that there are large areas in Southern Alberta
where the rainfall drops below the average quoted. These areas
of light rainfall have called into existence a number of irrigation
enterprises, notably those of the Canadian Pacific Railway
Company along the main line of the railway between Calgary and
Medicine Hat, and in the Lethbridge district. These irrigation
areas are districts of delightful climate and great fertility of
soil, and only awaited the application of water, which engineering skill made possible. They are rapidly becoming the
greatest alfalfa growing and stock-producing territories of
Western Canada, and are well adapted to all forms of intensive
farming.
Healthfulness.—The open character of the country, its
clear, dry atmosphere, the abundance of sunshiny days, and
the fresh breezes that blow across the plains, all tend to make it
one of the most healthful countries in the world. There is an
entire absence of malaria, and there are no diseases peculiar to
the country. Nowhere in the world will a healthier class of
children be found than in Western Canada, and the state of
health of the children is perhaps the best indication of the suitability of a climate for white settlement. The spring and autumn
are periods of delightful weather, and the summers, while warm,
have not the excessive heat and exhausting humidity which
render life almost unbearable in so many southern latitudes.
Handling the Grain Trade
Although the livestock and other products of Western
Canada amount to many millions of dollars annually, the principal product is grain, and a few words explaining how the grain
traffic is handled will be of interest to the intending settler before
proceeding to deal in detail with the grain production of the
country.
In Canada the practice is to sell all grain according to
grades established by law. Inspectors, who are appointed by
the Government, decide the grade of the grain passing out of the
country. The Board of Grain Commissioners, whose headquarters are at Fort William, Ontario, have general, charge of
the grain business of the country. They are Government
appointees, and in the performance of their duties must themselves comply with the rules governing the grain trade generally,
and must see that the law is observed by all concerned in the
grain business of the country.
Most of the grain in Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta
is handled through elevators located at railway stations in the
grain-producing country. Some of these elevators are owned by
farmers, some by farmers' organizations assisted by the Govern-
11
ment, and some by grain dealers and milling companies. In
addition to the ordinary elevators at country points, are terminal
elevators maintained at Fort William, Port Arthur, and Vancouver, and large government storage elevators located at
Moose Jaw, Saskatoon and Calgary. All grain dealers must be
licensed and bonded, thus securing the farmer from loss, whether
through dishonesty, unfairness, or financial embarrassment of
the dealer.
Grain prices in Western Canada are dependent upon the
world market.
The farmer may load his grain through an elevator, or, if
he prefers to load his grain into a car without dealing with the
elevator, he may do so over the loading platforms which are
provided at grain shipping points. The railways are compelled
by law to erect these platforms at.stations from which wheat in
carload lots is shipped.
Some idea of the increase in grain production in the three
Prairie Provinces may be gained from the following approximate figures for the years 1903 and 1920, showing the development in that period.    Figures shown are bushels:
Year Wheat. Oats. Barley. Flax.
1903       56,147,021      47,215,479      10,448,461 884,000
1920     234,138,300   314,297,000     40,760,500       7,588,800
Storage Capacity.—To take care of such an immense production of grain requires storage facilities in proportion. Elevators are found at every country market place, and these,
with the large terminal storage elevators already mentioned
at the head of the Great Lakes have now a capacity of over
150,000,000 bushels. Seventeen years ago—in 1905—the total
was only 50,000,000 bushels.
FLOUR MILLING
Flour milling is an important and rapidly growing industry. Nowhere in the world can a finer quality of milling wheat
be obtained, and the other conditions required by the miller,
such as cheap power and first-class transportation, are also
found in Western Canada. The result is that a steadily increasing quantity of Canadian wheat is ground in the country and exported in the form of flour both to European and Oriental markets. The development of this industry is of great importance
to the farmers, as it affords another outlet for their wheat, and
also supplies them with mill by-products for stock feeding. The
flour mills and oatmeal mills of the country now grind a very
considerable part of the wheat and oat crops.
Average Yield Per Acre for Ten Years
Wheat. Oats. Barley.
All Canada     19.29 35.28 28.02
England    31.49 40.55 32.55
Wales    27.71 35.21 30.73
Scotland    39.79 38.40 35.31
Ireland    37.12 50.00 42.86
United States     13.20 29.90 25.20
Alberta    19.73 39.21 27.24
Saskatchewan    16.04 34.37 25.80
Manitoba    18.05 37.05 27.31
Minnesota    13.50 30.80 23.60
Iowa     15.50 32.80 26.80
North Dakota     11.20 26.70 20.10
South Dakota    11.90 26.80 21.40
Kansas      9.60 24.80 17.40
Nebraska     12.90 26.00 21.60
Wisconsin     17.60 33.20 28.00
12
Flax.
11.37
8.60
9.55
8.85
11.25
9.70
10.30
8.20
8.50
6.70
8.60
13.40 Fodders and Roots.—The greater part of the Prairie
Provinces of Canada are well adapted for the culture of fodder
and root crops. Many farmers, especially in Alberta and Saskatchewan, are content to rely upon the rich native grasses to feed
their stock, although with the increasing settlement of the country the more progressive ones are going more and more into
diversified agriculture, growing tame fodders on greater areas
each year. Alfalfa, brome grass, timothy, rye grass, corn, sunflowers, vetches, clover, and field peas are the chief cultivated
fodder crops.
Alfalfa.—Alfalfa (Lucerne) is now recognized as one of the
principal crops in Western Canada. It is becoming the staple
crop in the large irrigated areas in Southern Alberta, where two
or three cuttings, with yields averaging from three to five tons
to the acre, are taken each year after the crop has been properly
started. It is also grown on lands that do not require irrigation
in various parts of Saskatchewan and Manitoba. In Saskatchewan the government has encouraged the growth of this valuable
crop by awarding liberal prizes to successful growers.
Timothy.—Timothy is another crop which is grown very
successfully both in the irrigated areas of Southern Alberta and
in the districts of greater rainfall in other parts of the Canadian
Prairies. From two to three tons of timothy to the acre are
grown, and yields as heavy as four tons to the acre have been
reached.
Clover, Vetches, etc.—All kinds of clovers thrive well
and are very productive in the Prairie Provinces. Red Clover,
white clover, alsike clover and sweet clover are the principal
varieties grown, according to the suitability of the soil and the
amount of moisture. Red, white and alsike clover are re-grown
extensively under irrigation in Southern Alberta. Field peas
and vetches also do well, giving large yields of a very nutritive
fodder.
Oats and Barley.—These are very important fodder
crops. In addition to the crops that are allowed to mature as
grain, large areas of oats are planted every year to be cut green
for fodder. For fattening cattle and hogs the farmers of Western Canada consider there is no better food than their oats and
barley. The value of oats and barley for finishing beef animals
was well exemplified at the International Livestock Show at
Chicago in 1912 and 1913, when Manitoba steers finished on
these grains won the grand championship of the American continent.
Corn and Sunflowers.—The corn belt is gradually extending farther north and already excellent crops of corn are being
grown in the Southern parts of Manitoba, Saskatchewan and
Alberta. Two years ago a Manitoba farmer, John Hamilton, of
Kelwood, won the first prize for North Western Dent corn in
competition with corn growers from all over the United States.
At the Dominion Experimental Station at Indian Head, Saskatchewan, the average yield of corn has been from seventeen
to twenty-six tons to the acre during the past few years.
But the need for corn is not so great in the Canadian Prairie
Provinces as it is farther south. Something has already been said
about the value of oats and barley for finishing livestock, while
as an ensilage crop, sunflowers have proved to be highly satisfactory. This crop, which has been demonstrated to be the equal
if not the superior of corn in feeding value is a very hardy crop
in Western Canada and yields heavily, from fifteen to thirty
tons to the acre being average returns. Sunflowers are being
grown extensively in all parts of the three Prairie Provinces,
13
and to take care of this valuable crop, silos have been erected
on hundreds of farms during the last two or three seasons. This
crop promises to revolutionize the dairy and livestock industries
of Western Canada.
Roots and Vegetables.—All varieties of roots and vegetables usually grown in temperate climates are grown successfully in the Prairie Provinces of Canada. Most farms now have
their gardens, some, it is true, being only large enough to supply
the household needs, but others are large enough to give a surplus for marketing. There is a big field for the farmer who gives
attention to the vegetable garden. This field will increase with
the rapid settlement of the country, and the growing of vegetables
especially on farms conveniently located to the larger centres,
should become one of the most profitable branches of farming.
Potatoes of a high quality and yielding heavily are grown in all
parts of these provinces. The practical absence of the potato
bug and other pests that limit yields in many other countries is
a great advantage to potato growers in Western Canada.
Sugar beets can be grown successfully in all three Provinces.
In the irrigated areas of Southern Alberta they have been proved
to be a very successful crop and as the facilities for handling them
increase there is no doubt that a very important industry will
be built up.
Asparagus, beans, peas, beets, carrots, turnips, early and
late cabbage, cauliflower, cucumbers, lettuce, sweet corn, celery„
parsnips, garden peas, radishes, tomatoes, pumpkins and squash
are among the vegetables that are successfully grown in the
Canadian Prairie Provinces.
Fruit Growing.—Fruit has not been grown in Alberta,
Saskatchewan and Manitoba to any great extent, largely because farmers have been mainly occupied with their grain and
stock interests. Those who have devoted some attention to
fruit culture, however, have established the fact that the smaller
fruits can be grown successfully and on a commercial scale.
Currants, raspberries, strawberries, saskatoons, gooseberries
and similar fruits grow wild, and when placed under cultivation
yield many profitable crops. Many farmers now have fruit
gardens sufficient for their own requirements, and some are
making a good business by supplying nearby markets. The
small fruits raised in these provinces have an excellent flavour
and are much in demand. The farmer who sets out a fruit
garden, taking care to plant a windbreak and giving the plot
proper cultivation, can not only supply his own needs but add
a considerable item to his income on the side.
Trees for beautifying the farm, providing shelter and windbreaks, and eventually fuel, are easily grown, saplings being
provided free from the government nurseries, and many farm
homes in the older settled districts, which were originally located
on absolutely bare prairie, are now completely sheltered in
magnificent groves of trees.
Bee-keeping.—Although the production of honey in the
Prairie Provinces of Canada is steadily growing, there is plenty
of scope for a considerable extension of the industry. There are
few places where bee-keeping cannot be carried on profitably.
At all the government experimental farms large quantities of
honey have been produced annually for a number of years.
White and alsike clovers have been the principal sources of the
honey on all these farms with the exception of that at Lethbridge, where the large fields of alfalfa grown under irrigation
are rich in nectar.
In Manitoba great strides have been made in bee-keeping
since the formation of a beekeepers' association two or three
years ago.    In 1920 there were 921 beekeepers in the province,
14 with approximately 15,000 colonies of bees, and nearly a million
pounds of honey is being produced annually. The Prairie
Provinces of Canada have everything needed for the growth
of the industry except the bees and the beekeepers—the climate
is favourable, there are plenty of nectar laden plants, while the
market for the product is the best in America.
LIVESTOCK AND DAIRYING
Before the Prairie Provinces had become famous for the
growing of grain, they were favourably known for their wide
ranges upon which immense herds of cattle and horses grazed all
the year round. Alberta and Saskatchewan were then described
as the "Stockman's Paradise." The abundance of nutritious
grasses, the pure water and healthful climate combined to ensure the raising of strong, healthy animals. Though these large
ranges have, for the most part, since been broken up, their place
has been taken by thousands of smaller farms, each with its own
little herd. The result is that the aggregate stock interests of
these provinces are now far greater than in the days of almost
exclusive ranching.
The governments of the three provinces fully recognize the
importance of the livestock industry, which makes for greater
permanency of agriculture and greater profits in the long run
than exclusive grain-growing. They have, therefore, given
great encouragement to the industry in many ways. Prizes are
offered at the provincial livestock shows, assistance is given to
farmers in the purchase of cattle and sheep, pure bred sires
are placed at the disposal of farmers at small cost, and in many
other ways the livestock industry is fostered. The Canadian
Pacific Railway has always been active in directing the attention of the farmer to the importance of livestock raising, and in
assisting him to make a proper start. Other organizations—
agricultural societies, boards of trade, banks and, in many cases,
organizations expressly formed for the purpose, likewise have
been and are still active in encouraging increased livestock production.
Horses.—The draft horse is very much in demand in the
Prairie Provinces of Canada. Tractors have by no means displaced horses in the work on the Prairie farms, nor are they
likely to do so in the future. The supply of horses in many
districts is often unequal to the demand, and the quality of the
local animals is such that they have gained a reputation abroad
as well as at home. Endurance, lung power, clean bone, and
freedom from hereditary and other diseases are qualities for
which the horses raised on the Prairie farms are noted and which
they were able to demonstrate in an effective manner in France
during the war.
Clydesdales, Percherons, Shires and Belgians are among
the chief breeds of draught horses that are favoured by Prairie
farmers, who in many cases have earned reputations far beyond
the boundaries of these provinces for the high class of animal
they are breeding. In Southern Alberta is one of the largest
horse ranches in the world. On this ranch are more than three
hundred pure bred Percherons. The brood mares are never
stabled, and, except in very rare cases, are never fed anything
but what they can pick up on the native pasture winter and
summer. At different times several horses from this ranch
have been purchased by well-known breeders in Great Britain.
Animals of the various breeds named have carried off honours
both at the local fairs and at fairs in other countries, one of the
latest successes being the Grand Championship for Clydesdales
at the International Livestock Show at Chicago in December,
1920, and again in 1921, which was won by "Wee Donald," a
fine stallion owned by L. Weaver and Sons, of Lloydminster,
Saskatchewan.
15
The number of horses in the Prairie Provinces in 1920 was
estimated at 2,038,284. The Prairie farmer who makes it a
point to have a few horses for sale each year has every reason
to be pleased with the prospect.
Beef Cattle.—The visitor or new settler is invariably
struck with the high quality of the cattle on the farms of the
Prairie Provinces of Canada. The policy which the Dominion
and Provincial Governments, and organizations like the Canadian Pacific Railway, have followed of encouraging the use of
pure-bred breeding stock to raise the general quality of the herds
has been one of the reasons for the fine cattle on these farms.
Another has been the encouragement and assistance afforded
by the system of annual fairs, held at various points in the three
provinces, by demonstration trains, by the agricultural schools
and colleges, and by the various livestock and similar associations. But these, and other forms of encouragement, valuable
as they have been, could have availed little, had not the country
been blessed with a favourable climate, a fertile soil producing an
abundance of nutritious grasses and other fodder crops, and a
plentiful supply of pure water—the prime conditions on which
the success of the cattle industry in the Prairie Provinces of
Canada is based.
The opportunities open to the farmer who wishes to combine
cattle raising with grain-growing are particularly favourable.
He has a country here where land can be acquired at a low cost
and on very easy terms, and where great quantities of coarse
grains and fodders are cheaply produced. On the grain farm
the immense quantities of straw which are available after each
harvest can be utilized to advantage along with other crops in
feeding cattle.
At Winnipeg, Moose Jaw, Prince Albert, Calgary and Edmonton large and up-to-date stockyards have been established,
where the farmer can forward his cattle for sale at the prevailing
market prices. Cattle that require finishing can also be obtained, and farmers who have a surplus of fodder available on
their farms have found the purchasing of stockers and feeders
at the stockyards and finishing them a profitable business.
Some idea of the magnitude of the business carried on by these
stockyards may be gathered from the value of the cattle handled
through the Calgary stockyards in 1919, which was computed at
upwards of $21,000,000. The city of Calgary is also the home
of the largest individual cattle auction in the world. This sale,
which takes place in April of each year, and sales of a similar
kind which are held at other centers, are important factors in
improving the quality of the herds and increasing the distribution
of the best breeds of cattle throughout the three provinces.
D a i r y i n g.—During the last few years considerable
progress has been made in the dairying industry in the Prairie
Provinces of Canada. The three provinces vie with each other
in the production of a quality of butter that is acceptable to the
leading markets of the world. It is not very many years ago since
butter had to be brought into many parts of these provinces
from outside districts, but the story is a different one now, for
in addition to manufacturing sufficient quantity for home consumption, there has been a fair surplus for export during the last
few years. All butter for export is graded by the official inspectors of the Provincial Governments, and realizing that there
is always a demand for the best, the governments have encouraged farmers to pay particular care to the quality of the
cream they forward to the creameries.
In 1920 the value of the dairy products of Alberta reached
$34,000,000, of Saskatchewan nearly $22,000,000, and of Manitoba $16,000,000. The same year fifty-three creameries were in
operation in Alberta, forty-seven in Saskatchewan and fifty-
three in Manitoba.    The total output of butter of the three
16 provinces in 1920 amounted to about seventy-six million pounds.
The home market absorbed the greater portion of this quantity,
but several million pounds also found a ready market in the
larger cities of Eastern Canada, in the cities on the Pacific Coast,
and in Chicago and New York, where it met with considerable
favour. Several consignments were also made to the British
market.
Each of the Provincial Governments gives liberal assistance
in the establishment of creameries of groups of farmers. Where-
ever conditions warrant the establishment of a creamery loans
are granted for the purpose to the farmers interested. The
creameries are subject to the control of the farmers, but under
government direction. At the end of every month each farmer
receives credit for the cream he has delivered to the creamery,
a cash advance is paid to him at once and a cheque for the balance
is sent to him as soon as the product is sold. Co-operative
creameries, under government supervision, have been a valuable
factor in promoting the dairying industry in the Prairie Provinces
and have resulted in the manufacture of butter of an exceptionally
high standard, commanding the best prices in the open market.
Although more attention has been paid to the production of
butter, the manufacture of cheese has not been neglected, and
in many districts the output of this valuable article of food is
steadily increasing.
An excellent market for milk and cream is also afforded by
the cities and towns scattered throughout the three provinces.
The price paid to farmers in Western Canada for their milk and
cream is usually higher than it is in older settled countries where
the more expensive lands also make the cost of production
higher.
Sheep.—There is undoubtedly a great future for the sheep
raising industry in the Prairie Provinces. Farmers here who
have had experience with the raising of sheep in other parts of
the world maintain that in no other country are conditions more
favourable. The industry has not, however, advanced to the
same extent as the cattle industry, for instance, partly, no
doubt, owing to the unfavourable conditions for the marketing of
wool which existed up to a few years ago, and also to the difficulty in getting sheep in large numbers. These disadvantages
are being steadily overcome, however. The formation by the
farmers of local wool growers' associations for the collection of
wool and a national co-operative selling organization has greatly
improved the marketing conditions, while the Provincial Governments have assisted farmers to obtain sheep by importing
them from other countries and selling them at cost to farmers
on easy terms of payment. In 1920 two and a half million pounds
of wool were produced in the province of Alberta alone, and were
sold through the Co-operative Wool Company at an average
price of forty cents a pound.
The demand for mutton in Western Canada is far greater
than the supply and is constantly increasing. The home-grown
article is much better than anything that can be imported and
commands a good price. All the well-known breeds of sheep,
suitable to the temperate zone, do well in the Prairie Provinces.
An example will illustrate the kind of profits that many
farmers in the Prairie Provinces have been making with sheep
during the last few years. In 1915 one hundred range ewes
and three pure-bred rams were purchased at a total cost of $1,120
and taken to a farm at Scott, in the west central part of Saskatchewan. The flock was wintered in a straw shed, a frame
structure being made the following summer. Two more ram
lambs were afterwards purchased at a cost of $100, making a
total cash outlay for stock of $1,220. On November 1st, 1918,
the flock was valued at $2,740, while the proceeds from the sales
of wool and mutton since the purchase of the stock amounted
to $2,485. In other words, the value of the investment grew
from $1,220 to $5,225, or an increase of more than $4,000 in
three years.
Swine.—Taking into consideration that hogs can be raised
in the Prairie Provinces of Canada as economically as anywhere
on the American continent, there is generally good money in
raising these animals. Farmers have clearly demonstrated
that their fields will produce large crops of alfalfa, the "king of
hog fodders" oats, barley, rape and roots of all kinds as cheaply
as anywhere. There is also on most farms an abundance of
by-products, which make very valuable food for hogs, but which
would often go to waste if hogs are not kept. The feeding of at
least a few hogs is an economical proposition on most farms.
The practical absence of hog diseases, a healthful climate, and,
as a rule, an abundance of pure water, also make for the success
of the industry.
Poultry.—It is generally conceded that the primary
conditions for successful poultry raising are reasonable mildness
of climate, abundance of sunshine, and dryness of atmosphere.
These conditions are all present in the highest degree in the
Prairie Provinces of Canada. The climate is exceptionally favourable to successful poultry raising. Throughout the year there
is an abundance of sunshine, and there are very few days, either
in summer or winter, when the hens cannot take exercise out-
of-doors at some time during the day. In March, April and May
the rainfall is comparatively light, making conditions for rearing
the very best for all kinds of poultry. Since this is the hatching
season, the poultryman has ample opportunity to get the young
stock past the danger point before the intervention of wet
weather, which is often injurious to the young birds. With
fourteen to eighteen hours of sunshine during the summer months,
the chickens have the best of chances to reach maturity.
While the profits to be made in poultry raising are such as
would tempt the specialist to engage in the business exclusively,
the greatest development in the Prairie Provinces of Canada
will, no doubt, be amongst those engaged in mixed farming.
Screenings and other waste products from the grain crops can
be turned into cash by means of a flock of chickens, ducks, geese
or turkeys. In this way there is practically no outlay, the revenue being as good as so much found money.
Farmers have a cash market for all their surplus eggs and
poultry. Poultry killing stations and cold storage plants are
in operation at all the larger centres, and prevent the markets
from being swamped. Turkeys, which do exceptionally Well in
the Prairie Provinces, are sent to the Pacific coast cities in large
numbers every year. Egg grading stations have been opened
at several points, and a reputation is being created in outside
markets for eggs of a uniform size and first class quality.
17
18 ALBERTA
Alberta is the most western of the Canadian Prairie Provinces. Its southern boundary adjoins the State of
Montana; its western boundary is the crest of the Rocky Mountains, which it follows in a north-westerly direction to a point on about the same parallel as Edmonton, when the boundary leaves the mountains and continues
due north to the 60th parallel, which is the northern boundary of the province. Its eastern boundary is the 110th
meridian west from Greenwich, which is also the western boundary of the sister Province of Saskatchewan. The
Province of Alberta comprises an area greater than that of any country in Europe save Russia, and more than
twice the combined areas of Great Britain and Ireland. Its northern boundary, the 60th parallel of latitude,
passes through the Shetland Islands and north of Petrograd; and its southern boundary, the 49th parallel of
latitude, passes south of the English Channel, through France a few miles north of Paris, through the southern
portion of Germany and the middle of Central Europe just south of Vienna.
The province embraces 162,765,200 acres,
and lakes, leaving 161,254,800 acres of land.
Of this 1,510,400 acres is the estimated area contained in rivers
According to Dominion Government estimates there are some 105,000,000 acres of agricultural land in this
province. Of this enormous area, somewhat more than nine million acres were in crop in 1921; in other words,
only about nine per cent, of the land available for cultivation in the province has as yet been brought under the
plough.
None of the other Prairie Provinces presents the variety of climatic and geographical features to be found
in Alberta. The topography of the country ranges from the vast, level, treeless plain to the wildest and grandest
mountain scenery. The climate of the southern and south-western portions of the province is the mildest in Canada, with the exception of some parts of British Columbia. In the district lying southward from Calgary the
snowfall is so limited that sleighs are seldom used.
The Eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains, including the
great foothill country which extends towards the plains some
fifty miles farther than the mountains proper, and which has
become famous as the home of the ranching industry, are included in Alberta for nearly 400 miles in a north-westerly direction. The slopes of these mountains, as well as many of the
foothill valleys, are heavily covered with timber, and a great
forest reserve has been created by the Dominion Government to
guarantee the preservation of these forests. The policy of
the Government is to maintain for all time a vast forest reserve
which will afford a permanent supply of building material to
the settlers of Alberta, and at the same time constitute a reservoir
storing up the heavy snowfall of the mountain region to be distributed over the plains by the natural agency of wind and rain,
or by the artificial means of irrigation. Many mountain rivers
come down from these wooded slopes, and exert a very great
influence upon the country which they traverse. They water
fertile valleys which are rapidly becoming centres of close population. They bring down the logs of the lumbermen to railway
connections, where towns spring up and sawmills provide labor
for the working man, and fuel and lumber for the settler. They
make available an enormous supply of water for irrigation purposes. They provide beautiful sites and ample water supply for
cities and towns, and it is worthy of note that all the larger cities
in Alberta are located on fine rivers. And these rivers, with
their scores of mountain tributaries, afford a region of unmixed
delight for the sportsman and angler.
19
ALBERTA'S PROGRESS
The greatest natural resource of the province is, of course,
its immense area of fertile farm land; but aside from this there
are resources which in themselves are capable of supporting a
very large population, and which are of prime interest to the intending home-maker. The province has forests of great value
and extent, which support an important lumber industry. Great
coal properties have been opened up; in 1920 the coal production
of the province exceeded 7,000,000 tons, and is steadily increasing;
hitherto unexploited deposits of natural gas have been tapped;
the existence of oil of altogether exceptional quality has been
established; great beds of merchantable clays and shales have
been uncovered and factories erected for their manufacture;
and the development of all these natural resources means not
only a convenient supply of the various commodities used by the
farmer, but also a large and profitable market at his door for
his grain, hay, cattle, hogs, mutton, poultry, butter, milk, eggs,
roots, vegetables and small fruits—in fact, everything capable
of being produced on the Alberta farm.
Although Alberta has all these varied resources, it is her
fertile farm lands which are the basis of her present and future
prosperity. They vary from open prairie to more or less heavily
wooded districts, and the soil, which is very rich and deep,
ranges from a light chocolate to a heavy loam. Its fertility is
evidenced by the record of crops shown here. With all these
enormous resources and undeveloped opportunities the popula-
20 tion of Alberta at the present time is estimated to be only 600,000.
Crop area
Total yield
Aver.      Aver.
It is truly a country where the land is calling out to the home-
Year
in acres
in bushels
per acre    yield
builder to come and occupy it and partake of its riches.
1917
2,537,900
86,288,600
34.00
1918
2,651,548
60,322,717
22.75
Summary of the Acreage and Yields of the Leading Grains
in Alberta During the Period 1901-1920
1919
1920
2,767,372
3,089,700
65,725,000
115,091,000
23.75
37.25     36.48
«
Barley. .
 1901
13,483
442,381
32.81
Crop area
Total yield
Aver.
Aver.
1902
22,201
473,108
21.31
Year
in acres
in bushels
per acre
yield
1903
42,219
1,077,274
25.51
Spring Wheat.. 1901
34,890
857,714
24.58
1904
61,549
1,608,241
26.12
1902
45,064
850,122
18.86
1905
64,830
1,773,914
27.36
1903
59,951
1,118,180
18.65
1906
73,588
2,157,957
29.32
1904
47,411
786,075
16.58
1907
54,698
1,082,460
19.78
1905
75,353
1,617,505
21.46
1908
77,867
1,949,164
25.03
1906
115,502
2,664,661
23.07
1909
107,764
3,310,332
30.72
1907
123,935
2,261,610
18.25
1910
90,901
1,889,509
20.79
1908
212,677
4,001,503
18.81
1911
156,418
4,151,000
26.54
1909
324,472
6,155,455
18.97
1912
174,900
5,780,000
32.87
1910
450,493
5,697,956
12.65
1913
197,000
6,334,000
32.15
1911
1,299,989
28,132,000
21.64
1914
178,000
4,681,000
26.30
1912
1,256,200
27,059,000
21.54
1915
304,000
9,822,000
32.31
1913
1,310,000
30,130,000
23.00
1916
336,586
9,774,000
29.04
1914
1,150,000
23,219,000
20.19
1917
472,100
10,386,200
22.00
1915
2,098,123
65,289,000
31.12
1918
470,073
7,756,204
16.50
1916
2,586,798
64,539,000
24.95
1919
414,212
10,562,000
25.50
1917
2,845,600
51,932,200
18.25
1920
480,699
12,739,000
26.50
1918
3,848,424
23,090,544
6.00
1919
4,241,903
33,935,000
8.00
Flax	
 1902
373
4,476
12.00
1920
4,036,483
82,748,000
20.50
19.35
1903
1904
830
367
7,753
5,003
9.34
13.63
Winter Wheat. 1903
3,440
82,418
23.95
1905
581
8,337
14.34
1904
8,296
152,125
18.33
1906
3,647
38,491
10.65
1905
32,174
689,019
21.41
1907
6,488
50,002
7.87
1906
61,625
1,301,359
21.11
1908
9,262
73,762
7.96
1907
83,965
1,932,925
20.66
1909
12,479
131,531
10.54
1908
104,956
3,093,422
29.47
1910
14,300
64,000
4.48
1909
102,167
2,312,344
22.63
1911
40,275
418,000
10.39
1910
142,467
2,206,564
15.48
1912
111,400
1,429,000
12.83
1911
1912
1913
1914
1915
1916
1917
1918
316,910
161,000
202,000
221,100
39,908
18,177
51,700
44,065
9,011,000
3,515,000
4,242,000
4,252,000
1,249,000
549,000
1,059,900
660,975
25.28
21.83
21.00
19.23
31.30
30.20
20.50
15.00
1913
1914
1915
1916
1917
1918
1919
105,000
80,000
48,000
95,063
139,800
95,920
80,690
1,155,000
616,000
670,000
1,310,500
978,500
479,600
222,000
11.00
7.67
13.96
13.79
7.00
5.00
2.75
1919
40,600
640,000
15.75
1920
103,700
726,000
7.00      9.59
1920
38,000
713,000
18.75
21.77
Oats 1901
104,533
4,253,284
40.68
LIVESTOCK IN
ALBERTA
1902
118,997
3,776,976
31.74
1903
162,314
5,187,511
31.95
Long before Alberta's fame as
a grain-growing country had
1904
180,698
5,609,496
31.04
become established it
was recognized as the home of the rancher
1905
242,801
9,514,180
39.18
and stockman.    The
remarkable
nutrition of the prairie and
1906
335,728
13,136,913
39.12
foothill grasses, the pure water and the moderate climate com
1907
307,093
9,274,914
30.11
bine to favor the livestock industry.    The foundations of many
1908
431,145
15,922,974
24,819,661
36.93
very comfortable fort
.unes have been laid by Alberta ranchers
1909
693,901
35.76
and farmers engaging
in the livestock business.
1910
492,589
12,158,530
24.68
The
opportunity
of the farmer who wishes to combine
1911
1,178,300
56,964,000
48.34
stock-raising   with   grain-growing
is   particularly   favorable.
1912
1,359,300
62,936,000
46.30
Land on
which great quantities of
coarse grain
and fodders are
1913
1,639,000
71,542,000
43.65
cheaply produced can
be obtained at low cost and on easy terms.
1914
1,502,000
54,523,000
36.30
Many farmers are able to turn their straw piles and other waste
1915
1,827,091
83,876,000
45.91
products
to good account by winter-feeding stock for the large
1916
2,124,081
102,199,000
48.11
ranching companies.
Horses, cattle, sheep and hogs all do well
21
22 1918
1919
1920
791,246
800,380
741,851
328,702
336,596
305,607
1,362,880
1,247,448
1,050,334
1,691,382
1,584,044
1,355,941
332,179
364,498
383,424
601,534
345,858
286,556
n Alberta. The following table shows the numbers of the
various kinds of stock in the province during the four years
from 1917 to 1920, inclusive.
1917
Horses        718,317
Milch Cows. ..       325,861
Other Cattle.. . 1,209,433
Total Cattle.. . 1,535,294
Sheep        276,966
Swine        730,237
The Peace River Country
The Peace River Country of Northern Alberta is often
termed the Last West, where yet there exist wide stretches of
virgin, fertile, agricultural lands which may freely be filed upon
as homesteads by incoming settlers. It is a region of tremendous extent which by nature of its remoteness and inadequacy
of communication, no less than by the necessity of waiting the
development of the areas to the south of it, was slow in making
its true value known, but one which in the space of a few short
years has proved itself beyond dispute and is in universal favor
as attested by the influx of settlers it witnesses each year.
HOW IT IS REACHED
The Peace River Country is penetrated by the Edmonton,
Dunvegan and British Columbia Railway which runs north
from Edmonton to Lesser Slave Lake and then westerly to
McLennan, the junction point with the Central Canada Railway, taking the trains right through to Peace River town. From
McLennan the line goes west as far as Spirit River with the line
graded west to the British Columbia boundary, the entrance to
the Pouce Coupe district. From Spanish River a branch line
runs to Grande Prairie city, the centre of the famous Grande
Prairie district.    The city is 406 miles from Edmonton.
CLIMATE
The country has a wonderful climate of moderating influences. Winters are crisp and clear, summers dry and balmy.
Blizzards are unknown, and throughout the winter months the
Chinook winds blowing from the Pacific through the mountain
passes periodically remove the snow and bring back a summer
temperature. The summers are remarkable for their long days
and short nights, there being almost continual daylight for
three months. The long hours of sunshine, productive of the
finest crops, are followed by cool nights conducive of the most
comfortable rest.
NATURE OF LAND
The nature of the land in such an extensive area naturally
varies greatly. A large portion of the country is sparsely wooded
with willow brush and small and medium sized poplar. There
are some patches of open prairie. This diversity provides
openings for the pursuit of all phases of farming, grain growing,
mixed farming, stock raising, dairying and others. Grazing
areas.produce an abundance of luxuriant grasses, and the coulees
and valleys of the rolling country provide admirable shelter.
There is no manner of farming which cannot be followed profitably and is not pursued successfully at the present time.
AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
It may be broadly stated that all crops which can be grown
further south in the province are capable of as successful production in the Peace River Country and this makes a healthy
and substantial aggregate. The growth of wheat, oats, barley
and other cereals, as well as roots and vegetables, is equal to
that of any other temperate climate. Grain sown early in May
ripens about the middle of August, thus avoiding the early
frosts. The rapid growth is due to the long hours of sunshine
in the summer months, for from June 1st to September 1st there
is from sixteen to twenty hours sunshine daily. A total crop
failure has never been known in the Peace River Country.
The prize grown wheat of the Chicago World's Fair as far
back as 1893 was grown in the Shaftesbury Settlement, fifteen
miles from Peace River Crossing.
Henry Robertson, one of the pioneers of the Grande Prairie
district, has never had a crop of less than twenty-five bushels of
wheat to the acre, whilst his returns have recorded as high as
fifty. In 1921 his twelfth consecutive bumper crop returned
him nearly eighteen thousand bushels.
A thresher in the Lake Saskatoon section in 1921 in seven
days' operations on various farms recorded an average yield of
thirty-five bushels of wheat to the acre over all. One field of
marquis yielded 60 bushels to the acre. An oat field returned
107 bushels to the acre, and a barley field 71 bushels.
VEGETABLES AND GARDEN PRODUCE
By actual test and lengthy experience the land of the Peace
River country is well adapted to the growing of large crops of the
best vegetables. The average yield of potatoes is 400 bushels
to the acre, and yields of 500 bushels are not uncommon. Carrots, beets, onions, celery, cabbage, garden peas, tomatoes, lettuce, raddish, turnips, squash, pumpkins give large and satisfactory crops and properly matured vegetables.
GROWTH OF SETTLEMENT AND CULTIVATION
The Peace River Country at the present time is the Mecca
of thousands of settlers who, throughout the summer months,
pour into the country from various points along the railroad.
The great favor with which the region is regarded, and an indication of its prosperous status, is evidenced in the rapidly
increasing cultivation. In the year 1906 there were less than
500 acres under cultivation. In 1913 one man alone had 900
acres sown. Last year there were between 175,000 and 200,000
acres, tributary to the Edmonton, Dunvegan and British Columbia Railroad, under crop.
23
24 THE STOCKMAN'S PARADISE.—Western Canada is properly described as a paradise for stockmen
and mixed farmers. SASKATCHEWAN
Saskatchewan lies between the 49th and 60th parallels of north latitude, and between the meridians of 102
and 110 degrees west from Greenwich. The southern border is the International boundary, the dividing line
between Canada and the United States. South of Saskatchewan are the States of North Dakota and Montana;
east of it is the Province of Manitoba; west of it is the Province of Alberta, and on the north it is bounded by
the unorganized North West Territories. Its greatest length is 760 miles and its width on the south is 393 miles.
At the middle it is 300 miles wide; at the northern boundary it has a width of 277 miles. The area of this great
quadrangle is 250,650 square miles, of which 8,318 square miles are water. The land surface contains 155,092,480
acres.    Of this immense acreage, less than 23,000,000 acres were under crop in 1920.
For grains, fodder crops, roots and vegetables, the soil of Saskatchewan could hardly be improved upon,
as in all areas of the extent of this province, there is a great variety in the class of soil, though practically all
districts are very desirable for agriculture. The color ranges all the way from a light chocolate to deep, black
loam, and the texture from a heavy to a rather light loam with a slight mixture of sand. Large and profitable
crops are grown on all classes. The subsoil is clay, generally underlaid with a clay, sometimes mixed with gravel.
Almost without exception the soil is rich, deep, and fertile.
CLIMATE.—The climate of Saskatchewan is pleasant
and exceedingly healthy. The temperature during the summer frequently rises to between ninety and one hundred degrees;
but the heat is tempered with a never failing breeze, and the
nights are cool arfd refreshing even after the hottest days. The
number of hours of sunlight during the summer months is greater
here than in the more southern latitudes, and the clear, healthful atmosphere is particularly invigorating and refreshing. The
autumn season in Saskatchewan is probably unsurpassed in any
part of the world. The winters are cold, but usually bright and
clear, and there is none of the dampness and humidity which
render the cold unbearable in the British Isles.
Saskatchewan, like Alberta, has the great advantage of receiving ^most of its rainfall during the growing season. The
average annual rainfall is not heavy, but as two-thirds of it
generally comes between April and September, the growing
crops receive more actual rainfall than in many countries with
heavier annual precipitation. In the south-western portion of
the province irrigation is employed to a considerable extent,
but elsewhere all ordinary crops are grown without artificial
watering.
Wheat.
Oats.
Barley.
Year
.1916
1917
1918
1919
1920
.1916
1917
1918
1919
1920
.1916
1917
1918
1919
1920
Crop area
in acres
9,032,109
8,273,250
9,249,260
10,587,363
10,061,069
3,791,807
4,521,600
4,988,499
4,837,747
5,106,832
367,207
669,900
699,256
492,586
519,014
Total yield
in bushels
147,559,000
117,921,300
92,492,600
89,993,685
113,135,274
163,278,000
123,213,600
107,252,725
112,157,000
141,549,000
9,916,000
14,067,900
11,888,082
8,971,000
10,501,500
Aver,
per acre
16.34
14.25
10.00
8.50
11.20
43.06
27.25
21.05
23.10
27.70
37.00
21.00
17.00
18.20
20.25
Aver.
yield
16.04
34.37
25.80
SASKATCHEWAN'S GRAIN PRODUCTION
More than fifty per cent, of the wheat grown in Canada is
produced on Saskatchewan farms, but it has been proved that
conditions in the province are just as favorable to the raising
of all kinds of livestock as they are to grain growing. The raising
of livestock, especially beef cattle, was extensively followed long
before the grain growing possibilities of the province were
recognized. Though the immense ranges of the past have
become, to a great extent, a matter of history, they have been
succeeded by thousands of farmers each with his own little herd,
with the result that the aggregate stock interests of the province
are now very much greater than in the days of almost exclusive
ranching.
Saskatchewan's grain production for the last five years is
shown in the following table, but the splendid average yields
will be better appreciated by comparison with the average
yields of the leading grain-growing districts of the United States,
as shown in the table on page 12 of this handbook.
27
Flax.
.1916
1917
1918
1919
1920
542,034
753,700
840,975
929,945
1,140,921
6,692,000
4,710,600
4,204,785
4,490,000
5,705,000
12.35
6.25
5.00
4.80
5.00
8.76
The following table showing the number of the various
kinds of livestock in Saskatchewan in the years 1917 to 1920
indicates the importance of the livestock industry to the province.
1917    1918    1919    1920
Milch Cows  354,403 352,989 374,062 354,507
Other Cattle  856,687 926,342 1,005,501 969,555
Total Cattle. ... . 1,211,090 1,279,331 1,379,563 1,324,062
Sheep  127,892 134,177 146,911 160,918
Swine  573,938 521,240 432,367 321,900
Horses  880,301 990,009 1,078,452 939,805
28 FODDER CROPS AND DAIRY COWS.—In the excellence of the wild and tame fodders of Western
Canada is found the basis of its valuable industry. MANITOBA
Manitoba is the oldest and the most eastern of the so-called Prairie Provinces of Canada. The first agricultural settlement in the district now comprised in the Province of Manitoba was made under the leadership of
Lord Selkirk in 1812 in the Red River Valley near the site of the present City of Winnipeg, but Manitoba assumed little importance as an agricultural possibility until 1878 when the first railway entered her boundaries.
In 1882 the Canadian Pacific Railway ushered an era of prosperity into the province. Agriculture has been successfully practiced for more than 30 years, and the information that will be presented to you in the following pages
can leave no doubt that Manitoba is particularly well adapted by nature for agriculture, embracing in the term
mixed farming in all its branches. Manitoba, as originally created into a province, comprised only 13,500 square
miles area. This has been increased from time to time and is now 253,720 square miles, or about the same as
Saskatchewan or Alberta.
Manitoba is bounded on the east by Ontario, on the north-east by Hudson Bay, on the north by the North
West Territories, on the west by the Province of Saskatchewan, and on the south by the States of Dakota and
Minnesota, and lies between the 49th and 60th parallels of latitude. It is in the same latitude as the British
Isles.    Edinburgh is farther north than the present settled parts of Manitoba.
Climate of Manitoba.—Manitoba possesses a climate
which is particularly adapted to the production of a healthy,
vigorous people. Old residents of the province are unanimous in
their declaration that they prefer the Manitoba winter to the
winter of the British Isles, or the Eastern Canadian Provinces.
Spring and autumn are delightful seasons of moderate temperature and bright sunshine. The summer is warm, the mercury
frequently rising to between 90 and 100 degrees, but the warm
days are tempered by nights which are invariably cool and comfortable. The long summer evenings, when the sky remains
bright until ten o'clock or later, are a most enjoyable feature of
the summer climate. The average rainfall is sufficient for the
production of all cereal crops and the growing of field roots,
garden stuff and fodders of great variety and luxuriance.
Grain Growing in Manitoba.—"Manitoba Hard" Wheat
has gained a pre-eminent place among the milling wheats of the
world, and its position is assailed only by the "No. 1 Hard" and
"No. 1 Northern" of Alberta and Saskatchewan. Spring wheat
is grown almost exclusively in Manitoba, although in recent years
some attention has been give to winter wheat with good results.
The soil and climate of Manitoba are also admirably adapted to
the production of oats, barley and flax, the total yearly crop of
each of these, with the exception of flax, running into many
millions of bushels.
The table below shows the average yield of Manitoba grain
crops for the last ten-year period.
Year Wheat        Oats    Barley        Flax
1911	
22.56
45.92
33.36
14.44
1912	
22.20
42.40
32.92
12.49
1913	
    19.02
40.60
28.84
11.70
1914	
    14.84
28.25
21.00
8.44
1915	
   24.76
38.52
29.38
8.27
1916	
    10.88
33.55
19.97
13.38
1917 '..
    16.75
30.25
22.50
9.00
1918	
    16.35
31.75
25.25
10.00
1919	
    14.25
31.25
19.25
9.00
1920	
    13.90
31
30.75
21.00
7.90
These figures tell their own tale. They show that, year in
and year out, Manitoba produces a better average crop than any
of the grain growing states of the Union. Other crops than those
specified are also grown very successfully.
LIVESTOCK AND DAIRYING IN MANITOBA
That the climate of Manitoba is favorable for livestock of
all kinds has been the testimony of farmers and stock men since
the province was first settled. The exceptional amount of bright
sunshine,all the year round is one of the most important features,
as it is well known that bright, clear weather is a big factor in
stock growing. It is a matter of record that stock in Manitoba
can be turned out and fed on the natural pastures from May of
every year and can usually remain out on these pastures until
November 15th, before requiring prepared fodder.
For generations farmers and stockmen on this continent
believed that corn was an absolutely necessary ingredient in the
feeding of first class cattle. That idea was rudely shaken in 1912
when a Manitoba bred and fed steer, entered at the International Stock Show at Chicago, carried off the grand championship from a host of famous competitors from all parts of the
United States. That steer had never seen corn. The following year, 1913, at the same show another Manitoba steer of the
same type and bred by the same man, J. D. McGregor of Brandon, carried off the grand championship again.
Both soil and climatic conditions are admirably suited for
horse raising. The contour of the country is such as to enable
colts to reach maturity without developing unsoundness, which
is so prevalent in more hilly countries. The abundance of
pasture and forage of every description suitable for horses that
can be grown in Manitoba brings the cost of production down
to a lower level than in older settled countries.
Dairying in Manitoba has greatly increased in volume in
the last five years. Up to three or four years ago Manitoba was
importing creamery butter. Last year Manitoba exported one
hundred and fifty-three carloads of creamery butter weighing
3,800,000 pounds.
32 The same reasons as make all other branches of livestock
breeding in Manitoba profitable apply to hog raising. The cheapness of the land on which hogs can be raised is one big factor;
the immense crops of feed that can be grown on this cheap land is
quite as important and, in the long run, will be even more important as land prices increase. Apart from these big advantages,
it has been proved by actual experience that the country is
particularly well adapted for hogs, that the climate is favorable
and that wintering presents no real difficulties. Added to all
this is the steady market, which becomes better from year to
year and will be at its best in the next few years, owing to the
great demand for Canadian ham and bacon which has developed
in Great Britain.
Sheep raising is a branch of the livestock industry that
can be said to be still in its infancy in Manitoba, but that it has
a great future, is the belief of everyone who has made any study
at all of its possibilities. The number of sheep in the province
is increasing rapidly; farmers who have given sheep a fair trial
are without exception increasing the size of their flocks; while
their neighbors who have watched their success are acquiring
small herds.    The results may be seen from the fact that the
amount of wool marketed in Manitoba in 1920 was more than
double that marketed five years ago.
The fact that for two years in succession beef steers raised in
Manitoba captured the Grand Championship at the International Livestock Show at Chicago is sufficient evidence of the
excellent quality of Manitoba livestock. It proves that with
the grains, fodders, water and climatic conditions of Manitoba
it is possible to produce beef steers as good as the best of those
raised in any of the famous corn states, or in any other part of
the world for that matter.
The table below shows the number of cattle, sheep, swine
and horses in Manitoba from 1917 to 1920, inclusive.
1917 1918 1919 1920
Milch Cows  202,177 225,659 227,872 221,785
Other Cattle  357,870 521,240 553,899 536,189
Total Cattle  560,047 746,899 781,771 757,974
Sheep  127,892 134,177 146,911 160,918
Swine  573,938 521,240 432,367 321,900
Horses  324,175 384,772 379,356 356,628
33
34 :fe
EDUCATION AND RELIGION.—The importance of education in Western Canada is duly recognized and
unequaled facilities are offered in rural and city schools, agricultural colleges and universities. GENERAL TERMS OF SALE
The terms of sale of the lands of the Canadian Pacific Railway have been arranged primarily with a view to encouraging
experienced farmers to settle on these lands and build up homes.
For this reason they are made extremely light during the first
years of settlement.
The general period for the repayment of the land extends
over twenty years, with interest at six per cent, on the amount
unpaid. The first payment amounts to one-tenth of the total
cost of the land, and the purchaser is not required to make any
further payment on the principal sum until the end of the fourth
year afterwards. Under these terms, however, the purchaser
is expected to occupy and improve the property, by erecting
thereon a habitable house, a barn for his stock, by fencing his
land, and by breaking a part of the land each season. If he
complies with these simple settlement conditions, a substantial
reduction is made from the rate of interest at the end of the
first and second years. After the first payment is made, therefore, the settler has very light interest payments only to meet at
the end of each of the first two years, a full interest payment
of six per cent, at the end of the third year, and at the end of the
fourth and succeeding years one-sixteenth of the principal and
interest on the amount outstanding at the rate of six per cent, per
annum. The whole policy is planned to assist the man with
small capital, and gives him a chance to get well started before
he is called upon to make any of his heavier payments.
The above are the general terms of sale and apply to the
land of the Canadian Pacific Railway in the districts described
in the following pages. In the Lloydminster and Battleford
districts, however, land can also be purchased from the Company without any settlement conditions. The terms on land
sold in this way are one-tenth cash and the balance payable in
nine annual instalments, with interest at six per cent, per annum.
On the irrigated lands of the Canadian Pacific Railway's
Irrigation block, the Company is prepared to assist homemakers
with a loan to the value of $2,000, to be used towards the erection
of their buildings, drilling a well and fencing the farm. This loan
is granted to married men, who must be practical farmers, possessing the necessary implements and horses to work a farm, or the
money to buy them, and having sufficient capital to make their
first payment on the land and the loan, in addition to being able
to provide for themselves and their families during the first year.
The repayment of this loan is extended over a period of
twenty years, with interest at six per cent, per annum, in the
same manner as the payment of the land is made. No security
is required for loan other than the land itself and the first payment on the land and loan, which is made at the time of purchase.
The settler may select the type of house and barn he desires
from plans which are furnished by the Company. These plans
are the result of many years' knowledge of conditions in this
country and of the requirements of the settler.
TOWNSITES
When a line of railway is definitely located and it is decided
to build the same, the Company selects convenient townsites
to serve the area affected by the railway. These townsites are
subdivided and offered for sale to the public at a convenient
place and at list prices. Lots undisposed of at this opening sale
may be purchased through the Company's land offices in Calgary, Alberta; Edmonton, Alberta; Lethbridge, Alberta; Saskatoon, Saskatchewan; and Winnipeg, Manitoba. An office for
the sale of lots is also usually established in the town where the
lots are located.
The Company has adopted uniform terms for the sale of
its townsite property. One-third cash is demanded, and the
balance in two equal instalments in six and twelve months from
the date of purchase. The rate of interest charged on deferred
payments on town property sales is 8 per cent, per annum.
TITLE
When you purchase land from the Canadian Pacific Railway you make your "Contract" direct with that Company, the
deed to the land being made by them under the authority of
what is known as the "Land Titles Act." The "Title" is perfect, and you are dealing with a corporation which has assets
of hundreds of millions of dollars.
The Land Titles System of Western Canada was perfected
and applied in the early stages of colonization, and is regarded
as the simplest and most efficient in the world.
ASSISTANCE OF EXPERTS
The Company's Agricultural and Animal Industry experts
are glad to give the benefit of their practical advice to settlers,
and to assist them in every way possible toward making a success
of their farm undertakings. Although these prairie provinces
have become world famous for the quality of their wheat production, it is generally recognized that the settler's greatest success
requires him to go into mixed farming, producing horses, cattle,
sheep, hogs, poultry, dairy products and fodder and root crops.
The company maintains Demonstration Farms in a number of
localities along its lines of railway, supplementing the government work, for the purpose of creating an interest in high class
seed grain and livestock, and improved farming methods. The
information at the command of the foremen on these farms is
available at all times, and the Company will appreciate the opportunity to render service of this nature. The Agricultural and
Animal Industry Branch maintains herds and flocks of pure bred
stock at various points and offers foundation stock for sale at
reasonable prices with the object of improving the quality of the
livestock of the country.
37
38 WHERE THE CANADIAN PACIFIC HAS
LAND FOR SETTLEMENT
Although the Canadian Pacific Railway has land available
for settlement in various parts of Alberta, Saskatchewan and
Manitoba, most of the farm land that the Company now has
for sale is included in three large blocks, which may be described as the Lloydminster and Battleford block, the Calgary
and Edmonton block and the Irrigation block.
The Lloydminster and Battleford block lies north of the
main line of the Canadian National Railway, part of the land
being in Saskatchewan and part in Alberta; the Calgary and
Edmonton block comprises a large area of land lying between
the Calgary and Edmonton line of the Canadian Pacific Railway and the foothills of the Rocky Mountains, bounded, roughly
speaking, by the Canadian National main line on the north and
the Central Alberta Branch of the Canadian Pacific Railway on the
south; the Irrigation block is in Southern Alberta and covers an
area of 3,081,265 acres extending about one hundred and fifty
miles by 40 miles eastwards from the city of Calgary, and intersected by the main line of the Canadian Pacific Railway for
the same distance. Since each of these large areas of land has
peculiar characteristics of its own, a brief description of each of
them and of the farming opportunities each district offers is
given in the following pages.
The Lloydminster and
Battleford Block
A country offering better prospects of success to the man
of limited capital and wishing to engage in mixed farming than
that included in the area known as the Lloydminster and Battleford block would be difficult to find anywhere in the world.
Its fertile soil, which, when cultivated, yields large crops of grain
and other crops and which in its native state is covered by a
heavy growth of nutritious grass, wild pea vine and vetch, providing abundant pasture in summer and fodder in the winter;
its innumerable creeks, streams and small lakes ensuring a supply
of pure water at all seasons, its invigorating climate; the clumps
of trees and brush interspersed throughout the district, which
give shade for the stock in summer and shelter in winter; and
the low cost of the land—all these are conditions favorable to
successful mixed-farming operations.
The Lloydminster and Battleford Districts may be said to
lie between the North Saskatchewan and Battleford rivers in
Alberta, extending from the town of Innisfree on the Canadian
National Railway for about 130 miles into central Saskatchewan,
and including in this province the country several miles north
and south of the North Saskatchewan River. The general
character of the land throughout this large territory varies from
open flat and undulating prairie to slightly timbered or park
land, interspersed with creeks, streams and small lakes.    South
39
of the railway, towards the Battle River, the country is nearly
all open prairie, although there are small groves of poplar in
places, but to the north and extending to the North Saskatchewan River, the poplar and willow bluffs are more frequent. The
open prairie stretches are smaller here, but sufficient land for
immediate cultivation can be found on nearly all sections, while
the poplar and willow trees in addition to offering shelter and
shade for stock, provide fuel, poles for fence posts, etc., which
represent considerable saving to the settler..
The soil is a rich black loam from twelve to twenty-four
inches in depth, underlaid with clay sub-soil, but varying in
places to a chocolate loam top soil and sandy clay sub-soil.
The latter areas are limited, however, and the prevailing character of the soil is deep black loam of great fertility. The summer climate is ideal for the growth of vegetation, while the winter climate is healthful and invigorating both for man and beast.
With an average annual rainfall of about eighteen inches, the
greater part of which can generally be relied upon to come during the growing season, and with such soil, grains, vegetables
and other crops grow rapidly during the long days of the summer
months and reach maturity before the advent of the fall frosts.
As already mentioned, the main line of the Canadian National Railway runs through the whole territory, the towns of
Lloydminster and North Battleford being the principal stations.
Lloydminster is situated about 160 miles east of Edmonton,
the capital of Alberta, and 200 miles west of Saskatoon, the
largest city in central Saskatchewan. It lies exactly on the
boundary of the two provinces, the railway station being in
Alberta and the post office in Saskatchewan. Surrounding the
town are the farms of a group of British settlers who arrived in
the country several years ago with but scant knowledge and
equipment for pioneering. Here, as a result of the inherent
productiveness of the soil and of their own persistence and energy,
these settlers have established one of the most prosperous communities in Western Canada.
North Battleford is situated about one hundred miles east
of Lloydminster and about the same distance from Saskatoon.
It is a divisional point on the Canadian National Railway, and
also the terminus for the line to Prince Albert and for another
line running north-westerly through an excellent mixed farming
country towards Athabasca in Alberta. It is one of the seven
cities of Saskatchewan and has a population of 5,000. The city
operates its own electric lighting plant as well as its water and
sewage systems.
Generally speaking, mixed farming is followed throughout
the Lloydminster and Battleford districts. The country is well
suited for the growing of grain and fodder crops, dairying and
livestock raising. Normal wheat yields run from twenty to
fifty bushels to the acre, oats from fifty to one hundred and ten
bushels, and barley from thirty to fifty bushels to the acre.
40 Several fine herds of pure-bred Holsteins and Ayrshire cattle are
owned by farmers in the district. The beef cattle consist mainly
of the Shorthorn, Hereford and Aberdeen Angus breeds. The
country is well suited for sheep, and many excellent flocks are
to be seen.
The quality of the grain grown in these districts may be
gathered from the number of prizes farmers here have gained,
both at the provincial fairs of Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba and at International Shows. Foremost among these prize
winners is, of course, Seager Wheeler, who was born in the Isle
of Wight, and who for many years has been farming near Rosthern—on the border of the Battleford district in Saskatchewan—
something of whose achievements at the leading international
agricultural shows has already been mentioned in this booklet.
Some of the most coveted trophies for grain have likewise been
won in the Lloydminster district, including the $1,500 cup for
oats, which was won three times in succession by J. C. Hill and
Sons, of Lloydminster, in open competition with farmers in the
United States and Canada, and the Brackman-Ker cup, presented
by the Brackman-Ker Milling Company for the best milling oats
in Western Canada. The latter cup was won three times in
succession by C. H. Barrett, who also farms near Lloydminster.
The country is ideal for dairying. The abundance of pure
water, the large quantities of succulent fodder that can be grown
at little cost, the cool summer nights, and the assurance of good
markets for the produce, make dairying an attractive branch of
farming in the Lloydminster and Battleford districts. At various points throughout the country are creameries to which
farmers can deliver their cream and receive credit for the value
of its equivalent in butter. The steadily growing butter output
of the creamery at Lloydminster is now between twenty and
thirty thousand pounds yearly. At North Battleford is one of
the largest creameries and cold storage plants in Saskatchewan.
An idea of the growth of the dairying industry in this district may
be gathered from the fact that in 1919 the North Battleford
creamery produced 177,880 pounds of butter, an output greater
than that of the previous year by thirty per cent., while in 1920
there was a further increase of more than ninety per cent, over the
quantity produced in 1919, the total production of butter at
this creamery for 1920 being 344,000 pounds.
The conditions which make this country so favorable for
dairying also make it well suited for livestock raising generally.
The raising of beef cattle, of sheep, either for wool or mutton,
and of swine, are certain to become very important branches of
farming in these districts. In fact, settlers there already possess
considerable numbers of these farm animals, but the total, though
great, is comparatively insignificant to the numbers that the
country might support. Many farmers also have herds and
flocks of pure bred animals, and these with the generally favorable conditions of climate, food and water, ensure the raising of
high class livestock. Horse-raising, too, is being successfully
carried on by many farmers in the district.
Farm lands in these districts, suitable for all phases of mixed
farming, can be bought from the Canadian Pacific Railway, at
prices averaging about eighteen dollars an acre.
In another part of this booklet the opinions of a few of the
successful settlers in the Lloydminster and Battleford districts
are given. These letters have been taken almost at random
from a considerably greater number, but all of which tell a
similarly inspiring tale of the opportunities that this great
country offers.
41
The Calgary and Edmonton Block
The area of land known as the Calgary and Edmonton
Block, extends from about thirty to forty miles west of the
Calgary and Edmonton line of the Canadian Pacific Railway—
from which it takes its name—in Central Alberta. The Block
may be said to begin at a point about half way between the
thriving cities of Calgary and Edmonton and extends as far
north as the latter city. The country is gently rolling, a succession of ridges alternating with slight depressions and is freely
interspersed with creeks, streams, ponds and lakes. There are
sufficient trees everywhere to give the landscape a pleasing appearance. The uncultivated land is covered with a rich, rank
growth of long grass, wild peavine, vetch and a wonderful variety
of wild flowers.
The soil usually consists of a rich, black, vegetable loam,
varying from twelve to thirty inches or more in depth. In places
this changes to a somewhat sandy loam still nearly black; in other
places to a lighter chocolate colored loam, and occasional areas
occur of light sandy loam of comparatively low fertility. This
last-mentioned soil would be considered very fair in most countries. Areas of this kind are limited, however. Most of the soil
throughout the country is deep black loam of great fertility.
The sub-soil is usually clay but this is also subject to some local
variations.
BEEF, MILK, PORK, MUTTON AND WOOL PRODUCED
CHEAPLY
Though large crops of wheat and other grains are grown
throughout the district, mixed farming and dairying are generally
followed by the farmers. Owing to its rich soil and favorable
climatic conditions, affording absolute assurance of good grazing
and ample winter feed, this part of Central Alberta is highly
favorable for animal husbandry, and is one of the best mixed
farming countries in the whole of Canada. Indeed, many
farmers formerly from the United States, say it is the best on
the American continent. It is frequently said that this land
is too good to grow wheat on, so suited is it for the cheap production of beef, milk, pork, mutton and wool. There is scarcely any
limit to the ultimate value of land such as this. That is the
reason why in Edmonton more interest is taken in the expansion
of the operation of packing plants and creameries than in the
volume of grain shipments; and it accounts for the development
of the creameries and stock yards at the stations along the line.
But grain elevators are to be found there as well.
IDEAL HOME SURROUNDINGS
With a climate which farmers already settled there claim
to be the best on the continent, both summer and winter, its
rich black soil, its pleasing landscape of wood and vale, stream
and lake, this part of Central Alberta is a fine country to live in,
an excellent country for farming and an ideal country in which
to make a home. The men like it, the women like it, and the
children like it.
A low temperature is registered at times in winter, but the
farmers generally find this season agreeable; vastly more so
than those who have never been in Alberta seem to believe.
These cold periods are not of long duration, and bright dry
weather generally accompanies the cold. "Park country" is
the name by which these lands are locally described; but they
are not all wooded. Open spaces of prairie, ready for the plough,
varying from forty to a thousand acres or more in extent, are
frequent.    The country has really to be seen to be appreciated.
42 TWO HUNDRED AND FIFTY THOUSAND ACRES OPEN
FOR SETTLEMENT
In this territory the Canadian Pacific Railway has about a
quarter of a million acres of land which is open for settlement.
The low prices at which these lands are for sale and the easy
terms place them within the reach of those with only a moderate
capital. The terms enable the farmer to pay for his land as if
he were paying rent, and to become the owner of his land within a comparatively few years. These lands comprise the last
large area of mixed farming lands the Railway Company has for
sale in this part of Central Alberta, and when they are disposed
of, it will be possible to secure a farm home in Alberta only at
prices greatly in advance of those at which the land is now
offered.
These lands are now being sold by the Canadian Pacific
Railway at prices ranging from $12 to $30 an acre, and averaging
about $18 an acre.
The Canadian Pacific
Railway's Irrigation Block
In Southern Alberta the Canadian Pacific Railway has
developed the largest individual irrigation project on the American Continent. It has an area greater than the total irrigated
area in either Colorado or California. Surveys originally made
by the Dominion Government determined that for about 150
miles south-easterly from Calgary, along the main line of the
Canadian Pacific Railway, and lying between the Bow River
on the south and the Red Deer River on the north, was a district
admirably suited to irrigation. The soil was deep and fertile,
easily cultivated, and, generally speaking, without obstruction
of any kind; the land lay in gentle slopes to the north-east,
affording the natural flow necessary for irrigation, and to provide easy disposal of surplus water; and sufficient water was
available in the Bow River to ensure that irrigation should be
carried on for all time. The Bow River rises in the Rocky
Mountains, where it is fed by eternal glaciers. It is not dependent upon rainfall; the hotter the season, the greater is usually
the flow of water. High water is experienced during the hot
months of June, July and August.
The feasibility of irrigating this immense area lying along
the main line of the Canadian Pacific Railway was naturally
of great interest to the Company, and after weighing all local
conditions—soil, climate, water supply, engineering features,
altitude, etc.—and obtaining the most expert advice, the Company finally undertook the development of this area as an irrigation project. Its aim was to create a rich and productive
farming community.
The Block contains irrigable and non-irrigable areas, and
offers to the settler an opportunity to engage in mixed farming
under the most ideal conditions. Here can be secured side by
side, in the same quarter section, land lying above the canal
system for the grazing of livestock, and irrigable land for crops
such as alfalfa, clovers, grains, vegetables, etc., requiring abundant moisture. All crops give greater returns under irrigation in
this part of Alberta, but the increase is most marked in the case
of alfalfa and all other forage crops, vegetables and small fruits.
For farm uses there is a never failing supply of water which insures crops when the seed is placed in the ground, while the
problem of a constant supply in every pasture for the use of
stock is also solved. Combination farms in the Block may be
regarded as one of the best agricultural farms on the American
Continent.
43
THE WATER SUPPLY
Those who have had experience in other irrigation countries
know that the really vital thing is the water supply. For an
irrigation project water is just as necessary as land. The supply
must be sufficient, and it must be administered under laws
which protect the settler. In these respects the Canadian
system is perhaps as nearly ideal as it can be made. The water,
in the first place, belongs to the Government of Canada. It is
not owned by the provinces so there can be no confliction of
laws and no clashing of authority.
In Canada, when it is proposed to establish an irrigation
district, the Canadian Government must be notified of the proposed scheme, showing the area affected, the source from which
the water is taken, etc. The plan is then investigated by irrigation experts employed by the Canadian Government. Records
extending over a long period of years show the amount of water
which flows in all principal streams at low water, and from these
records the Government engineers determine whether there is
sure to be always sufficient water to supply the needs of the
proposed district. If, after full investigation has been made it
is found that there is plenty of water, and that other conditions are favorable to irrigation, the Government grants a license
for the use of the water required. The Government always
leaves itself a safe margin; it does not allow all the water in a
stream to be appropriated, but holds back a safe reserve, so that
under no circumstances can there be a shortage of water.
This, in a few words, is an outline of the Canadian System—
the system under which the Canadian Pacific Railway Company
is authorized to use water for irrigation purposes. The water
for the Irrigation Block, as has already been stated, is taken
from the Bow River, a mountain-fed stream which is not dependent upon rainfall for its flow. It rises in a wild mountainous region—a region of national parks and forest reserves which
protect them from the conditions which in other countries have
sometimes seriously affected the amount of water flowing through
the rivers.
The farmer pays a maintenance fee, but does not pay a
water-right tax. The water is free from the Government and
no charge is actually made for the water; the charge is for the
maintenance of the system. Under the contract with the
Canadian Pacific Railway Company this charge does not exceed
$1.25 an acre yearly.
SOIL AND CLIMATE
The soil in the area embraced in the Canadian Pacific
Railway Company's Irrigation Block is all of an unusual depth
and varies from a sandy to clay loam in nature. The predominating soil being of medium texture, either clay or sandy
loam, and always of good depth, with ample water-holding
capacity, the irrigator is troubled neither with the necessity for
frequent irrigation found on the shallow soils of some districts
nor with the baking and crusting of the surface common to the
heavy soils of others.
The topography of the district may be said to be gently
rolling, with an average general slope of approximately ten feet
per mile, and lends itself readily to irrigation. But the soils
of the district are not only well adapted to irrigation because of
their topography, texture, depth, water-holding capacity and
freedom from rocks and hard-pan, they are usually fertile as
well. The climate of Southern Alberta being neither humid nor
arid, but semi-arid in nature, there has been sufficient rain to
grow a dense mass of buffalo grass on the prairies for centuries,
44 but insufficient precipitation to wash or leach the mineral
plant foods from the soil. These soils, therefore, contain both
the high nitrogen content of the humid soils and the high mineral plant food content of the arid soils, which makes an ideal
combination and a most fertile soil that will withstand years of
cropping.
ADVANTAGES OF IRRIGATION
Apart from water and soil the vital element in farming is
climate. And in this respect Southern Alberta, where the
Canadian Pacific ^Railway irrigation enterprises are, is particularly fortunate. Perhaps no other part of the North American
Continent has a climate so suitable for agriculture, and so healthful, invigorating and enjoyable for residents, as is found in
Southern Alberta. The irrigated areas of Southern Alberta are
on about the same latitude as the north of France and south of
England. Just as the warm Gulf Stream tempers the climate of
northwestern Europe, so do the warm Chinook winds, blowing
from the Pacific through the passes of the Rocky Mountains,
temper the climate of Southern Alberta. The country is one of
pleasant temperatures; never too hot; occasionally cold, but not
for long periods; with clear skies and bright sunshine winter and
summer, with very little snowfall (sleighs are seldom used in
Southern Alberta) and a varying amount of rainfall which comes
mostly in the growing season.
But although Southern Alberta is an ideal irrigation country
it must not be supposed that it is a desert or arid. There is a
considerable difference in rainfall in different parts of the country
and in different seasons. Some years there is enough rainfall
over the entire country to grow good crops by natural means—
by dry farming methods,—in other seasons, the wet districts have
little enough rain and the drier districts must depend upon irrigation for successful crops. Irrigation in Southern Alberta is
thus a kind of crop insurance; and is supplementary to the
natural rainfall. One thing has been positively proved in Southern Alberta—wherever there is sufficient moisture heavy crops
are obtained. The years 1915 and 1916, for instance, were
unusually wet, so that the whole country shared the benefits
which would otherwise have been limited to the irrigated areas,
and in these two seasons Southern Alberta produced the largest
grain crops ever grown on the North American Continent. The
soil and climate are right, and only moisture is needed to assure
a prosperity which very soon places the new settler in a position
of independence and on the high road to wealth.
The effect of irrigation in dry seasons is well demonstrated
by the results obtained in the Lethbridge Irrigation District in
1919 and 1920—two of the driest seasons ever experienced in
Southern Alberta. From 82,230 acres of land to which water
was delivered in the summer of 1919, crop returns averaging
$54.71 to the acre were obtained, while the following year the
value of crops harvested on 79,650 acres of irrigated land averaged
$49.30 to the acre.
Such returns obtained over a large area, on which both good
and bad farming methods were followed, are further proof of the
productiveness of the soil in Southern Alberta when water is
intelligently applied. As will be seen, the figures of 1920 are
somewhat lower than those of the previous year. This is due
to the lower prices for farm products prevailing at the later date
and not to smaller crop yields. Farming on these irrigated
lands would prove profitable even if prices were to go still lower
than they are now, because with the water at his disposal the
farmer has the means of ensuring good crops every year independently of the natural rainfall. The Lethbridge District is
the most advanced of the irrigation systems of Southern Alberta,
and has therefore been chosen to illustrate the crop possibilities
on irrigated land here. This district is, however, by no means
fully developed as yet, and it is estimated that its crop production
could be increased at least fifty per cent, without difficulty.
45
The value of irrigation as a means of increasing crop yields
is also demonstrated by the field tests which have been conducted
on irrigated and non-irrigated land at the Dominion Experimental Farm at Lethbridge for a number of years. The average
yields of some of the most important crops over a period of eleven
years up to and including the summer of 1918 are shown in the
following table.
Irrigated, Non-irrigated,   Increase on
Eleven Year      Eleven Year        Irrigated
Average Average Land
Wheat      53 bushels 30 bushels 23 bushels
Oats  108      " 70      " 38      "
Barley      78      " 43      " 35      "
Peas     41      " 27      " 14      "
Potatoes  487      " 237      " 205      "
In 1919 and 1920—the two exceptionally dry seasons already
mentioned—the increased yields on irrigated land were even
more striking, as the following shows:—
Increase in wheat per acre due to irrigation   29 bushels
Increase in oats per acre due to irrigation    71 bushels
Increase in barley per acre due to irrigation   42 bushels
Increase in peas per acre due to irrigation    14 bushels
Increase in potatoes per acre due to irrigation. . . 252 bushels
In all cases (except potatoes) the results were obtained from
plots of one-sixtieth of an acre. On this account the yields are
higher than they probably would have been had the fields been
larger, but the comparative results are no doubt the same.
That is to say the percentage of increase due to irrigation is
about the same as would have been the case on larger fields.
On the irrigated land the grain crops were grown on land that
had raised a hoed crop of some kind the year previous, and the
potatoes were usually planted on grain land.
In comparing the results with grain on the irrigated and
non-irrigated plots on this farm, it is only fair to point out that
on the non-irrigated plots the crops were invariably planted on
land which had lain in fallow the previous year and which produced no crop then, whereas on the irrigated land a rotation
system was followed and no summer fallowing was done. In
other words, a crop of some kind was produced on the irrigated
land every year, while on the non-irrigated it took two seasons
to produce one crop.
The Superintendent of the farm emphasizes the fact that
at no time since its establishment has any effort been made to
demonstrate the advantages of irrigation over dry farming, but
that in reality two farms were operated, and all possible efforts
made to obtain the best results on each. He also states that
comparative yields of timothy and alfalfa are not given, for the
reason that the returns from these crops have been so low on
the non-irrigated land in this district, that it was hardly worth
while to tabulate them.
On the irrigated portion of the station the average yield
for cured alfalfa for the past ten years has been considerably
more than four tons to the acre; in some seasons it has exceeded
five tons. Timothy hay has averaged from one and a half tons
to two tons to the acre during the same period.
RAILWAYS AND MARKETS
The Irrigation Block is well provided with railway facilities,
the main line of the Canadian Pacific Railway running through
the whole length of the Block, which is also served with numerous
branch lines. Few countries so new as Southern Alberta pan
offer the intending settler such excellent railway transportation.
46 The same is true of markets. The irrigation area ol Alberta
lies in a sort of triangle, at each corner of which is an important
city. Near the eastern apex of the triangle is Medicine Hat,
a manufacturing and commercial center of about eleven thousand
population. The city is famous for possessing the greatest
natural gas resources in the world. At the southeast corner of
the triangle is Lethbridge, with about 13,000 people, and an
important mining and agricultural center, while at the northwest corner of the triangle is Calgary, a city of about seventy
thousand. These cities in themselves afford large markets for
the products of the irrigated farms, and facilities for exporting
farm produce have been developed to a very high degree. There
are also, throughout the irrigation block, many smaller towns
dotted all along the lines of the railway, each with its stores,
elevators, implement warehouses, blacksmith shops, newspapers,
banks, hotels, schools and churches.
All the crops grown in other parts of the Prairie Provinces
are grown successfully in the Irrigation Block. Of many crops
larger yields are obtainable under irrigation than on land dependent upon the natural rainfall. Other crops do so well on
irrigated land that they are considered primarily as irrigation
crops. Such a crop is alfalfa (lucerne) which has been the
foundation of successful irrigation agriculture in the United
States. A considerable area of irrigated land in Southern Alberta is already devoted to the growth of alfalfa, and the area
is being steadily increased every year. All farm animals relish
and thrive on alfalfa, and since this and other forage crops yield
abundantly on the irrigated farms in Southern Alberta, and there
is an ample supply of pure water available at all seasons, the
conditions for profitable mixed farming are all that could be
desired.
A feature of much importance is the fact that, although the
irrigated area of Southern Alberta is naturally treeless, the introduction of water facilitates the growth of a number of varieties
of trees which thrive wonderfully under irrigation conditions.
Belts of these trees are of great value, not only for the beauty
which they add to the landscape, but for affording shelter and
providing places where small fruits can be grown to the best
advantage. The farmer who has a portion of his land under
irrigation may in a few years be the possessor of a very beautiful
home, surrounded by trees, producing the finest fruits and
vegetables, both for his own use and for sale.
< The price of good irrigated land in the Canadian Pacific
Railway's Irrigation Block ranges from about $50 per acre. In
arriving at the price of a farm, allowance is made for any land
which cannot be irrigated, which is sold at a much lower price.
47
48 A a.    .
SOME SETTLERS' HOMES.-
-Typical of the farm homes which farming in the Canadian West permits a
settler to acquire in a few years. GENERAL INFORMATION
The Department of Colonization and Development of the
Canadian Pacific Railway has established a Bureau of Information, which will furnish the latest information regarding the
natural resources and the industrial and commercial possibilities
in Canada. The headquarters of this bureau are at Montreal,
Canada, and branch offices are situated at New York and Chicago. Should you require any information regarding the industrial and commercial opportunities in any part of Canada, or any
general information, a letter sent to either address or to any office
or agent of the Canadian Pacific Railway, will bring you a prompt
reply.    Ask the C. P. R. about Canada.
Public Worship.—The utmost religious liberty prevails in
Canada. All the leading Christian denominations are represented, but there is no state church and no form of compulsory
taxation for the support of any denomination. The leading
religious bodies contribute financial assistance toward their congregations in the more unsettled districts. Sunday is observed
as a day of rest and recreation, all ordinary forms of labor being
discontinued. Church buildings are erected even in the smallest
villages and also in the better settled rural communities. Where
churches are not available the public school buildings are used
for religious gatherings of all denominations upon terms of
entire equality.
School System.—The school system of these provinces is
acknowledged to be equal, if not superior, to any on the continent. One-eighteenth part of the whole of Western Canada,
or two sections in every township, is set aside as a school grant
for the maintenance of public schools. This provides a very
large fund which makes possible an adequate and advanced
school system at small cost to the home-maker.
The local management of school affairs is in the hands of
trustees, elected by the settlers. Wherever there are sufficient
children to justify a school district, one is established. Children
in any school district are seldom more than 2 miles from school.
The cost to the settler of maintaining a school is comparatively small, owing to the liberal government assistance and the
fact that all privately-owned lands, whether occupied or not,
must bear their share of the charge. Each teacher employed
must have a certificate of a recognized standard of education,
and a thorough system of government inspection is maintained.
Agricultural Education.—The people of these provinces
are fully alive to the importance of the most advanced agricultural education. Each Provincial Government maintains a thoroughly up-to-date Department of Agriculture. In Manitoba
and Saskatchewan, well equipped agricultural colleges are maintained at Winnipeg and Saskatoon respectively and to each of
these is attached an extensive Demonstration Farm. In Alberta there are six farm schools, situated at Claresholm, Olds,
Vermilion, Youngstown, Gleichen and Raymond, in addition to
which the Provincial Government conducts Demonstration
Farms at Medicine Hat, Stoney Plain, and Sedgewick.
The Dominion Government has for many years maintained
a chain of well-conducted Experimental Farms in Western Canada. Two of these farms are located in Alberta, one at Lacombe
in Central Alberta and the other at Lethbridge, in the southern
51
part of the province. Both are devoted to mixed farming,
although that at Lethbridge is operated partly as an irrigated
farm and partly under the dry farming system. In Saskatchewan, one of the oldest farms of the system is located at Indian
Head, while at Rosthern and at Scott, in Central Saskatchewan,
there are also Experimental Stations. In Manitoba the Brandon
Farm has long been noted for its thorough experimental work
and has been of the greatest possible value to the farmers in
that province.
The Agricultural Society and the Farmers' Institute are
flourishing institutions in Western Canada, being assisted by the
various Provincial Governments, which provide for their organization. Expert judges are supplied for local fairs and for stock-
judging classes. Speakers, well qualified to discuss agricultural
topics, are also furnished for these meetings by both the Provincial and Dominion authorities. The membership fees are in all
cases very small, the work being carried on almost entirely at the
expense of the Governments.
At Strathmore, in the Canadian Pacific Irrigation Block,
east of Calgary, the Railway Company operates a well-equipped
Demonstration Farm with a competent staff, the members of
which are ready to give disinterested advice to newcomers and
to assist them in many other ways.
In conjunction with the local Governments, the Canadian
Pacific Railway Company furnishes, at suitable seasons, demonstration trains manned by experts in various lines of agricultural
work to address meetings of farmers at many points, as previously
arranged and widely advertised. These trains carry specimens
of various kinds of farm stock to be used for illustration purposes at the meetings and the judging classes at the various
stopping places en route.
In the Department of Natural Resources of the Canadian
Pacific Railway Company, one of the most important branches
is that devoted to agriculture and animal industry. Connected
with this branch are a number of trained agriculturists and experts in almost every line of agricultural work. These men are
ready at all times to advise new settlers and to assist them in
acquiring knowledge of local conditions and of the agricultural
methods and the varieties of stock most suitable for the district
in which they are located.
Railway Facilities.—Western Canada is very well served
by railroads, as the main line of two transcontinental roads—the
Canadian Pacific, and Canadian National Lines—both traverse
the Prairie Provinces and cover it with a network of branch
lines. Naturally, in such an immense territory, there are still
many districts remote from railway connection, but a glance
at the map of either Alberta, Saskatchewan or Manitoba will
show what immense strides have been made in supplying the
country with railway facilities. The lands offered for sale by the
Canadian Pacific Railway are for the most part convenient to
good railway service.
Public Roads.—Natural barriers to public traffic such as
dense forests and impassable rivers, which were such a drawback
to early settlement in many of the older countries, are for the
most part absent in these provinces. Good natural roads are
established by the simple process of driving over the prairie.
52 With the increase of settlement, however, teamsters are being
more and more forced to the government road allowances, and
the local governments are coming forward with liberal assistance
for the opening up of these road allowances and construction of
bridges where necessary.
Taxation.—When the territory now known as Alberta,
Saskatchewan and Manitoba was created into provinces of the
Dominion of Canada, an agreement was entered into which gives
these provinces a large revenue without any form of direct taxation. The Dominion Government agreed to grant to each
province, every year, a certain stated sum per head of population
and this grant constitutes the principal source of the revenue of
the Provincial Government. It is from this revenue, together
with the revenue from school lands already mentioned, that the
province is able to bear a share of the cost of educating the children in rural communities, and also to conduct a liberal program
of road-building, without imposing taxation upon the settler for
these purposes. A small taxation is imposed to supplement the
government grant towards education and public improvements,
but the rate is such that it does not bear heavily upon the settler.
No taxes are charged on his improvements; his buildings, machinery, livestock and personal effects are all exempt from taxation. He pays taxes on his land only, and even that taxation is
very light. It rarely exceeds $30.00 on a quarter section, and
this money is spent under the direction of the settlers themselves,
through the municipal councils which they elect.
Voting Regulations.—British subjects have the same
rights of voting as those born in Canada. Those who are not
British subjects will find the Canadian naturalization laws are
very liberal. It is not necessary to become naturalized in order
to vote on municipal or school matters. In order, however, to
vote on Provincial or Dominion issues, it is necessary for one to
be, or become, a British subject.
Rural Telephones.—The telephone systems in these provinces are owned and operated by the Provincial Governments
and service is given to the settlers practically at cost. The systems are being rapidly extended into the rural districts as settlers
demand them. In some localities farmers have organized companies and established local telephone systems of their own,
using the Government systems for long-distance purposes.
Domestic Water Supply.—An abundance of good well
water is readily obtained by drilling. The cost ranges from $4.00
to $5.00 per foot completed. In many sections springs abound
and reports are continually being received from well-drillers and
others to the effect that they have, during the course of their
operations, secured heavy flows of artesian well water.
Fuel.—Coal is mined on a large scale in Saskatchewan and
Alberta, the production in Alberta being more than six million
tons a year. There is scarcely a part of the province in which
coal is not found, and in many cases the farmers haul it from the
mines in their own wagons, or even dig it themselves. The price
of coal ranges from $3.00 a ton up, according to quality and distance from mines. There are also large sections of the country
which are more or less wooded, where fuel can be had for the
trouble of cutting it.
System of Land Survey.—The lands are laid off in townships, practically square in form. The tiers of townships are
numbered from one upwards, commencing at the International
Boundary, and lie in ranges from east to west, numbered in
regular order westward from certain standard lines called prin-
53
cipal meridians. Each township is divided into 36 sections
containing 640 acres, more or less, divided by road allowances.
Each section is in turn divided into four quarter-sections of 160
acres each, which are designated the southeast, the southwest,
the northeast and the northwest quarters. The corners of each
division are marked on the ground by suitable posts, rendering
it an easy matter to locate any particular piece of land.
The following is a surveyed plan of a township. In every
township, sections Nos. 11 and 29 are reserved by the Government for school purposes, and Nos. 8 and 26 by the Hudson's
Bay Company.
N
SIX MILES SQUARE
Implements and Buildings.—The estimate given is for
the implements and machinery for a quarter-section (160 acres)
farm. The prices quoted are for new, first-quality implements,
and may be reduced considerably by attending sales such as are
always taking place in every farming community. Home-
makers locating together frequently co-operate with each other
in the use of implements for the first year or two.
Wagon and box  $153
Wagon rack  18
Walking plow  35
Drill (20 hole)  157
Harrows (5 sect.)  40
Disc harrows  66
Mower  84
Hay rake • • 54
Binder  235
Smaller tools, say  25
Total -..:   $867
The buildings erected the first year are largely a matter of
the taste of the purchaser; some settlers make their start with
the crudest sort of structures, while others erect homes and outbuildings designed to fill their needs for a long period. Thus
the cost of a house may be anywhere from two hundred and
fifty to several hundred dollars up, and the same may be said of
the barn. Experienced farmers who avail themselves of the
Company's loan for improvements on irrigated lands may enter
into immediate possession of very substantial buildings.
54 Investment in Livestock—The expenditure for farm
animals the first year is a very elastic amount. However, we
cannot impress too strongly upon the settler the desirability, the
necessity, of starting with at least a few head of dairy cows,
some pigs and fowls. Many, looking toward Canada for a location, have the idea that the proper thing for the first season
is to go for straight grain-growing and then gradually work into
mixed farming. Nothing could be further from the truth. The
permanent foundation of agriculture is livestock, and this is true
of Western Canada as well as other countries. Exclusive grain-
growing is a risking of all in the hope of a large return, but dairy
cows and poultry produce absolutely sure results, while hogs
dispose of much that would otherwise go to waste. Grain does
not give nearly as quick a return as stock, particularly dairy
cows and poultry.
Capital Required.—There is no fixed amount that can be
stated as the capital essential in all cases. Some men have a
genius for getting along on small capital, but it may as well be
stated that the larger the capital the better. It would be an
advantage for the settler who is taking up unimproved land
without a loan to have, in addition to railway fares for his family,
sufficient capital to meet the following approximate expenditures:
Land payments  $320
Implements  867
4 Dairy Cows :  350
4 Farm Horses and Harness  650
4 Pigs  40
2 Dozen Hens  35
Lumber for House  900
Lumber for Barns, Out-houses, etc  225
Incidentals  200
Household furniture  500
Seed Grain  125
$4,212
A Final Word
If you have read the information contained in the foregoing
pages you can no longer question the advantages which these
provinces offer to the intending settler. You have here an opportunity to buy land at prices averaging from about $18 an
acre, which, according to Government statistics, is capable of
producing greater crops than lands in older countries selling at
many times that price. You have an offer of terms, and, to
settlers in certain localities, financial assistance such as has never
before been made on as generous a scale. You have before you
a country where the conveniences of life are already established;
a country of churches, schools, railways and telephones. It is a
country of pleasant and healthful climate and of intelligent and
sociable citizens; a country in whose development any man may
well be proud to have a part. And the development of that
country is only in its infancy. Its future possibilities cannot be
estimated, even by those who know it best. It is a country that
will make great demands upon the rising generation, and that
will offer great rewards for industry and intelligence. The man
with a family must think of his children. Does he wish them to
follow in the ruts so firmly established in older lands, or will he
give them the opportunity of a new country, where there is no
limit upon the possible accomplishments, except such as they set
themselves.
Western Canada is one of the few areas at the present time
offering opportunities for entering upon a new life and for men
of all ranks to establish permanent homes to be theirs and their
posterity's for all time. Procrastination is disastrous. Each
year expanding agricultural settlement and greater cultivation
effect an elevation in prices of Western lands. The average acre
of Canadian land that was worth $35 in 1915 was valued at $48
in 1920. It is higher today and will sell at a higher figure next
year.    The time to come to Western Canada is now.
55
56 SPORT AND PASTIME.—Leisure on the Western Canadian farm can be made profitable as well as enjoyable.    The lakes which dot the country are favorite holiday grounds. CITIES AND TOWNS
It is impossible in a booklet of this size to describe, or even
mention, all the cities and towns of Western Canada, but the
following brief information concerning some of the leading centers will be of interest to the intending settler. For particulars
as to industrial and business openings in all Western Canadian
cities and towns, write to Bureau of Information, Department
of Colonization and Development, Canadian Pacific Railway,
C. P. R. Building, Madison Ave. at 44th Street, New York, or
140 South Clark Street, Chicago.
ALBERTA
Calgary.—This is the largest city in Alberta, with a population of over 75,000. Calgary has some 730 retail stores, 180
wholesale establishments, 120 manufacturing concerns, 24 banks,
and is the chief divisional center of the Canadian Pacific Railway
in Alberta. Here also are located the head offices of the Department of Natural Resources of the Company. The extensive
western car shops of the Canadian Pacific Railway are located
here. The city has many splendid business blocks. The
Palliser, one of the magnificent hotels of the Canadian Pacific
Railway, is located here. There are 56 public and high schools,
representing an investment of over $4,000,000. Calgary is the
educational center of the Southern part of the province. In
addition to the public schools there are several private schools
and colleges. The city owns, operates and controls all its public
utilities, including street railway, electric light and gravity waterworks and hospitals. Natural gas is used as fuel. Calgary is
one of the most up-to-date and beautiful cities in Canada.
Edmonton.—This is the capital city of Alberta, and has a
population of 65,000 with 23 branches of chartered banks.
There are 95 wholesale houses and 160 industrial enterprises of
various kinds. The city is the center of a rich agricultural
district, has an important bituminous and semi-bituminous
coal industry, and is the base of supplies for a very large area
in Central and Northern Alberta. The Provincial University
is established here, overlooking the Parliament Buildings. The
city also contains ample educational facilities and operates all
public utilities. Edmonton's location on the Saskatchewan
River is most picturesque and much admired.
Lethbridge.—Is situated on the Crows Nest branch of the
C.P.R. and has a population of 14,000. It is a growing manufacturing and distributing centre, owning its electric light power
plant, street railway and coal mine. Lethbridge is the center
of the largest coal mining district in Western Canada, 4,000 tons
being produced daily within a radius of seven miles. Numerous
large irrigation projects are in its immediate vicinity. The
district has an average annual production for export of more
than $40,000,000.
Medicine Hat.—The "city that was born lucky" as Kipling describes it, is situated near the easterly boundary of
Alberta on the main line of the Canadian Pacific Railway, and
contains some 13,000 inhabitants. It lies in the centre of the
greatest natural gas field known to the world, with an open
daily flow of 50,000,000 cubic feet. Medicine Hat owns its own
gas well and supplies the cheapest light, fuel and power on the
continent. Numerous manufacturing and milling establishments are located here.
59
SASKATCHEWAN
Regina.—This is the capital of the province and also the
largest city in Saskatchewan. It is an important distributing
and financial centre. The population is 40,000. Regina has
116 industrial establishments, 122 wholesale houses, 3 colleges,
13 public schools, 4 separate schools, collegiate and normal
school; 24 churches, 11 banks (1921 clearing, $231,070,369.00),
and is credited with being the largest distributing centre of agricultural implements in the world.
Saskatoon.—This city claims the distinction of having
grown more rapidly into prominence than any other city in
Canada. In 1903 there were 113 inhabitants, while ten years
later the population had grown to 27,000. The Provincial
University, Agricultural College and Experimental Farm are
located here. Saskatoon has many up-to-date public schools and
utilities. It is located on both of the great railway systems
and is the distributing centre for an area of 47,000 square miles.
There are thirteen branches of chartered banks.
Moose Jaw.—This is a divisional point on the main line of
the Canadian Pacific Railway, with a population of about 20,000,
and serves an important grain-growing and stock raising district
for which it is the distributing centre. Moose Jaw has, in
addition to other factories, a large milling industry, and is well
equipped with educational facilities, including two collegiate
institutes and a non-sectarian residential college for boys.
North Battleford.—With a population of about 5,000, is
situated on the Saskatchewan River about 100 miles west of
Saskatoon and is the centre of a rich, mixed farming district.
It is a divisional point on the Canadian National Railways and
also the terminus of lines running to Prince Albert and Turtle-
ford. The city owns its own public utilities, has several schools
and public library, and is the distributing point for a large territory.   .
MANITOBA
Winnipeg.—With the population of 1,000 forty years ago,
Winnipeg is now a city of 282,000 people. It is Canada's greatest
railroad centre, the C.P.R. yards alone being the largest individual railway yards in the world. Besides all public utilities
the city operates its own hydro-electric power plant supplying
cheap power to manufacturing houses which in 1920 had an
output of $120,000,000. Winnipeg has 59 branches of chartered
banks, 500 miles of streets and pavements and 576 acres of public
parks. The school system is one of the most modern in America,
with 62 buildings employing 771 teachers and specialists.
Brandon.—The City of Brandon is situated on the Assiniboine River, 134 miles west of Winnipeg, and is the distributing
centre for a well-settled agricultural district. Its population
has increased during the last twenty years from 5,340 to 15,359.
Several flourishing industries are situated here. A large Government Experimental Farm also adjoins the city.
Among other leading centres of settlement in Manitoba
may be mentioned Portage la Prairie, with a population of
6,748; St. Boniface, 12,816; Selkirk, 3,700; Virden, 2,000; Souris,
2,000; Neepawa, 2,000.
60 Experiences of Some Settlers in Western Canada
IS GLAD HE CAME TO CANADA
I came to Alberta from Fergus County, Montana, in 1910,
with six sons, and purchased 2,400 acres of land from the Canadian Pacific Railway Co., and have at this date 1,400 acres under
cultivation. I have raised five crops in Alberta, which have all
been good. My wheat has averaged 25 bushels, oats 60 bushels
and barley 40 bushels.
The climate is good, and land is cheap comparing it with
prevailing prices of farm land in Montana and other parts of the
United States. I bought my land from the Railway Company,
averaging $14.00 per acre, and feel confident within the next few
years good land, where I am located, will sell readily for between
$40.00 and $50.00 per acre.
I am glad I came to Canada when I did in 1910, and there
are hundreds of others who came in when I did, who have done
well, and are pleased with their investments here.
I would strongly recommend any man who is contemplating
making a change to come up first and look over the lands in
Alberta. A large number are coming in this year from all parts
of the United States, and very few return without buying land,
with the intention of a little later on making their home in
Canada.
Yours truly,
Coronation, Alberta.       (Sgd.)    L. H. WOODY.
NO MORE TROUBLE THAN MOVING IN MINNESOTA
I shipped from Truman, Minn., arriving here March 25th,
and found buildings in good condition, ready to move right into.
My family arriving the following day, we were soon settled and
going right along; no more trouble than moving 5 or 6 miles in
Minnesota—just a little longer. We have fine neighbors (they
helped us move our effects out to the farm), a good school, and
we attend the Presbyterian church at Traynor, only 4 miles
away. We commenced seeding wheat on the 25th April, finished
seeding on the 7th May. Crops are good and the summer fallow
was in splendid condition. We have 150 acres in wheat, 45 in
oats, 5 acres in barley and 2 acres in potatoes. There have
been a great many families from the States moved in this spring
and all are doing fine.
These fine farms are on easy terms, and the present price of
grain makes farming in Western Canada a profitable business.
Traynor, Saskatchewan. (Sgd.)    B. J. PATCHIN.
CAME BACK FROM WISCONSIN SATISFIED
I came to Alberta from Iowa County, Wisconsin, in 1908, and
purchased 320 acres of land, for which I paid $21.00 per acre.
I farmed this land, together with some 640 acres which I leased,
and since my arrival in Alberta I have always had a good crop.
My wheat crops in 1915 and 1916 averaged at least 45
bushels to the acre, and my oats yielded 80 bushels to the acre,
all grains raised being of good quality.
Since harvesting my crops in 1915 and 1916, I made a three
months' visit to my former home in Wisconsin, and came back
quite satisfied that Alberta was good enough for me, and taking
the price of land in Wisconsin, selling from $150.00 to $200.00
per acre at the present time, on my arrival back to Alberta, I have
purchased over 1,000 acres of good land, and paid for it $30.00
per acre.
I strongly recommend any person desiring to farm to come
61
to Alberta and buy land, which will bring good returns to the
man who will put his shoulder to the wheel.
Magrath, Alta. _____      (Sgd.)    J. L. WHITE
FROM NOTHING TO $50,000.00
We came into Centre Saskatchewan in the summer of 1905,
travelling overland from Calgary. Our funds were so depleted
that when we got to North Battleford we had to borrow twenty-
five cents to cross the ferry into town. We worked there for
some time, and in the spring of 1906 filed on a homestead, having
to sell a shotgun to raise the $10.00 for the filing. Since that
time we have acquired altogether a section and a half of land,
in addition to renting another three-quarters of a section. If
we had to sell out now we would probably realize about $50,000.00,
and have made all this since we came here. We get crops in
this district of from 30 to 35 bushels of wheat to the acre and
oats from 40 to 80 bushels to the acre; stock here pays well.
We have 1,700 sheep, 70 cattle and 60 horses, of which a number are registered Clydes.
(Sgd.)    LAWRENCE BROS.
Vera, Saskatchewan. Per Frank B. Lawrence.
NO CROP FAILURE IN FOURTEEN YEARS
I came to Southern Alberta fourteen years ago from
Galesburg, 111., and have been practicing mixed farming ever
since coming here. I feel that I have been very successful,
though a great amount of this success is due to my wife and
my son. My horses have made me good money, and I have
seldom had to shelter them during the winter, and cattle are the
same. Hogs have proven very successful and I.have raised
two litters every year. As for crops, oats are our staple, while
barley and spring wheat have given good returns. For the past
six years I have been growing alfalfa, and during all that time
it has done wonderfully well, giving me a yield of 2 J^ to 3 tons
each season, and never has it winter-killed to any appreciable
amount. As a feed I have found nothing that is so balanced a
ration for all stock. Western rye grass and timothy I consider
to be a paying crop; they are great for the soil, as they help to
keep it from blowing.
Small garden crops do wonderfully well and I have never
seen more mealy cooking potatoes than I grew here on my farm;
celery, cabbages and all other root crops are also well adapted
to the soil.
My one great success here has been with poultry and dairying. I have had eggs every month of the year and always have
been able to dispose of the surplus of eggs, poultry or dairy
products for a good price at all times.
During all our time here we have never had a complete
failure of crop, and there is absolutely no reason for any one to
fail if they use proper judgment in their farming operations, and
as a place for a young man with small capital to start in, I cannot
see where you can equal it as there is always work to help him
along, land is reasonable in price and the soil is wonderfully productive. All it requires is a man to work hard and follow proper
methods.
High River, Alberta.
(Sgd.)    R. D. BOWER.
C. P. R. TAKES SPECIAL INTEREST IN SETTLERS
I moved from the State of Iowa to Gladstone, Manitoba
62 12 years ago. My object was to find cheap land and get a home
of my own. I have been successful. I do not owe my success
to any strenuous effort or any exceptional ability on my part. I
just took hold of the opportunities that were thrust upon me.
I bought C. P. R. land on easy payments. The Company
seemed to take special interest in the welfare of the settlers, and
will give them every opportunity possible to pay for a home of
their own. I am farming about 1,000 acres now and I am going
into stock raising. Stock of all kinds do well here, and we can
raise stock much cheaper here than they can in the States. I
have known sheep to make 200 per cent profit. There is lots
of room here for homemakers; no hardships; soil equal in fertility to that of the Central States; good water and plenty of it;
fuel and timber in abundance; near to market; with best of school
and church privileges, and as good neighbors as could be desired.
It gives me great pleasure to extend an invitation to my
fellow countrymen to come here and get a home of their own.
Gladstone, Manitoba. (Sgd.)    ASBERRY SINGLETON.
MADE $5,000 FROM HOGS IN ONE YEAR.
I came to Alberta in the spring of 1909 from Devil's Lake,
North Dakota, locating on my farm near Dalroy.
I arrived with six head of horses and two head of cattle
and about $1,500. Since then, I have increased my livestock to
seven head of horses, four head of cattle, and about one hundred
head of hogs, a four-roomed house, good barn with all modern
improvements, a feed grinder, elevator, chopper, fanning mill,
etc. I have increased my original capital at least four times
more since coming here. From the feeding of hogs during the
past year, I had a gross return of $5,000.
I first started grain farming, but during the past four years
I have made hogs my specialty, and you may see by the foregoing statement, that I have not done so badly.
Land has increased at least twenty per cent in value during
the past few years, now selling for from $25 to $35 per acre, with
nominal taxes of about $27 a quarter-section yearly.
The climate here is better than Dakota in that we do not
have so much dry wind, the winters are similar to Dakota except
that they have more cold winds there.
As for farming in general, the growing and feeding of livestock is more sure than the grain farming if continued year after
year, and if every farmer follows this he will be ahead of the grain
growers in the long run. Taking everything into consideration,
I feel satisfied with my success in Alberta.
Dalroy, Alberta. (Sgd.)    A. E. MARRIAM.
ALBERTA NOT OVERPICTURED IN THE LEAST
I have just got home after inspecting and buying some
of your land, and I am delighted with the way the C. P. R.
people did business with me. It was more like a deal between
close friends than perfect strangers. The horses and cattle
surprised me, for I had got the notion firmly fixed in my head that
Iowa corn was the only feed to get animals rolling fat, but Alberta
grasses and grains put just as much fat on and evidently at a much
less cost, on account of the open range. The crops I saw looked
fine, and so did all garden produce, and your books and literature
haven't overpictured Alberta in the least. I am looking forward to next spring, when I move to Alberta. I thank you for
the way I was treated, and remain,
Yours respectfully,
(Sgd.)    HARRY HARRINGTON.
Route 1, Colfax, Jasper County, Iowa, U.S.A.
PROSPERITY IN SIX YEARS.
I 'settled   in   Saskatchewan   six years ago,  coming from
North Dakota.    I started to farm as soon as I arrived, on 160
63
acres, and very soon had confidence enough to increase my
holding to 640 acres. I raise wheat, oats and flax, and have
always had good results and no sign of failure, but I work my
land well and get my seed in early.
I started here with four horses and a little machinery, and
a very small capital, and to-day I have sixteen horses, fifteen
head of cattle, and I have my land in a good state of cultivation
and a very comfortable home. For a man to start farming,
grain growing, and stock raising, the prospects here are good,
and when it comes to making a comparison with North Dakota,
well, then, conditions are much more favorable here. I would
strongly advise men with small capital to settle in this district,
as one can start on limited means. I am now well established
here and intend to stay. Any man with ambition and energy
can make good here.
Wilkie, Sask.      (Sgd.)    J. L. SHRUMP.
NO BETTER PLACE FOR MIXED FARMING.
In describing the farming opportunities of the Lloydminster
and surrounding district we believe that there is no better place
for mixed farming than the above district. In looking back over
a period of ten years, we find that each year has brought us
something. We have had our good and bad years, and at no
time has there been an absolute failure, being at all times able
to get plenty of feed. Good seasons bring heavy crops, as the
soil is of the very best, and we believe for general farming, you
may go a long way before you can better Lloydminster and surrounding district. With a good English-speaking community,
well up in sports and amusements, we can safely recommend the
district to anyone looking for a farm and home.
(Sgd.)    J. C. HILL AND SONS.
Lakeside Farm, Lloydminster, Sask.
MAKES GOOD ON IRRIGATED LAND.
I came from Portland, Oregon,. U. S. A., April 1, 1919,
settling at Cassils, on tract formerly used as C. P. R. demonstration farm.
As I had no stock, I rented 80 acres of the 190 acres comprising the farm, from the balance I harvested $1,500 worth of
alfalfa hay from 15 acres, $700 worth of wheat and have 50 acres
of flax partly harvested. My potatoes yielded 16 tons per acre
and my garden was the best I ever had and was the admiration
of the traveling public, many of whom remarked that it was the
finest they had seen between Medicine Hat and Calgary. Such
peas, beans, cucumbers, squash, citron and corn I have seldom
seen; tomatoes, and all other garden products—about thirty
varieties, in goodly quantities, also strawberries in abundance
from June 15th to July 15th.
My wife and I have lived on the Pacific Coast for several
years and the climatic change is pronounced, nevertheless wTe
have seldom enjoyed a season so thoroughly as this, nor had
better health. We are in a new settlement, most of us having
come from the States this spring, consequently have yet to endure
some inconvenience.
The Calgary-Medicine Hat road is my south line, the Canadian Pacific Railway main line my northern boundary; the depot
(temporary affair) a quarter mile from the house, making it convenient to travel either by wagon, auto or rail. The auto road
is fairly^ good except in irrigating season.
Having started with but little capital and practically no
outfit, hiring what I needed and having nearly $4,000 worth of
crops this first year, I am certainly very optimistic about what
young energetic people can do here with some capital and plenty
of ambition to work.
Cassils, Alberta.
(Sgd.)    L. M. McABEE.
Ask the Canadian Pacific About Canada.
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Map showing location of
WESTERN PROVINCES OF CANADA
with chief railway connections.
I Districts shaded in Red show location of
CANADIAN PACIFIC RY. FARM LANDS
SHB Districts shaded in Blue show location of
CANADIAN PACIFIC RY. IRRIGATING DISTRICTS
For exact location of lands for sale, descriptions,
prices, etc., write our nearest district representative.   See list on last page of this cover.
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Mason CityJ Information for Settlers
Timely Pointers on Customs, Quarantine and Transportation Regulations Affecting
Settlers and Settlers' Effects Entering Canada
Any journey may be made pleasant or otherwise, according to
the arrangements made and the knowledge of the traveller concerning the conditions to be faced. A study of the following paragraphs will well repay the settler who intends to move himself, his
family, and their effects to Western Canada. The information
given is the latest and most accurate available at the time of
printing this booklet, but as regulations and tariffs change from
time to time, the settler should consult the nearest representative of the Department of Colonization and Development of
the Canadian Pacific Railway. See list on last page of this
cover.
Canadian Customs—It is the policy of the Canadian Government to encourage desirable settlement, and consequently
all laws and regulations are made as easy as possible for the
intending settler. Settlers' effects, including wearing apparel,
books, usual and reasonable household furniture and other
household effects, instruments and tools of trade, occupation or
employment, guns, musical instruments, domestic sewing machines, typewriters, bicycles, carts, wagons and other highway
vehicles, agricultural implements and live stock for the farm, not
to include live stock or articles for sale or for use as a contractor's
outfit, nor vehicles nor implements moved by mechanical power
(see next paragraph), nor machinery for use in any manufacturing establishment; all the foregoing if actually owned by the
settler for at least six months before his removal to Canada, and
subject to regulations prescribed by the Minister of Customs,
are admitted free provided that any dutiable articles as settlers'
effects may not be entered unless brought by the settler on his
first arrival, and shall not be sold or otherwise disposed of without payment of duty until after twelve months' actual use in
Canada.
Special Provision re Tractors, etc.—By a Dominion order
in Council the following regulation is in effect: Until otherwise
ordered, vehicles and implements moved by mechanical power,
may be imported free of duty by a settler, if actually owned
abroad by the settler for at least six months before his removal
to Canada, and subject to regulations prescribed by the Minister
of Customs. Provided, that the said vehicles or implements
entered free as settlers' effects may not be so entered unless
brought by the settler on his first arrival, and shall not be sold
or otherwise disposed of without payment of duty until after
twelve months' actual use in Canada.
A settler is allowed sixteen head of horses or cows or 160
head of sheep, which may be brought into Canada as settlers'
effects.
Numerous Ports of Entry and sub-ports are located in
Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta and British Columbia, to
which goods may be forwarded in bond. When you have decided
upon your route of travel ascertain from your nearest district
representative the most convenient port at which you may
enter your effects.
Rates of duty on general merchandise, or on property not
entitled to free entry as settlers' effects, can be learned at any
Port of Entry, or direct from the Department of Customs,
Ottawa, Canada.
Shipment of Live Stock—The intending settler should be
guided by the following information concerning Canadian
Quarantine Regulations:
All animals imported into the Dominion of Canada from the
United States must be accompanied by a statutory declaration,
or affidavit, made by the owner or importer, stating clearly the
purpose for which said animals are imported, viz.: whether for
breeding purposes, for milk production, for work, for grazing,
feeding or slaughter, or whether they form part of settler's
effects, or whether they are entered for temporary stay.
Said declaration or affidavit must be presented to the Collector of Customs at the Port of Entry, who will decide whether
the animals are entitled to entry under these regulations, and
who will notify the Veterinary Inspector of the Department of
Agriculture in all cases where the regulations require an inspection to be made.
The importation of branded or range horses, mules and
asses, other than those which are gentle and broken to harness
or saddle, is prohibited.
Settlers' horses, mules and asses must be accompanied by a
satisfactory certificate of Mallein test, dated not more than
thirty days prior to the date of entry, and signed by an inspector
of the United States Bureau of Animal Industry, or a similar
certificate from a reputable veterinarian, provided such certificate is endorsed by an inspector of said Bureau of Animal
Industry.
The owner or the agent of the horses or stock should personally
carry this certificate and not submit the same to the railway
companies. Having this certificate for the Canadian Veterinary
Inspector, you will not be detained at the frontier port.
When horses are not accompanied by a certificate, they will
be tested at the quarantine station at the Port of Entry into
Canada, or under such restrictions as the Veterinary Director-
General may prescribe, at point of destination.
When tested at the Port of Entry, if any reactors are found
they shall be slaughtered without compensation, or definitely
marked and returned to the United States, and must not again
be presented for entry. All horses, mules or asses in the same
consignment shall be returned to the United States, but the non-
reactors may be again presented for entry and further test
after the lapse of a period of not less than fifteen days from the
date of the first test, provided that satisfactory evidence is produced to the effect that they have not, during the same period,
been in contact with affected animals. When tested at destination points, all animals reacting to the test will be slaughtered
without compensation, while these comprising the rest of the
shipment will be detained in quarantine until it is shown to the
satisfaction of the Veterinary Director-General that they are
free from disease.
No compensation will, under any circumstances, be paid for
horses reacting to Mallein within six months after the date of
their importation into Canada. Information for Settlers—Continued
Settlers' cattle, at the present time, are allowed to enter
Canada without being subjected to the tuberculin test.
Cattle for breeding purposes and milk production, six months
old or over if unaccompanied by a satisfactory tuberculin test
chart, dated not more than thirty days prior to the date of
entry and signed by a veterinarian of the United States Bureau
of Animal Industry, must be detained in quarantine for one
week, or such further period as may be deemed necessary, and
subjected to the tuberculin test; cattle reacting thereto must
be returned to the United States, or slaughtered without compensation.
Importers may be required to furnish a statutory declaration
that the chart produced applies to the cattle it purports to describe, and no other.
Settlers' sheep must be accompanied by a certificate from an
Inspector of the Bureau of Animal Industry. If not accompanied by a certificate, they will be held at the quarantine station at the frontier port for thirty days.
All swine are held at the quarantine station at the frontier
port for thirty days, and before being admitted to quarantine a
certificate from the Inspector of the Bureau of Animal Industry
must be presented.
The importer will also be required to produce an affidavit
to the effect that the swine he proposes to import have been immunized to hog cholera by the simultaneous injection of hog
cholera virus and serum.
Chickens may be brought into Canada by a settler free of
duty if he has actually owned such chickens for at least six
months before his removal into Canada, and has brought them
into Canada within one year after his first arrival.
Regulations Regarding Free Entry of Pure-bred Stock.
—No animal imported into Canada for the improvement of
stock shall be admitted free of duty unless the owner is a British
subject, resident in the British Empire, or, if more than one
owner, each is a British subject resident in the British Empire,
and there is furnished an import certificate, stating that the
animal is recorded in a Canadian national record or in a foreign
record recognized as reliable by the National Record Committee.
In case such certificate is not at hand at the time of the
arrival of the animals, entry for duty may be made with the
Canadian customs, subject to a refund of the duty upon the
production of the requisite certificate and proofs in due form
satisfactory to the customs within one year from the time of
entry. For further information regarding this registration of
pure-bred stock, address Department of Agriculture, National
Live Stock Records, Ottawa, Canada.
Shipment of Settlers' Effects.—The following freight
regulations for the carriage of settlers' effects on the Canadian
Pacific Railway should be carefully studied. Carload shipments
of settlers' effects (second hand) within the meaning of the
tariff, must consist of the following described property of an
actual farm settler:
Household goods and personal effects (all second hand), and
may include:
Agricultural implements and farm vehicles, all second hand
(will not include automobiles), automobiles taking a special
rate.
Live stock, not exceeding a total of ten head per car, consisting of horses, mules, cows, heifers, calves, oxen, sheep or hogs.
Lumber and shingles (pine, hemlock, spruce or basswood),
which must not exceed 2,500 feet in all, or the equivalent thereof;
or, in lieu of (not in addition to) the lumber and shingles, a portable house, knocked down, may be shipped.
Seed Grain, Trees or Shrubbery.—The quantity of seed
grain must not exceed the following weight; Wheat, 4,500 lbs.;
oats, 3,400 lbs.; barley, 4,800 lbs.; flaxseed, 1,400 lbs.
Live poultry (small lots only).
Feed sufficient for feeding the live stock while on the journey.
One man will be passed free in charge of full carloads of
settlers' effects containing live stock, to feed, water and care for
them in transit.    No reduced return transportation will be given.
Settlers' effects, to be entitled to carload rates, must consist
of a carload from the point of shipment to one point of destination. Carload shipments will not be stopped in transit for
partial unloading.
The Minimum Carload Weight of 24,000 lbs. is applicable
only to cars not exceeding thirty-six feet six inches in length,
inside measurement; larger cars must not be used for this traffic.
If the actual weight of the carload exceeds 24,000 lbs., the additional weight will be charged for at the carload rate.
Freight Rates.—Information regarding special rates on
settlers' effects can be obtained from any Canadian Pacific Railway agent in the United States or Canada.
As rates and conditions may change without notice, settlers
should in every case consult their District Representative on all
points pertaining to their removal to Western Canada. By so
doing the lowest rates can always be secured, and expensive
mistakes can be avoided.
For further information concerning Canadian Pacific Railway
lands or opportunities in Western Canada, write your nearest
District Representative or agent as shown below.
Calgary, Alta.:
Allan Cameron, Genl. Supt. of Lands, C P. R.
M. E  Thornton, Supt. of Colonization^ C. P. R-Mlmitoba
Edmonton, Alta.:
J. Miller, Department of Natural Resources, C. P. R.
London, Eng.:
A. E. Moore, Manager Dept. Colonization & Development, C. P. R., 62-65 Charing Cress, S. WT.
Montreal, Que.:
C. LaDue Norwood, Dept. of Natural Resources, C. P. R.
New York, N. Y.:
L. F. Mowrey, District Representative, C. P. R. Bldg.,
Madison Ave. at 44th Street.
Portland, Ore.:
L.  P.  Thornton,  District  Representative,  208  Railway
Exchange Bldg., Third and Stark Streets.
San Francisco, Cal.:
C. A. Van Scoy, District Representative, 299 Monadnock
Building.
Saskatoon, Sask. :
W. J. Gerow, Dept. of Natural Resources, C. P. R.
Spokane, Wash. :
R. C. Bosworth, District Representative, 202 Exchange
National Bank Bldg.
St. Paul, Minn.:
J.  N.  K.  Macalister,  District  Representative, Hackney
Bldg., Fourth and Jackson Sts.
Winnipeg, Man.:
F. W. Russell, Dept. of Natural Resources, C. P. R.
or to
Department of Colonization and Development, C. P. R.,
Calgary, Canada. GENERAL TERMS OF SALE
IMPORTANT ANNOUNCEMENT
Since the publication of this booklet, NEW and
EXTRAORDINARY TERMS OF SALE have been
inaugurated by the Canadian Pacific Railway and are
set forth herewith. The General Terms of Sale as
published in this booklet are therefore now discon-.
tinued and replaced by the following:
THE NEW TERMS
Under this plan all the settler pays down is 7% of
the purchase price—then he will have one year's free
use of the land without any interest chargeable whatsoever, after which the balance of principal will be
amortized on an easy payment plan of 34 equal, annual
payments which makes the second payment fall due
two years after the purchase of the land, which is
figured on the basis of 7% of the balance of the cost of
the land. For example, on a purchase of 160 acres,
costing say, $3000, the down payment will be $210
and the annual payments, commencing at the end of
the second year, will be $195.30. At the end of 35
years, the settler will get clear title to the land—unless,
of course, he wishes to pay sooner, which is his privilege.
Clearly understand that rate of interest charged under
this plan is 6%. The above payment of principle and
interest on the 34 year amortization basis is an amount
equal to 7% of the cost of your farm less cash payment
you make at the time of purchase. Nowhere else can
you find such a farm offer today.
WHAT IS AMORTIZATION?
The word "amortize" is derived from the Latin
word "Mors" meaning death. To amortize a contract
therefore, means to "put it to death." Long time
amortization means to "put it slowly to death;" and
the surprising fact is that the ordinary bank interest
rate of 7% will kill off the interest and principal in 34
years. It does not mean that the farmer pays 7% for
34 years and then the principal becomes due. The
principal never falls due but is "killed off" by small
payments each year. At the end of the period, the
purchaser has NOT ONLY PAID THE INTEREST
BUT THE PRINCIPAL AS WELL—has wiped out
the original purchase price.
WHAT AMORTIZATION DOES FOR THE
FARMER
Under the terms of ordinary land contracts the
larger payments occur during the early years of the
agreement, that is when the farmer is most pressed for
working capital. Many farmers know what it is to
lie awake nights wondering how they are going to meet
such payments. Amortization changes this condition
entirely. Payments being small and equalized over
the life of the contract, relieve the strain on the farmer's
mind and the drain on his resources. The fear of
foreclosure no longer haunts him.
WHY THIS EXTRAORDINARY OFFER
This extraordinary offer is made by the Canadian
Pacific Railway in order to settle its remaining farm
lands and it puts within reach of practical farmers the
outstanding opportunity to own their farms on the
very easiest possible terms.
You will doubtless wonder at the liberality of this
offer which is now made to get settlers for the Canadian
West. It may also strike you that if the opportunity
there is so great, the country should soon settle itself
without such special inducements. The truth is that
the natural resources and opportunities ARE settling
Western Canada rapidly—yet not so fast as the Canadian Pacific Railway desires it to be settled.    You must
bear in mind that the settling of Western Canada is
the project of a GREAT RAILWAY SYSTEM and
not the enterprise of a land company. It is our purpose to get settlers not merely to dispose of the lands.
Every new settler means bigger crops, more freight
and passenger traffic to the railway and therefore,
every effort is made to get more and more settlers of
the character that make for the substantial and wholesome development of the country.
It should be clear to you that no land company on
earth could exist and offer such terms on rich, virgin,
vigorous land as are contained in this offer. These
terms will permit you to use the greater part of your
profits for farm improvements, better livestock, farm
equipment, home comforts, etc. These terms are made
for the farmer's benefit.
IRRIGATED FARM LANDS
In Sunny Southern Alberta—a district that is especially adapted to mixed farming and where irrigation
has been proved to be most beneficial—the Company
has constructed a vast irrigation system where there
is an unfailing supply of water which is administered
under the direction of the Government.
WHY AN IRRIGATED FARM?
Because irrigation in Southern Alberta—insures you
a crop every year—increases your crops each year—
makes you independent of weather conditions—produces great quantities of coarse grains, pastures,
alfalfa, roots, etc., thus developing the livestock
industry which is safe and ultimately more profitable
than wheat farming—tends toward closer development, well-cultivated farms, good neighbors.
These lands are also for sale upon the same amortization terms as our other farm lands. Full details on
application.
NO TAXES ON IMPROVEMENTS
Taxes are moderate and there are no taxes on your
livestock, buildings, improvements, implements or
personal effects. Good markets, modern schools,
roads, churches, amusements make farm life in Western
Canada desirable and attractive.
YOU CANNOT BUY UNTIL YOU INVESTIGATE
This offer justifies fullest investigation. You must
see this land before you can buy it. In order that you
may inspect the land—judge of its value and fertility—
special inspection trips from points Chicago and West
will leave on the first and third Tuesdays of each
month. Single fare plus $2.00 for the round trip.
You have time now to go over this land. Let us
arrange details. Canada's choice sections are becoming
rapidly settled and we expect large numbers of far-
seeing men to take advantage of this new plan.
THE FARM  YOU WISHED TO OWN IS NOW
WITHIN YOUR REACH
This is your chance to get out of the rut, and if it
looks deeper further ahead, turn out right here. Get
your affairs in shape and go to Western Canada this
year. Don't say a few years hence, "I wish I had
gone ten years ago." An equal opportunity to obtain
a foothold in one of the world's most fertile spots and
grow with it to prosperity and happiness may never
come to you again.
M. E. THORNTON, Supt. of Colonization.
CANADIAN PACIFIC RAILWAY COMPANY,
Department of Colonization and Development,
Calgary, Alberta.

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