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Quebec : summer and winter Canadian Pacific Railway Company 1898

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mimminmer eighth edition
Copyright, 1894 by the Chateau Frontenac Co.
I :: I   ':
.   -mmm
O- nndbee
Here sailed Jacques Cartier bold, and great Champlain,
Here vigorous Frontenac with iron ruled ;
Here fell two heroes ; one in victory
Scarce realized ; his rival in defeat
Scarce known.     Peace from their glorious graves has schooled
The ancient discord, till our minstrelsy
Sings growth united in war's vacant seat !—Alfred Thorold.
* HERE is not a spot in all America richer in historic treasure,
or more lavishly endowed by Nature in the beauty, grandeur,
and splendor of its surroundings, than the quaint old walled
city of Quebec, which, guarding the portal of the great
inland waters of the continent, has not inaptly been termed
the "Sentinel City of the St- Lawrence." Historically it
stands pre-eminent. Here the germ of European civilization was planted in
this new northern land, and the two greatest of old-world monarchies battled
for half a continent; where mediaeval ideas of fortification and defence may
be seen; and where the bold fortress-crowned rock and the majestic river
flowing with the -watery tribute of the whole western world at its feet, show
nature in her most wonderful works*
It is of Quebec that Henry Ward Beecher said: "Here is a small bit of
mediaeval Europe perched upon a rock, and dried for keeping—a curiosity
that has not its equal in its kind on this side of the ocean." ** Strolling in
Lower Town one might fancy himself in Amiens or Dieppe, and along the
Grand Allee, running right across the Plains of Abraham, you might be in
Brussels or Paris," adds another writer, "only that Clifton Terrace seems to
recall you to Kensington. Travellers for whom Europe is too distant are
advised to go to Quebec, there to find a bit  of the mediaeval Old   World QUEBEC—SUMMER AND WINTER
transplanted to the New, but still embalmed in its ancient religious sentimentalism,
upon which the rush and roar of modern unrest produces as little effect as
the Atlantic breakers on the cliffs of Cape Breton." And the wondrous beauty
of the city's environments is thus described by another gifted writer: "The
majestic appearance of Cape Diamond and the fortifications, the cupolas and
minarets blazing and sparkling in the sun, the noble basin like a sheet of
purest silver, in which might ride with safety the navies of the world, the
graceful meanderings of the river St. Charles, the numerous village spires on
either side of the St. Lawrence, the fertile valley dotted with the picturesque
habitant houses, the distant falls of Montmorency, the park-like scenery of Point
Levis, the beauteous Isle  of Orleans, the grim purple mountains, the barriers to
the north, form a picture
which it is no exaggeration to say is unsurpassed in any part of
the world."
It is the purpose of
this brochure to fur-
i|lliW1p-- nish in a concise form
such     information
concerning   this
ancient city, its approaches, surroundings, and accom-
modation   for
tourists     as    may
assist    that   numerous
and yearly increasing brotherhood,  or  such of  them as may
Martello Tower       desire to visit the St.  Lawrence,
in forming their plans to ensure the
maximum of recreation with the  minimum  of trouble.
The   city !of Quebec is such a convenient resting place between
Montreal and the several points of interest   on  the Lower St. Lawrence, and
is of itself so interesting and so unlike other cities of the continent, that very
few making the   tour of the St. Lawrence pass its memorable walls without
spending  a few days within them.     They desire to see where  Cartier, the
Columbus   of   the   North,   first   landed,  where   Champlain  founded  the first
French colony, where Wolfe fell and Montcalm received his death'wound, .and QUEBEC—SUMMER AND WINTER
where Montgomery, the American general, who was killed while besieging
the city on 3Jst December, J 775, breathed his last within the English lines.
The streets of Quebec are redolent of the religious and military history of
early Canada, and more historic memories linger about this ancient stronghold
than around any other city on the continent. Every spot now dismissed
in a sentence was the centre of events which seemed to the actors of them
to be fraught with far-reaching consequences, as indeed many of them were.
It is over three hundred and sixty years since Jacques Cartier anchored off
what was then the Indian village of Stadacona, and of course claimed the
rest of it, all, whatever it might prove to be, for the King of France. He
made no permanent settlement here, but in \ 549 the Sieur de Roberval spent
one winter with a small colony he had brought out, and then retired. In
J608 Champlain arrived and succeeded in establishing the French possession
of the country and commenced to provide material for history. His romantic
reign as practical King of the St- Lawrence, and the eventful times of his
French successors, have been so frequently and so well described by Parkman,
Kingsfordf Stewart, Le Moine, Bourinot, Chambers and Harper, that it is
not necessary to say more of them here. Quebec has seen more war, probably,
than any other place on the continent.
The mere sight of the city recalls to memory the long succession of
historical events in which many nations were deeply interested. The French,
the English, the American, and the aboriginal Indians have all playedi their
parts in the stirring drama whose scenes were laid around the fortress-crowned
rock; and the final struggle for Canada between the French and English
which closed on the Heights of Abraham, saw the end of France in the
northern half of the continent, and commenced the regime 'which was inevitably destined to result in the self-governing liberty which Canada now
v UEBEC is easily reached from all directions. From Montreal, which
may be regarded as the starting point for the Lower St. Lawrence,
there is a choice of routes by rail and river. By the Canadian
Pacific Railway it is about five hours' run along the north bank
of the river, through the old French settlements that in many places are almost
as primitive as in the days of Champlain and Frontenac. The railway runs
directly under the walls of, and yet into, the city, which has largely outgrown
the area enclosed within the defences. The Grand Trunk and the Canadian
Government Railway, on the other side of the St. Lawrence, run to Levis,
directly opposite Quebec, the river being crossed by steam ferry. During the
season of navigation the steamers of the Richelieu & Ontario Navigation Co.
ply between Montreal and Quebec. Tourists from the New England States
who do not wish to visit Montreal can reach the Ancient Capital by way
of Sherbrooke, thence via the Quebec Central or Grand Trunk Railway, or
by Dudswell Junction, and thence by Quebec Central to Levis. Tftose from
the Maritime Provinces reach Levis either by the Canadian Pacific Short Line
to Megantic and thence by the Quebec Central, or by the Canadian Government Railway; and in summer numerous steamships from European and
Lower  St.   Lawrence  ports  all  make Quebec  a stopping point.
The Chateau Frontenac, a magnificent new fire-proof hotel, erected by a
number of capitalists of Montreal, stands at the eastern end of a splendid
esplanade known as the Dufferin Terrace, just below the King's Bastion of the
Citadel, commanding delightful views of the St. Lawrence as far as the eye
can reach,—down past the Isle d'Orleans, across to Levis and beyond, up
stream to Sillery, and, to the left, the country along the beautiful valley of the
St. Charles River. The grandeur of the scenery is indescribable; it is matchless in diversity and charming in effect. No grander site for such a structure
could be found on the continent, and it would not be easy to combine the
advantages it possesses in any place  the world over.    This elegant hotel, on QUEBEC—SUMMER AND WINTER
which nearly $J,000,000 has been judiciously expended, and which is being
enlarged to meet the increased demands of travel, is erected on an historic
spot of more than ordinary interest—the site of the old Chateau St. Louis, so
famous in Canadian history, and once the vice-regal residence of the Governors
of Canada, both before and after the conquest. " A massive, shapely edifice is
this grand hotel on Dufferin Terrace," writes the well-known authoiess, Faith
Chateau Frontenac
Fenton; " a veritable old-time chateau, whose curves and cupolas, turrets and
towers, even whose tones of gray stone and dulled brick harmonize well with
the sober, quaint architecture of our dear old Fortress City. Chateau Frontenac
has been planned with that strong sense of the fitness of things. In exterior it
blends with its surroundings; it is part of the wondrous picturesqueness.
The interior magnificent outlook and hotel luxury are so commingled that
neither   seems   to   have   been  sacrificed   to the   other.      The architect,   Mr. QUEBEC—SUMMER AND WINTER
Bruce Price, must have a cunning brain to have thus devised this quaintly
shaped hotel, and so mapped out its interior that all the offices and service
rooms, even the main entrance hall, with its pillared gateway, look out
upon the inner curve, leaving every bit of the outer circle, that faces the
magnificent  stretch of river and sky  and far-off hills, to be devoted to guest
Parlor, Chateau Frontenac
rooms. It was a clever and difficult planning; it required an equally clever
and difficult furnishing; for this splendid edifice possesses as many interior
curves and corners as outer ones. It is delightfully unexpected in its ways.
Rooms that are bow-shaped, crescent-shaped, circular; rooms that are acute-
angled, obtuse-angled, triagonal, sexagonal—everything except right-angled.
And then the stairways—they are everywhere, and equally pretty and unique
in effect.   Every corner that one peeps into along these wide, curving corridors QUEBEC-SUMMER AND WINTER
holds an inviting little stairway—bright and soft, with rich crimson carpeting and
oak bannisters—that tempts one to ascend or descend just to find where it leads.
The broad entrance hall and offices, the great rotunda and reading-room, have
tessellated floors, and are large, light, airy, and finely furnished. The stairways and bannisters are of oak—a wood that is much used throughout the
building. Ascending the main stairway, which leads by easy turns from
the vestibule, we come upon one of the most artistic effects in the building,
for, standing in the broad corridor, beautiful with its white panellings, oak
floor, and crimson Axminster, we look between large, creamy, daintily-
moulded pillars into the long drawing-room, and beyond it into the ladies'
pavilion. It is a wonderfully pretty and artistic entrance that these white,
carven pillars afford. It brings a suggestion of the Renaissance and the
white and gold days of Louis Quinze. The ladies' pavilion is delightful.
It might be called the ladies' rotunda, for it corresponds with that of the
one below. It is perfectly round, of course, with those fine square carven
pillars forming the entrance way, and a central round pillar supporting the
graceful sprays of lights. Half of the circling wall is filled with windows
that look out upon a scene, than which no fairer one exists. From the
gray Citadel, along and adown the river, to Isle d'Orleans—with Lower
Town lying beneath the Terrace and all the landscape beauty across the
rapid water—truly, it is a superb eastern portal, a fit correspondent for
Canada's magnificent mountain guardians of the west."
There are many suites in this big hotel, some of them containing
as many as eight rooms, and of one the following description is given:
"Two dainty bedrooms and two equally dainty bathrooms, in white marble
and gold, lead from either end of a bow-shaped boudoir, whose curve is
one unbroken line of beautiful windows, richest Axminster of glowing crimson,
creamy panellings, tinted walls and ceiling, deep window seats—all these the
room possesses, but one sees them not; they are as nothing ^compared to the
great curve of radiance ^that shines and sparkles from this splendid bow of
light. ♦ ♦ ♦ The hotel throughout is carpeted with Axminster and Wiltons
in deep crimsons and moss greens—our footfalls press away into softest
plush. The furniture is chiefly oak. The bedroom furnishings are much
alike throughout—handsome brass bedsteads, oak furniture, and cosy upholstering in each room.
" It is one of the features of Hotel Frontenac that, from lowest to topmost
story, everything is of the best. It is equally a feature that the fourth, fifth
and sixth stories are more desirable than the lower ones, for the higher one
climbs the wider the panorama of river, hill and sky that unrolls to one's view. QUEBEC—SUMMER AND WINTER
"The dining hall is rich and in absolute harmony with the Louis
Quinze conception. It is a very large, square, airy room, with windows looking out upon the river. The floor is of oak, in herring pattern. The wainscoting is of leather, studded with brass nails. The wall above is freely panelled
in oak, and decorated between with richly tinted tapestries, representing an
important event in the Roman empire. This warm, dull, tinted tapestry t
crowded! with quaint figures, is an amusement and delight to the eye, and under
the soft electric glow the
result    is    absolutely
satisfying.   .   .   A
peep   into   the
kitchen—a great,
wide, cleanly
place,    made
busy    at    that
moment   with
dinner    preparations— is   a
revelation.   One
of the  things a
woman notices
first is the table
furnishings. And
these at Chateau
Frontenac  have
been   chosen
with    perfect
taste;  from the
simple,   silver-
rimmed   castor,
with  its  square-
cut bottles, to the tiny   fruit  spoon—everything  harmonizes   in the most satisfying way."
Another writer, Mr. E. T. D. Chambers, in his "Guide to Quebec,"
says: " How home-like and comfortable are the rooms in the princely Chateau,
and how unexcelled anywhere are the cuisine and menus have been testified
to by the Earl and Countess of Aberdeen and their suite, by the Goulds,
the Vanderbilts, the Astors, and thousands of prominent tourists from all
parts of the world."
Entrance to Chateau
Frontenac Courtyard from
The pride and the glory of Quebec is Dufferin Terrace, an unrivalled
promenade and public rendezvous. From it, or better, from any of the
windows in the Chateau Frontenac, which stands at its eastern limit and
at the base of the Citadel, a view, unsurpassed for beauty and grandeur,
bursts upon the beholder. The broad promenade is fully a quarter of a
mile long, and erected on it are five handsome kiosks, to which the names
of Plessis, Frontenac, Lome and Louise, Dufferin, and Victoria have been
given, besides another for the use of bands of music, which at times are those
belonging to British and French men-of-war visiting the port. Elevated 200
feet above the St. Lawrence, which here contracts its high banks until but
a mile separates them, it is a point of vantage from which to drink in the
feast of scenic splendor which is spread out before one. There is the mighty
river—described by Howells as the "Little Giant"—on whose bosom float
craft of every description, from the huge ocean greyhound to the primitive
canoe of the Indian; across the water is Levis, on whose crowning cliffs,
rising higher even than those of Quebec, are three immense forts erected by the
British Government at a cost approaching $1,000,000; down the stream is the
beautiful Isle d'Orleans—the Isle of Bacchus of Jacques Cartier, and at a
later time known as Sorcerer's Island, for in the firefly lights that danced
over its swamps the native Indians and the early French settlers saw the
work of His Satanic Majesty and his uncanny followers. Farther away
is Cape Tourmente, and along the shores are the quaint villages of the
habitants and the harrow-stripped farms which excite the surprise and curiosity
of the traveller. To the left the St. Charles gracefully sweeps and blends
its waters with the greater stream. Forest and river and mountain and cultivated broad acres combine to make gorgeous landscape, and in the rear tower
the Laurentian Hills, whose purpled crests lose themselves in the fleecy clouds.
At one's feet is the bustling Lower Town and the ships in port, and above
is the frowning Citadel whose hoary walls have environed Quebec with
a glamour of romance and renown.
Every foot of land here is historic ground; the very air breathes of
deeds of valorous daring and military prowess, which even the peaceful aspect
of the present or the hum and bustle of everyday I business near by fails to
dispel, for here the Kings of Old France sent their men and treasure to build
up a New France on this side of the Atlantic, where these gallant adventurers
lived and plotted and fought and wrested countless leagues of land from
the   savages,   and   whose   prowess shed lustre on la belle France.     Looking QUEBEC—SUMMER AND WINTER
down from the Terrace front, the narrow street bearing the name of the
founder of Quebec is seen, and its long length followed to the foot of the
Citadel cliff, just beyond which is the narrow pass where heroic Montgomery
fell mortally wounded while gallantly leading his men in a rash and daring
attack on the city. Almost directly under the northern end of the Terrace,
where the cliff stands back farther from the river and the streets and buildings
huddle closer together, is the historic Church of Notre Dame des Victoire, and
a little to the south is the Champlain market hall, and very near its site
the first building in Quebec was erected in 1608 by the adventurous and
chivalrous Champlain. It included a fort, a residence, and stores. Here was
the first clearing made; the next was that upon a portion of which the
Chateau Frontenac now stands, where Champlain erected the Chateau St.
Louis, which played so prominent a part in Canadian history, at a later
era being the castle whence the French Governors exercised undisputed
sovereignty from the mouth of the Mississippi to the great inland lakes of
Canada, and along the shores of the St. Lawrence and its Gulf. Its cellar
still remains under the wooden covering of the present Durham Terrace,
immediately adjoining the Chateau Frontenac. In the rear of the Chateau
St. Louis' was the area of the fort now covered by the Place d'Armes and a
part of the hotel, which was frequently attacked by the intrepid and ferocious
Iroquois, who, having overthrown the outposts, more than once threatened
the fort itself, and just beyond are the high-peaked Commissariat building
of the Imperial Government, the Kent House where resided Her Britannic
Majesty's father when commandant of the Imperial forces in Canada, the
headquarters of Montcalm, and the place where that gallant soldier died, the
old building having been replaced by a modern structure now occupied as
a livery stable and numbered 45 and 47 St. Louis Street.
Levis,   from  Quebec QUEBEC—SUMMER AND WINTER 13
The Citadel occupies the most commanding position in Quebec, overlooking
the St. Lawrence and the country round, and having a clear range for its
guns in every direction. It stands 303 feet above the river, and at one time
was a formidable position of defence, so much so that Quebec has sometimes
been called the Gibraltar of America. Though still a fortress, its present
chief use is as a barrack, and in it are kept immense military stores and
arms for 20,000 men. Access is gained to the trenches by the Chain gate,
and to the Citadel by the Dalhousie, named after a former Governor. The
Citadel is about  ten minutes' walk from the Chateau Frontenac.
The Governor's Garden is a public park a little in the rear of the
Dufferin Terrace, and between the Chateau Frontenac and the Citadel. It is
a pretty little retreat, and in it is a dual-faced stone column to Wolfe and
Montcalm, erected in 1827 and 1828 in joint honor of the illustrious generals,
to whom, in the words of the inscription, " Valor gave a common death,
history a common fame, and posterity a common monument."
The Plains of Abraham is one of the chief points of interest. Here was
the battlefield where Wolfe fell and Montcalm fought his last fight. The
plain is the tableland on the crest of the heights on the north bank of
the St. Lawrence River, which were thought to be too precipitous for
an enemy to climb. The heights were, however, quietly and successfully
scaled, and on 13th September, 1759, the memorable battle fought on their
edge which decided the fate of Canada. A tall marble shaft now stands
to mark the spot where Wolfe fell, mortally wounded, and bears the inscription:
"Here died Wolfe victorious." His illustrious rival, Montcalm, also wounded,
retreated within the walls to die there. On the plains, where some of the
heaviest fighting occurred in the famous battle, are three Martello towers, not
erected, however, until 1812, which, while formidably built, were weakly
constructed towards the city,   so   that in case   of capture they might easily 14 QUEBEC-SUMMER AND WINTER
be destroyed. The field of the battle is a short and pleasant walk or drive
from the hotel, 'a little beyond the St. Louis gate, on the road to Spencer-
wood, the official residence of the Lieut.-Governor of the Province of Quebec,
and in olden days the home of the Governors-General of Canada. A short
distance off, on the escarpment overhanging the St. Lawrence, is the path
by which the British troops scaled the cliffs on the night before the battle,
and at the foot of the rocks is Wolfe's Cove, two miles above which is
Sillery, a place of historical interest, where Maisonneuve spent his first winter
in Canada, and the scene of the horrible massacre of Christian Hurons
and their missionaries by   savage  Iroquois in 1655.
The Ursuline Convent is directly connected with this important battle on
the Plains of Abraham, by reason of its containing the remains of Montcalm,
whose body is buried in the Convent, while his skull is kept in the chaplain's
parlor, to which visitors are freely admitted. This, the oldest convent in
Quebec, was founded in 1639, destroyed by fire in 1650, rebuilt to meet a
similar fate in 1686; but the original foundations and the walls of the second
building ate still utilized in the third structure. The convent is a pile of
massive stone edifices, and the chapel contains the remains of Montcalm
and what are claimed to be the following relics: The body of St Clements,
from the Catacombs of Rome, brought to the Ursulines in 1687; the skull of
one of the companions of St. Ursula, 1675; the skull of St. Justus, 1662; a piece
of the Holy Cross, 1667; a portion of the Crown of Thorns, brought from
Paris in 1830. It is open to visitors, who may there see some rare works
of art, including paintings by Vandyke and Champagny, the property of the
Sisters of the Convent.
The Hotel Dieu, a convent and a hospital, founded by a niece of Cardinal
Richelieu, contains some fine pictures. In the chapel of the convent is the
skull of Jean de Brebeuf, the great Jesuit missionary, of whose doings Parkman
and Charlevoix have given a most interesting and trustworthy account. The
establishment is open to visitors on application to the Lady Superior. QUEBEC—SUMMER AND WINTER
Facing the historic old market square, which dates back to 1686, where
in olden times stood the public pillory, is the Basilica, the mother church
of Roman Catholicism in North America. Its erection was commenced in
1647, and since its definite opening in  1657   services have been  held in it
uninterruptedly except during the period required
necessitated by the disastrous siege of that year,
chancel is in faithful imitation of that of St.
On its walls hang a rich collection of paintings,
valuable works of art, which were rescued from
the Reign of Terror in France, when the
mob pillaged churches and monasteries.
for making repairs
The design of the
Peter's at Rome,
many of them in-
destruction  durinig
Amongst other paintings is Vandyke's Christ on the Cross. Adjoining the Basilica
and Laval is the palace of His Eminence Cardinal Taschereau. In its grand
salon de reception are the throne of the Cardinal, busts and portraits of all his
predecessors, and his rare gifts from the Pope.
The Laval University is the chief French University, and the oldest in
Canada. Laval grew out of the Seminary of Quebec, founded in 1663, which
was liberally endowed by the first Bishops of the See. The buildings are
valued at $1,000,000, and that one known as the Minor Seminary is interesting to Americans, from the fact that the officers under Montgomery and
Arnold who were captured during the siege of 1775 were incarcerated in it.
Laval has an excellent museum, a library of 100,000 volumes, and many
art treasures in its keeping. In its gallery of paintings—a miniature Vatican
collection—are two Salvator Rosas, three Teniers, a Romenelli, a Joseph Vernet,
a Puget, two Vandykes, a Perocei Poussin, and many other masterpieces.
In the northern facade of the post-office, on Buade Street, opposite the
Canadian Pacific's city ticket office, is the gilt figure of a dog gnawing a
bone, about which exists a legend which Kirby has woven into a charming
romance. Under the French regime, a coffee house stood upon the site now
occupied by the post-office, and its owner, having a disagreement with
Intendant Bigot or some other high official, revenged himself by placing this
sculptured tablet in front of his house, with accompanying lines in French, the
translation of which reads:—
I am a dog gnawing a bone,
While I gnaw I take my repose,
The time will come, though not yet,
When I will bite him who now bites me.
Erected in the first years of the present century by the British Government,
is an interesting spot, not for its architectural beauty, but for its historic associations and for the  splendor of its  mural   monuments,  chancel   window   and QUEBEC-SUMMER AND WINTER 17
elaborate solid silver communion service, the latter costing $10,000 and being
a present from King George III.
There are many other buildings in Quebec interesting to a visitor who
is or who desires to place his mind en rapport with the early history of
Canada, and there are  modem edifices, such as the City Hall (on the site of
the  Old   College   of   the   Jesuits,
erected in  1637, which after the
estates of that Order were escheat-
J^jtthmf ed  by  the Crown  was occupied
Jjgmlm, by the British   troops, and  was
known as the Jesuits' Barracks),
•«J{ the   Legislative   buildings   on the
Grand   Allee, in   the  fashionable
Hra^ffp residential    quarter,  custom-house,
J t,jft \ Y. M. C. A.  building, court-house,
armory and  drill-hall,   etc.,   and
!iWlii modern public works like the im
mense   tidal   basins,   which    can
I hardly   fail   to   attract    attention.
^|flMl| Sauntering    about     the   city   the
American tourist   will   constantly
; ?-:. meet   with curious   and   unaccus-
•P  IsEll tomed   architectural    sights.     The
i,   -^4*'*j      K£      r   m§!^jf^ Grand  Battery,  on  the very edge
\ J of   the cliff  overlooking the  river.
Nk mounted with guns and mortars of
obsolete pattern, is a favorite resting-
place from which splendid  views of the
river   and   surrounding country are   obtained.     At its southern extremity, overlooked
T „ ,, by   the   Chateau   Frontenac,  formerly   stood
Little Champlain Street /      _       _,       _    ., '    t4<t <. <
the   Canadian   Parliament   buildings,  which
were   twice   destroyed   by  fire.     The  "Break  Neck   Steps"   (leading   from
Mountain   Hill   to   Little Champlain   Street,   once   a   leading   thoroughfare),
although  demolished and replaced by a modern structure,  will  yet strike  the
visitor as  well deserving their   name, and in that portion  of the city called
"Sous  le  Cap" he will see a great contrast to corresponding portions of any
American city he is acquainted with. i8
The gates which pierce the fortifications are comparatively modern
structures, and only two remain — Kent and St. Louis—the former being
named after the Duke of Kent, father of  Queen  Victoria, who at one time
St. Louis Gate, Quebec
was commander of the British forces in Canada. St. John's was demolished
in the summer of 1897 to give right of way to the invading electric car.
The last vestige of the original portals—St. Louis, Palace and St. John—
disappeared many years ago, and the structures with which they were replaced,
with Hope and Prescott gates, built by the British since the Conquest, have
within recent years met a similar fate, with the exception of St. Louis, which
was erected in 1879. QUEBEC—SUMMER AND WINTER 19
The walls of the city, which afford a pleasant promenade, can be reached
by stone steps at either St. Louis or Kent gates or along the glacis at the
Esplanade, an expanse of tree fringed verdure extending from St. Louis to St.
John's gates. The walk on the walls can be extended in one direction to
the Citadel and in the other to where the Palace gate once stood.
This historic little edifice is one of the interesting sights of the Lower
Town, having been partially destroyed by the fire of the Levis batteries
during Wolfe's siege of Quebec in 1759, and subsequently rebuilt upon its old
walls. The fete of Notre Dame de la Victoire was established in sacred
commemoration of the defeat of the British invaders under General Phipps
in 1690, to be annually celebrated in the church on October 7th, and after
the shipwreck of the second British invading! fleet, fourteen years later,
which the French inhabitants regarded as a miraculous interposition of Providence
in their favor,  the edifice  was  given the name it still bears.
historic ruins.
Over in the valley of the St. Charles, the gaunt ruins of the famed
Chateau Bigot still remain. The tower in which perished by poison, at the
instigation of her fair rival, the young Algonquin mistress of the profligate
Intendant, still stands in the midst of the forest labyrinth; but the ruins give
only a faint conception of the immensity and grandeur of the original building. Another of Bigot's palaces stood within a stone's throw of the Canadian
Pacific Railway station, its solid foundation walls being utilized by a brewing
company   in the erection of one of its offices.
From Levis a magnificent view of Quebec and its surroundings can be
obtained. The military forts, on the heights above, from which, during the
summer of 1759, the cannons of the English bombarded the city with shot
and shell until the whole of the Lower Town was a confused mass of ruins,
are worth visiting, and so is the Engineers' Camp at St. Joseph de Levis—
magnificently  wooded   meadows,   once   the   camping   ground  of   the Royal QUEBEC—SUMMER AND WINTER
Engineers, whcse name it has continued to bear. A splendid vista is to
be obtained of both shores of the St. Lawrence, and in a great cleft in the
high northern bank of the river the Falls of Montmorency leap down into the
stream in full view of the camp.     Near by is the Government graving dock,
Capes Eternity and Trinity
a massive piece of masonry. It is a pleasant drive to the Falls of Chaudiere,
which may also be reached by train or steamer. En route is Etchemin (or
New Liverpool), which possesses one of the handsomest churches in America,
its frescoes eliciting the admiration of all who have visited the edifice.
A sail down the river to this beautiful island, where a number of
wealthy Quebecers have summer residences, is one of the attractions which
should not be missed, and an afternooon can be pleasantly spent by taking
steamer immediately after luncheon and returning to the Chateau Frontenac
in   time  for dinner. QUEBEC—SUMMER AND WINTER
These are situated about seven miles below Quebec. The drive to them
—a favorite trip with all visitors—is through an almost continuous succession  of French Canadian  farms   and cottages.     On   the  road is Beauport, a
Montmorency Falls
place bombarded by Wolfe, and now containing one of the principal Canadian
hospitals for the insane. The Falls of Montmorency are 100 feet higher
than those of Niagara, and in winter a large cone of ice, which is frequently
utilized by pleasure parties from Quebec as a toboggan slide, usually forms
at the foot. The Natural Steps, about a mile above the falls, where the
river dashes wildly through  a  deep   canon, are among the grandest features QUEBEC—SUMMER AND WINTER
of Montmorency. The riverside parishes of L'Ange Gardien and Chateau
Richer, the former of which was destroyed by Wolfe's soldiery in 1795,
afford excellent fishing. The tourist may also go to Montmorency by the
Quebec, Montmorency & Charlevoix  Railway, and  by  steamer in summer.
The shrine of Ste. Anne de Beaupre, for over 250 years the Mecca of
devout pilgrims]seeking restoration of health, is twenty-one miles from Quebec,
and is reached by the
Quebec, Montmorency &
Charlevoix Railway,
which closely follows the
bank of the St. Lawrence, .
or by steamer in summer. ;
Tradition relates that in
the early part of the seventeenth    century    some
Breton   mariners,  who ^^N*"
were overtaken by a vio- ,••••
lent storm while navigating the St. Lawrence,
solemnly vowed to Ste.
Anne that, if delivered
from the dangers which
encompassed them, they
would erect a sanctuary
in her honor on the spot
on which they should
land. Their prayers being  heard,  they   built  a
small wooden chapel in fulfilment of their vows, which has since become
famous. The primitive little church was replaced by a larger structure in
1660, which was subsequently enlarged; then, after about a century's existence, it was almost entirely rebuilt in 1787, and again in 1878, and converted
into a chapel—still occupying its original site near this " sacred spring,"
whose waters have, it is claimed, miraculous properties. Across the street, in
wide contrast to this unpretentious building, is the magnificent edifice which
Church of Ste. Anne de Beaupre QUEBEC—SUMMER AND WINTER
although opened for public worship in 1876 and raised to the dignity of a
Basilica by Pope Pius IX. ten years later, was not entirely completed until
1889.    It is a fine specimen  of Corinthian architecture, and   is of immense
proportions. A
colossal statue of
Ste. Anne, of
marvellous beauty, surmounts the
facade between
twin towers rising to a great
height. The interior of the sacred
edifice rivals the
most famous cathedrals in the
world in beauty
and imposing
grandeur, the
paintings and statuary representing
the life of Christ
from Bethlehem
to Calvary. On
each side of the
entrance are large
pyramids of crutches and canes
and trusses and
splints left by former owners as
mute testimony to
the efficacy of the
Interior of Church of Ste, Anne de Beaupre saint's    interven
tion on their behalf. Near the altar is another statue of Ste. Anne, resting on a
column of marble, to which some deeply venerated relics are attached; and in
the sanctuary are a fragment of a finger bone of the saint, procured by Laval,
the first bishop of New France; a part of the saint's wrist, sent by Leo XIII.; 24 QUEBEC—SUMMER AND WINTER
and a portion of the rock from the grotto in which Ste. Anne gave birth
to the Virgin Mary, besides many valuable gifts from distinguished personages,
amongst which is a superb chasuble sent by Anne of Austria, Queen of
France and mother of Louis XIV. The Scala Santa, or "sacred stairs,"
which the zealous supplicants ascend upon their knees, is built in imitation of
Pilate's Palace at Jerusalem, each step containing a relic of the Holy Land.
Thousands of tourists visit this fragment of old-time Palestine, impelled by
the curious scenes witnessed there and the costly works of art possessed by the
sanctuary; and the high esteem in which the patron saint is held is shown
by the remarkable increase in the perennial pilgrimages to her shrine. In
1874 there were 17,200 visitors; in 1897, the pilgrims alone numbered
123,455. Formerly the pilgrimages were from the Province of Quebec only;
but now they are from the other provinces of Canada and from the United
States and Europe. Accommodation is provided for visitors on a large scale.
Six miles away are the beautiful Falls of Ste. Anne, and beyond them again
are the Seven Falls.
Lorette is another place to which visitors are fond of driving. It is an
Indian village on the St. Charles River, about nine miles from Quebec, and
there are some beautiful falls in the immediate neighborhood, differing widely
from the cataract of Montmorency, but equally as striking in their beauty.
Here will be found the remnant of the once powerful Hurons, who, after the
treacherous massacre of their tribe by the Iroquois, sought refuge near Quebec,
and, adopting the religion and language of the early French settlers, allied
themselves with them in resisting the incursions of the common enemy. The
village was first settled in 1697. The Lorette Chapel, nearly 200 years old,
is of the same model and dimensions as that of the Santa Casa, from which
the image of the Virgin, a copy of that in the famous sanctuary, was sent to
the Indians.
In every direction around Quebec the country affords charming drives,
and at the French-Canadian villages, which occur with more or less frequency,
a stranger will be able to compare the peculiarities of life amongst a people
who, more than any other in America, have preserved the traditions of their
ancestors, with the essentially modern customs and lines of thought which
characterize the rural settlements of other parts of the continent. QUEBEC—SUMMER AND WINTER
One hundred and ninety miles from Quebec, via the Quebec ]& Lake St.
Tohn Railway, through a country whose wild grandeur has earned for it the
title of " The Canadian Adirordac.ks," is^rthe great inland sea—Lake St. John.
Tadousac, on the Lower St. Lawrence
It is a favorite resort for health and pleasure-seekers, Roberval, on the lake,
having magnificent hotels. The fishing is excellent. Tourists, in summer,
are offered an enjoyable round trip from Quebec to Lake St. John and
thence to Chicoutimi by rail, and down the famed Saguenay, whose scenery
is awe-inspiring, and back to Quebec by steamer. DOWN THE GULF.
A pleasant trip down the River and Gulf of St. Lawrence is afforded
the visitor to Quebec. Passing Cape Tourmente and Grosse Isle, the quarantine station for Quebec, and indeed for the entire St. Lawrence trade, many
islands of remarkable scenic beauty dot the river. Murray Bay, Riviere du
Loup, Cacouna and Tadousac, at the mouth of the Saguenay, are fashionable
watering resorts, with good hotel accommodation and excellent bathing facilities. The trip can be extended down the Gulf to Prince Edward Island
and to St. John's, Newfoundland, Halifax, N.S.; and to New York, Boston
and other American ports.
While Quebec is pre-eminently a charming summer resort and an interesting city at all times, it perhaps possesses the greatest attraction to many
during the winter months. At the first appearance of snow and frost the
city awakens into new life, and prepares for the merry season which is
prolonged into the early days of spring. The whole country is covered with
a spotless white mantle of snow, on which the northern sun plays in dazzling
brilliancy; glorious sunsets flood Ithe heavens, burnishing the city's minarets
and spires with a golden tinge, and, as the shadows of evening creep on, the
matchless aurora borealis, the dancing rainbows of the northern sky, entrance
one with their ever-changing resplendent beauty. The streets of the city take
on a new appearance: thronged with warmly clad groups, and hundreds of
carioles, queer little sleds peculiar to this quaint old place, dash along, their
jingling bells filling the air with silvery music. The season is one of
pleasure and recreation, and i there are countless means afforded for indulging
in delightful pastimes that are invigorating and health-giving—tobogganing,
most exhilarating and exciting of sports; skating in mammoth covered rinks,
snow-shoeing, curling, sleigh-driving, and other seasonable pleasures which find
a fitting nightly finale in the social functions given by the most hospitable of
people. Glorious sport is obtainable during January and February in fishing
for tommycods through the ice of St. Charles River, whose estuary meets the
eye from the Chateau. In those months countless little cabanes occupied by
fishermen, many  of whom are visiting tourists, dot the river's frozen surface. QUEBEC—SUMMER AND WINTER ^
"The city itself and the winter life within its walls," writes Julian Ralph,
the well-known correspondent, "are prime curiosities. The great granite
walls capped and flanked with snow; the narrow curving streets heaped with
snow; the houses all fringed with ponderous icicles; the trees whose every
limb is outlined with a coating of snow; the sleighs all buried in furs; the
people in blanket suits and furs and moccasins; the gorgeous snow-shoers;
the priests and soldiers and nuns—all these shown off beside the ice-glutted
river are quite enough to satisfy the tourists without the added trifles of a
curling match or a masquerade on skates, or even a vice-regent's ball."
These days of delights are accentuated in carnival times, when the Merry
Monarch occupies his winter capital. Quebec is an ideal carnival city, and
contrives to evolve from its winter rigors a series of fairy-like spectacles that
can only be dreamed of as happening in an enchanted land. The city is
en fete; mirth and jollity and good-fellowship prevail; and visitors, whether
inclined to participate in the festivities or not, enjoy a season of unalloyed
delight and sight-seeing without parallel in the world. Huge ice castles and
fortresses, aglow with a thousand scintillating lights, are stormed by a host of
gaily-costumed snow-shoers, armed with weapons whose discharge is followed
by elaborate pyrotechnical displays; magnificent arches of ice and evergreens
beautify the streets so profusely and of such a varied character as to be
almost bewildering; the public squares are adorned with historic figures neatly
shaped in ice; there are grand military pageants, and picturesque Indian,
lumber and sugar camps, which give a glimpse of a curious life strange to
many; and the accustomed outdoor sports are indulged in with augmented
vigor. The days and nights are replete with innocent and healthful amusements, to which zest is added by the keenness of the climate, which inspires
one to live out-of-doors, and not infrequently by an old-fashioned snow-storm.
In these bright, glorious days, the stranger is advised to wrap warmly if he
would participate in the mid-winter pleasures of the snow-mantled " White
City of the North," whose clear, invigorating, hyperborean air is not less
delightful in its season than are the balmy breezes which waft gently from
the old Laurentians and make the Ancient Capital an ideal resting place in the
summer days. 28
Montreal, the largest city in Canada, is second only to Quebec in historic
interest. It is picturesquely situated on an island in the St. Lawrence River,
at the head of ocean navigation, and yet over   600  miles   inland, and   is the
Montreal from Mount Royal
commercial metropolis and railway centre of the Dominion. Montreal ranks
amongst the most beautiful cities of the continent, and has very many attractive
and historic spots which cannot fail to interest and delight sight-seers. It
distinctively presents all the aspects and elements of metropolitan life, with
evidences of material wealth and prosperity on every hand. It is pre-eminently
a city of churches, surpassing Brooklyn itself in this respect, and in the midst QUEBEC—SUMMER AND WINTER
of the bustle of the city's commerce are gray old sanctuaries and stately
cathedrals which rival the grandest edifices of Europe in splendor and
historic interest. The cathedral of St. James, modelled after St. Peter's at
Rome, the old church of Notre Dame with its famous bell, which is classed
amongst the largest in the world, the Jesuit  Church and  College, Bonsecours
Church, erected in 1771, the English
(Methodist),  and Erskine,  St. Paul's,
(Presbyterian), are worth seeing,
which the city takes its name, affords a
it can be ascended by elevated railway),
mit is seen one of the grandest pano-
turesque valley of ithe St. Lawrence
Beyond  the   Beloeil   peaks   eastward
ains of Vermont can be distinguished
the  south are the  Adirondacks;  and
the Laurentian range, oldest of the
Other  points   of   interest   are the
spanning the St. Lawrence, McGill
College for Women, Windsor Sta-
the Canadian Pacific Railway Co.,r 1
1 -''■?*<?
^y^^iW     j    ' ' ~ vff^Hi:
Chateau de Ramezay, Montreal
Cathedral, St. James
and St. Andrew's
Mount Royal, from
delightful drive (or
and from its sum-
ramas of the pic-
that is obtainable,
the Green Mount-
on clear days; to
along the north runs
world's mountains.
Victoria Bridge
University, Donalda
tion and Offices of
Nelson Monument,
Champ de Mars (the
military parade
ground of the early
days), the Maison-
neuve Monument on
Place d'Armes, the
Sir John Macdonald
Monument on Do-
minion Square,
Windsor Hotel, new
Royal Victoria Hospital, the City Hall,
Court House, Board
of Trade, Place
d'Armes, Chateau de
Ramezay, Bonsecours Market, Viger
Gardens and new
C. P. R.   Station 30
and Hotel, etc. A run down the Lachine Rapids and a visit to the curious old
Indian village of Caughnawaga, opposite Lachine, the home of the remnant of a
once powerful nation, St. Helen's Island, Back River, Bout de L'Isle, Isle Grois
Bois, or any of the numerous city parks and public buildings, are worth
making. Montreal has an admirable electric street car system, and its cab
service is noted for its excellence and cheapness.
Dominion Square, Montreal, from Canadian Pacific Ry. Station
Visitors to Quebec, via Montreal, can easily reach Ottawa, the Capital
of the Dominion, by the Canadian Pacific or other railways, or by river in
summer, the railway run being less than four hours from the commercial
metropolis. The site of Ottawa for picturesque grandeur, it has been stated, is
only second to that of Quebec. It is located on the Ottawa River, where the
Rideau[ and  Gatineau join,  and  where  the waters of the  first named hurl QUEBEC—SUMMER AND WINTER
themselves over the Chaudiere Falls into the seething cauldron below. But
it is the national buildings which are the chief pride of Ottawa, and the
principal objects of interest to tourists. They stand out boldly on Parliament
Hill, overlooking the Ottawa, in all the beauty of seemingly varied architecture. They were erected at a cost of about $5,000,000. The octagonal-
shaped library in rear of the Houses of Parliament is one of the most complete
in the world, and contains 155,000 volumes, some of which are exceedingly
rare books. Other objects of interest are Rideau Hall, the home of the Governor-General of Canada, Rideau Canal, built in 1827 for military purposes,
Major Hill Park, the city buildings, extensive saw-mills, and the timber
slides by which the square timber from the Upper Ottawa passes down
without damage into the navigable waters below. To go down these slides,
as nearly every visitor does, is an exciting and exhilarating experience.
Opposite Ottawa is the French city of Hull, and combined they have a
population of over 60,000.
....  I il#
■■■>, aV
-mmmwm.t »>, *s»s,:	
■ -,  i. >   'lit
ili^ illBlll
Main Building, Houses of Parliament, Ottawa. YOU
The Citadel
Plains of Abraham
Martello Towers
Grand Battery
Wolfe's Monument
Laval University
Cardinal's Palace
French Cathedral
English Cathedral
Ladies' Protestant Home
Short-Wallick Monument
Chateau d'Eau
Beauport Asylum
Lake St. Charles
Cap Rouge
Wolfe's Cove
Forts of Levis
Sous le Cap
Dufferin Terrace
Chateau Frontenac
Governor's Garden
Duke of Kent's Residence
Montcalm's Residence
The Esplanade
The City's Gates
Ursuiine Convent
Parliament Buildings
New Court House
Falls of Montmorency
Lake Beauport
Quebec Seminary
Notre Dame des Victoires
Shrine of Ste. Anne
Chaudiere Falls
Isle d'Orleans
Chateau frontenac
Rates from $3.50 to $5.00 per Day.
Rooms Single or en Suite.
Special Arrangements with
For further information, address
fPiidiieat/ons /*w *#m*
Canadian ^Pacific ffiailwaif Company
44 The New Highway to the Orient» " Stimmer Tours *
^Fishing and Shooting'* "Climates of Canada"
" Westward to the Far East" and " East to the West *
Guides to the Principal Cities of Japan and China,
44Time-Table with Notes" "Banff" "Alaska" "Hawaii"
" Around the World " " New Route to Australia »
t iOST of these publications are handsomely illustrated, and contain much useful information
jy I in interesting shape. "Time Table with Notes" will be found a valuable companion for
• " * all transcontinental travellers. Other pamphlets descriptive of the Dominion—"Western
Canada," "British Columbia," "The Gold Fields of Cariboo and Kootenay," "The Klondike
in the Yukon Gold Belt," "New Ontario Gold Fields," etc.,—are also issued by the Company,
Copies may be obtained FREE from Agents of the Company, or will be mailed to any address
on application to undersigned. The Company have also published a new map, on the polar
projection, showing the whole of the northern hemisphere, and the Canadian Pacific Railway's
Around the World Route in a novel arid interesting way, and another of Canada and the northern
half of the United States, showing the entire system of the Company in detail. These maps
will be given away for public and prominent display. The Company now have on sale, in their
hotels, principal ticket offices, and on the trains, several series of handsomely finished views
of scenes along their line of railway. Size: 10 by 12 inches, in portfolios suitable for the table
(twelve views in each series), Price §1.50; and views, 22 by 28 inches, suitable for framing (three
views in the set), in mailing tube, Price $1.C0»
c. e. Mcpherson,
Asst. General Passenger Agent,
i King St. East, TORONTO.
District Passenger Agent,
197 Washington St., Boston.
Asst. General Passenger Agent,
St. John, N.B.
J. F. LEE,
General Aeent, Passeneer Dept.,
228 South Clark St., CHICAGO, ILL.
Dist. Passenger Agent, VANCOUVER, B.C.
Traffic Manager, Lines West of Lake
Superior, Winnipeg,
General Eastern Agt., 353 Broadway, N.Y.
General Passenger Agent, Soo Line,
Asst. General Passenger Agent, Soo Line,
St. Paul, Minn.
European Traffic Agent,
67 and 68 King William St., E.G., and
30 Cockspur St., S.W., LONDON, ENG.
7 James St., LIVERPOOL.  67 St. Vincent
Passenger Agent,
Cor. Third and Chestnut Sts., PHILA.
dflphia,  and  sjo^ East  German St>
District Passenger Agent,
Chronicle Building, SAN FRANCISCO
General Passenger Agent,
General Agent CHINA, Japan, etc.,
Hong Kong.
General Passenger Agent,
Lines East of Port Arthur,
Passenger Traffic Manager, MONIRBAI^ 


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