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A handbook of information regarding Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba, and the opportunities offered… Canadian Pacific Railway Company 1920

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A HANDBOOK OF INFORMATION
REGARDING
ALBERTA
SASKATCHEWAN
and MANITOBA
AND THE OPPORTUNITIES OFFERED YOU BT
THE CANADIAN PACIFIC RAILWAY
IN THESE PROVINCES
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THE    CANADIAN     PACIFIC     RAILWAY
C7AL-C3AK.V'.    ALBERTA
CANADA ANSWERS TO SOME SETTLERS* QUESTIONS
Question—Can I get a special railway rate to Canada?
Answer—See information under settlers' rates in this booklet. In addition
you would be wise to write your District Representative, who will be
able to advise you what special rates are available.
Question—Can I get employment on a farm in Western Canada?
Answer—Any industrious person in good health and with some farm experience need not fear lack of employment except, perhaps, during the
winter months. There is a brisk demand for farm help from March
1st to November 30th, and in many cases good men are employed by
the year.
Question—What is the rate of farm wages?
Answer—It is dependent on the season and the locality. As high as $80
a month is being paid for good farm help for the whole growing season;
during harvest wages are higher.
Question—What are the chances of employment in the cities and towns?
Answer—This depends on your trade or profession, and local conditions.
If you can afford a trip, make one and investigate these things for yourself. If you cannot afford the trip very well, investigation should be
made   by   correspondence.
Question—Will the Canadian Pacific Railway Company accept my property here in part payment for farm land in Western Canada?
Answer—No. It is not a real estate company, and it is handling land for
the purpose of colonization. It, therefore, is not interested in becoming
owner   of   lands   located   elsewhere.
Question—When does spring farm  work begin?
Answer—About middle of March. Most of the wheat seeding is done in
April; oats, barley and flax are sown in May.
Question—When  does harvest begin?
Answer—In August. Threshing commences about the first of September
and continues until late in the season. The hay crop is harvested mostly
in   July.   -
Question—What should a man do who is short of capital?
Answer—If you are increasing your capital where you are you should stay
in your present position until you have enough to start you on a farm
in Western Canada. If you are not increasing your capital where you
are you might do better to seek farm employment in Western Canada.
If you have some equipment you could probably rent a farm from a
private owner and soon get into a position to buy one for yourself.
Question—Is corn used for fodder in Western Canada?
Answer—To a limited extent. The principal fodder is the natural prairie
grass. Timothy, rye, oat hay and sunflowers are extensively used. In
the irrigation districts alfalfa is the principal fodder crop.
Question—What isthe usual snowfall?
Answer—It varies in different parts of the country. In Southern Alberta
there is seldom enough snow to make sleighing possible. Most of the
farmers do not have sleighs. In Northern Alberta and the more eastern
provinces  the  snowfall is  heavier.
Question—Should I make a personal investigation before buying land from
the   Canadian   Pacific   Railway?
Answer—Yes. You should make a personal investigation before buying land
from anyone. This Company wants you to get land that will suit your
purposes, and for that reason will not complete a sale to you until you
have inspected the land and found it satisfactory.
Question—CanT deal with your representative to as good advantage as direct
with you?
Answer—Yes. Our District Representatives are salaried employees. They
do not get any commission on sales, but are paid a salary to give information and assistance to intending settlers.
Question—Where   are   your   lands   located?
Answer—We have lands throughout a very large territory and can meet the
desires of almost everyone as to location. Tell us the district you
prefer and we will advise you what lands are available there.
Question—Is not the climate of Western Canada a big disadvantage?
Answer—No. Those who live in Western Canada are the best judge of the
climate and few of them would now consider removing either east or
south. They consider the climate of the country one of its greatest
advantages.
Question—Will you reserve land for me until I can sell my property here?
Answer—Take the matter up with the District Representative for your territory, who will do everything possible to accomodate you.
Question—I am a farmer but have no capital. Will the Canadian Pacific
Railway  assist  me?
Answer—The Company sells its lands to good settlers on very easy terms,
but it realizes that to have a fair prospect of success the farmer should
have a little capital of his own in addition to any assistance given him
by   this   Company.
Question—Plow   much   capital   do   I   need?
Answer—About $3,000 will be necessary to give you a fair start. If you
are well supplied with your own implements and live stock you may
get along on somewhat less, but as a rule it is true that the more capital
a settler has the greater are his advantages.
Question—Will the Canadian Pacific Railway rent me land?
Answer—The payments on Canadian Pacific Railway lands extended over
the long terms offered make it as easy to buy the land as to rent it, and
as the Company wants permanent settlers its policy is to sell the land
on easy terms rather than to rent it.
Question—If Western Canadian lands grow good crops without irrigation,
why is irrigation necessary?
Answer—The Provinces of Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba comprise
an area of over 750,000 square miles. This block of land is about 1,000
miles from east to west and 700 miles from north to south. In such a vast
area there are differences of natural conditions, and the fact that irrigation
is practiced in one district is no argument against farming without irrigation in other districts. The chief advantages of irrigation are that
irrigation increases production, gives protection against dry years, and
encourages closer settlement than in districts where irrigation is not
practiced.
Question—What are the prices of horses, cattle, sheep and hogs?
Answer—All forms of live stock command high prices in Western Canada.
Bring your horses, cattle and sheep with you if you can. Local markets
fluctuate but current prices will be quoted upon request.
Question—Can   I   get   land   with   running   water?
Answer—Out of the great area of lands owned by this Company almost every
individual  preference  can   be  met.
Question—I would like to come to Western Canada, but cannot get the price
I want for my property here.    What should  I do?
Answer—Do not lose the opportunity of success in Western Canada for a
small consideration as to price of your present holdings. The question
is not so much whether you can get your price for your property as whether
the money you can get for it would earn you greater profits in Western
Canada  than   your  present  property   does.
Question—Should  I  bring my farm implements to  Canada?
Answer—If they are in serviceable condition and you can make up a carload,
bring them.    You will find it cheaper than buying new implements.
Question—Can a widow take up a farm from your Company on the same terms
as  a  man?
Answer—Explain your position to the District Representative for your
territory.
Question—If I buy irrigable land and take your offer of a loan do I receive
the $2000, in cash?
Answer—No. The money is expended under the direction of the Company
towards the erection of house, barn, fencing and well on the land.
Question—Can I get a loan with any land I may buy from you?
Answer—Loans   are   given   only   with  irrigated   lands.
Question—Can a single man qualify for a loan?
Answer—Loans are restricted to married men with agricultural experience.
Question—I am a single man but would be accompanied to my farm by my
mother or sister.    Would that qualify me for a loan?
Answer—Explain your position to the District .Representative for your
territory.
Question—What does it cost to build fences in Western Canada?
Answer—The following costs are approximate for material only. Three-
strand barbed wire, $145 a mile; five-strand woven wire, $225 a mile;
ten-strand  woven wire,  $385  a mile.
Question—If I take up land from you and change my mind can I cancel
my  agreement?
Answer—The settler would doubtless expect the Company to carry out its
part of the agreement and he is under the same obligation. In case of
settlers who meet with misfortune, however, the Company asks only to
be judged by its record.
Question—When is the best time to visit Western Canada?
Answer—Almost any time that suits your convenience. Get into touch with
the District Representative for your territory and find out when his
next party will be going to Western Canada.
Question—Is live stock raising more profitable than grain farming?
Answer—The two should be combined. In seasons of high grain prices and
other favorable conditions, grain farming is very profitable, but the farmer
who. has a few horses, beef steers, hogs, sheep, cows and poultry for sale
every year is in the best position.
Question—Should I try to make up a party of neighbors to settle in on*
district?
Answer—That is a good plan. Such neighbours can co-operate in the us^
of machinery and in farm operations in such a way as to considerably
reduce  their expenses.
Question—If I buy irrigated land how much does the water cost.
Answer—$1.25 per acre per season.
Question—How much water is supplied for this price?
Answer—A flow amounting to practically 1.5 feet per acre for the season.
Question—Will not the war result in heavy taxation on the farmers' lands?
Answer—The taxes on farmers' lands in Western Canada are much lighter
than the usual farm tax in the United States, and, in addition, in Western
Canada no taxes are charged on improvements, farm implements, live
stock or personal effects. The Government has shown no disposition
to increase taxation on farm lands to meet any part of the war expenditure. Taxes could, however, be very greatly increased and still be lower
than   they   are   in   the   United   States.
Write for fuller information on any point to
DEPARTMENT
OF   COLONIZATION   AND
Canadian, Pacific Railway
Calgary, Canada,
DEVELOPMENT
List of District .Representatives, including Canada, shown on
last page of cover. ||r    The desire to have a piece of land of one's own is a natural instinct in the heart of every properly developed
man and woman.__Injearlier years, on account of the great areas of land available in the United States, no great
difficulty was experienced!by any ambitious settler of that country who wished to[beccme[his [own [land-holder,
but the rapid increase in population, combined with the corresponding* rise in thef price of land, has completely
changed this condition/     Land, which a generation ago might be had for| the hcmesteading, new commands
prices ranging to $300.00 anacre and over.^ At such prices it is quite[hcpeless for[the tenant faimer cr the farmer's
son in moderate circumstances, or the city man with limited capital, to attempt to buy a faim cf his cwn.    To
pay for it becomes a life-long^task, and the probability is that he will never do moie than meet theinteiest charges.
If he is serious in his desire tofsecure a farm home, he must lock to countiies where theie is^ still abundant fertile
land available at moderate" cost, and where these lands are to be purchased on terms which make it possible for
the settler with small capital to become a farm owner, as the result of a few year's labor.      He will also want
land in a country where the practices of the people are similar to those to which he has been accustomed;
a country with the same language, same religion, same general habits of living, with laws, currency, weights and
measures, etc./based on the same principles as those with which he is familiar.     He wants a country where he can
buy land at prices averaging about $18.00 an acre, which will produce as big or bigger crops than those he has been
accustomed to from lands at $100.00 and more an acre.     He wants this land where social conditions will be attractive to himself and his family, and where he can look forward with confidence to being in a few years independent, and well started on the road to financial success.
All these conditions he will find in Western Canada, and nowhere else. The provinces of Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba, described in this booklet, provide the one and only answer to the land-hungry. The land is
here; it is the kind of land he wants; the conditions are as nearly ideal as is possible, and the prices and terms
are such that the man of moderate capital has an opportunity not available to him elsewhere. The following
pages will explain that opportunity in detail, and make clear the way of prosperity to all who have the ambition
and enterprise, combined with a moderate amount of capital, to undertake the betterment of their conditions* The World's Greatest Field
of Opportunity
The Canadian Provinces of Alberta, Saskatchewan and
Manitoba are commonly called "The Prairie Provinces" on
account of the great area of fertile prairie land within their
borders. They are by no means all prairie, as their territory
includes mighty lakes and rivers, vast stretches of forest and
towering mountains, but it is for their prairies they have become
famous throughout the world. The prairie region stretches
roughly from the Red River in Manitoba to the foothills of the
Rocky Mountains in Southern Alberta, a distance of approximately 800 miles. At its northern edge it merges into a park-like
country, part prairie and part light timber, which gradually becomes thicker and heavier until it is unbroken forest. The area
of these three provinces is 756,052 square miles, which is more
than the combined area of the states of Ohio, Illinois, Wisconsin,
Minnesota, Iowa, North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska,
Montana and Idaho.
According to a Dominion estimate there are in these three
provinces 272,892,000 acres of land suitable for agriculture,
without taking into account forest land that may ultimately
be tilled. Of this vast acreage there were in 1919 only 36,931,750
acres under crop.
In the great area of Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba,
the Canadian Pacific Railway owns some four and a half million
acres of the finest land, most carefully selected before the incoming settlers had taken up the choicest parts, and it is this land
which the Company now offers on terms which have never
been surpassed in the history of colonization. The Canadian
Pacific Railway Company is not a land-selling organization
in the ordinary sense of the word. Its chief business is to handle
traffic, and in order to produce traffic it desires industrious,
successful settlers located along its lines. For that reason it is
able to give terms and assistance more favorable to the settler
than is possible for any company which aims to make its profits
simply out of the sale of land.
FOR THOSE WHO ARE NOT FARMERS
Although the greatest resource of Alberta, Saskatchewan
and Manitoba is agriculture, the prosperity which has come
to the farmer has opened many other profitable fields of business
and labor. This booklet is intended for those who are seeking
an opportunity of making a home of their own on the land, and
we cannot go into great detail in explaining the other opportunities, but it may be said that no man who has health, industry,
and good habits need be afraid of his future in Western Canada.
The field is very wide, ranging from ordinary labor to the skilled
trades and professions. For those who can command some
capital there are many opportunities to start up in some profitable
business in which they may have had experience. All Canada
is prosperous, and it is the kind of prosperity which will continue
because it is based on the universal need of the products of the
farm.
With the rapid increase of farmers on the land must come
an increase of laborers, business and professional men to serve
them. Every new community calls for its quota of carpenters,
plasterers, general laborers, blacksmiths, caterers, implement,
lumber and hardware dealers, grocers, general merchants, doctors,
lawyers and clergymen.     And the development of the country
as a whole opens the way for men engaged in railroading, the
grain trade, mining, lumbering, wholesale merchandise and manufactures suitable to the country, particularly flour milling and the
industries connected with the livestock and meat trades. The
field for women is as wide as it is for men. Western Canada
is aggressive and liberal; it is willing to afford to women, in business and the professions, a sphere of absolute equality with men.
In the provinces of Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba, women
vote on all matters of provincial and municipal legislation, and
may sit in the Legislature on the same terms as men, and this
represents the general attitude toward women in the Canadian
West.
All who are interested in opportunities of a business or industrial nature should communicate with the Bureau of Information, Department of Colonization and Development, Canadian
Pacific Railway, Montreal, Que., or to any of the offices of the
Department whose addresses are shown on the cover. This
bureau undertakes to furnish, either directly or through our
representatives in the United States and Great Britain, authentic
information regarding the natural resources of Canada and the
opportunities for commercial and industrial development.
TWENTY YEARS TO PAY
The Company's general terms of sale provide for a cash
payment of one-tenth of the price of the land and improvements,
(if any) at the time of purchase. For the next three years the
purchaser pays interest only. His second payment of principal
is due at the end of the fourth year from the date of contract.
Payments are extended over twenty years, if desired, or may be
paid sooner, if convenient. The rate of interest is six per cent.
See fuller details on pages 47 and 48.
Purchasers of irrigated lands in the Company's Irrigation
Block in Southern Alberta are provided with a loan, if they
want it, to the value of $2,000, which is expended, under the
Company's supervision, towards the building of a house and barn,
sinking a well, and fencing the farm. This loan is also repayable
in twenty years with interest at six per cent. In order to qualify
for it the settler must be a married man with agricultural experience, must have his own implements and horses, or the means to
buy them, and have sufficient cash to make his first payment
and care for his family during their first year's occupation of the
land. This loan is the most positive evidence of the Company's
faith in its own proposition. No security is required except the
land itself, and the first payment (which is made in advance),
and the chance of the Company getting its money back depends
on the success of the farmer. That it is willing to make the loan
on these terms is proof that the Company is sincere in its belief
that the farmer can not only make a living, but can pay for the
land and for the loan out of the proceeds of his farm.
Settlers taking advantage of the above terms are required
to enter into occupation of their lands within six months of time
of purchase. The Company has, in certain districts, lands which
may be bought without settlement conditions. Where lands are
sold without settlement conditions the period over which payments may be extended is ten years.
ASSISTANCE OF EXPERTS
The Company's Agricultural and Animal Industry experts
are glad to give the benefit of their practical advice to settlers,
and to assist them in every way possible toward making a success of their farm undertakings. Although these prairie provinces
have become world-famous for the quality of their wheat production, it is generally recognized that the settler's greatest
success requires him to go into mixed farming, producing horses,
cattle, sheep, hogs,, poultry, dairy products and fodder and root SOME FARM OPERATIONS.—No Life is so Healthy and Happy as that of the Prosperous Farmer Building up for Himself and Family a Home in the Canadian West. «©rops. To improve the quality of livestock, the Company places
at central points pure-bred bulls for service, the only fee being a
nominal one which goes to remunerate the caretaker. The
Oompany maintains Demonstration Farms in a number of
localities where free advice is given to all settlers asking it.
At some of its farms the Company has installed creameries,
paying the highest cash prices for cream brought in by farmers,
who retain the skimmed milk for feeding purposes. The
Company has also established at certain points egg circles,
taking all eggs brought in by farmers and paying cash for them.
In these and other ways the Company at all times seeks to
advance the settlers' interests and by so doing increase production along its lines of railway.
WESTERN CANADA'S CLIMATE
One of the first questions asked by the home-seekers who
may become interested in Western Canada concerns the climate.
There has been a general impression which has been fostered by
romances, and a popular opinion that has little foundation in fact,
that the climate of Western Canada is so rigorous as to be a
disadvantage to the country. As a matter of fact, the climate
of these three provinces constitutes one of their greatest attractions. Anyone who will take the trouble to glance at a map
of the world will observe that Western Canada lies in the same
latitude as the virile white races of Europe, and there can be no
question that the climate of the northern temperate latitude is
more favorable to the development of healthy white races than
are the more southern climes. The same may be said of the
production of the cereals and food products required for the sustenance of white races, and nowhere are they produced so successfully as in these Canadian provinces. If the climate were
not exceptionally favorable to farm operations, such yields as
tiave been established in this territory for a period of years would
be impossible. It is not denied that at times and places there is
severe weather, although there is considerable difference in localities. Alberta and the south-western portions of Saskatchewan have shorter winters, less snowfall and usually milder
temperatures than the more northern and eastern districts.
This is due to the Chinook winds—warm south-westerly breezes
which come up through the passes in the Rocky Mountains, and
tiave a wonderfully modifying effect on the temperature.
Throughout the rest of these provinces a heavier snowfall prevails, and the winter is longer, but by no means unbearable, or,
for the most part, even unpleasant. The sky is almost always
bright and cloudless, and the dry pure air makes the cold more
bearable than a temperature many degrees higher in damp
climates. The winter months are from December to March inclusive, although, particularly in the Chinook regions, there are
numerous warm spells during this period.
The table following shows the mean temperature in Southern
Alberta each month for a period of seven years:
1913     1914     1915     1916     1917     1918     1919
January	
1.52
16.30
17.06
8.90
13.20
13.80
34.27
February	
10.92
16.50
19.98
18.50
11.10
17.40
14.30
March...	
18.58
31.00
28.67
31.65
26.30
32.30
16.40
April 	
42.31
42.80
49.23
44.35
38.00
41.90
44.94
May 	
46.15
50.80
49.99
46.95
49.00
47.80
52.10
June 	
57.65
57.70
53.60
56.10
55.90
61.50
59.48
July	
58.29
66.50
58.63
63.30
66.70
62.60
64.41
August ....
59.65
61.80
67.00
60.00
61.30
62.50
64.74
September..
48.48
53.30
49.00
53.00
54.50
54.40
53.35
October	
36.20
44.60
47.30
40.00
41.50
46.16
31.95
November..
27.91
32.00
29.33
32.25
44.60
32.77
22.32
December	
22.26
14.10
24.80
12.00
8.60
29.20
18.23
Lest it be argued that Southern Alberta is not representative
of the whole territory we give below also the mean temperature at
Brandon, Manitoba, for the same period:
1913 1914     1915     1916    1917 1918     1919
January _.   24.60 3.30      1.00    13.00     9.80 4.06    10.10
February...,.     3.80 9.90    14.10      1.16     6.80 .09     4.30
March.       7.70 19.02    23.10     7.70   20.30 28.00     9.30
April..     43.70 35.90   46.40    34.77    32.10 41.05    37.70
May..™     48.50 45.60   47.00   48.90   47.10 46.01    55.70
June  .    60.40 57.60   55.60   56.20   58.10 60.08   65.20
July    61.90 70.30   60.50   66.80    67.20 60.06   66.80
August    61.40 62.50   64.60   60.10    62.20 60.04   64.80
September..   54.00 55.10   50.80   52.10   55.10 46.09   52.70
October     34.40 47.00   42.40   35.80    31.80 42.03   29.70
November..   27.90 22.10   20.80   24.10   33.40 26.01    12.80
December™.    15.70 2.70     8.30     1.60 —6.30 10.00 —5.20
The question of precipitation—of the rainfall and snowfall—
is also one of first importance to intending settlers. The table
below shows the average precipitation in inches at Lethbridge,
Alberta, and Brandon, Manitoba, for eleven years:
Lethbridge.      Brandon.
1909  16.15 18.01
1910  1189 13.98
1911  20.04 26.03
1912  21.30 18.04
1913  17.38 12.00
1914  17.36 16.79
1915  17.27 18.18
1916  24.61 20.98
1917  11.95 11.20
1918  7.62 15.25
1919.-.-  12.28 17.76
Average for 11 years....    16.17
17.11
It is important to note that the precipitation comes mainly
during the months in which it is of value to growing crops. The
following figures show the precipitation by months at Lethbridge
for a period of five years:
1915       1916        1917       1918    1919
January.       .50
February 94
March 22
April  04
May.-     3.03
June-     4.84
July     3.44
August  96
September     1.32
October 96
November™       .75
December      . 27
year came in the months of May, June and July, when it was
of greatest value to the growing crops. Also note the dry
winter months.
Lethbridge and Brandon have been chosen for the foregoing statistics as Dominion Government reports have been
kept at the Experimental Stations there for a long period of
years. The average, however, will apply generally to the
country as a whole. It is true that rainfall at Lethbridge is
considerably less than in Northern Alberta and many parts of
the other provinces, as there is an area of comparatively light
precipitation in Southern Alberta.
8
1.09
.73
.46
.06
.86
.27
.76
.95
.90
.10
.66
.75
.46
1.57
.19
.47
3.77
.95
.58
1.75
3.54
1.42
.75
.56
3.33
1.37
.85
1.06
2.97
2.00
1.23
1.05
4.70
1.67
1.07
2.04
1.99
.72
.24
1.78
.49
0.00
.43
1.26
.51
1.13
.46
.55
of the total rainfall of the
. .Tnnp and Jul v. when it, was

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