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Ancient city of Quebec Canadian Pacific Railway Company 1908

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Array ~ X Canadian Pacific Railway Co.
ATLANTIC   SERVICE
SAFETY   ■   SPEED   -   SPLENDOR
™£ "EMPRESSES
Empress of Britain
Empress of Ireland
Hold   the   ATLANTIC RECORDS
between Canadian Ports and Liverpool
99
900 MILES IN SHELTERED WATERS
AND LESS THAN FOUR DAYS AT SEA
Tickets and all information from any   Railway   or  Steamship  Agent,   or
GEO. McL. BROWN, General Passenger Agent, Montreal. I—Ii
ixx:
XX
xx
I 1
TEE AMCEEMT CETY
xx
XX
XX
XX
Twentieth Edition
Issued by the
Canadian Pacific Railway Company
Copyright, 1894, by the Chateau Frontenac Co.
:c
XX
XX
ZEZXZE
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T">CT
THE    ANCIENT    CITY    OF
L>
~a
"Where Famous Heroes Fell"
r
O the stranger within its gates Quebec wields a charm and a
I MVU sPe*L So near to t^ie great centres of American life, yet it
feO^Qgl belongs to other times, and has preserved that uniqueness
which makes it the most interesting city on this side of the
Atlantic. What constitutes the charm of this old capital of Canada?
Is it the story of the great struggle of nations for supremacy, or the
glamour of romance connected with the daring and dashing adventurers who came from the brilliant Court of France where La Pompadour
wielded so potent a sway ? Certain it is, the charm is there; the charm
of dead centuries; the charm and flavor of imperishable deeds and the
glory of immortal actions. But there is another subtle charm, and it is
the setting of the old fortress city. What a panorama
on all sides! Wherever the eye rests there is a picture,
and such beauty of perspective, especially in the broad
sweep of the mighty St. Lawrence seaward, as leaves
a lasting impression. Yes, Quebec is quaint, and full
of years and honours, but she holds that within her old
walls which draws tourists from all quarters, who
going thence, are loud in praise of the venerable city
enthroned upon Cape Diamond.
Historically, it stands pre-eminent. Here
the germ of European civilization was planted
in this new northern land, and the two greatest
of old-world monarchies battled for half a
continent. Here mediaeval ideas of fortification
and defence may be seen; here the bold, fortress-crowned rock, and the majestic river, with
tribute of the whole western world at its feet,
show Nature in her most wonderful mood.
Champlain Monument, Quebec 4 QUEBEC
It is of Quebec that Charles Dickens, writing of his visit sixty years
ago, said: "The impression made upon the visitor by this Gibraltar of
America, its giddy heights, its citadel suspended, as it were, in air; its
picturesque steep streets and frowning gateways; and the splendid views
which burst upon the eye at every turn is at once unique and lasting.
Part of the Old City Walls, Quebec
It is a place not to be forgotten." Henry Ward Beecher, too, was greatly
impressed with the city, for he wrote: "Curious old Quebec—of all cities
on the continent of America—the quaintest. It is a populated cliff. It
is a mighty rock, scarped and graded. . . Here is a small bit of
mediaeval Europe perched upon a rock, and dried for keeping—a curiosity
that has not its equal in its kind on this side of the ocean. Strolling in
Lower Town one might fancy himself in Amiens or Dieppe, and along the
Grand Allee, running right across the plains of Abraham you might be in
Brussels or Paris, only that Clifton Terrace seems to recall Kensington.
Dear delightful old Quebec, with her gray walls and shining tin roofs;
her precipitous, headlong streets and sleepy squares and esplanades; her
narrow alleys and peaceful convents; her harmless antique cannon on the
parapets and her sweet toned bells in the spires;  her towering chateau on QUEBEC
the heights and her long, low, queer smelling warehouses in the lower town;
her spick and span caleches and her dingy trolley cars; her sprinkling of
soldiers and sailors with Scotch accent and Irish brogue and cockney
twang on a background of petite bourgeoise speaking the quaintest of
French dialects; her memories of an adventurous glittering past and her
placid contentment with the tranquil grayness of the present; her glorious
daylight outlook over the vale of the St. Charles, the level shore of
Montmorenci, the green Isle d'Orleans dividing the shining reaches of the
broad St. Lawrence, and the blue Laurentian mountains rolling far to the
eastward, and at night the dark bulk of the citadel outlined against the
^immu
The Chateau Frontenac From Lower Town, Quebec
starry blue, and far below the huddled house tops, the silent wharves,
the lights of the great warships swinging with the tide, the intermittent
ferryboats plying to and fro, the twinkling lamps of Levis rising along the
dim southern shore and reflected on the lapsing, curling, seaward sliding
waves of the great river! What city of the new world keeps so much of
the charm of the old?"
The City of Quebec is such a convenient resting place between
Montreal and the several points of interest on the Lower St. Lawrence, and
is of itself so interesting, and so unlike other cities of the continent, that
very few making the tour of the St. Lawrence pass its memorable walls, QUEBEC
Little Champlain Street Sous le Cap Street
Two of the Far-Famed Streets of Quebec
without spending a few days within them.    They desire to see where
Cartier,   the  Columbus  of  the  North,   first  landed;    where  Champlain
founded the first French colony; where Wolfe fell, and Montcalm received
his death wound;   and where Montgomery, the American general, was
killed, while besieging the city on 31st December, 1775.    The streets of
Quebec are redolent of the religious and military history of early Canada,
and more historic memories linger about this ancient stronghold, than
around any other city on the continent.   The "Break Neck Steps" leading
from Mountain Hill to Little Champlain Street (once a leading thoroughfare), although demolished and replaced by a modern structure, will
yet strike the visitor as well deserving their name, and in that
jhort-Wallick portion of the city called "Sous le Cap," he will see a great
Monument contrast to corresponding portions of any American city
he is acquainted with.    Every spot, now dismissed in a
sentence, was the  centre   of events which seemed,   to
the actors of them, to be fraught with far-reaching
consequences, as indeed many of them were.     It is
three hundred and seventy-one years since Jacques
Cartier anchored off what was then the Indian
village of Stadacona,   and,   of  course, claimed
the rest of it all, whatever it  might prove to
be,  for  the  King  of  France.        He made no QUEBEC
permanent settlement here, but in 1549, the Sieur de Roberval spent one
winter with a small colony he had brought out, and then retired. In
1608 Champlain arrived, and succeeded in establishing the French possession of the country, and commenced to provide material for history. His
romantic reign, as practical King of the St. Lawrence, and the eventful
times of his French successors, have been so frequently, and so well described
by Parkman, Kingsford, Stewart, Le Moine, Bourinot, Chambers and
Harper that it is not necessary to say any more of them here. Quebec
has seen more of war, probably, than any other place on the continent.
St. Louis Gate, Quebec.    Part of the City Walls.
The mere sight of the city recalls to memory the long succession of
thrilling historical events, in which many nations were deeply interested.
The French, the English, the Americans, and the aboriginal Indians, have
all played their parts in the stirring drama, whose scenes were laid around
the fortress-crowned rock; and the final struggle for Canada, between the
French and English, which closed on the heights of Abraham, saw the
end of France in the northern half of the continent, and commenced the
regime which was inevitably destined to result in the self-governing
liberty which Canada now enjoys. QUEBEC
Quebec's Famous Hotel and its Matchless Situation
The Chateau Frontenac, the favorite resort of tourists, is a magnificent fire-proof hotel, controlled by the Canadian Pacific Railway Company,
and stands at the eastern end of a splendid esplanade known as Dufferin
Terrace, just below the King's Bastion of the Citadel. It commands delightful views of the St. Lawrence as far as the eye can reach, down past
the Isle d'Orleans, across to Levis and beyond, up stream to Sillery, and
to the left, the country along
the beautiful valley of the St.
Charles River. The grandeur
of the scenery is matchless
in diversity and charming in
effect. No finer site for such
a structure could be found
on the continent, and it
would not be easy to combine the advantages it possesses in any other place.
This elegant hotel, on which
over $1,000,000 has been
judiciously expended, i's
erected.on a historic spot of
more than ordinary interest
—the site of the old Chateau
St. Louis, so famous in
Canadian history, and once
the vice-regal residence of
the Governors of Canada,
both before and after the conquest. The architect, Mr.
Th G ' t th C       rd—Ch       Fr   t na Bruce Price, must have had
a cunning brain to have
thus devised this quaintly shaped hotel, and so mapped out its
interior that all the offices and service rooms, even the main
entrance hall, with its pillared gateway, look out upon the inner
curve, leaving every bit of the outer circle that faces the magnificent
stretch of river and sky and far off hills, to be devoted to guest rooms.
It was clever and difficult planning, it required an equally clever and
difficult furnishing, for this splendid edifice possesses as many interior
curves and corners as outer ones.     It is delightfully unexpected in its QUEBEC
ways. In this
grand hotel are
many suites,
some of them
containing a s
many as eight
rooms and o f
one the following description
is given: "Two
dainty bedrooms and two
equally dainty
bathrooms, lead
from either end
of a bow-shaped boudoir,
whose curve is
one unbroken
line of beautiful windows, creamy
panellings,
tinted walls and
ceiling, deep
window seats—
Entrance Jo the Chateau Frontenac
The Courtyard, Chateau Fronlenac
a 11 these the
room possesses,
but one sees
them not: they
are as nothing
compared to the
great curve of
radiance that
shines and
sparkles from
this splendid
bow of light.
Rooms that are
bow-shaped,
cresce nt -
shaped, circular; rooms that
are acute-
angled, obtuse-
angled, tri-
angular, sex-
angular, everything except
right-angled. 10
QUEBEC
The furniture is chiefly oak. The bed-room furnishings are much alike
throughout—handsome brass bedsteads, oak furniture and cosy upholstering in each room. And then the stairways—they are everywhere, and
equally pretty and unique in effect. Every corner that one peeps into
along these wide, curving corridors holds an inviting little stairway—
bright and soft, with rich carpeting and oak bannisters—that tempts one
to ascend or descend just to find where it leads. Ascending the main
stairway, which leads by easy turns from the vestibule, we come upon
one of the most artistic effects in the building, for, standing in the broad
corridor, beautiful with its white panellings, oak floor, and Axminster,
we look between large, creamy, daintily-moulded pillars into the long
drawing-room, and beyond it into the ladies' pavilion. It brings a
suggestion of the Renaissance, and the white and gold days of Louis
Quinze.    This famous hotel is now being enlarged.
It is one of the features of Chateau Frontenac that, from lowest to
topmost story, everything is of the best. It is equally a feature that the
fourth, fifth and sixth stories are more desirable than the lower ones, for
the higher one ascends, the wider the panorama of river, mountain,
city and sky that unfolds to one's view.     The surroundings of the Chateau
Frontenac combined
with the superlative
qualities of the building itself render it the
ideal hotel. There is
nothing like it on the
continent of America,
and provision has been
made for every service
and convenience that
has to do with modern
requirements.
It i s the most
superbly situated
hotel in the world,offering every convenience
and luxury of the twentieth century. A place
where the visit is always
memorable and the
many attractions can
never be exhausted.
A Corner in the Courtyard, Chateau Frontenac QUEBEC
11
The Celebrated Dufferin Terrace
The pride and glory of Quebec is Dufferin Terrace, an unrivalled
promenade and public rendezvous. From it, or better, from any of the
windows in the Chateau Frontenac, which stands at its eastern limit and
at the base of the citadel, a view, unsurpassed for beauty and grandeur,
bursts upon the beholder. Elevated 200 feet above the St. Lawrence,
which here contracts its high banks until but a mile separates them, the
terrace is a point of vantage from which one may feast upon the scenic
The Famous Dufferin Terrace and Chateau Frontenac
splendor which is displayed to the view. There is the mighty river—on
whose waters float craft of every description, from the huge ocean liner
to the primitive canoe of the Indian; across the water is Levis, on whose
crowning cliffs, rising higher even than those of Quebec, are three immense
forts erected by the British Government at a cost approaching $1,000,000;
down the stream is the beautiful Isle d'Orleans—the Isle of Bacchus of
Jacques Cartier, and at a later time known as Sorcerer's Island, for in the
fire-fly lights that danced over its swamps the native Indians and the
early French settlers saw the work of His Satanic Majesty and his uncanny 12
QUEBEC
followers. Farther away is Cap Tourmente, and along the shores, are
the quaint villages of the habitants and the narrow-striped farms which
excite the surprise and curiosity of the traveller. To the left the St.
Charles gracefully sweeps and blends its waters with the greater stream.
Forest and river and mountain and cultivated broad acres combine to
make gorgeous landscape, and in the rear tower the Laurentian Hills,
whose purpled crests lose themselves in the fleecy clouds. At one's feet
are the bustling Lower Town and the ships in port, and above is the
frowning citadel whose hoary
walls environ Quebec with a
glamour of romance and renown.
The broad promenade is fully
a quarter of a mile long, and
erected on it are five handsome
kiosks, to which the names of a
Plessis, Frontenac, Lome and
Louise, Dufferin, and Victoria,
have been given, besides another
for the use of bands of music,
which at times are those belonging to British and French warships
visiting the port. At the further
end a succession of small stairways lead to another promenade
along the cliff and around the
base of the walls of the citadel
to connect the Terrace with the
Cove Fields, the extended promenade having a total distance of
nearly- 4,000 ft. On these fields,
where the old French earthworks
A Familiar Scene in Quebec 1
still remain, are the finest natural golf links in America.
Every foot of land here is historic ground; the very air breathes of
deeds of valour and military prowess, which even the peaceful aspect of
the present, or the hum and bustle of every day business nearby, fails to
dispel. For here the Kings of old France sent their men and treasure to
build up a New France, on this side of the Atlantic, where these gallant
adventurers lived and plotted and fought, and wrested countless leagues of
land from the savages. Looking down from the Terrace front, the
narrow street bearing the name of the founder of Quebec is seen, and its
long length followed, to the foot of the citadel cliff, just beyond which is the QUEBEC
13
narrow pass where Montgomery fell, mortally wounded, while heroically
leading his men in a rash and daring attack on the city. Almost directly
under the northern end of the Terrace, where the cliff stands back farther
from the river and the streets are huddled closer together, is the historic
Church of Notre Dame des Victoires. A little to the south is the Champlain
market hall, and very near its site the first building in Quebec, which
included a fort, a residence and stores, was erected in 1608 by the adventurous and chivalrous Champlain, whose memory is perpetuated in a
magnificent statue on the Terrace. Here was the first clearing made;
the next was that upon a portion of which the Chateau Frontenac now
A Birdseye View of the Citadel, Quebec
stands, where Champlain erected the Chateau St. Louis, which played so
prominent a part in Canadian history; at a later era being the castle from
which the French Governors exercised undisputed sovereignty from the
mouth of the Mississippi to the great inland lakes of Canada, and along the
shores of the St. Lawrence and its Gulf. Its cellar still remains under the
wooden covering of the present Dufferin Terrace, immediately adjoining
the Chateau Frontenac. In the rear of the Chateau St. Louis was the
area of the fort now covered by the Place d'Armes and a part of the hotel,
which was frequently attacked by the intrepid and ferocious Iroquois, 14
QUEBEC
who having overthrown the outposts, more than once threatened the Fort
itself. Just beyond are the high-peaked Commissariat building of the
Imperial Government, the Kent House where resided King Edward's
grandfather when commandant of the Imperial forces in Canada, the
headquarters of Montcalm, and the place where the gallant soldier died;
the old building having been replaced by a modern structure now occupied
as a livery stable and numbered 45 and 47 St. Louis Street. Across the
Place d'Armes is the English Cathedral, constructed soon after the
British occupation, by the Royal Engineers.
The Citadel
The Citadel occupies the most commanding position in Quebec, overlooking the St. Lawrence and the country round, and having a clear range
for its guns in every direction. It stands 303 feet above the river, and at
one time was considered impregnable, so much so, that Quebec has been
sometimes called the Gibraltar of
America. Though still a fortress,
its principal use is as a barrack,
and in it are kept large military
stores. Access is gained to the
trenches by the Chain gate, and to
the Citadel by the Dalhousie,
named after a former governor.
The Citadel is about ten minutes'
walk from the Chateau Frontenac.
The Governor's Garden
The Governor's Garden is
a public park a little in the
rear of the Dufferin Terrace,
and between the Chateau Frontenac and the Citadel. It is a
pretty little retreat, and in it is a
dual-faced stone column to Wolfe
and Montcalm, erected in 1827
and 1828, in joint honor of the
illustrious generals, to whom,
in the words of the inscription,
"Valour gave a common death,
history a common fame, and
posterity a common monument."
■   I    Jl'M
mm'M^'i
A beautiful Group in front of ihe entrance of the
Parliament Buildings, Quebec QUEBEC
15
Plains of Abraham
The Plains of Abraham is one of the chief points of interest. Here
was the battlefield where Wolfe fell, and Montcalm fought his last fight.
The plain is the tableland on the crest of the heights, on the north bank of
the St. Lawrence River, which were thought to be too precipitous for an
enemy to climb. The heights were, however, quietly and successfully
scaled, and on 13th September, 1759, the memorable battle was fought
there, which decided the fate of Canada. A tall marble shaft now stands
to mark the spot where Wolfe fell, mortally wounded, and bears the
inscription: "Here died Wolfe victorious." His illustrious rival, Montcalm, also wounded, retreated within the walls to die there. On the plains
where some of the heaviest fighting occurred in the famous battle, are
three Martello towers, dating from 1805, which, while formidably built,
were weakly constructed towards the city, so that in case of capture they
might easily be destroyed. The actual clash between the two armies
only lasted a dozen minutes—so short a time can decide a nation's fate.
The British line was drawn up, not far from the new Franciscan Church,
on the Grand Allee, and the French were forty yards from them, between
them and the city. The field of
the battle is a short and pleasant
walk, or drive, from the hotel, a
little beyond the St. Louis gate on
the road to Spencerwood, the
official residence of the Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of
Quebec, and in olden days the
home of the Governors-General
of Canada. A short distance
off, on the escarpment overhanging the St. Lawrence, is the
path by which the British troops
scaled the cliffs on the night before the battle, and at the foot
of the rocks is Wolfe's Cove, two
miles above which is Sillery, a
place of historical interest, where
Maisonneuve spent his first winter in Canada, and the scene of
the horrible massacre of Christian, Hurons and their missionaries, by savage Iroquois in 1665.
Wolfe's Monument QUEBEC
The Ursuline Convent
The Ursuline Convent is directly connected with this important battle
on the Plains of Abraham, by reason of its containing the remains of
Montcalm, whose body is buried in the Convent, while his skull is kept in
the chaplain's parlor, to which visitors are freely admitted. This, the
oldest convent in Quebec, was founded in 1639, destroyed by fire in 1650,
rebuilt to meet a similar fate in 1686; but the original foundations, and
the walls, of the second building, are still in the third structure. The
convent is a group of massive stone edifices, of irregular design, covering
an area of seven acres. The interior halls and chambers are imposing.
The chapel contains the remains of Montcalm, and what are claimed to be
the following relics:—The body of St. Clement from the Catacombs of
Rome, brought to theUrsulines in 1687; the skull of one of the companions
of St. Ursula, 1675; the skull of St. Justus, 1662; a piece of the Holy Cross,
1657; a portion of the Crown of Thorns, brought from Paris in 1830. It
is open to visitors, who may there see some rare works of art, including
paintings by Vandyke, Ristoul, and Champagny, the property of the Sisters
of the Convent.
The Hotel Dieu
The Hotel Dieu, a convent and a hospital, founded in 1639 by Duchess
D'Arguillon, a niece of Cardinal Richelieu, is the most ancient institution
of its kind in America, and has recently been modernized. In this
historic structure are some famous old pictures, amongst which are:
The Nativity, by Stella, the Virgin and Child (Noel Coypol), Vision of Ste.
Theresa (Guel Monaght), the Descent from the Cross (copy by Plamondon)
etc. In the chapel of the convent is the skull of Jean de Brebceuf, the
great Jesuit missionary, of whose doings Parkman and Charlevoix have
given a most interesting and trustworthy account. The establishment
is open to visitors, on application to the Lady Superior.
Literary Treasures
The libraries of Quebec are rich in literary treasures, and contain
many rare old books which are most interesting to the student of antiquarian lore. The legislative Library in the Parliament Buildings, and
that of Laval University, are the two most pretentious in the city. In
the latter are over 10,000 valuable volumes. The Literary and Historical
Society has also an invaluable collection in the Morrin College, and the
French Society, l'lnstitut Canadien, has a fine Library in the city hall.
These are open to the public. QUEBEC
17
The Basilica and Cardinal's Palace
Facing the historic old market square, which dates back to 1686,
where in olden times stood the public pillory, is the Basilica, the mother
church of Roman Catholicism in North America. Its erection was commenced in 1647, and since its definite opening in 1657, services have been
held in it uninterruptedly, except during the period required for making
repairs necessitated by the disastrous siege of that year. The design of
the chancel is in faithful
imitation of that of St.
Peter's at Rome. On
its walls hangs a rich collection of paintings,many
of them priceless works
of art, which were rescued
from destruction during
the Reign of Terror in
France, when the mob
pillaged churches and
monasteries. Amongst
other paintings is Vandyke's Christ on the
Cross, Plamondon's Ste.
Anne, and the Tomb of
the Saviour, Fleurets'
Christ submitting to the
soldiers,The Holy Family
by Jacques Blanchard,
The    Annunciation    by
Jean   RestOUt,   etc.,   etc. The Basilica, Quebec
Adjoining the Basilica and Laval is the Cardinal's Palace.     In its grand
salon de reception are the Cardinal's throne, and rare gifts from the Pope.
Seminary and Laval University
The Seminary of Quebec was founded in 1663 by Laval, the first
appointed prelate of Canada. The buildings are valued at $1,000,000, and
consist of four large wings five stories high. The institution includes the
Grand and Petit Seminaries, the latter being especially interesting to
Americans from the fact that the officers under Montgomery and Arnold
who were captured during the siege of 1775 were incarcerated in it. The
grand Seminary, known as Laval University, is the chief French-Canadian
university, and the oldest in Canada.    Laval has an excellent museum 18
QUEBEC
and library, and many art treasures in its keeping. In its gallery of
paintings—a miniature Vatican collection, are two Salvator Rosas, three
Teniers, a Rommeneli, a Joseph Vernet, a Puget, two Vandykes, a Perocc
Poussin, and many other masterpieces.
m: ■    ' ■-.-■.' '"
»
■r!i
Market in Quebec—An Attractive Place for Tourists
Chien D'Or
In the northern facade of the post-office is the gilt figure of a dog
gnawing a bone, about which exists a legend, which Kirby has woven into
a charming romance. Under the French regime there stood on the site
now occupied by the post-office, the house and shop of Philibert, a
wealthy merchant, who waged commercial war on the corrupt company
of New France, nicknamed by the farmers "La Fripone." The real head
of this company was Intendant Bigot, whose threats against Philibert
resulted in the latter placing over his door a sculptured tablet, with an
inscription of which the following is a translation:
I am a dog gnawing a bone,
While I gnaw I take my repose,
The time will come though not yet,
When I will bite him who would have bitten me.
Philibert was assassinated, and the prevailing impression was that
it was at the instigation of Bigot. QUEBEC
19
The English Cathedral
The English Cathedral was erected in the first years of the 19th century
by the British Government, and is interesting, not for its architectural
beauty, but for its historic association and for the splendor of its mural
monuments, chancel windows, and elaborate solid silver communion service,—the latter costing $10,000 and was a present from King George III.
The Kent House, at Montmorency Falls
The City's Gates and Walls
The gates which pierce the fortifications are comparatively modern
structures—Kent and St. Louis—the former being named after the Duke
of Kent, grandfather of King Edward, who in 1791-4, was commander
of the British forces in Canada. St. John's, rebuilt in 1867, ^as demolished
in the summer of 1897 to give right of way to the invading electric car.
The last vestige of the original portals—St. Louis, Palace and St. John—
disappeared in 1871, and the structures with which they are replaced,
with Hope (1786) and Prescott (1815) gates, built by the British since
the Conquest have, within recent years, met a similar fate, with the
exception of St. Louis, which was erected in 1879.
The walls of the city, which afford a pleasant promenade, can be
reached by stone steps at either St. Louis or Kent gates or along the
glacis at the Esplanade.    An expanse of tree-fringed verdure extends 20
QUEBEC
from St. Louis gate to the site of St. John's gate. The walk on the walls
can be extended, in one direction to the Citadel, and in the other to where
the St. John's gate once stood.
Church of Notre Dame Des Victoires
This historic little edifice is one of the interesting sights of the Lower
Town, having been partially destroyed by the fire of the Levis batteries
during Wolfe's siege of Quebec in 1759, and subsequently rebuilt on its
old walls. The fete of Notre Dame de la Victoire was established in sacred
commemoration of defeat of the British invaders under General Phipps,
in 1690, to be annually celebrated in the church on October 7th, and
after the shipwreck of the second British invading fleet, fourteen years
later. This the French inhabitants regarded as a miraculous interposition of Providence in their favor, and thus the edifice was given the
name it bears.
Historic Ruins
Over in the valley of the St. Charles, the gaunt ruins of the famed
Chateau Bigot still remain. The lodge in which perished by poison at the
instigation of her fair rival, young Caroline de St. Castin, the beautiful
mistress of the profligate Intendant, still stands in the midst of the forest
labyrinth; but the ruins give only a faint conception of the original
building. The girl was the daughter of a gentleman of Acadia, and had
been induced by Bigot's fair promises to fly from her home only to be held
a prisoner in the  Chateau until her tragic death.    Another of Bigot's
palaces stood within
a stone's throw of
the Canadian Pacific
Railway station, its
solid foundation
wall being utilized
by a brewing company in the erection
of one of its offices.
From Levis, a
magnificent view of
Quebec and its surroundings can be
obtained. The military forts, on the
heights above, from
Ruins of the Chateau Bigot QUEBEC
21
which, during the summer of 1759, the cannon of the English bombarded
the city with shot and shell, until the whole of the Lower Town was a confused mass of ruins, are worth visiting, and so is the Engineer's Camp at St.
Joseph de Levis—magnificently wooded meadows, once the camping ground
of the Royal Engineers, whose name it has continued to bear. An Electric
Railway meets all boats at the ferry, and then proceeds east along the
river bank to Fraser Street, where it begins to climb to the top of the cliff.
Here it turns, and runs back towards the ferry on the higher level. The
view from this point is one of the finest imaginable, for it is possible to
see both up and down the river from one place. Across the river are seen
the villages of Beauport and Montmorency, the beautiful church of the
former lifting its twin spires against the purple mountains; to the right the
heavily wooded end of the island of Orleans; while to the left, the Chateau Frontenac and the massive stone fortress are outlined against the sky.
Another interesting excursion to be made at Levis is round the three
modern forts, built on the heights behind the town. The most easterly,
constructed by the Royal Engineers, commands the approaches up the
river, while the others, built by the Dominion Government, have an
unsurpassed view for forty miles to
the south over a natural glacis.
Isle D'Orleans
A sail down the river to this
beautiful island, where a number of
wealthy Quebecers have summer residences, is one of the attractions which
should not be missed, and an afternoon can be pleasantly spent, by taking steamer immediately after luncheon, and returning to the Chateau
Frontenac in time for dinner.
The Falls of Montmorency
These are situated about seven
miles below Quebec. The drive to
them, a favorite trip with all visitors
—is through an almost continuous
succession of French Canadian farms
and cottages. On the road is
Beauport, a place bombarded by
Wolfe,   and now containing one of
Falls of Montmorency, near Quebec 22
QUEBEC
the principal Canadian hospitals for the insane. The Falls of Montmorency
are over 100 feet higher than those of Niagara, and in former years a
large cone of ice, which was frequently utilized by pleasure parties from
Quebec and other parts of Canada, as a toboggan slide, usually formed at
the foot. At the head of the Falls is Kent House, the residence while in
Quebec of the Duke of Kent, grandfather of King Edward VII. There
are also to be seen the Zoological Gardens, owned by Holt, Renfrew & Co.,
Quebec, which were opened a short time ago. Within the last year or
two they have been considerably enlarged, and can now be looked upon
as containing one of the best collections of Canadian live animals to be
seen anywhere. The latest addition to the latter is the Beaver Colony
where the animals are given every opportunity to enjoy their freedom
in an enclosed valley with a pretty brook running through it. At Montmorency may be seen a succession of rocky ledges which seem to have
been cut out of the solid rock ages ago and forming natural steps about
a mile above the Falls, where the river dashes wildly through a deep
canon, and constitute the grandest features of Montmorency. The tourist
may also go to Montmorency by the Quebec Electric Railway.
The Quebec Golf Club
What will be of special interest to tourists is the knowledge that in
connection with the Chateau Frontenac is the Quebec Golf Club Links.
The most interesting feature of these splendid links is the fact that they
form part of the original battle field of the Plains of Abraham.    From a
Playing Golf on Historical Ground QUEBEC 23
golfing point of view, pure and simple, they absorb one's attention, because the topography being of such a varied nature, renders them eminently fitted for enjoyment of the sport, almost every species of hazard
being present at one point or other of the course. Scenery we admit has
few charms for the golfer, but any one who has traversed this historic
ground cannot fail to be impressed with the remarkable view.
The ruins of Montcalm's old fortifications form some of the hazards,
the old masonry is still visible in various places. The second green being
inside one of the forts of 200 years ago. The Quebec and Montreal links
may be called the pioneers of the Royal and Ancient game on this continent, these clubs being founded in 1874 and 1875 respectively, though
records prove the game was played by individuals some years previous.
Guests of the Chateau Frontenac have only to apply at the office
for permission to play over these links on payment of a small fee.
La Bonne Ste. Anne
The shrine of Ste. Anne de Beaupre, for over 250 years the rendezvous
of devout pilgrims seeking restoration of health, is twenty-one miles from
Quebec, and is reached by the Quebec Electric Railway, which closely
follows the bank of the St. Lawrence, or by steamer in summer. Tradition
relates that in the early part of the seventeenth century some Breton
mariners, who were overtaken by a violent storm while navigating the
St. Lawrence, solemnly vowed to Ste. Anne that, if delivered from the
dangers which encompassed them, they would erect a sanctuary in her
honor on the spot on which they should land. Their prayers being heard,
they built a small wooden chapel in fulfilment of their vows, which has
since become famous. The primitive little church was replaced by a
larger structure in 1660, which was subsequently enlarged; then, after
about a century's existence, it was almost entirely rebuilt in 1787, and
again in 1878, and converted into a chapel—still occupying its original
site near the "sacred spring," whose waters have, it is claimed, miraculous
properties. Across the street, in wide contrast to this unpretentious
building, is the magnificent edifice which although opened for public
worship in 1876, and raised to the dignity of a Basilica by Pope Pius IX.
ten years later, was not entirely completed until 1889. It is a fine
specimen of Corinthian architecture, and is of immense proportions.
A colossal statue of Ste. Anne, of marvelous beauty, surmounts the
facade between twin towers rising to a great height. The interior of the
sacred edifice rivals the most famous cathedrals in the world in beauty
and imposing grandeur, the magnificent paintings and statuary representing different scenes in the life of Christ.     On each side of the entrance 24
QUEBEC
are large pyramids of crutches, and canes, and trusses, and splints left by
former owners as mute testimony to the efficacy of the saint's intervention
on their behalf. Near the altar is another statue of Ste. Anne, resting on
a column of onyx, and in the sanctuary a fragment of a finger-bone of the
saint procured by Laval, the first Bishop of New France; a part of the
saint's wrist, sent by Leo XIII.; and a portion of the rock from the grotto
in which Ste. Anne gave birth to the Virgin Mary, besides many valuable
gifts from distinguished personages, amongst which is a superb chasuble,
Famous Church of Ste. Anne de Beaupre
the work and gift of Anne of Austria, Queen of France and mother of
Louis XIV. The Scala Santa, "holy stair," which the zealous suppliants
ascend upon their knees,is built in imitation of Pilate's Palace at Jerusalem,
each step containing relics of the Holy Land. Over half a million tourists
annually visit this fragment of the old time Palestine, impelled by the
religious ceremonies witnessed there and the costly works of art possessed
by the sanctuary; and the high esteem in which the patron saint is held
is shown by the remarkable increase in the perennial pilgrimages to her
shrine. Formerly the pilgrimages were from the Province of Quebec
only, but now they are from the other provinces of Canada, and from QUEBEC
25
the United States, Europe, and
in fact from all quarters of the
globe. Accommodation is provided for visitors on a large scale.
Six miles away are the beautiful
falls of Ste. Anne, and beyond
them again are the Seven Falls.
Cap Tourmente and Grosse Isle
can be seen from Ste. Anne de
Beaupre.
Lorette
Lorette is another place to
which visitors are fond of driving.
It is an Indian Village on the St.
Charles River, about nine miles
from Quebec, and there are some
beautiful falls in the immediate
neighborhood, differing widely
from the cataract of Montmorency, but equally striking in their
beauty. Here will be found the
remnant of the once powerful
Hurons, who, after the treacherous
massacre of their tribe by the Iroquois, sought refuge near Quebec,
and adopting the religion and language of the early French settlers,
allied themselves with them, in resisting the incursions of the common
enemy. The village was first settled in 1697. The Lorette Chapel,
nearly 200 years old, is of the same model and dimensions as that of the
Santa Casa, from which the image of the Virgin, a copy of that in the
famous sanctuary, was sent to the Indians.
In every direction around Quebec the country affords charming
drives, and at the French-Canadian villages, which occur with more or
less frequency, a stranger will be able to compare the peculiarities of life
amongst a people who, more than any other in America, have preserved
the traditions of their ancestors, with the essentially modern customs and
lines of thought which characterize the rural settlements of other parts
of the continent.
Monument erected to the French and English
Soldiers who fell at Quebec 26
QUEBEC
Down the Gulf
A pleasant trip down the river and Gulf of St. Lawrence is afforded
the visitor to Quebec. Passing Cap Tourmente and Grosse Isle, the
quarantine station for Quebec, and indeed for the entire St. Lawrence
trade, many islands of remarkable scenic beauty dot the river. Murray
Bay, Riviere du Loup, Cacouna and Tadousac, at the mouth of the
Saguenay, are fashionable watering resorts, with good hotel accommodation and excellent bathing facilities. The trip can be extended down the
Gulf to Prince Edward Island and to St. Johns, Newfoundland, Halifax,
N.S., and to New York, Boston and other American ports.
Quebec in Winter
While Quebec is pre-eminently a charming summer resort and a city
of unusual interest at all times, it offers to many, perhaps, its chief
attractions during the winter months in its "pure array of regal ermine,
when the drifted snow envelopes Nature." It is then that the native
population gives itself up very largely to those forms of social and physical
enjoyment which are characteristic of its picturesque life and environment.
Then, too, the atmosphere is at its purest and best and defies
the existence of insomnia, malaria and diseases of the respiratory organs.
Instead of the enervating climate of the South, that makes exertion of
Ladies' Curling Club, Quebec QUEBEC 27
every kind a burden, physical exercise in Quebec, during the season of
frost and snow, is a positive pleasure. The more one walks, or skates, or
drives, or tramps on skis or snow-shoes, the more temptation there is to
repeat the experience. The bracing air of the Canadian winter is the very
elixir of life, ennui and enervation giving way to exhilaration and health.
The lungs expand to the enormous inhalations of oxygen, and the purified
and brightened blood courses freer and more invigoratingly through the
veins. Clad in raiment befitting the climate, with accompaniments of
the beautiful furs that are here so fashionable, discomfort is absolutely
unknown, and luxury and exhilaration are the order of the day. Strangers
who desire to participate therein are warmly welcomed by the different
winter clubs, and quickly initiated into the various forms of local sport.
Skating, on the different rinks, is continuously in progress here during the
winter months. There are both indoor and outdoor rinks, to which guest
tickets of admission may be had by non-residents for the asking, and the
fancy skating daily witnessed here is alone well worth a long journey to see.
The most exciting winter game of Quebec is hockey, which, with
the possible exception of polo, is the fastest known to lovers of athletic
sport. Quebec has two curling rinks and many lovers and excellent
players of the "roarin' " game. Tobogganing down the hills of the Cove
Fields that form part of the historic Plains of Abraham, or at Montmorency Falls, is a favorite amusement with Quebecers and a thrilling
experience for visitors. Sleighing is also a very fashionable amusement
and the roads round about the city are kept in excellent condition. In
the streets hundreds of carioles, queer little sleds peculiar to this quaint
old place, dash along, their jingling bells filling the air with silvery music.
The various snow-shoe clubs contribute largely to the social life and enjoyment in the winter season. The long night tramps to their country rendezvous are often headed by a bugle band, and they present a highly picturesque appearance, tramping in Indian file over the snow, clad in their
multi-colored blanket suits, and bearing torches. Skiing is also a
fashionable source of amusement, and is yearly growing in popular favor.
The healthfulness of the winter climate is one of the attractive
features of Quebec. Dr. Grondin, Professor of the University of Laval,
and one of the leading physicians of the Province, establishes this in a
letter to an inquirer from the United States.    The Doctor writes:
"Dear Sir,—In compliance with your desire to know my opinion on
the influence that our Canadian winters have on health in general and
more especially on certain diseases, I do not hesitate to declare that Quebec
in particular, owing to its altitude, has a pure and remarkable atmosphere, a dry and regular cold, which agrees admirably with those predisposed to consumption.
"Foreign doctors at times send, and rightly so, some of their patients
suffering from pulmonary complaints to a cold climate, where the temperature varies but little, and I have asked myself, why do not the American
doctors send their patients here where the good climate, and the exceptional
beauty of the place, would readily bring about good and beneficial results." 28
QUEBEC
HOW TO GO TO QUEBEC
Quebec is easily reached from all directions. From Montreal, which
may be regarded as the starting point for the lower St. Lawrence, there is a
choice of routes by rail and river. By the Canadian Pacific Railway (from
Place Viger passenger station) it is about four and a half hours' run along
the bank of the St. Lawrence river, through the old French settlements
that in many places are almost as primitive as in the days of Champlain
and Frontenac. The railway runs directly under the walls of the old
fortifications, and yet into the city, which has largely outgrown the area
enclosed within the defences. The Grand Trunk and the Intercolonial
Railways, on the other side of the St. Lawrence, run to Levis directly
opposite Quebec, the river being crossed by steam ferry. During the
season of navigation, the steamers of the Richelieu & Ontario Navigation
Co. ply between Montreal and Quebec. Tourists from the New England
States, who do not 'wish to visit Montreal, can reach the ancient Capital
by way of Sherbrooke, thence via the Quebec Central or Grand Trunk
Railways, or by Dudswell Junction, and thence by Quebec Central to
Levis. Those from the Maritime Provinces reach Levis, either by the
Canadian Pacific Short Line to Megantic, and thence by the Quebec
Central, or by the Intercolonial Railway; and, in summer, the Canadian
Pacific Steamships, from Liverpool and European ports, make Quebec
their Canadian port.
A Quebec Caleche QUEBEC 29
MONTREAL
The Commercial Metropolis  of Canada
The majority of visitors to Quebec do not fail to make a trip to the
commercial metropolis of Canada, Montreal, the largest city in Canada, and
second only to Quebec in historic interest. It is picturesquely situated on
an island in the St. Lawrence River at the head of ocean navigation, and
yet over 600 miles inland, and is the commercial metropolis and the railway
centre of the Dominion. Montreal ranks amongst the most beautiful
cities of the continent, and has very many attractive and historic spots
which cannot fail to interest and delight sightseers. It distinctively
presents all the aspects and elements of metropolitan life, with evidences
of material wealth and prosperity on every hand. Pre-eminently a city
of churches, surpassing Brooklyn itself in this respect; in the midst of the
bustle of the city's commerce are gray sanctuaries and stately cathedrals
which rival the grandest edifices of Europe in splendor and historic interest. The cathedral of St. James, modelled after St. Peter's at Rome, the
old church of Notre Dame with its famous bell which is classed amongst
the largest in the world, the Jesuit Church and College, Notre Dame
de Lourdes, Bonsecours Church, dating from 1659, the English Cathedral,
St. James (Methodist), and Erskine, St. Paul's and St. Andrew's (Presbyterian) are worth seeing. Mount Royal, from which the city takes its
name, affords a delightful drive (or it can be ascended by incline railway),
and from its summit is seen the grandest panorama of the picturesque
valley of the St. Lawrence that is obtainable. Beyond the Belceil peaks
eastward the Green Mountains of Vermont can be distinguished on clear
days; to the south are the Adirondacks; and along the north runs the
Laurentian range, oldest of the world's mountains. Other points of
interest are the Victoria Bridge, spanning the St. Lawrence, McGill University, Royal Victoria College for Women, Windsor Station and offices
of the Canadian Pacific Railway Co., Nelson Monument, Champ de Mars
(the military parade ground of the early days), the Maisonneuve Monument on Place d'Armes, the immense C.P.R. Angus shops at the east end,
Dominion Square, Royal Victoria Hospital, Place d'Armes, Chateau de
Ramezay, Bonsecours Market on market days, the Place Viger Hotel and
passenger station of the Canadian Pacific Railway, a magnificent modern
structure recently erected opposite Place Viger, from which trains leave
for and arrive from Quebec, and which is also convenient to the docks
of the lake and ocean steamers. A run down the Lachine Rapids is an
enjoyable experience and a visit to the curious old  Indian village of ■mrmm QUEBEC
31
Caughnawaga, opposite Lachine, the home of the remnant of a once powerful nation, St. Helen's Island, Back River, Bout de ITsle, Isle Gros Bois,
Westmount, the fashionable suburb, or any of the numerous city parks
and public buildings is worth making. Montreal has an admirable
electric street car system, and its cab service is noted for its excellence and
cheapness.
OTTAWA
The Capital of Canada
Visitors to Quebec, via Montreal, can easily reach Ottawa, the Capital
of the Dominion, by the Canadian Pacific or other railways, or by river in
summer, the railway run being three hours from the commercial metropolis
by the C.P.R. short line, which runs up the Ontario bank of the Ottawa
Parliament Buildings, Ottawa
river. The site of Ottawa for picturesque grandeur, it has been stated,
is only second to that of Quebec. It is located on the Ottawa river, where
the Rideau and Gatineau join, and where the waters of the first named
hurl themselves over the Chaudiere Falls into a seething cauldron below.
But it is the national buildings which are the chief pride of Ottawa, and
the principal objects of interest to tourists. They stand out boldly on
Parliament Hill, overlooking the Ottawa, in all the beauty of seemingly
varied architecture.    They were erected at a cost of about $5,000,000, the 32
QUEBEC
corner stone being laid in 1860 by the Prince of Wales now King Edward
VII. The octagonal shaped library in the rear of the Houses of Parliament,
is one of the most complete in the world, and contains 300,000 volumes
some of which are exceedingly rare. Other objects of interest are Rideau
Hall, the home of the Governor-General of Canada, Rideau Canal, connecting the Ottawa with Lake Ontario at Kingston, built in 1827, for
military purposes, the Fisheries Exhibit, National Art Gallery, Geological
Museum, the Lover's Walk, Central Experimental Farm, Rockliffe and
Major Hill Parks, the city buildings, extensive saw-mills, and the timber
slides by which the square timber from the Upper Ottawa passes down
without damage into the navigable waters below. To go down these
slides, as many visitors do, is an exciting and exhilarating experience.
Opposite Ottawa is the French city of Hull, and combined they have a
population of about 90,000.
There are many pleasant resorts near Ottawa, and the Gatineau
Valley, reached by rail, is a delightful summering place for the pleasure
and health seeker, the angler and the sportsman in quest of large and
small game.
QUEBEC  CAB  TARIFF
BY THE DRIVE
Time allowed, Fifteen Minutes, I     Time allowed, Thirty Minutes,
For one or two persons   $0.25 For one or two persons    $0.40
For three or four persons 40      | For three or four persons 60
BY THE HOUR
For First Hour, I     For Every Subsequent Hour,
For one or two persons   $0.75 For one or two persons    . .   $0.60
For three or four persons....     1.00      | For three or four persons 75
TWO HORSE VEHICLES
Time allowed, Thirty Minutes,
For one or two persons    SO. 65
For three or four persons 75
BY THE HOUR
For one or two persons   $1.00      I     For three or four persons   $1.25
BAGGAGE
For each trunk or box carried in any such vehicle, 10c, but no charge shall be made
for travelling bags, valises, boxes, or parcels, which passengers can carry by hand.
For drives between midnight and four o'clock in the morning, fifty per cent, shall
be added to the tariff rates above mentioned.
Children under five years of age, and sitting on their parent's or guardian's lap, will
be admitted free of charge, and shall not be held as being included in the word persons
in the said tariff.
The word drive, whenever it occurs in the said tariff, shall be held to admit stoppages
within the time fixed for said drives.
Time allowed, Fifteen Minutes,
For one or two persons    $0.50
For three or four persons 65
Cape Diamond
Citadel
Parliament Bldg.
Chateau Frontenac
Canadian Pacific Hotel System
Basilica
Laval University
Lower Town
and Canadian Pacific St
Canadian Pacific Docks
\
3
\
5
I
6
7
\
8
\
m,  I        I
I Jiii
Point Levis
QUEBEC FROM POINT LEVIS
R.M.S.S
Empress of Britain
Canadian Pacific Atlant ic Service n
»
ufrltcattons
ISSUED BY THE
CANADIAN
PACIFIC
RAILWAY
COMPANY
"THE HIGHWAY TO THE ORIENT"
"SUMMER TOURS"
"QUEBEC"
"FISHING AND SHOOTING"
"OPEN SEASONS FOR FISH AND GAME"
"MONTREAL"
"ST. ANDREWS-BY-THE-SEA"
"WESTWARD TO THE FAR EAST"
"ANNOTATED TIME TABLES"
"THE CHALLENGE OF THE MOUNTAINS"
"THE GLACIERS"
"AROUND THE WORLD"
"HAND-BOOK AND TIME-TABLE"
"MUSKOKA" and  "TOURIST CAR"
C. B. FOSTER,
District Passenger Agent,
67 Yonge St., Toronto.
F. R. PERRY,
District Passenger Agent,
362 Washington Street, Boston.
W. B. HOWARD,
District Passenger Agent,
St. John, N.B.
A. C. SHAW,
General Agent, Passenger Dept.,
232 South Clark St., Chicago, 111.
E. J. COYLE,
Assistant General Passenger Agent,
Vancouver, B.C.
E. V. SKINNER,
Assistant Traffic Manager,
458 Broadway, N.Y.
W.R.CALLAWAY,
General Passenger Agent Soo Line,
Minneapolis.
L. M. HARMSEN,
City Ticket Agent,
Soo Line, St. Paul, Minn.
WM. STITT,
Gen'l Pass. Agent, Eastern Lines,
Montreal.
C. E. E. USSHER, ;
Assistant Passenger Traffic Manager,
Western Lines,
Winnipeg.
ALLAN CAMERON,
General Traffic Agent,
62-65 Charing Cross, S.W., and 67-68
King William St., E.C., London,Eng.;
24 James St., Liverpool;   67 St. Vincent St., Glasgow.
F. W. HUNTINGTON,
General Agent, Passenger Dept.,
629-631 Chestnut St., Philadelphia.
A. W. ROBSON,
Passenger and Ticket Agent,
127 E. Baltimore St., Baltimore.
E. P. ALLEN,
City Passenger Agent,
Bond Bldg.,14th St.& New York Ave.»
Washington, D.C.
E. E. PENN,
General Agent, Passenger Dept.,
77 Ellis St., James Flood Building,
„   * ™~« San Francisco.
M. ADSON,
General Passenger Agent,
D. S.S. & A. Ry.,
Duluth, Minn.
D. W. CRADDOCK,
General Traffic Agent, China, etc.,
A. R. OWEN, Hong Kong
General Traffic Agent, Japan, etc.,
Yokohama.
c. e. Mcpherson,
GenT Passr. Agent, Western Lines,
Winnipeg.
ROBERT KERR,
Passenger Traffic Manager,
Montreal.
CANADA'S  FAMOUS   SEASIDE   RESORT
"ST. ANDREW'S BY THE SEA, N.B."
Excellent Sea Bathing, Magnificent Drives, Splendid Boating.
Write, Manager, The Algonquin Hotel, Canadian Pacific Railway
Hotel System, St. Andrews, N.B.
I

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