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Your journey through the Canadian Rockies : eastbound Canadian Pacific Railway Company 1944

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Array t6A0u#Asti£&
CANADIA
ROCKIE'
BANFF IN THE CANADIAN ROCKIES
CANADIAN PACIFIC YOUR HOST ACROSS CANADA
CANADIAN PACIFIC HOTELS OF BEAUTY AND EFFICIENCY
NOTED  FOR  COMFORT,   SERVICE  AND   CUISINE
AT MODERATE RATES
Empress Hotel
Victoria, B.C.
Canada's Evergreen
Playground
Hotel Vancouver
Vancouver, B.C.
Hotel Sicamous
Sicamous, B.C.
Altitude, 1,153 feet
(Operated by lessee)
Emerald Lake Chalet
near Field, B.C.
Altitude, 4,272 feet
Chateau Lake Louise
Lake Louise, Alta.
Altitude, 5,680 feet
Banff Springs Hotel
Banff, Alta.
Altitude, 4,625 feet
Hotel Palliser
Calgary, Alta.
Hotel Saskatchewan
Regina, Sask.
Royal Alexandra Hotel
Winnipeg, Man.
The Royal York
Toronto, Ont.
Chateau Frontenac
Quebec, Que.
McAdam Hotel
McAdam, N.B.
The Algonquin
St. Andrews-by-the-Sea,
N.B.
Digby Pines
Digby, N.S.
Cornwallis Inn
Kentville, N.S.
Lakeside Inn
Yarmouth, N.S.
Lord Nelson Hotel
Halifax, N.S.
THE PACIFIC COAST
In the Garden City of the Pacific Coast. An equable climate
has made Victoria a favorite summer and winter resort.
Yachting, sea and stream fishing, shooting and all-year golf.
Crystal Garden for swimming and music. (Open all year).
European plan.   Facing Inner Harbor.
This hotel is operated by the Vancouver Hotel Company on
behalf of the Canadian Pacific and Canadian National Railways.    (Open all year).   European plan.
THE ROCKIES
Junction for the orchard districts of the Okanagan Valley,
and stop-over point for those who wish to see the Thompson
and Fraser Canyons by daylight. Shuswap Lake district
offers good boating and excellent trout fishing and hunting
in season. (Open all year). American plan. At station.
A chalet hotel situated at the foot of Mount Burgess, amidst
the picturesque Alpine scenery of the Yoho National Park.
Roads or trails to the Burgess Pass, Yoho Valley, etc.
Boating, fishing, hiking. (Open summer months). American
plan.   7 miles from station.
Facing an exquisite Alpine lake in Banff National Park.
Mountain climbing with Swiss guides, pony trips or hikes to
Lakes in the Clouds, Saddleback, etc., motor road to
Columbia Icefield, boating, fishing. (Open summer months).
European plan. 3 miles from station by bus.
A magnificent hotel in the heart of the Banff National Park,
backed by three splendid mountain ranges. Alpine climbing,
bathing, hot sulphur springs, mile-high golf, tennis, fishing,
boating, riding, hiking. (Open summer months). European
plan.  \}/2 miles from station.
THE PRAIRIES
Suited equally to the business man and the tourist en route to or from
the Canadian Rockies.    Good golfing.    (Open all year).   European plan.
At station.
In the capital of the Province of Saskatchewan.    Golf, tennis.    (Open
all year).   European plan.
A popular hotel in the capital of the Province of Manitoba, appealing to
those who wish to break their transcontinental journey.   The centre of
Winnipeg's social life.    Good golfing.     (Open all year).     European plan.
Subway connection with station.
EASTERN CANADA
The largest hotel in the British Empire. Ideal convention headquarters.
(Open all year). European plan. Subway connection with Union Station.
A metropolitan hotel—in the most historic city of North America.
Thrilling skiing at Lac Beauport. (Open all year). European plan.
A commercial and sportsman's hotel (Open all year). American plan.
At station.
The social centre of Canada's most popular Atlantic Coast holiday colony.
Unsurpassed golf, swimming.  (Open summer months). American plan.
Nova Scotia's leading summer resort. Like an English country estate.
Golf. Swimming in glass-enclosed sea-water pool. {Open summer
months).   American plan.
In the Annapolis Valley near Evangeline's Grand Pre.    (Open all year).
American plan.
Delightful summer resort—all outdoor recreations.   Tuna fishing.    (Open
summer months).   American plan.
In the capital of the Province of Nova Scotia.    (Open all year). European
plan.   Operated by Lord Nelson Hotel Co.
For further information, reservations, etc., apply to hotel management or
nearest Canadian Pacific agent. £o'--
Your Journey
THROUGH THE
CANADIAN ROCKIES
From Victoria and Vancouver in
British Columbia to Calgary, Alberta
^he Canadian Rockies, which by
their giant bulk divide the Prairies and the
Pacific Coast, form one of the most remarkable
mountain regions of the world. The Canadian
Pacific main line runs through magnificent
mountain systems . . . the Rocky, Selkirk,
Monashee, Coast, Cascade and Purcell ranges.
These offer 600 miles of spectacular scenery
. . . snowy peaks, glaciers, vast icefields,
rugged precipices, waterfalls, foaming torrents,
canyons, and lakes like vast sapphires and
amethysts set in the spruce-clad mountains.
Five National Parks are located in this Alpine
wonderland, and the Canadian Pacific is the
only rail route serving them; they are the
Banff, Kootenay, Yoho, Glacier and Mount
Revelstoke National Parks.
T5he Canadian Rockies attract every
year thousands of eager visitors, for whom
attractive hotels and rustic mountain lodges
provide comfortable headquarters.
A Canadian Pacific Publication
Published by the News Department^
Canadian Pacific Railway Company.
PRICE 25 CENTS
ALL FACILITIES OFFERED SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE.
Printed in Canada, 1944 CANADIAN
PACIFIC
HOW TO READ THIS BOOK
This book is written for the reader travelling eastward;
a companion booklet is written for readers travelling westward.
At the head of almost every page is a list of stations
identified by mileage from the previous divisional point.
Underneath, those places are described. Travelling eastward these divisional points are:
Vancouver, North Bend, Kamloops, Revelstoke, Field, Calgary.
North and South of Track.        If you ride facing the locomotive, the
north is:
On your left—travelling eastward
Contents Text Map
Victoria to Seattle and Vancouver  3
Vancouver to Kamloops  17 13,18
Kamloops to Sicamous.  19 19
Okanagan Valley Branch.  20
Sicamous to Revelstoke  21 22
Branch Line Arrow Lakes  23
Revelstoke to Golden  24 24, 27
Lake Windermere Branch  30
Golden to Field  34 34
Field to Lake Louise  40
Lake Louise to Banff  48 51
Banff to Calgary  60 58 Victoria
The Empress Hotel, Victoria
Although the Canadian Pacific CHARMINGLY situated at the
rail services do not begin until we southern end of Vancouver Island,
reach Vancouver, and although Victoria—the capital city of Brit-
there are some Canadian Pacific ish Columbia—gives a bright wel-
steamer services which travel afield come to the arriving traveller,
much farther than Victoria, we will Although its enterprising business
begin our journey through the district speaks of a rich commerce
Rockies at this beautiful city. drawn from the forest, mineral and
agricultural resources of Vancou-
Victoria Victoria (Population ver Island, Victoria is essentially
62,000) stands on a pro- a home city, with beautiful houses,
montory overlooking the Straits of bungalows, gardens, lawns, boule-
Juan de Fuca across to the snow- vards and parks; and it has fur-
capped Olympic Mountains on the thermore a distinct charm of its
mainland. Owing to the charac- own that has made it a favorite
teristic beauty of its residential dis- residential and vacation city for
trict, it has often been called "a bit both summer and winter alike,
of  England  on  the  shores of  the
Pacific." Victoria's beauty lies in its residential districts, its boulevards,
parks, public buildings, numerous bathing beaches and semi-tropical
foliage.
Empress Hotel      The Empress Hotel, most western of the chain of
Canadian Pacific hotels, overlooks the inner harbor,
within a stone's throw of the Parliament Buildings. It is a hotel of
stately architecture, hospitable spirit, spacious atmosphere, and social
warmth. Its beautiful gardens are a fitting accompaniment of its own
ivy-grown walls.
Crystal Garden     Adjoining the Empress Hotel an amusement casino,
the Crystal Garden, contains one of the largest
glass-enclosed salt-water swimming pools in the world, together with
dancing floors, promenades, etc.
Parliament Buildings Victoria is the capital of British Columbia.
The Parliament Buildings, which rank among
the handsomest in America, overlook the inner harbor. Adjoining
them is the Provincial Museum, very complete and interesting, and
containing a large assortment of specimens of natural history, native
woods, Indian curios and prehistoric instruments. The Provincial
Library contains a large collection of historical prints, documents, and
other works of great value and interest.
Beacon Hill Park    One of the city's public parks, Beacon Hill Park,
contains 154 acres laid out as recreation grounds
and pleasure gardens, fifteen minutes' walk from the Empress Hotel Victoria
The Crystal Garden, Victoria
and included in all sightseeing trips in the city. Magnificent views
can be obtained from Beacon Hill across the Straits of Juan de Fuca
and of Olympic Mountains on the mainland.
Brentwood Near Brentwood, a charming resort on Saanich Inlet
about fifteen miles from the city by street-car or automobile, are the beautiful and famous gardens of Mr. R. P. Butchart.
In no part of America can any more diversified gardens be found than
these, for besides sunken gardens there are acres of rose gardens,
stretches of velvet lawns bordered with flowers of every description,
and a fairy garden.   Visitors are admitted without charge every day.
Saanich Mountain
Observatory
Reached by automobile or street-car. The
telescope, which has a 72-inch reflector, is the
third  largest  in the world.   The observatory,  in
addition to being of interest itself, commands from its site one of the
finest views on the Pacific Coast.
Golf Victoria can be considered as an approximation to the "golfer's
paradise," for in its equable climate golf can be enjoyed every
day of the year. Three 18-hole and two 9-hole courses are open to
visitors and are all convenient to the city, well kept and of fine location.
Guests at the Empress Hotel have special privileges at the Royal
Colwood Golf and Country Club. The Empress Winter Amateur Golf
Tournament is held each year early in March, and is climaxed with a
Grand Ball at the Empress Hotel.
Sporting The fishing and shooting on Vancouver Island are of the
best—trout, salmon, pheasant, grouse, cougar, bear, deer
and moose being the prizes. Shawnigan Lake, Cowichan Lake, Sproat
Lake, Great Central Lake and Campbell River are amongst the most
famous fishing waters of this continent. There are also excellent bird
shooting and big game hunting. Sportsmen wishing fuller information
should communicate with the Victoria and Island Publicity Bureau,
Victoria.
Motoring There are as many good motor trips radiating from Victoria
as from any other place in America. The roads are
excellent. Among the popular trips is the famous Malahat Drive to
Shawnigan and Duncan; Nanaimo, via Parksville to Cameron Lake,
on over Alberni Summit; another is the Grand Island Highway Tour—
Victoria, Duncan, Nanaimo, Cameron Lake, Port Alberni, Qualicum
and Campbell River, and the entire Georgian Circuit International
Tour, the greatest and most complete scenic tour on the continent. 8
3iniiiiiii!ii!ifiiiriiiiHiiiiiniiiitiuiitiiiuiiii4fii
Malahat Drive, Victoria Seattle
A Canadian Pacific "Princess" Steamship from Victoria to Vancouver
The Triangle Route
British Columbia Coast Steamship Service
In connection with its transcontinental rail service, the Canadian
Pacific operates an extensive steamship service on the British Columbia
Coast as far north as Alaska. On Puget Sound several comfortable
steamships provide daily sailings on the "Triangle Route" between
Vancouver, Victoria and Seattle.
Nautical
Miles
0.0
VANCOUVER
72.0
VICTORIA
142.0
SEATTLE
SEATTLE
(direct)
Full particulars of this
service may be found in
the Company's time
tables or by consulting any
Canadian   Pacific   agent.
Vancouver Island From Victoria delightful excursions may be made
into the interior of Vancouver Island, either by
the Esquimalt and Nanaimo Railway or by automobile. Excellent
hotels are to be found at Cameron Lake and elsewhere. Splendid
fishing can be enjoyed at numerous places, for salmon and trout. The
immense Douglas fir forests of the interior and the balmy climate
make a trip into the interior wonderfully attractive.
Seattle Seattle is the largest city in the State of Washington, and
one of the most important on the Pacific Coast. It is a
beautiful and progressive city, with a rapidly increasing population.
Situated on the east side of Puget Sound, up the slopes of the hills that
front the latter, it has a fine harbor accessible to the largest vessels
afloat. Lake Washington, a body of fresh water about twenty miles
long and three miles wide, bounds the city on the east, and is
connected with the Sound by the Lake Washington Canal, a very
notable feat of engineering that has a great and important bearing
upon Seattle's future. The downtown business section of Seattle has
many skyscraper buildings.
Seattle has a very pleasing residential section, especially in the
vicinity of the University of Washington, and many beautiful parks
and summer resorts. A large number of enjoyable trips can be made
from Seattle, by train, steamer, and motor, such as to Bellingham,
Everett, Tacoma, Mount Rainier, the Olympic Peninsula wonderland,
and to many resorts in the Cascade and Olympic mountain ranges. Vancouver
Vancouver
(Population
with suburbs
360,000) is situated on Burrard Inlet,
which here is
over two miles
wide. A long
peninsula,
within which
is embraced
beautiful
Stanley Park,
curves round
north-westward from the
city, and almost landlocks
Vancouver
Harbor. On
the north side
of the Inlet is
a magnificent
mountain
range;the
most prominent features
thereof are two
peaks    which,
silhouetted against the sky and remarkably resembling two couchant
lions, are visible from any point in the city or harbor and have earned
it its appropriate name of "The Lions."
The narrow entrance to Vancouver harbor is called the ''Lion's
Gate" and is now spanned by one of the world's highest single-span
suspension bridges, known as the ''Lion's Gate Bridge." It is 200 feet
above maximum high water and 5,978 feet long including approaches.
The suspension span, between towers, is 1,550 feet long. The towers
are 360 feet high.
Hotel Vancouver The Hotel Vancouver, operated by the Vancouver
Hotel Company on behalf of the Canadian Pacific
and Canadian National Railways, is situated in the heart of the social
and business centre of the city. It is also conveniently located near
the Canadian Pacific station and docks, city parks, beaches and
playgrounds. Sightseeing drives, visiting various parts of the city
and its environs, leave from the hotel.
I     ^ I I
1 3 i i J ; i l7^ 11
, i: * * * U1111
J; *J J * n 1111
*     *        w       «   1   I   f   I   I  f
Hotel Vancouver
Hf
A Summer    Vancouver is a favorite summer city, for its mild climate,
City floral luxuriance and closeness to water make life there
very pleasant. There are many bathing beaches, parks,
boulevards, automobile roads, and short and long steamer trips. All
kinds of water sports are available, and are encouraged by a mild
climate. The roads around the city are famous for their excellence,
and there are many fine drives, varying from an hour to a day in time.
Stanley Park Amongst the shorter drives may be mentioned Stanley
Park—one of the finest natural parks in the world,
a primeval forest right within the city limits and containing thousands
of Douglas ■firs and giant cedars of a most amazing size and age. The
park is encircled by a perfect road, nine miles in length.
"Marine Drive," which girdles Point Grey, is one which leads
through Vancouver's most interesting residential sections and gives
a wonderful opportunity to enjoy the run through luxuriant woods
which crowd down to the very tide mark. 8
Vancouver
Vancouver Harbor
Grouse Mountain, rising nearly
four thousand feet above North
Vancouver, offers a unique trip. A
fine motor road climbs the mountain
to a comfortable chalet,where guests
can be accommodated for short or
long visits. From this height one
looks directly down on Vancouver
and the view extends, in clear
weather, to Vancouver Island, forty
miles distant.
Still another fine drive is to New
Westminster. (See page 12). The
Pacific Highway, including Kings-
way, runs through Vancouver, connecting up with the main American
roads of the Northwest. This road
runs from Vancouver to Mexico.
VANCOUVER, terminal of Canadian Pacific transcontinental rail
and trans-Pacific steamship routes,
is the largest commercial centre in
British Columbia. In and around
Vancouver are immense lumber
and shingle mills. Mining, lumbering, farming, shipbuilding, and
shipping, are the reason of the
city's remarkable growth and
prosperity. From a forest clearing
fifty years ago it has become one
of the most important seaports of
the Pacific Ocean.
Vancouver is also one of the
great vacation objectives of the
Pacific Coast, and because of its
beauty and hospitality has become
very popular in this regard.
Capilano, etc. The north shore of the harbor offers the visitor
the awesome Capilano Canyon, where suspension
bridges hang hundreds of feet over a torrent which has carved its way
down through perpendicular walls of granite. West Vancouver, with
its cosy little rock-clinging gardens and its impressive sea cliff drive,
offers the visitor another tempting trip.
Bathing There are numerous fine bathing beaches around Vancouver. The most easily reached are English Bay and
Kitsilano—both on the street-car line. The scene on a sunny afternoon
at English Bay, which lies at one entrance to Stanley Park, is one of
great animation.
Burrard Inlet, English Bay, and the North Arm are excellent places
also for boating. Vancouver possesses one of the finest yacht clubs
on the Pacific Coast.
Golf      Vancouver has many good golf courses, all of them 18-hole
courses and all open to visitors.   Included in these is a public
course, "Langara," owned by the Canadian Pacific.   There are also a
number of good tennis clubs. nttwf
Big Trees,
Stanley Park, Vancouver 10 Vancouver
English Bay, Vancouver
Steamer Trips Some fine steamer trips can be made from Vancouver.
Chief amongst them, perhaps, is the 43^-hour trip
across the Gulf of Georgia to Victoria. Then there are a particularly
interesting trip to Nanaimo, a cruise amongst the Gulf Islands, and
others to Comox, Powell River, etc. An excellent circle tour may be
made by taking a "Princess" steamer to Victoria, the E. & N. train
from Victoria to Nanaimo, thence back to Vancouver by steamer.
Many delightful short excursions are made by Canadian Pacific
Coast steamers during June, July and August, including one-day
cruises to Jervis Inlet, afternoon cruises to the Gulf Islands, Newcastle
Island, etc.  These are advertised in the Vancouver newspapers.
The West Coast of Vancouver Island may be called the Canadian
Norway, with its rugged coast line, and heavy-timbered slopes that
drop sheer into the water. Little villages and Indian settlements are
found along the coast. The Canadian Pacific steamships "Princess
Norah" and "Princess Maquinna," built especially for this service, sail
regularly from Victoria during June, July and August. They visit
numerous ports en route, on their five-hundred-mile journey to Port
Alice in Quatsino Sound.
Sporting A great variety of fishing can be obtained around Vancouver. In season, salmon, spring, cohoe and tyee, steel-
heads, Dolly Varden, rainbow, cut-throat, and sea trout are plentiful.
Within easy reach there is also wonderful shooting. Grouse, duck, teal,
mallard, snipe, pheasants and partridges are plentiful in season.
A Busy Port Vancouver is a highly important port. From here the
well-known Canadian Pacific "Princess" steamers
provide local services to Victoria, Seattle, and Northern British Columbia. Another very popular trip is by "Princess" steamer to Alaska—
a nine-day two-thousand mile journey there and back through the
fjord-like scenery of the Northland.
Grain and Lumber  from  the  forests  of  British   Columbia  is  a
Lumber great item in her exports; but the giant elevators around
the harbor indicate the growth of grain export, for much
of Western grain finds its way to Vancouver elevators. Pulp, paper,
canned goods, fruit and hundreds of manufactured lines are handled. VMllllUOE
JKllllllW
Beavermouth Canyon 12
New  Westminster
Mileage
Altitude
South Side of Track
east of
above
i     North Side of Track
Vancouver
sea-level
VANCOUVER
14
Hotel Vancouver
12.6
Port Moody
14
Reach the head of Burrard Inlet.
The Coquitlam River is
Branch to New West
16.5
Coquitlam
38
minster
crossed after leaving
this point. Three miles
further and the Pitt
River is crossed.
21.7
Pitt Meadows
23
Fraser River.
23.9
Hammond
28
32.7
Whonock
23
Cross Stave Creek.
Branch to Huntingdon
.41.7
Mission
27
Burrard Inlet Returning to Vancouver after our triangle trip, we
begin our journey eastward, forsaking the beauties
of the Pacific Coast for the promise of the majestic grandeur of the
Rockies. Leaving behind the throbbing activity of the great Pacific
outlet, we pass through its suburbs and follow the shore line of beautiful
Burrard Inlet.
Soon we reach Port Moody at the head of Burrard Inlet. Port
Moody was the original terminal of the Canadian Pacific in 1886 for
Vancouver had not then been founded. The first cargo ever carried
across the Pacific Ocean for the Canadian Pacific arrived in Port
Moody from Yokohama on the brig "W. B. Flint" on July 26th, 1886.
With the tang of the salt sea air still in our nostrils, we speed on to
Coquitlam which offers junction facilities for New Westminster.
New Westminster so named by Queen Victoria, is known as "The
Royal City"; but makes other claims for recognition. It is the third city of the province and its industries are growing constantly. Ocean shipping makes its way to New Westminster
docks up the deep Fraser. It ships much lumber and wheat. It is
connected with Vancouver by several fine highways (123^ miles).
Mission With Coquitlam left behind, Stave River is crossed, the
waters of which help to supply Vancouver with electrical
power, then comes prosperous Mission, a fruit growing and dairy
centre. At Nicomen on a clear day it is possible to see snow-capped
Mount Baker, a solitary peak standing over the U. S. border directly
south. Fertile Fraser flats have extended along the route from salt-water.
From Mission, a branch line runs 10 miles south to Huntingdon, on the International
boundary between Canada and U.S. From Coquitlam another branch runs 8 miles
south to New Westminster.
Harrison Some   seventy   miles   after   leaving   Vancouver,   about
Hot Springs five miles from Agassiz Station, is the delightful resort
of Harrison Hot Springs. Situated on Harrison
Lake, a large and picturesque body of water that flows into
the Fraser River
from the north, this
resort has sulphur
and potash hot
springs of great curative and medicinal
values. An attractive
hotel, with which are
combined a covered
swimming pool and
private Turkish
baths, serves as a
focus for the district.
Splendid opportunities are available for
fishing, hunting, trap
shooting, golfing,
boating, tennis and
riding.
Harrison Hot Springs Hotel
Photo A. Curtis Harrison  Hot  Springs
13
The Route from Vancouver to Odium
Agassiz Harrison River is reached and crossed and we pass through
rich orchards, beautiful pastures and hay meadows which
will soon disappear as the Fraser River narrows. Racing along its
wide reaches, it is hard to picture it as the roaring terror it is soon to
become at Hell Gate. Agassiz is next reached, the station for Harrison Hot Springs. There is a Government Experimental Farm at
Agassiz and from the town there is a ferry service to Chilliwack. The
Chilliwack Valley comprises over 55,000 acres of rich agricultural land
and is well known for its dairying.
Ruby Creek     The double track from Vancouver extends to  Ruby
Creek which obtains its name from the garnets found in
the neighborhood.
Odium is the junction of the Canadian Pacific more southerly
route through the Rockies with the more northerly. Looking
across the Fraser one sees the canyon from which the turbulent Coquihalla pours into the larger river and joins the majestic roll of the Fraser
to the sea.
The southerly line furnishes an alternative to the more popular northerly route from
Vancouver to the Prairies. It has some spectacular scenery, especially along the
Canyon of the Coquihalla River. This southern route is linked to the main line by
branches at Sicamous, Revelstoke and Golden.
Yale As we approach Yale, we prepare for our introduction to
the mountains. An occasional glance at the Fraser shows a
less placid surface and soon the railway will be compelled to burrow into
the rock for its foothold; but Yale slumbers m its peaceful vale of
apples, plums and cherries. It lives in memories of its historic greatness. Once the head of navigation on the Fraser and the "kicking off"
place for the Cariboo Road, it was one of the first incorporated communities on the mainland and boasted of a population estimated
variously from seven to ten thousand.
Behind the station the Historic Sites and Monuments Branch of the Dominion
Government has marked the spot where British army engineers started the famous gold
trail to the Cariboo.    A rough stone bears a tablet which sets out:
"Here began the Cariboo wagon road which extended four hundred miles to northward to the gold mines of Cariboo. Built in 1862-5. In the olden days of Cariboo, over
this great highway, passed thousands of miners and millions of treasure."
The way to the mountain passes is through the canyons of the
Fraser and the Thompson rivers and now the Fraser will reveal some
of its wild scenes. Passing through five miles of rugged grandeur we
see a great rock rising in the middle of the river and standing like an
island fortress against the rush of the current. Another three and a
half miles and the canyon closes in, great barriers of rock curbing the
river in its drop. Stages, where the Indians net salmon, can be seen
and on the high rocks are the racks where they smoke the fish. 14
Hell   Gate
South Side of Track
Mileage
east of
Vancouver
Mount Baker.
The  Harrison  River
crossed at this point.
52.3
60.9
70.1
The line from Vancouver    810
to  this  point  is  double
tracked.
Jet.   with   the   southern    87.3
route through the Rockies
The site of an old trad-  101 9
ing post of Hudson's Bay
Company.
n m H3.5
7 miles from Spuzzum,
Hell Gate, the climax
of Fraser Canyon, is
reached.
129.0
Nicomen
Harrison Mills
Agassiz
Ruby Creek
Odium
Yale
Spuzzum
Altitude
above     North Side of Track
sea-level
NORTH BEND 493
31
47
60    Government   Experimental Farm.
103
183
220
399
After passing a series of
tunnels, we bridge fine
rock gorges at White's
Creek and Scuzzy-River.
Spuzzum Spuzzum crowding a bench above the river, is reached—
once a Hudson's Bay Company trading post and a place
o some importance when the Cariboo Road crossed the Fraser on the
ft ntfTT bn,dgeJ T1?e floods have taken out the old bridge and
don The mnH1C landmarks have disappeared in the luxuriant vegeta
bridge g Way Cr°SSeS the dver here on a new suspension
Hell Gate Between the numerous tunnels the traveller sees signs
hatter* if0     , ^T^M^ of water against rock as the Fraser
batters its way seaward. White's Creek and Williams' Creek are
passed with occasional glimpses of the old Cariboo Road. Twofuttmg
promontories suddenly compress the river and force it to escape in f
HeHnGgate     aCt *   ^ & bottIe-"ecked outlet.    This is thefamous
Hell Gate, Fraser Canyon The  Fraser  Canyon 15
The Fraser River Canyon—showing the Old Cariboo Road
In this narrow neck the water boils through on a wicked crest and
the rock markings plainly show to what almost unbelievable heights
the river rises during flood periods.
North Bend      Roughly two and a  half miles   past   Hell   Gate   the
. Scuzzy River drops into the Fraser under the railway
bridge in a series of basins up which the salmon vainly struggle during
the running season. The track, hewn from the solid rock, not only
crosses from side to side in the great canyon but tunnels through great
rock spurs. As we approach North Bend, the foliage becomes less
luxuriant. Here, on the limited bench above the ever-roaring Fraser,
the Company has established divisional point yards, leaving room for
bright gardens which greet the summer visitor. North Bend is a
desirable stopping place for those who wish to see more of the Fraser
Canyon than is possible from the train.
After leaving North Bend there can be seen here and there a garden
or orchard struggling for existence on tiny benches grudgingly left by
the roaring Fraser. There are Indian reservations all along the river,
and often Indians may be seen spreading salmon or scooping them out
with their dip reeds.
Lytton Six miles before reaching Lytton we cross the canyon by a
steel cantilever bridge. This is the first and only crossing
ot the b raser. The scenery grows wilder than ever. The great river
is forced between vertical walls of black rock where, repeatedly thrown
back upon itself, it madly foams and roars.
The little trading town of Lytton is the junction of the Fraser and
Ihompson rivers; the former has come down from the north between
two great lines of mountain peaks and from now on we shall follow the
Thompson. The difference between the two rivers is noticeable; the
Fraser was a muddy one, the Thompson is bright green. Both rivers
are historic, their names commemorating two of the earliest and most
famous explorers who sought the Pacific Ocean overland from the east
The Fraser, the chief river of British Columbia, is 800 miles in length
and is navigable from its mouth to about Yale. 16
The  Thompson  Canyon
Mileage
South Side of Track        east of
North Bend
Altitude
above     North Side of Track
sea-level
Note the old Cariboo
Road on the opposite side
of the valley.
Canyon scenery fine
mile after leaving Kanaka.
Fraser crossed 140 feet
above the river.
5.0
17.6
26.6
NORTH BEND
Chaumox
Kanaka
Lytton
493
568
613
iy2 miles further Salmon River is crossed.
Note fine gorge up
stream.
693 The Fraser River comes
in from the North and
joins the Thompson.
l±$ miles further note
the striking pinnacle
(Botanie Crag) on the
opposite    side    of    the
31.6 Gladwin 758
35.9 Thompson 673
Thompson Canyon very
fine east and west of
this point.
A mile past Lytton the scene is one of wild grandeur as Botanie Crag
looms up across the river with its great green granite crest hanging
over a many-colored gorge. Soon we find ourselves running upon a
ledge cut out of the bare hills on the irregular south side of the river.
The mountains draw together and we wind along their face and gaze
upon the boiling flood of Thompson Canyon hundreds of feet below.
About seven miles from Lytton we see The Jaws of Death gorge. Rail,
river and highway seem to fight for space in the Thompson Canyon.
At low water jagged
teeth of rock, the
terror of the first
river travellers,
can be seen vainly
trying to stem the
torrent which
foams through narrower openings.
Spence's Spence's
Bridge Bridge
is at the
junction of the Nicola and Thompson
rivers and is the
business centre for
the Nicola Valley,
a country with
varied industries,
such as ranching,
lumbering and mining. The track
opposite Spence's
Bridge leading up
country is none
other than the old
wagon road to the
famous Cariboo
gold country.
The Thompson River Canyon Kamloops Lake
17
Kamloops
South Side of Track
Mileage
east of
North Bend
Altitude
above        North Side of Track
sea-level
Valley of the Nicola.
48.8
Spence's Bridge
774
66.7
Basque
892
Two miles east the
Black Canyon of the
Thompson is seen.
74.2
Ashcroft
1004
The gateway to the
Cariboo country.
96.2
Savona
1163
Thompson opens out into Kamloops Lake.
101.7
121.4
Munro
KAMLOOPS
1143
1159
The Painted Bluffs,
brilliantly colored rocks,
are seen across the Lake.
Ashcroft Passing through the gloomy gorge of the Black Canyon we
speed on to Ashcroft, once a busy gateway to the Cariboo
gold fields, but now exporting prosaic carloads of fruit, vegetables,
cattle and sheep. It is, incidentally, famous for its potatoes. In
addition to fruit farming, the surrounding country is admirably suited
for cattle raising.
At Savona the Thompson opens out into Kamloops Lake, a beautiful
sheet of water. Early morning and evening scenes on this lake equal
anything seen in the course of the mountain journey for vividness of
color and splendid perspective. The railway runs along the south shore
of Kamloops Lake for twenty miles and, because of the series of mountain spurs projecting into the lake, a number of tunnels punctuate this
twenty miles.
Eleven miles from Kamloops frowning Battle Bluff rises abruptly
from the water across the lake. On the Bluff, close to the high water
line, a careful observer can see a spot of red—a painted reminder,
often renewed by present day Indians, of the fierce tribal struggle from 18
Kamloops
which the height takes its name. Difficulties of railway construction
are realized as the train passes through this section between Ashcroft
and Kamloops.
Looking north across the lake one sees the TranquilleSanatoriumof the
British Columbia government. Five miles from Kamloops the train
passes the loading station for the Iron Mask mine, a big copper producer
from which the concentrates come down a thousand feet to the track
through a pipe line.
Kamloops       After the run of twenty miles along the south shore of
Kamloops lake we reach Kamloops (population 6,100).
Kamloops, bearing an Indian name which means "the meeting place
of the waters," traces its history back more than one hundred years to
the time when the old Hudson's Bay Company fort was the scene of
thriving fur-trading and centre of the then meagre white population
of the interior. Here the South Thompson joins the North Thompson
to form the main Thompson River. Both rivers drain fertile valleys.
Kamloops is a beautiful city, with a climate that makes it a most
desirable resort.
Looking   north    from   the  station
the summer glory of the community, the great valley of the
North Thompson can be seen,
Guarded on the right by Peter
'eak, which hides behind its
arid shoulders the beautiful
wooded valley of Paul Lake and
half a dozen other lakes known
to anglers who prize the game-
ness of Kamloops trout.
Back from the main valley of
the Thompson, north and south,
the country holds rich surprises
for the traveller who investigates. There are many lakes and
streams, most of them well
stocked with game trout; irrigated farms and vast grazing
reaches for cattle and sheep are
the locale for some of the largest
ranches in British Columbia—
a country surprisingly different
from that seen in the Thompson
valley.
Gold, copper and iron come
from mines in the Kamloops
area, and the city is a distribution centre for a big district. It
has well-paved streets, a fine
water supply, and electric power
from a hydro plant on a tributary of the North Thompson.
About two miles east of
Kamloops, between the railway
and the South Thompson River,
are sites of semi-subterranean
pre-historic Indian houses, which
can be seen from the passing train.
with   its   gardens   which   are
The Route from Odium to Ashcroft Lake  Shuswap
19
The Route from Ashcroft to Sicamous
South Side of Track
Mileage
east of
Kamloops
Altitude
above
sea-level
North Side of Track
A fine fruit district
adjacent to railway.
33.2
35.1
41.0
49.8
58.2
65.4
84.1
KAMLOOPS
Shuswap
Chase
Squilax
Notch Hill
Tappen
Salmon Arm
Sicamous
1160
1154
1183
1288
1691
1158
1159
1154
The North Thompson
joins the South Thompson at this point, the
two rivers forming the
Thompson River.
Follow the shore of the
South Thompson to
Shuswap Lake.
Pass along the shores of
Little Shuswap Lake.
Railway climbs over
Notch Hill.
The railway follows the
Salmon Arm of Shuswap Lake.
We are now approaching Shuswap Lake, a large body of water of
irregular shape which affords wonderful fishing. With its bordering
slopes it reminds the traveller strongly of Scottish scenery. It has
the reputation of containing more varieties of trout and other fish—
including steel-head and land-locked salmon—than any other water in
British Columbia.
Chase      Chase is the gateway to an extensive territory for big game
hunting, bird shooting and fishing.    The various waters in
the vicinity are plentifully stocked with trout.
Notch Hill     To avoid the circuitous course around the lake, the railway strikes through the forest over the top of Notch Hill.
Salmon Arm Salmon Arm is a very prosperous fruit and mixed
farming community, situated on a long arm of Shuswap
Lake.
Sicamous    Sicamous is the junction of the main line with the Okanagan
Valley branch.
(Main Line Journey resumed on page 22) 20
The Okanagan Valley
By Rail
By Stage
Mileage
Altitude
south of
above
Sicamous
sea-leve
f    0.0
SICAMOUS
1154
Connecting east or west.
1   23.0
Enderby
1160
{  31.8
1   46.2
Armstrong
1182
Vernon
1250
[ 79.6
Kelowna
1133
Kelowna
1133
Peachland
1133
Summerland
1133
Naramata
1133
PENTICTON
1133
Connecting west to Van
couver or east to Nelson
and Calgary.
Branch line to Okanagan Valley
Enderby      is a progressive town in a fertile fruit-growing and mixed-
farming country, with considerable dairying and also an
enormous lumber output.   Fishing is good and the big game plentiful.
Armstrong      is another flourishing town with a large central creamery
and several industries, and a prosperous tributary agricultural country; it is particularly noted for the production of celery.
Vernon is the largest town, the judicial centre, and the central distributing point of the northern Okanagan Valley. Near
here is the famous Coldstream Ranch, with about 13,000 acres of fruit
lands. At Okanagan Landing we board a Canadian Pacific steamer
for the remainder of the trip.
Okanagan Lake Okanagan Lake
21
Mileage
Altitude
South Side of Track
sast of
above
North Side of Track
Kamloops
sea-level
Branch line to Okanagan
84.1
SICAMOUS
1154
Shuswap Lake.
Valley.
Hotel Sicamous
Hunters Range.
Shuswap Mountain.
Follow    the    valley    of
100.5
Craigellachie
1226
Monument to commem
Eagle  River from  Sica
orate completion of the
mous.
Canadian Pacific Railway at this point.    (See
*
104.6
Taft
1280
page 22).
Griffin Mountain (7,072
feet).
Three Valley Lake.
Eagle Pass Mountains.
114.2
Three Valley
1636
Mount   Macpherson
120.3
Clanwilliam
1820
Eagle   Pass  is  reached
(7,8 93 feet).
here.
The railway follows the
narrow valley of the Ton-
kawatla River.
Mount     Begbie     (8,956
128.8
REVELSTOKE
1496
Shortly before reaching
feet).
Revelstoke, we cross the
Columbia River.
Okanagan Lake This is one of the most famous fruit-growing regions
of Canada. Journeying by rail and stage, one sees
striking examples of "bench-land" formation—orchards rising tier by
tier in what look like gigantic steps. On these bench-lands, on the
occasional bottom lands, and even on the hilly slopes that descend into
the water, grow all kinds of sub-tropical fruit, peaches, apricots, cherries,
apples, plums, walnuts, almonds and grapes of superfine quality. Irrigation is practised, the flume that carries the life-giving water being
a conspicuous feature of the orchard country. At Killiney on the west
shore at the north end of the Okanagan Lake and at other points,
attractive arrangements can usually be made for summer guests. It is
reached by stage from Vernon. The Okanagan Valley is renowned for
the quality of its produce, and fruit from this district has on several
occasions taken championship prizes at international shows.
Kelowna     is an important city, with some fifty thousand acres of first-
class  fruit  lands,   much   of  which   is   under  cultivation,
tributary to it.    The city has several packing plants and canneries.   It
is a pretty point, with a park with a lake frontage.
Peachland, Summer-
land and Naramata are
fertile fruit-raising districts, with a certain
amount of cattle-raising
a few miles back.
Penticton at the southern end of
the lake, is a very prosperous city, centre of a
rich fruit-growing district, and very attractive
to the tourist. It has a
good hotel in the Incola.
The Canadian Pacific
line from Vancouver to
Nelson passes through
Penticton, and affords
an alternative to the
more popular route
through the Rockies.
Hotel Sicamous 22
Craigellachie
The Route from Sicamous to Revelstoke
Main Line Journey Resumed
(Sicamous to Revelstoke)
Sicamous On Shuswap Lake, is also a favorite stop-over point for
travellers who, having traversed the canyons, wish also to
see by daylight the wonderful mountain scenery that lies between here
and Calgary. To accommodate this traffic, the Canadian Pacific owns
an attractive hotel on the shore of the lake—Hotel Sicamous, which is
operated by a lessee.
Craigellachie From Sicamous, in three quarters of an hour we reach
Craigellachie, where an obelisk alongside the track
commemorates the completion of the Canadian Pacific Railway. It
was here, on November 7, 1885, that the rails from the east met the
rails from the west and the long cherished vision of a Canadian transcontinental railway became a reality. The first through train from
East to West left Montreal on June 28, 1886, and reached Port Moody
—then the Pacific terminal of the road—on July 4.
Eagle Pass Between Sicamous and Revelstoke is the Monashee
mountain system, the most conspicuous peak being
Mount Begbie. Eagle Pass, through which the railway crosses,
appears to have been cut purposely for it, so deep and direct is it.
Several lakes occur at short intervals, and in turn force the railway
into the mountain sides. Open-top observation cars are attached to
the rear end of Canadian Pacific passenger trains through the mountains,
during the summer season. These cars afford superb opportunities
for viewing the magnificent scenery.
Revelstoke a flourishing city, with a population of 3,500, lies in the
beautiful Columbia River Valley, surrounded by lofty
and picturesque mountains, some clothed with trees and verdure to
their very peaks, others crowned with rugged and rocky spires or
glistening glaciers.
It is the gateway to the Kootenay and Arrow Lakes, and is the
centre of large timber and mineral districts. Revelstoke is in the heart
of very fine hunting grounds, and the Alpine climber will find whole
worlds to conquer. Besides the drive up Mount Revelstoke, there is
also the beautiful excursion along the Columbia River. In winter, a
very popular winter-sport carnival is held here, and as a matter of fact
some of the finest ski-jumpers of Canada have graduated on the "Big
Hill" at Revelstoke.
Mount Revelstoke 100 square  miles  in  extent,  is bounded  on  the
National Park        south   by   the   lllecillewaet   River.    It   includes
not  only  the  striking  mountain  from  which   it
derives its name, but also the Clachnacudainn Range.
The park, altogether a mountain-top one, provides a wonderful
automobile trip. A road, as hard and smooth as a city boulevard,
has been constructed by the Dominion Government to the summit.
The road ascends by an easy grade through a virgin forest, winding The Arrow  Lakes
23
Revelstoke, from Mount Revelstoke
along rocky ledges and on the verge of deep chasms. The glory of the
ride is the remarkable view that can be obtained all the way up of the
valley below—the Selkirks towering on the one hand, the Monashee
Mountains on the other, and the Columbia and lllecillewaet rivers
twisting like ribbons around the city.
(Main Line Journey resumed on page 24)
Branch line to Arrow Lakes
By Rail
Mileage
south of
Revelstoke
/    0.0      REVELSTOKE
\ 27.5         Arrowhead
Altitude
above
sea-level
1496    Connecting east or west.
1407
By Lake Steamer
f                     Arrowhead
1  40.4            Halcyon
\  64.4             Nakusp
[156.4       Robson West
1436    Branch   line   to   Kaslo,
on Kootenay Lake.
1408
By Rail
/                  Robson West
\183.8            NELSON
1763    Connecting east to Calgary  or  west  to   Vancouver.
From Revelstoke this branch runs south to Arrowhead, whence a
delightful trip is made down the Arrow Lakes to Nelson. The service
down this lake is provided by the excellent and comfortable steamer
service of the Canadian Pacific. The Arrow Lakes, lying in a long
deep valley between the western slopes of the Selkirks and the Monashee Mountains, are formed by the Columbia Valley's broadening out
on its way south. These beautiful lakes, although virtually one, are
classified as two, Upper and Lower, very much the same size and
connected by a wide but circuitous channel. The surrounding country
has supplied lumber from the forests that clothe its slopes to many a
sawmill, while of recent years settlers have come in and made clearings
for orchards. The population, however, is still comparatively sparse.
Halcyon Hot Springs are well and favorably known owing to the
curative properties of the waters, which contain a high percentage of lithium. There is a comfortable sanatorium
hotel here.
Nakusp is the distributing centre of the upper lake, which is here
about three miles wide. There are some excellent hot springs
in the hills, about nine miles from the town. Nakusp is the headquarters of the Arrow Lake lumber industry; the shipping point for
vast quantities of lumber, poles, fence posts, and other timber products.    A branch line runs from here to Rosebery. 24
The  Kootenays
The Route from Revelstoke to Glacier
South Side of Track
Mileage
east of
Revelstoke
Altitude
above
sea-level
North Side of Track
Branch line to the Arrow
Lakes.
Revelstoke   National
Park.
Mount Mackenzie (8,064
feet.
Valley of Flat Creek.
Mount Green (8,870feet).
Ross   Peak   (7,728 feet).
Mount   Bonney   (10,215
feet).
REVELSTOKE
6.1
Greely
1667
20.9
Albert Canyon
2226
27.5
lllecillewaet
2713
32.4
Flat Creek
3094
36.1
Ross Peak
3434
1496    Western end of the Selkirks.
A fine rock gorge about
150 feet deep.
At  this  point  we  pass
the   western   boundary
of Glacier Park.
Along the lower lake there has been some development in fruitgrowing; very fine cherries, apples and melons being produced. At
Robson West rail connection is made to Nelson or westward to Penticton and Vancouver.
Nelson is charmingly situated on a commanding eminence overlooking the West Arm of Kootenay Lake, and is the commercial centre of the Kootenay district. At the convergence of lake
and rail systems, it is an attractive city in which life passes very
pleasantly. Nelson is the centre of a very large mining district:
immediately behind it is the mountain in which is located the famous
' 'Silver King" mine. Connection for the Crow's Nest Pass route to
Lethbridge and Calgary is made here.
Main Line Journey Resumed
(Revelstoke to Field)
We now ascend the western slopes of the Selkirk Range, the second
largest of the various great mountain systems that compose the Canadian Rockies. The scenery is magnificently impressive, a foretaste of
what we shall traverse for nearly three hundred miles. From Revelstoke to Glacier we follow the lllecillewaet River, which presently owing
to the presence of glacial mud grows pea-green in color. Twin Butte
takes its name from the double summit nearby to the right, now known
as Mounts Mackenzie and Tilley. In this district is the home of the
woodland or black-faced caribou, the mountain goat and the grizzly,
cinnamon and black bear. Glacier
25
Mount Sir Donald, near Glacier
Albert Canyon is a deep fissure
in the solid rock,
its walls rising straight up on both
sides to wooded crags. The railway
runs along the very edge of this
gorge. We see the river nearly 150
feet below, boiling angrily in a narrow twenty-foot flume. Continuing
the ascent to Glacier, the line
touches for a moment on the base
of Ross Peak and confronts Mount
Cheops, on the other side of the
lllecillewaet.
GLACIER PARK, covering an
area of 521 square miles, differs
very noticeably from the other
parks of the Canadian Rockies. It
has an atmosphere of austere majesty and high loveliness. With its
massive peaks and giant glaciers,
Glacier Park has somewhat of an
air of isolation and mystery. Surrounding it, too, are some dense
forests of fine trees, of great age.
Glacier      Glacier   is   the   station   for   Glacier   National   Park—the
features   of   which   include   the   lllecillewaet   Glacier,   the
Asulkan   Valley,   and   some   magnificent   climbing.    At   the   present
time some of the peaks in the Park have still to be climbed.
The lllecillewaet Glacier      This great plateau of gleaming ice, framed
in a dark forest of giant cedar, hemlock and
spruce trees, scarred by immense crevasses of great depth and covering
an area of about ten square miles, is about four miles from the station.
It affords some remarkable opportunities of observing the movements
and recession of glaciers. Mount Sir Donald, a magnificent peak
named after Sir Donald Smith, later Lord Strathcona, can be reached
by an extension trail from the glacier trail, and furnishes one of the
most attractive climbs of the region. The return trip may be taken
along the alternative trail on the east bank of the river. 26
Connaught  Tunnel
Mileage
South Side of Track      east of
Revelstoke
Altitude
above North Side of Track
sea-level
Mount Sir Donald (10,-
818feet), the pyramidal-
shaped peak.
Glacier is stopping place    40.3
for lllecillewaet Glacier
and many fine mountain
trips.
Leave Connaught Tun-    46.8
nel.
49.1
51.1
57.9
GLACIER
Connaught
Stoney Creek
Rogers
3788
2592
Mount    Cheops    (8,516
feet).
Immediately on leaving
Glacier we plunge into
the Connaught Tunnel.
Hermit Range.
Cross Stoney Creek, 270
feet above stream.
Cross   Surprise   Creek,
170 feet above stream.
Connaught Tunnel Immediately we leave Glacier station we plunge
into the Connaught Tunnel. Until the year
1916, the railway crossed the Selkirks through Rogers Pass (altitude
4,342 feet), following Bear Creek and then bending round to Glacier
and back again to the lllecillewaet River in a series of sharp loops.
This was a most spectacular route, affording some magnificent views of
Mount Macdonald, Mount Tupper, and other giant peaks; but it had
many disadvantages, amongst which were the enormous track curvature
and the necessity of maintaining long stretches of snow sheds. These
difficulties were finally overcome by the construction of the Connaught
Tunnel under Mount Macdonald, named in honor of H.R.H. The Duke
of Connaught, Governor-General of Canada at the time of its opening
in 1916. It was until recently the longest tunnel in America, measuring
slightly over five
miles from portal :
to portal; and it |
not only eliminated
track curvature to an
amount corresponding to seven complete circles, but also
lowered the summit
attained by the railway by 552 feet, reduced the length of
the line by 4^ miles
and dispensed with
4J^ miles of snow-
sheds. The tunnel
is double tracked,
concrete-lined and
measures 29 feet from
side to side and 21^
feet from the base of
rail to the crown.
Its construction involved the tunnelling
of a pioneer bore
paralleling the centre
line of the main tunnel—a feature that
was new and aroused
the interest of tunnel
engineers the world
over. The lllecillewaet Valley, Glacier The  Selkirk Range
27
The Route from Glacier to Golden
Stoney Creek    Rogers Pass was named in honor of Major Rogers, one
of the pioneer surveyors of this region, who discovered
this route.    Mount Macdonald (9,492 feet) towers nearly a mile above
the railway in almost vertical height.
The principal difficulty in constructing this part of the line was the
torrents, many of them in splendid cascades, which came down through
narrow gorges cut deeply into the steep slopes along which the railway
creeps. The greatest of all these bridges crosses Stoney Creek—a noisy
torrent flowing in the bottom of a narrow V-shaped channel 312 feet
below the rails—the highest bridge on the Canadian Pacific main line.
A little farther on, Cedar Creek is crossed, a little east of where a very
high bridge, spanning a foaming cascade, affords one of
the most beautiful prospects
of the whole journey. So
impressed were the railway
builders with the charm of
this magnificent picture that
they named it The Surprise.
Beavermouth From Connaught to
Beavermouth we follow the
Beaver River, crossing it
about two miles before reaching the latter as well as crossing six streams flowing from
the north. A last look back
will reveal a long line of the
higher peaks of the Selkirks,
in echelon, culminating in the
exceedingly lofty pinnacle of
Mount Sir Donald. At
Beavermouth, the farthest
north station of the transcontinental route, we practically leave the Selkirks
proper, although for some
On the Columbia Icefield Highway way we follow the Dogtooth
north of Lake Louise Range, a spur of the system. 28
The  Columbia  River
Mileage
Altitude
South Side of Track        east of
above
Revelstoke
sea-level     North Side of Track
54.8
Cross Mountain Creek,
150 feet above stream.
57.9
Rogers
2592
At  this  point we  meet
63.0
Beavermouth
2433
Farthest  north  station
the Columbia which has
of the transcontinental
flowed   in   a   Big   Bend
route.
around the Selkirks from
Revelstoke.
73.0
Cross the Columbia
River.
74.3
Donald
2580
78.3
Forde
2563
Dogtooth   Mountains,  a
84.3
Moberly
2558
Moberly    Peak    (7,731
part     of     the     Purcell
feet).
Range.
90.8
Golden
2583
Edelweiss, winter home
of the Swiss guides.
Columbia River Next we are in the upper canyon of the Columbia
River which, with but one exception, is the
largest river on the west side of America, and which, rising in
Columbia Lake and flowing through Lake Windermere, makes the
famous Big Bend, paralleling the railway for several miles until it
leaves it at the lower slopes of the Selkirks to re-appear at Revelstoke
on its way south to the United States. This is the solution of a problem
that sometimes puzzles the traveller, that the Columbia River should
apparently be flowing towards the mountains instead of away from
them. The mountain ranges force the river through a narrow gorge
to the high slopes above which the railway clings. The Columbia
River is nearly 1,400 miles long and drains a basin of nearly 300,000
square miles. It is the route of history, the path by which some of
the earliest explorers reached the Pacific Ocean.
Moberly About two miles before reaching Moberly, on the south
just before crossing Blaeberry River, is the site of the
oldest cabin in the mountains—the cabin where the government survey
party, under Walter Moberly, engaged in the preliminary survey
for the railway, passed the winter of 1871-2. They wintered their stock
on the shore of what is now Lake Windermere. Moberly takes its
name from Mount Moberly, one of the most prominent peaks for some
miles along the river valley.
Edelweiss To the left of the track, shortly before reaching Golden
station, can be seen the model Swiss village of " Edelweiss,"
erected by the Canadian Pacific for the Swiss guides whom it employs
for the benefit of mountain climbers. Previous to the erection of this
village, which lies on the slopes of a hill and reproduces with remarkable
verisimilitude the characteristic architecture of the Swiss chalet, the
guides had always returned to Switzerland at the end of each season.
Now they live in Canada the entire year.
Golden     Golden  is an  interesting town  with large lumbering and
mining  interests.    It  commands  the  trade  of  the  fertile
Windermere Valley to the south. XXfflfifff
BlllUVt 30 Lake  Windermere
Branch line to Columbia Valley
and Crow's Nest Pass
Mileage
south of
Golden
Altitude
above
sea-level
0.0
GOLDEN
2583
Connecting east or west.
41.1
For Radium Hot Springs
Lodge.                                      65.3
Spillimacheen
Radium
2590
2606
73.9
LAKE
WINDERMERE
2615
143.7
Fort Steele
2510
157.7
Bull River
2462
166.7
Colvalli
2653
Connecting east to Cal
194.5
CRANBROOK
3018
gary or west to Nelson.
Lake Windermere
From Golden this branch line runs south through the fertile Columbia
Valley, touching for a considerable part of the journey the beautiful
Lake Windermere, and joining the Crow's Nest Line at Colvalli.
From Golden we travel past many new settlements, from the clearings of which smoke is sometimes still rising, until we reach Spillimacheen, where there is a wonderful view of the Purcell Range.
The Banff-Windermere Road (see page 57) joins the Columbia River
Highway near Radium Hot Springs, about 60 miles from Golden. The
scenery of this valley is splendid, and the canyons and creeks on either
side furnish excellent sport. On the left is the slope of the Rockies; on
the right, the panorama of the Purcells.
Lake Windermere is a popular centre for excursions into the beautiful
country surrounding. One of the most delightful
warm water lakes in British Columbia, it is the starting point for excursions up Toby Creek and Horse Thief Creek to the great icefields of the
Purcells, notably the Lake of the Hanging Glaciers. There are curative
hot springs at Radium and Fairmont. Bathing, riding, boating, fishing, motoring can be enjoyed on the shores of this lake, and Alpine
climbers can make expeditions into the Purcells. There is good trout
fishing in nearby creeks and some of the smaller lakes.
Lake Windermere was discovered by the famous explorer, David
Thompson, in 1807; and a memorial fort, reproducing his stockaded
post, has been built. A memorial tablet to the first fort built here by
David Thompson has been erected a little north of the bridge across
Toby Creek.
Fort Steele    has grown up to meet the needs of the ranching and
fruit-growing   districts   surrounding   it.    Lead,   copper,
silver, gold and iron are found in the neighborhood.
Bull River     is a lumbering town, with some important sawmills, and
the source of power supply for the Sullivan Mines at
Kimberley.   Good fishing and hunting may be obtained in the vicinity.
Cranbrook is the trading centre for a rich mining and agricultural
region in the Crow's Nest Pass country. It is an important
point on the more southerly Crow's Nest Pass line of the Canadian
Pacific, from Lethbridge to Kootenay Lake and Nelson, whence there
is an alternative route to Vancouver. wnumKML #.;lP
"M pi
&iM^^££
Banff Springs Hotel and Golf Course
(g- A.S.N. 34
Kicking  Horse  Canyon
The Route from Golden to Field
Main Line Journey Resumed
Kicking Horse Canyon At Golden A TRAIL TRIP into the depths
we begin of the mountains forms the most
ascending again. From here to enjoyable way of visiting beautiful
Field we shall climb 1,500 feet in spots that would not otherwise be
35 miles, for we are now entering the easily accessible.
Rockies proper, taking that name in ,_ T,he mountain pony, mountain-
its scientific sense of meaning one bred, sure-footed, jmtang, can be
t — ., ,,P ... ridden by practically anyone,
range only    For a considerable dis- whether h* Jshe has *yer ^Q^
tance we follow the noisy, turbulent been on a horse or not. From all
Kicking Horse River on its way Canadian Pacific hotels and moun-
to join the Columbia. The spec- tain lodges, there are good roads
tacular "Kicking Horse Trail" and trails radiating in all directions
motor road can be seen. which are kept up by the National
Parks Department. Some trail
trips are of one day's duration only; others stretch over several
days.   Several circle trail rides are arranged for visitors' convenience.
The canyon rapidly deepens until, beyond Palliser, the mountain
sides become vertical. The roar of the river as it rushes from side to
side of the narrow gorge, the thunder of the train as it follows the
river—pandemonium increased a thousandfold by the reverberations
of the canyon walls—give an indescribable sensation.
Whether seen from the railway or from the motor road which is
often at a considerable height above the line, the canyon presents an
awe-inspiring sight and thrills the modern traveller as it thrilled the
pioneers who were laying the ribbon of steel across the continent and
making Confederation possible.
At the base of Mount Hunter we leave the canyon and the river
widens somewhat. The narrow valley of the Kicking Horse divides
the Ottertail Range on the south from the Van Home Range on the
north and a vivid contrast in mountain formation is evident between
the twro ranges. 35
Canadian Pacific summer resort hotels and
lodges which normally open during the
summer season, but which, due to extraordinary conditions, will not be opened and
operated during the 1944 season:
Banff Springs Hotel Banff, Alta.
Chateau Lake Louise, Lake Louise, Alta.
Emerald Lake Chalet, near Field, B.C.
Moraine Lake Lodge,
near Lake Louise, Alta.
Plain of Six Glaciers Tea House,
near Lake Louise, Alta.
Lake Agnes Tea House,
near Lake Louise, Alta.
Yoho Valley Lodge  -   near Field, B.C.
Twin Falls Tea House, near Field, B.C.
Lake Wapta Lodge   -   -    Hector, B.C.
Lake O'Hara Lodge -   -    Hector, B.C.
Algonquin Hotel  -  - St. Andrews-
by-the-sea, N.B.
Lakeside Inn -   -   -   Yarmouth, N.S.
Digby Pines    -    -    -    -     Digby, N.S.
Harrison Hot Springs Hotel - - Agassiz, B.C.
(Owned and operated by the Harrison Hot Springs Hotel
Co., Ltd.)
The usual programme of sightseeing drives will
not be operated in the Canadian Rockies during the
season of 1944 because of the new and unprecedented situation created by a Government order
prohibiting the operation of buses, taxi cabs and
chartered buses for sightseeing purposes only,
owing to the essential conservation of rubber
and gasoline.
All facilities offered subject to change without notice.
Printed in Canada, 1944.
Track
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35
Mileage
South Side of Track        east of
Revelstoke
Altitude
above North Side of Track
sea-level
The Kicking Horse River
enters the Columbia, the
wide valley of which is
seen to the south. Branch
to Lake Windermere and
Cranbrook (see page 30).
90.8
GOLDEN
2583    Western end of Rockies.
Beaverfoot Range.
98.0 Glenogle
103.2 Palliser
108.7 Leanchoil
Mount  Stephen  (10,495 125.7
feet) and Mount Dennis
8,336 feet).
3009
3288
3674
Mount Hurd (9,275 feet).  117.5 Ottertail
121.5 Emerald
FIELD
3703
3899
4075
Emerald Lake Chalet
Yoho Valley Lodge
From the train we have
a fine view of the
"Kicking Horse Trail".
—a very spectacular
motor road from Golden
to Emerald Lake.
Slopes of Mount Hunter (8,662 feet).
Two miles before reaching Leanchoil we enter
Yoho National Park.
Looking eastward, there
is a very striking view
of Mount Chancellor
(10,761 feet).
Van Home Range-
Mount King (9,466 feet)
Entering Yoho Park At Leanchoil
we enter the
Yoho Park. On the right, Mounts
Vaux and Chancellor are seen, the
glacier on the former plainly visible.
Mount Chancellor (10,761 feet) is
one of the giant peaks of the Ottertail Range. One mile before reaching Emerald we can see Mount
Goodsir (11,786 feet) on the right,
the highest of the Ottertail group.
Field Field is the divisional point
between the British Columbia and Alberta districts of the railway. Towering 6,000 feet higher
than the little town is seen Mount
Stephen (10,495 feet) at the base of
which roars the turbulent Kicking
Horse River which the railway will
follow for a considerable distance.
YOHO PARK (area 507 square
miles) immediately adjoins Banff
National Park on the west, and
lies, broadly speaking, on the descending slopes of the Rockies,
with the President and Van Home
ranges as its western boundary.
It is a region of charm and winsome beauty, of giant mountains
and deep forests, of rushing rivers
and sapphire-like lakes. Its principal river is the Kicking Horse,
with the Ottertail and Yoho as
main tributaries; its chief lakes are
Emerald, Wapta, McArthur,
O'Hara and Sherbrooke. The
Canadian Pacific runs through the
middle of Yoho Park, following the
Kicking Horse River.
Yoho National Park Field is the gateway to the wonderful mountain resort area, the far-famed Yoho Valley,
which stretches away to the north between great glacier-bound peaks.
Yoho Park, another of the National Parks reached by the Canadian
Pacific, has an area of 507 square miles. All points in the Park at
which accommodation is provided are linked up either by road or good
trail. 36
Emerald Lake
rfw     "^ Molar Mtn.
S%  Mt. Gordon^ \
5%t   * "tf^Mt. Olive     ,   .... *m*
r^t. Collie CX     ,/V\fU^^|B;    J
^ 1    \ Turquoise Lake   0&^mj\\ «%
^        WMt. Balfour ~<^^<^lrQ\ Mt* Hecto'*>
Yoho Pk.^%
Isolated Pk.
^•TTroHtinder    v
\ N   A   T   I   0?)n   A   L
PRESIDENT^
The     ^ f%
r'NThe Vice
Mt.Daly^
Mt. Niles
P   A\\R   K
President^  Vflje VicT\ My^VmJ™* \       V 1
vX,. *     President     \ r*W\Yoho Valley v        X^l
V    RANGE   ^.^WS. LodSe V.        XA,
Mt. Marpole ^ XPkm WT \
/FIELD
K«&    *
TUNNELS
Mt.Stephen
O       O
Cathedral Mt«)
OUMt.Victaria
^3?e
:tgrgi ^ Mt
,n\rWeHlD0^ Mt.Odaray^—- ^l\uMi     *'|«-PIne     3^erdee'
^mTnK        / Mt.Temple^
k<;Mt. Yukne|Sy Mt.
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Mt.Owen    Y> McArthur       &*       ^ftn««L*.A*-—m.
.*•» n*.       // „..., ^,i§        \WenkchemnaPk.
^       (( Mt.Bddeitv
^3/^      Mt.Duchesnay
jjf/Ottertail       ^
_^.
- ROADS
= TRAILS   ———
Scale of Miles
]        2       ?       4       $
• CANADIAN PACIFIC RY.
Yoho National Park
Emerald Lake From Field it is seven miles out by motor to Emerald
Lake, by a fine road through the hush of a scented
pine-forest. Soon you reach Natural Bridge—an ineffective effort on
the part of nature to curb the foaming passage of the Kicking Horse
by choking the river bed with huge boulders. The road becomes
Snowpeak Avenue—because at either end of its straight cathedral-stiff
avenue can be seen a towering snow-capped mountain.
The superb green of Emerald Lake is almost beyond Nature's achievement in any other lake in the Rockies. Tall pines crowd to the water's
edge to see their perfect reflection, and to see inverted in the emerald
mirror the snowy giants that surround it. Burgess looms at one end
of the lake, while more distant are Wapta, Michael, President, Carnarvon and Emerald.
The Chalet Emerald Lake Chalet is built of great squared timbers,
fortress-like in their solidity, surrounded by rustic
design chalets. The settlement now consists of three units—the original
chalet, the clubhouse, and the bungalows. The chalet, recently enlarged, is along Swiss chalet lines, with deep overhanging balconies.
The clubhouse is what its name implies; it is an especial favorite at
nights, either the verandah, with its magnificent sunset and moonlight
views, or indoors, where a good floor for dancing, comfortable chairs
for lounging, card-tables, a library and a great log fire provide entertainment for all.  38
Emerald  Lake
Emerald Lake Chalet
The bungalows are of various sizes,
most daintily and comfortably
furnished, with hot and cold running water, bathrooms, stoves and
good-sized cupboards. All of them
have their individual verandahs,
and the larger ones are "en suite"
with connecting doors.
Many Excursions Emerald Lake
has a fair supply of trout, and its vicinity affords
many charming excursions on foot
or by trail. There is a good trail
all around the Lake, which is the
shortest four and a half miles you've
ever walked, and perhaps the
loveliest, and another to Hamilton
Falls and Hamilton Lake. A boat-
house provides skiffs for water excursions.
RUSTIC LODGES are located
at several points in the Canadian
Rockies, both to supplement the
capacity of the hotels and also
to provide accommodation of a
somewhat different kind.
These lodges make a special
appeal to the climber, the trail
rider or the hiker; they are, on the
whole, less formal than the hotels.
The accommodation provided consists of a large central building,
serving as the dining and community house, and of separate
sleeping bungalows of various sizes.
Lodges are now established
at Lake Wapta, Lake O'Hara,
Yoho Valley, Moraine Lake, and
Radium Hot Springs.
Yoho Pass One of the finest trail trips from Emerald Lake, on
the back of a sturdy sure-footed mounted pony, is
to the Summit—the pass leading into the Yoho Valley. The return
journey can be made in four hours afoot or by pony, but many people
prefer to make it an all-day affair. Following the road to the end of
the Lake, you begin to climb up an eighteen-hundred-foot treeless cliff,
while more and more of the world spreads out beneath you, and Emerald
Lake far below grows smaller and greener.
A last stiff pull and you are over the top, cantering gaily through
a cool moist forest, and then Yoho Lake, green like Emerald, but
not so large, flashes in the clearing.
From Yoho Pass there is a good trail leading down to the Yoho
Valley, coming out near the Lodge. The view from the top is a magnificent one of wide vistas, with Takakkaw Falls on the far side of the
Valley. The  Yoho Valley 39
0m0mM0^Km
Yoho Valley Lodge
Yoho Valley The Yoho Valley can be reached also direct from
Field, by a good motor road (11 miles) that follows
the Kicking Horse River and then turns at the Yoho River, near the
entrance to the valley at Mount Field, round which it swings, and up
the valley until some precipitous cliffs are reached. The pine forest
gives a welcome shade and fragrance, and, as the way winds up the
cliffs to a higher level, the Yoho torrent foaming below shrinks with
distance. Up these it zigzags to a still higher level, ending a short
distance past the Takakkaw Falls. Takakkaw, the stream that comes
down from the Daly Glacier, is 1,200 feet high.
Yoho Valley Lodge The Lodge with accommodation for 35 people,
is situated in a meadow within sight and sound
of Takakkaw Falls. It is an ideal place for hikers and riders; and, like
the other lodges of the region, consists of a central clubhouse with
separate sleeping bungalows, with or without bath, toilet, etc.
Upper Valley The Yoho Valley is one of the most beautiful in the
entire Rockies. From the Lodge a fine trail winds
into the upper part of the valley, past Laughing Falls and the Twin
Falls (two vast columns of water that drop almost perpendicularly),
to the Yoho and President Glaciers and the Waputik Icefield. The
Yoho Glacier is one of the most interesting in the Canadian Rockies,
and is highly picturesque.
The High Trail You can return by the "High Trail," mounting
through Alpine meadows, carpeted with purple and
white bryanthus, till you come out of the scent of wild flowers and
balsam high over Yoho Valley. Across the valley, the great Waputik
Icefield and Takakkaw Falls glisten in the sun and you can pick out
in that clear air the faint black of the Canadian Pacific track going
into the Spiral Tunnels beyond the Kicking Horse River. Soon you
reach Yoho Lake. 40
The Spiral  Tunnels
Mileage
Altitude
South Side of Track        east of
above
North Side of Track
Field
sea-level
FIELD
4501
Mount Stephen  (10,495
Mount   Burgess   (8,473
feet).
feet).
Monarch   Silver   Mines
on slopes.
4.2
Cathedral
4495
Mount Field (8,655 feet).
Enter first of the famous
Spiral Tunnels. (See below).
Mount Ogden (8,805
feet).
6.4
Yoho
4758
Between the two Spiral
Tunnels a view is obtained of the celebrated
Yoho Valley.
Enter    Second    Tunnel.
Wapta Lodge
Kicking    Horse    River
Cathedral   Mountain
rises in Lake Wapta.
(10,464 feet).
11.7
Hector
5219
Station for Wapta
Lodge.
Burgess Pass Or from Summit Lake you can turn in another direction, round on to Burgess Pass (altitude 7,160 feet).
It is a wonderful journey. The great crags of Wapta flaunt up to the
left, and to the right, at every step, there appear higher up new visions
of the President Range. The guide can point out to you the way to
the now well-known Burgess Pass Fossil Quarry, which was discovered
by Dr. Walcott in 1910. Descent to Field can be made from the Pass.
The Spiral Tunnels From Field to the Great Divide, a distance of
fourteen miles, the railway has to climb nearly
a quarter of a mile though the Kicking Horse Pass. Formerly this
was a difficult track, the gradient being 4.5 per cent, but by two wonderful tunnels, forming one of the most notable engineering feats in
existence, this difficulty has now been eliminated and the grade reduced
to 2.2 percent. These tunnels are the famous''Spiral Tunnels." From the
west the track
enters the first
tunnel, 2,922
feet long, under
Mount Ogden
(8,805 feet), and
after turning a
complete circle
and passing
above itself it
comes out 50
feet higher. The
track then turns
westerly and,
crossing the
river, enters the
second tunnel,
3,255 feet in
length, under
Cathedral
Mountain.
Again turning a
complete circle
and emerging
above itself, it
runs out into
daylight 45 feet
higher.
Field—The Spiral Tunnels ^ItilllUHlHlllHHIllltlinillllliB gniiiiac
Er "      —     *
ZB3Ui9lt/g
Mount Stephen, from tunnel 42
Wapta  and  O 'Hara
%4t tV'
^0f\^
■
Lake Wapta Lodge
Lake Wapta      Hector   is  the   detraining point for Wapta Lodge on
Lodge the shores of Lake Wapta.    The  lake itself is most
beautifully set in an old glacier cup and, like most
lakes in the Rockies, its color is an indescribable green, varying with
every whim of the atmosphere. The Lodge, with its community house
and cabins, can accommodate 50 guests. From the lodge you can see
stern Mount Stephen, Victoria with her gleaming opalescent scarf of
snow and ice, Narao and Cathedral crags. There is good fishing in the
lake. Seven miles further will take you to Sherbrooke Lake, where there
is also fishing. This trail continues on to Niles Pass and Daly Glacier.
In another direction is Ross Lake hidden between Niblock and Narao.
Lake O'Hara      Lake O'Hara lies seven miles south of Wapta, and can
be reached by a splendid trail.    The trail winds on,
now ascending, now descending, first through a dense forest, thence
into an Alpine flower garden.
Lake O'Hara Lodge is situated on the very edge of the lake. The
lodge consists of a central building and a group of log cabins, which
together accommodate 36, the former on the Swiss chalet style, decorated in a rustic fashion.
O'Hara does not advertise modern luxuries, but its grate fires, comfortable chairs, hot and cold water baths, well-cooked meals and insomnia-proof beds take way the rough edges of camping life. The lake is
well stocked with trout.
Everybody who visits O'Hara takes the trip to Lake McArthur. It
is cupped in the Biddle amphitheatre, absolutely barren of trees and
overhung on one side by Schaffer and on the other side by Park Mountain. Where time permits, the journey should be continued to Lake
Oesa over which the very spirit of silence broods.
The Great Divide Six miles before Lake Louise, fourteen miles after
leaving Field, is the Great Divide—the highest
elevation of the Canadian Pacific Railway, the boundary between Alberta
and British Columbia, and the backbone of the continent. It is
marked by an arch spanning a stream under which the water divides.
The waters that flow to the east eventually reach Hudson's Bay and
the Atlantic Ocean; the rivulet that runs to the west joins the Kicking
Horse River and adds its mite to the volume of the Pacific by way of
the great Columbia River. Lake  Louise
43
Mileage
South Side of Track        east of
Field
Altitude
above North Side of Track
sea-level
Mount
feet).
Niblock    (9,764
This is the highest elevation reached by the railway, the boundary between Alberta and British Columbia and the
watershed. (See page 46).
Mount St. Piran (8,691
feet).  ^   ■
Lake Louise is 3 miles
from station. Moraine
Lake Lodge is 9 miles
from the   Chateau.
11.7
13.9
Hector
Stephen
5219
5337
Mount Bosworth (9,093
feet). Mount Daly (10-
342 feet).
14.4  The Great Divide    5338
20.0     LAKE LOUISE        5050    Waputik Peak.
Chateau Lake Louise
Trail to the Ptarmigan
country, with its magnificent Alpine flower
gardens.
On the left is the granite shaft erected to the memory of Sir James
Hector, the discoverer of the Kicking Horse Pass, which permits the
Canadian Pacific Railway to cross the Rockies. The pass owes its
name to an incident of exploration days, in which a "kicking horse"
which lashed out with its legs at one of the explorers figured literally.
Lake Louise Twenty miles from Field we reach the charming rustic
station of Lake Louise. The famous lake and the
equally famous Chateau are invisible from the station as they are some
3 miles distant. To reach them we must ascend another 630 feet,
which we do by motor bus or private automobile. This trip is through
a deep forest, with the sky a narrow strip above the tall tree-tops; and
turning a shoulder of the mountain, across a rushing mountain torrent,
we come suddenly into full view of the lake.
(Railway Journey resumed on page 48)
Lake O'Hara Lodge 44
Chateau  Lake  Louise
Chateau Lake Louise
The Chateau On the margin of
this most perfect
lake, in a wonderful Alpine flower
garden where poppies, violets, columbines and anemones slope
through terraced lawns to the
water's edge—the Canadian Pacific
LAKE LOUISE—probably the
most perfect gem of scenery in the
known world—bears the liquid
music, the soft color notes of its
name, almost into the realm of the
visible. It is a dramatic palette
upon which the Great Artist has
has placed its great Chateau Lake   splashed his most gorgeous hues, a
Louise (altitude 5,680 feet). This
has been repeatedly enlarged to
meet the demands of an ever-
increasing stream of tourists, until
today a fire-proof modern and
luxurious hotel with accommodation for seven hundred guests now
stands there (open summer
months).
Across the front of the hotel
extends a vast lounge that commands an uninterrupted view of the
Lake through beautiful, single-pane
windows   of   enormous   size.    The
wonderful spectrum of color.
Deepest and most exquisitely colored is the lake itself, sweeping
from rosy dawn to sunset through
gieen, blue, amethyst and violet,
undershot by gold; dazzling white
is the sun-glorified Victoria Glacier
at the farther end; sombre are the
enclosing pine-clad peaks that dip
perpendicularly into the lake; and
magnificent are the stark immensities of the snow-covered peaks
that enclose the picture except for
the fleecy blue sky overhead.
dining room, in the right wing, has
the same wonderful windows and view.    From the ballroom in the left
wing the lake may be seen through the arches of the cloistered terrace.
The Chateau has many attractions. Two fine hard tennis courts
are attached to the hotel, and a boathouse supplies rowing boats to
the many who cannot resist the magnetism of the clear blue water.
Below the dining room and overlooking the lake is an attractively
terraced concrete swimming-pool filled with heated glacial water and
with an instructor in attendance.
A Circle of Peaks The peaks that surround Lake Louise form such a
magnificent background that many visitors ask
nothing better than to sit on the hotel verandah watching the marvellous kaleidoscope of beauty and color that they present. From left
to right they are:—Saddle, Fairview, Lefroy, Victoria,  Popes Peak,  46 Moraine  Lake
Whyte, the Devil's Thumb, Big Beehive, Niblock, St. Piran, and Little
Beehive. At the far end of the Lake, catching for the greater part of
the day the full glory of the sun, their snowfields standing out in dazzling whiteness, are the glaciers that drop down from Mount Victoria
and the lofty ice-crowned head of Mount Lefroy.
Along the westerly shores of Lake Louise a delightful mile-and-a-half
hike along a level trail affords splendid views of further peaks—Mount
Haddo, Aberdeen and The Mitre.
Moraine Lake Another pearl of the Rockies is Moraine Lake, 9
miles from Lake Louise at the end of one of the
finest short motor rides in the mountains. This lovely mountain lake,
exquisitely blue-green in color, lies in the Valley of the Ten Peaks—
a tremendous and majestic semi-circle that with jagged profile encircles
the eastern and southern end of the lake. Not one of these peaks is
less than 10,000 feet in height—the highest, Mount Deltaform, is
11,235 feet. Standing off a little, as a sort of outpost, is the Tower of
Babel, an interesting rock formation of unusual shape.
Beside the lake is Moraine Lake Lodge, an admirable centre for trail
riders and hikers who wish to explore the valley's surroundings, and
for mountaineers who aspire to the peaks. The lodge has central community building and cottages with accommodation for fourteen guests.
An attractive excursion is to the Consolation Lakes, within easy reach
of the lodge and a good place for trout fishing.
Lakes in the Clouds     One of the finest and most popular excursions,
either by hiking or on a sure-footed mountain
pony, is to the Lakes in the Clouds, nestling a thousand feet and more
higher up in the mountain ranges.
The trail, leaving the west end of the Chateau, rises gradually
through spruce and fir forests to Mirror Lake, thence upward to Lake
Agnes. These lakes are good examples of "cirque" lakes—deep,
steep-walled recesses caused by glacial erosion. The view from the
edge of Lake Agnes—where a charming little rest and tea house has
been established—is magnificent.
Plain of the Six Glaciers        Besides the mighty tongue of the Victoria
Glacier, many smaller glaciers descend
into the cirque, and on the right side of the cirque is the Plain of the Six
Glaciers, where a spacious tea-house with broad verandahs has been
placed at the head as an excellent resting place. The Plain can be
reached by trail from the Lake Agnes tea-house or directly from the
Chateau.
Saddleback Another excellent hiking or pony excursion is to
Saddleback. Crossing the bridge over Lake Louise
creek, the trail rises rapidly on the slopes of Mount Fairview, between
that mountain and Saddleback. The view of Paradise Valley and
Mount Temple from this point is one of the finest in the Rockies.
Paradise Valley Between Moraine Lake and Lake Louise lies Paradise Valley, carpeted with Alpine flowers. Great
peaks rise around it like citadel walls. The valley can be reached from
the Saddleback down a steep zig-zag trail to Lake Annette, and con-
:^«med^across tkef^^^^h^yfysmt Steps." From the Giant Steps
a trail leads across the valley to Sentinal Pass, whence descent can be
made through Larch Valley to Moraine Lake.
Easy Climbs Lake Louise is one of the recognized mountain climbing
centres of the Rockies, and has many good climbs both
for the novice and the experienced Alpinist. Some short and easy
climbs will be found in the Beehive, Mount St. Piran, Saddle Mountain
and Mount Fairview.
For the expert Alpinist there are plenty of climbs around Lake Louise
that will provide him with sufficient opportunity to use his skill. Swiss
guides are attached to the Chateau Lake Louise for those who wish to
visit the glaciers, climb mountains, or make some of the more strenuous trips through the passes. Lake  Louise
47
= ROADS
■ TRAILS
Scale of Miles
J I L
CANADIAN PACIFIC RY.
Lake Louise and its vicinity
Abbot Pass      From the Victoria Glacier there is a fine climbf over
Abbot   Pass,   between   Mounts  Victoria  and   Lefroy,
descending to Lake O'Hara (see page 42).    This should not, however,
be attempted by the novice, unless accompanied by skilled guides.
Trail Trips Lake Louise is a good starting point for riding and
camping trips over the trails maintained by the National
Parks Department through the magnificent Alpine country of this
region of the Great Divide. The Ptarmigan Valley, Hector Lake, Bow
Lake, the Molar Pass, the Skoki Valley, Baker Creek are but a few
suggestions. The Pipestone Valley, some nineteen miles from the
Chateau, is a splendid camping trip ending at an Alpine meadow amid
high glacial surroundings of spectacular grandeur and beauty. It
affords some good trout fishing. 48
Lake Louise
South Side of Track
Mileage
east of
Field
Altitude
above
sea-level
North Side of Track
A fine view of the great
peaks in the Valley of
the. Ten Peaks, Delta-
form (11,235 feet) being
conspicuous.
A glimpse of Mount
Bident (10,119 feet)
through gap in the peaks.
Storm Mountain (10,-
372 feet) and Vermilion
Pass. Motor road to
Lake Windermere.
Copper Mountain (9,170
feet).
Mount Ball (10,865 feet).
at some distance.
Pilot Mountain (9,690
feet). Rustic bridge leading to Redearth Creek.
Mount Brett (9,790 feet)
Mount Massive (7,990
feet).
Mount Bourgeau (9,615
feet).
Bourgeau Range (9,520
feet).
20.0     LAKE LOUISE       5050
26.0 Temple 4918
30.1 Eldon 4828
37.5   Castle Mountain      4676
43.7 Massive 4592    Castle Mountain
(9,30O feet).
Sawback Range
(10,000 feet).
Mount Ishbel
(q, 440 feet)
48.6 Sawback 4549    Mount Corey
(9,194 feet).
Mount Edith
(8,380 feet) is the pointed
spire-like peak.
54.7
BANFF
Banff Springs Hotel
4537
Motoring Visitors to Lake Louise
will find a number of
very attractive motor excursions
available. Besides the one to Moraine Lake mentioned above, there
is the drive to Banff. The road from
Banff to Lake Louise has been continued to Field, Emerald Lake and
Golden. This leads west on a high
line to the Great Divide and, crossing the tracks near Lake Wapta
Lodge at Hector, follows the Kicking Horse River. It is a spectacular
ride and links up with established
roads in Yoho National Park. A
new motor road has been constructed running north from Lake Louise
by way of Bow Lake to the Columbia Icefield, the largest body of ice
south of the Arctic Circle, estimated
at 150 square miles. This Columbia Icefield Highway is spectacularly scenic. There's variety at every
turn—winding around mountains,
skirting lakes and rivers and over
high passes on the crest of the world.
Leaving ^ Leaving Lake Louise we have magnificent views of the
Lake Louise surrounding panorama of mountains. In front we see
Pilot Mountain, Copper Mountain, Mount Brett and
Vermilion Pass where the continental watershed sends the Vermilion
River westward into the Kootenay. On the south is Storm Mountain
(10,372 feet) and the snowy dome of Mount Ball (10,865 feet). Loftiest
and grandest of all towers, Temple Mountain (11,636 feet). This great
snow-bound mountain, whose crest exhibits precipitous walls of ice-
flashing blue in the sunlight, is the most conspicuous and admirable
feature of the wonderful valley.
Next we see to the left the bare, rugged and sharply serrated Sawback sub-range, with a spur called the Slate Mountain, in the foreground towards Lake Louise.
IT IS difficult to imagine anything
more fascinating than to start out
in the early morning, stepping in
half an hour from the perfect civilization of a luxurious hotel into
the primitive glory of cliff and
crag, winding waterway and frozen
grandeur, to spend the day among
the mountains. With a blue sky
overhead, the air soft with the
sweet resinous spice of the forest,
and all cares left far behind, one
sees only beautiful sights, hears
only wonderful sounds, and for a
whole long day lives close to the
very heart of Nature in her most
splendid mood.
The Canadian Rockies present
to the mountain climber one of
the most extensive and interesting
fields of any easily accessible
ranges of the world. Noted
climbers make their way thither
from all parts of the world. There
are easy climbs, too, for the novice
to graduate from—on some, indeed, he or she can ride or hike
good trails almost to the summit. 1—1.
'iiiili'iiiliiriiiiiiii'B^i.ot
The winding Bow River 50
Castle  Mountain
Seen from the Banff-Windermere Road
Castle Mountain Castle Mountain is a sheer
precipice of over 4,000 feet above
the valley floor, named for its
resemblance to a giant mediaeval
keep. Turrets, bastions and battlements can easily be distinguished.
The mountain is eight miles long,
and its highest point is 9,390 feet
above sea-level. Back in the
eighties there was a mining camp at
its base, brought thither by a boom
that died a sudden death; and during the Great War a large internment camp was here.
Just beyond Castle Mountain
station the Banff-Windermere Road
turns south, crosses the river, and
heads away over Vermilion Pass to
Lake Windermere.    (See page 30).
A COLOSSAL UPHEAVAL—
Hundreds of thousands of years
ago, in some huge upheaval
toward the end of the Cretaceous
Age, these mountains were lifted
up; some sections were thrust
high in the air, others remained
almost as level as before. Others
were tilted more or less toward
the west, and still others bent and
crumbled under the tremendous
pressure from the sides. We see
today only the colossal fragments
of the original thrusts.
The principal mountain ranges of
Banff National Park are the Waputik, Vermilion, Bourgeau, Bow,
and Sawback; its principal river is
the Bow. Of the many beautiful
lakes within the Park, the principal ones are Louise, Moraine,
Minnewanka, Hector and Bow.
Proceeding, we round a sharp turn and on the right see Pilot Mountain, visible from either end of the Bow. Hole-in-the-Wall Mountain
has an interesting cavern running into the mountain which has been
used as a meeting place by the Masonic Lodge of Banff. We follow
the Bow River into Banff through a beautiful forested valley, skirting
the Vermilion Lakes and obtaining an excellent view of Mount Bourgeau on the right. Far to the south these snow peaks enclose Simpson
Pass. A few hundred yards west of Banff Station the first view of
Banff Springs Hotel can be had to the right.
Banff is the administrative headquarters of Banff National Park.
The town lies embowered in pine forests and lawns, in a pocket
of a wide circle of pearly-grey limestone peaks. Warmed by clear
sunshine and kissed by clear air, exhilarated by the glacial-green Bow
River, that flows through its centre, Banff is the summer social centre
of the Canadian Rockies. Banff
51
The Route from Lake Louise to Banff
The Panorama     From  the  station   BANFF National Park, in which
of Banff a magnificent pan-   are    situated    Banff   and    Lake
orama is to be wit- Louise, is bounded on the west by
nessed. To the north is the grey the interprovincial boundary be-
bulk of Cascade Mountain, towering tween Alberta and British Colum-
above the town like a grim old idol, bia, and on the east by, approxi-
To the east are Mount Inglismaldie mately, the first big ranges of the
and the heights of the Fairholme Rockies. It has an area of 2,585
sub-range. Still farther to the east square miles, its greatest length
the sharp cone of Mount Peechee being about one hundred miles,
closes the view in that direction. No part of the Rockies exhibits a
To the left of Cascade rises the greater variety of sublime and
wooded ridge of Stoney Squaw. To romantic scenery, and nowhere
the west and up the valley are the are good points of view and fea-
distant snowy peaks of the main tures of special interest so acces-
range above Simpson Pass. To the sible, with so many good roads
left is Sulphur Mountain; to the and trails,
south-east the isolated
wooded bluff of Tunnel
Mountain and the long
serrated spine of Mount
Rundle.
From the Bow Bridge
the view is even more
magnificent, for the river
runs through the centre
of the picture, and one
who has caught his first
glimpse of this picture
close to sunset will never
forget its breath-taking
beauty. From the high
elevation of Banff
Springs Hotel a somewhat different view is
obtained, looking across
the junction of the Bow
with the smaller and
darker Spray River to
the distant snow-clad
barrier of the Fairholme
Range.
Johnston Canyon, near Banff 52
Banff Springs  Hotel
Banff Springs Hotel and Bow Valley
Banff Springs Hotel Banff is one of the most popular mountain
resorts on the continent—due not only to its
environment but also to the beautifully situated and splendidly appointed Banff Springs Hotel. It has been characterized as probably
the finest mountain hotel in the world. The entire first floor is given
over to public rooms, artistically decorated and furnished, in which
the architect has provided a Scottish baronial atmosphere. Among the
features are the period suites—the Royal, Georgian, Jacobean, Tudor,
Swiss, Italian and others; the period influence also dominates the
lounges, of which the finest is the Mount Stephen Hall.
At the hotel there is entertainment all the time. One could be perfectly happy just looking out towards the enclosing mountains, watching the swimmers in the warm sulphur-water pool, swimming oneself,
playing tennis, or studying the cosmopolitan types which one meets at
this great caravanserai.
Hot Springs Had Banff not become famous for its beauty, it must
have become famous for its hot springs, which are
amongst the most important of this continent. The five chief springs
have a total flow of about a million gallons a day, and issue from the
ground the year round at a temperature of over 90 degrees Fahrenheit.
Excellent swimming in warm sulphur-water is afforded at the Upper
Hot Springs (on Sulphur Mountain), the Cave and Basin Bathhouse,
and at the Banff Springs Hotel. At the Upper Hot Springs and the
Cave and Basin, the Government has erected handsome swimming
pools and bath houses. Banff Springs Hotel has its own large and
beautiful open-air pool. Here, where the temperatures of the summer
air and water are delightfully blended, and spring diving-boards offer
opportunity for sport to expert swimmers, the sloping depth of the bath
gives confidence to beginners at the shallow end; while the enclosed
cold fresh-water pool adjacent to the warm bath provides an invigorating
plunge. Expert masseurs are in attendance at the Turkish baths
attached.
Boating and A few minutes from the bridge is the Bow River
Launch Trips Boathouse. From here motor launches set out on a
12-mile trip in which the surrounding mountains
are seen from a unique and advantageous point of view. Here, also,
canoes and row boats are obtainable. At Lake Minnewanka also there
are boating and launch facilities. u imiiiiiijiniiiffiiiiiiiffiiimiiiiifjmiiffiHiiit^
ramv
■iiuiiiMiitiri'iiife 54
Banff
.**;-• '<*      y      v   "
% >a».
7;*rf
Sightseeing from an open observation car
The Animal Corral The tourist will find plenty of interest in the
little town of Banff itself, with its churches,
cinemas and shops. On the south side of the fine bridge over the Bow
River are the Administration offices of the Banff National Park, the
Post Office and Customs Office; also the beautiful Cascade Gardens,
while on the north side are the Museum, Central Park and the Royal
Canadian Mounted Police Headquarters.
The animal corral is 1^ miles from the town, an immense fenced-in
area where a herd of buffaloes, Rocky Mountain sheep, moose, elk and
other kindred of the wild roam at will through the vast forested pasturage. You can drive into this corral quite close up to the buffalo and
enjoy studying them in these surroundings.
Golf and Tennis An eighteen-hole golf course, superbly located on
the banks of the Bow River and guarded by huge
bastions of rock, turreted and pinnacled like the fortified castle of old,
is open to all visitors to Banff for a small fee. The course has been
constructed by the Canadian Pacific, under the supervision of Stanley
Thompson, and is considered one of the finest, most perfectly balanced
and most scenically beautiful courses in the world. An attractive clubhouse at the first tee, with a " Pro." in attendance, has a supply of balls,
clubs, etc.
For tennis players the hotel has several admirable hard courts, and
because the exquisite summer climate of Banff is very conducive to
both golf and tennis, a large number of people may always be seen
enjoying the games.
Recreation Grounds This section of the park, by the Bow River, is
not far from the bridge and can be reached by
a delightful road by the river, or from the Cave and Basin motor road.
There are marquees and picnic facilities, also grounds for baseball,
tennis, football and cricket. The clubhouse of the Banff Gun Club
is not far distant, and here trap shooting competitions are held.
"Indian Days"    "Indian Days" at Banff is one of the most colorful
spectacles on the North American continent. Between
three and four hundred Stoney Indians come from the Morley Reserve,
40 miles east of Banff, for their tribal sports.   Each morning they have funics
Ski-tow at Mount Norquay, near Banff
Photo by L. Harmon 56 Banff
a parade in which the majority of the Indians take part; the tribe is
all mounted, while many splendid horses are used, resplendent in
gorgeous trappings and headpieces. The costumes of both men and
women are creations of white buckskin, beadwork and ermine, their
color schemes being very attractive.    They ride with dignity and poise.
Riding and Hiking There are a large number of beautiful trails and
roads leading from Banff, offering delightful
rides, drives and hikes of almost any desired length. Just three
minutes from the Banff Springs Hotel is one of the most beautiful spots
in Banff, the Bow Falls; and from here one may keep on going down a
lovely pine-canopied avenue which leads from the Bow Bridge to the
foot ol the falls below the hotel.
On the east side of the Bow Falls is the road which runs up to Tunnel
Mountain. It affords splendid views of the Bow Valley and the
surrounding mountains. Another beautiful hike is past the Cave and
Basin to Sundance Canyon. Sulphur Mountain, a long wooded ridge,
at the summit of which is an observatory, and on the slopes of which
is the clubhouse of the Alpine Club of Canada; Cascade Mountain, a
massive giant facing the station; Mount Rundle, the sharp pointed
edge of which forms one of the most striking features of the landscape;
Mount Norquay and Stoney Squaw—are all within easy hiking
distance, and afford climbs not exceeding one day.
Motoring Many of the hiking trips mentioned may be taken by
saddle-pony or automobile, and in addition there are
scores of other trips too lengthy for the ordinary hiker.
A short motor run of eight miles brings you to the shores of Lake
Minnewanka, a beautiful sheet of steel-blue sheen where you can catch
huge lake trout. A well-graded road leads out from Banff westward
for sixteen miles up the Bow Valley to Johnston Canyon, where a series
of waterfalls, ending in a final foaming cascade, is most attractive. This
road continues to Lake Louise, the Yoho Valley, Field, Emerald Lake
and Golden.
A short motor trip can be taken from Banff up Stoney Squaw Mountain to the Mount Norquay Ski Area, where Dominion and Provincial
ski championships have been held.
(See also Banff-Winder mere Road, page 57)
Trail Trips Numerous as are the motor drives about Banff, beautiful
as are the spots reached by car, there are many places,
which can only be approached by trail, that rank amongst the most
attractive playgrounds of the Rockies. There are 960 miles of good trails
in Banff National Park, many of which radiate from Banff. With
guides and ponies the visitor may find his way to Shadow Lake at the
foot of majestic Mount Ball, in the heart of the Sawback Range, to
Ghost River, and through the Indian Reservation to the town of
Morley, and dozens of other magic places.
Mount Assiniboine A particularly fine pony trip from Banff, and
one on which a week can be profitably spent,
is that to Mount Assiniboine—the "Matterhorn of the Rockies." This
can be reached over a spectacular trail by way of Brewster Creek,
and the return made by traversing the beautiful summit country
in the vicinity of the mountain, through the heather and flowers of
Simpson Pass and down Healy Creek. The route has been well established, with overnight accommodation at convenient points en route,
while camp facilities are available at Mount Assiniboine Lodge, at the
foot of the mountain. Banff
57
ROADS
- TRAILS
Scale of Miles
Banff and its Vicinity
CANADIAN PACIFIC RY,
Winter Sports Banff is rapidly be- KOOTENAY National Park (area
coming an impor- 587 square miles) lies between
tant centre for winter sports. The the southern portions of Banff
Annual Winter Sports Carnival in and Yoho National Parks, and
February attracts large crowds, comprises the Vermilion, Mitchell
Skiing, tobogganing, skating and and Briscoe Ranges. The Koote-
bob-sledding are amongst the at- nay River flows through its south-
tractions, ern part, with a large tributary in
the Vermilion.   At the southwest
Of   great    interest   end it almost touches the eastern
to  automobile  en-   bank  of the  Columbia  River  a
thusiasts     is     the  little   below   Lake   Windermere.
The Banff-Windermere Road
traverses the centre of this park.
Banff-Windermere Road
Banff-Windermere automobile road
across the Canadian Rockies. This
spectacular journey through a hundred miles of the most magnificent mountain scenery of America,
can be commenced at either Banff or Lake Louise, the road being at
first that which connects those two points. At Castle Mountain it
crosses the Bow River, turns south past Storm Mountain, where it
crosses the Vermilion Pass (altitude 5,416feet). Here it enters Kootenay
Park. From Marble Canyon (about nine miles from the summit of
the pass), a remarkable fissure three hundred feet deep, there is a trail
to the curious Ochre beds. 58        Banff
-W
indermere
Road
Mileage
South Side of Track        east of
Field
Altitude
above         North Side of Track
sea-level
Headquarters   of    Banff
National Park.
54.7
BANFF
4537
Cascade Mountain
(9,840 feet).
Sulphur   Mountain
(8,040 feet).
Mount    Rundle    (9,838
feet).
57.0
Bankhead
4583
Coal mining town now
abandoned.    Railway
crosses Cascade River.
A coal mining town. The
Three Sisters (9,744 feet).
69.5
74.3
Canmore
The Gap
4296
4248
Fairholme Range.
Grotto Mountain (8,880
feet).
Cement mills.
79.3
Exshaw
4260
The road then follows the Vermilion River to its junction with the
Kootenay River. Crossing the Kootenay, it leads through a beautiful
avenue of virgin forest, and, ascending the Sinclair Pass between the
Briscoe and Stanford Ranges,
reaches Radium Hot Springs, long
famous for their therapeutic qualities; where the Canadian Government operates a fine swimming pool.
Emerging through the gap of
Sinclair Canyon it meets the Columbia River and — nine miles
beyond—the beautiful Lake Windermere.
Radium This drive has
Hot Springs been   rendered
Lodge even more de
lightful by the
construction of a rustic lodge at
Radium Hot Springs, perched
above the road so as to command a wonderful view of the
Purcell Range through the Canyon
Gap. Lake Windermere can be
reached    also    by    railway    from
Golden. (See page 30). The journey can be continued along the
east of Lake Windermere and the Kootenay River, through Canal Flats
to Cranbrook. There the road connects with other highways leading
south across the international boundary, thus forming the last link in
the "Grand Circle Tour" to California.
IN THE various mountain ranges
that make up the Canadian
Rockies—the Rockies proper, the
Selkirks,and the Monashee,Coast,
Cascade and Purcell Ranges—
there are, according to Government measurements, not including
innumerable mountains that have
not yet been named or measured,
630 peaks over 6,000 feet above
sea-level; 308 between 7,000 feet
and 10,000 feet; 161 between
10,000 feet and 12,000 feet; 4 over
12,000 feet.
Many of the principal mountains seen by the traveller from
the train or at the most popular
mountain resorts—at and around
Banff, Lake Louise, Moraine Lake,
Lake O'Hara, Field, Emerald
Lake, and the Yoho Valley, etc.—
average a height above the floor
of the valleys at their base of
almost a mile. The Canadian
Rockies, being rich in glaciers and
neve fields, are generally snow-
covered the year round.
The Three Sister^/
To
Calgary
The Route from Banff to Calgary ^UUMI
Mount Rundle, Vermilion Lake 60
The   Three   Sisters
Mount Edith
Excursions are available from
both Banff and Lake Louise during
the summer months for this trip to
Lake Windermere—including the
trip to Radium Hot Springs and
thence back over the Columbia
River Highway to Golden and the
Kicking Horse Trail.
Leaving Banff Leaving Banff, we
leave the Bow
River for a time and strike up the
valley of the Cascade River.
Looking behind, we can see Cascade Mountain towering above the
valley. On the right is Rundle,
named in honor of an early missionary to the Indians.
The Three Sisters At Canmore is
obtained a
striking profile of the "Three
Sisters," companion peaks that
form one of the last notable sights
of the journey. The highest peak
reaches a height of 9,744 feet. The
curious group of pillars on the right,
NATURE has thrown up the
Canadian Rockies on so vast a
scale that the human mind can
hardly grasp their greatness,
except by some comparison. The
" Dominion/' fastest Canadian
Pacific train, takes twenty-three
hours to pass from Cochrane, at
the entrance to the Rockies, to
Mission,where it enters the coastal
plain. Two of the best known
railway routes across the Swiss
Alps are the St. Gothard and the
Simplon. It takes an express train
five hours to travel from Lucerne
to Como, or from Lausanne to
Arona.
When Edward Whymper, the
hero of the Matterhorn, described
the Canadian Rockies as fifty
Switzerlands thrown into one, this
certainly was no exaggeration. The
Canadian Rockies stretch from
the Gap practically to Vancouver
—-over six hundred miles of Alpine
scenery.
some of them ten times as tall as a
man, are made of hard enough  material to withstand the weatherings that have played havoc with the surrounding bank.    They are
called "Hoodoos."
The Gap Presently we rejoin the Bow River, which we shall follow
all the way into Calgary. A bend in the road brings us
between two almost vertical walls of dizzy height, streaked and capped
with snow and ice. This is "The Gap" by which we leave the mountains. On our left is the Fairholme Range, the prominent peak being
Grotto Mountain, while those on our right are Pigeon Mountain, Wind
Mountain and the Three Sisters. Contrast the ranges behind. Those
on the left are fantastically broken; the ones opposite are massive
snow-laden promontories, rising thousands of feet and penetrated by
enormous alcoves imprisoning all the gorgeous hues of the prism. The  Foothills
61
Exshaw       Exshaw has a large Portland cement mill  with an average
output of 4,000 barrels a day.    It draws its supplies of
limestone and shale from the excellent deposits close to the mill.
Kananaskis      The district surrounding Kananaskis is rich in Indian
lore.
Seebe is the site of two hydro-electric power plants which supply
Calgary with its electrical power. The lower plant was completed in 1911, the upper one in 1915. The latter can be seen from
the railway. These two plants, with the sub-stations and transmission
lines, represent an investment of about five million dollars. Generators
with a capacity of 31,000 horse power in these power houses, supply a
current of 55,000 volts which is transmitted over two high tension transmission limes to the city of Calgary. A supply of 4,000 horse power at
12,000 volts is also transmitted to the cement mill at Exshaw.
The upper dam consists of a solid concrete structure 600 feet in
length, capable of discharging 40,000 cubic feet of water per second.
A third transmission line to the city of Calgary has been completed
to meet the growing demand for power.
Morley is the modern home of the Stoney Indians, once a very warlike race but now the most industrious of red men. The
foothills are full of Indian lore. The whole district was conceived as
a great giant; hence there are the Knee Hills, the Hand Hills, the
Elbow and the Ghost Rivers, and other names equally picturesque.
Kananaskis Falls, on the Bow River, were named after a mythical
Cree chief, the word meaning "a tall, straight pine with branches
near the top."
Cochrane      Still following the course of the Bow River, we enter the
rolling,
grassy foothills,
rising tier upon tier to
the base of the great
ranges to which they
are the outposts. At
Cochrane we are well
within the foothill
country. In the lower
valleys can be seen
huge ranches, for this
is a great stock-raising
country, and on the
higher terraces can be
seen large herds of
cattle and sheep. These
transverse valleys are
the grooved courses of
ancient glaciers. Presently the foothills too
give place and are succeeded by the first
great stretches of level
prairie and we run in
between low hills to
Calgary.
The Gap 62
Calgary
Calgary
Mileage
Altitude
South Side of Track        east of
above
North Side of Track
Field
sea-level
84.5
Seebe
4218
Site of hydro-electric
plants.
In    the    heart    of    the    95.0
Morley
4078
Stoney   Indian   Reserve
(see page 6i).
103.6
Radnor
3913
The valley of the Ghost
River enters the Bow
River at this point
and is dammed to form a
lake - Ghost Lake - for
power development.
In the foothill country.  113.8
Cochrane
3760
Many stock ranches may
be seen.
127.2
Keith
3564
The motor road between
Banff and Calgary may
be seen now and again.
136.6
CALGARY
3438
Hotel Palliser At the west end of
the station block
is the imposing Canadian Pacific
hotel, the Palliser. This handsome
structure comprises fourteen floors
in an "E" shape, which makes every
room an outside room. From the
roof garden one can obtain a beautiful view of the Canadian Rockies.
CALGARY (population 84,000)
the most important city on this
route between Vancouver and
Winnipeg, is the business centre of
southern Alberta. Founded a little
over sixty years ago, it is a flourishing industrial, agricultural and
educational centre, with fine buildings and many manufacturing
establishments.
Natural Resources    At the east end of the station platform is the building of the Natural Resources Department of the
Canadian   Pacific   Railway, which  administers the Company's land,
mineral and timber interests in the west.
A Beautiful City Calgary has municipally owned water works, electric light and power system and street railway and
asphalt paving plants. Natural gas is piped at very cheap price,
principally from the Turner Valley. The city has some beautiful parks
and many golf courses, including a municipal course. Calgary
63
The city is well supplied with clay and building deposits, and is
close to immense developed coal areas, large developed water powers,
and large gas and oil deposits. A 2,500,000-bushel Dominion Government terminal elevator is located here. Amongst the important
industries of the city are meat packing, flour milling and oil refining.
Immediately to the east of Calgary, and extending close to the
railway, and on both sides, for about 140 miles, is a large irrigated land
project developed by the Canadian Pacific Railway. Drawing its
water supplies from the Bow River, this block consists of over 3,000,000
acres, of which a great portion will later be brought under irrigation.
The Stampede Alberta, still a country of considerable stock-raising
interests, was until recent years one of the principal
ranching sections of Canada; and in the "Stampede" held every summer at Calgary—a famous frontier-day celebration that draws competitors from all parts of the continent—the glories of the Old West
are revived annually in a week's carnival of cowboy sports and contests.
Tributary to Calgary is a most prosperous agricultural, beef-raising
and ranching district, in area some thousands of square miles, and by
virtue of the nutritious and abundant grasses growing throughout this
territory, cattle raised are of excellent quality. Grain and vegetables
produced in this district are also very fine.
Calgary is an important railway centre. Branch Canadian Pacific lines run (a)
north to Edmonton, the capital of Alberta, through a prosperous mixed farming
country; (b) south to Lethbridge and Macleod. The main line continues eastward
from Calgary to Regina, Winnipeg, Toronto, Ottawa and Montreal.
Hotel Palliser, Calgary LODGES
IN THE  CANADIAN  ROCKIES
Lake Wapta
Lodge
Altitude 5,219 feet
Postal Address:
Lake O'Hara
Lodge
Altitude 6,664 feet
Postal Address:
Yoho Valley
Lodge
Altitude 5,000 feet
Postal Address:
Moraine
Lake Lodge
Altitude 6,200 feet
Postal Address:
Radium Hot
Springs Lodge
Altitude 3,456 feet
Postal Address:
Overlooking beautiful Lake Wapta, just west of the
Great Divide. Fishing, boating, centre for Alpine
climbing, drives, pony rides and hikes to Lake
O'Hara, Yoho Valley, Sherbrooke Lake, Kicking
Horse Canyon, etc.
Lake Wapta Lodge, Hector, B.C.
This Alpine lake, of exquisite coloring and charm,
is a splendid climbing, riding, fishing and hiking
centre. Excursions to Lake McArthur, Lake
Oesa and Opabin Meadows, or over Abbot Pass to
Lake Louise. Reached by trail from Lake Louise
and Wapta.
Lake O'Hara Lodge, Hector, B.C.
At the most delightful location in Yoho Valley,
facing  Takakkaw  Falls.   Excursions  to  Summit
Lake, Twin Falls, Point Lace Falls, Yoho Glacier,
Emerald Lake.   Hiking, climbing, riding.
Yoho Valley Lodge, Field, B.C.
At the head of the Valley of the Ten Peaks. Good
trout fishing, climbing, riding and hiking to
Consolation Lake, Larch Valley, Paradise Valley,
Wenkchemna Pass, etc.
Moraine Lake Lodge, c/o Chateau Lake Louise,
Lake Louise, Alta.
Second   stop   on   the   Banff-Windermere   Road.
Swimming in Radium Hot Springs Pool, hiking,
fishing,   and   climbing.    Wonderful   view  of  the
Selkirks.    (Owned   and   operated   by   Miss   C.
Armstrong.)
Radium Hot Springs Lodge, Radium Hot Springs,
B.C.
Two-days'   trail   ride   from   Banff   (34   miles),
stopping overnight at  half-way camp.     Rates
on application.    (Owned and operated by Erling
Strom.)
Mount Assiniboine Lodge, Banff, Alta.
Situated 15 miles southwest of Banff on the Continental   Divide,  at  the  edge of  Simpson   Pass.
Riding, climbing, hiking, fishing, hunting. (Owned
and operated by the Brewster Transport Co.)
Sunshine Lodge, Banff, Alta.
A motor trip of 84 miles from Lake Louise to the
spectacular Columbia Icefield. Chalet is at the
foot of the Athabaska Glacier, on the Columbia
Icefield Highway. (Owned and operated by the
Brewster Transport Co.)
OTHER LODGES REACHED BY CANADIAN PACIFIC
French River, Ont .French River Chalet-Bungalow Camp
Kenora, Ont   Devil's Gap Lodge.
Mount Assiniboine
Lodge
Altitude 7,205 feet
Postal Address:
Sunshine Lodge
Altitude 7,800 feet
Postal Address:
Columbia Icefield
Chalet
These attractive lodges are open  during the summer months and
the rates are reasonable. WORLDS GREATEST TRAVEL SYSTEM
• Canada and the United States
THE CANADIAN PACIFIC RAILWAY (comprising 21,235 miles of
operated and controlled lines) stretches from the Atlantic to the Pacific,
across Canada and into the United States. The main line, Montreal to
Vancouver, 2,882 miles, passes through the heart of the lofty Canadian
Rockies, with their crowning jewel of Banff, unsurpassed as a vacation
resort. Modern and comfortable transcontinental and local passenger
train services link the important cities, industrial sections, agricultural
regions and holiday resorts. Fast and efficient freight service. Convenient coastal and inland lake steamship services. Builds and
operates air-conditioned equipment.
GREAT LAKES . . . Canadian Pacific inland steamships sail semi-
weekly during the summer months between Port McNicoll and Fort
William via an attractive lake and river route.
• Steamships
Due to existing conditions sailing schedules for Canadian Pacific and
Canadian Australasian liners between Canada, the United Kingdom, the
Orient, Australia and New Zealand are temporarily suspended. Your
nearest Canadian Pacific agent will supply all available information.
• Hotels, Express, Communications, Air Lines
HOTELS ... A chain of hospitality across Canada from Atlantic to
Pacific . . . Fourteen hotels in leading cities and resorts, including
the Chateau Frontenac, Quebec; The Algonquin, St. Andrews-by-the-
Sea, N.B.; Royal York, Toronto; Banff Springs; Empress Hotel, Victoria
. . . Six rustic lodges in the Canadian Rockies and at Ontario fishing
resorts.
COMMUNICATIONS AND EXPRESS ... owned and operated by the
CANADIAN PACIFIC . . . trans-Canada service . . . world-wide connections ... travellers' cheques.
COLONIZATION . . . Canadian Pacific land-settlement policies,
together with the large acreage of fertile agricultural land still for sale
in the West, are helping to develop a richer Canada.
AIR LINES . . With a flying mileage exceeding 5,000,000 plane miles
per year, Canadian Pacific Air Lines are expediting the movement of
vital air-borne traffic from one end of Canada to the other. Its combined aerial routes extend from the Dominion's main transcontinental
lines of communication to the Arctic shores.
Unless otherwise shown, photographs used in this booklet are copyrighted by
Associated Screen News Limited or Canadian Pacific Railway Company. t/ihoupA* t£&
CANADIAN
ROCKIES
CANADIAN PACIFIC

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