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Ancient city of Quebec Canadian Pacific Railway Company 1907

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Array /foj Canadian Pacific Railway Co.
ATLANTIC SERVICE
Between LIVERPOOL   and QUEBEC
.
■**<;"■■■■■■ •
m
5S        '      i
R. M. S. Empress of Ireland and R. M. S. Empress
of Britain
2   Days   on  the   sheltered   waters   of the  St.
Lawrence  River.     Less than   4 days   at  sea
Speaking of these ships at the time of their completion in the summer
of J 906 a Marine Journal stated "From stem to stern and from keel to
truck, these ships are the last word in shipbuilding*"
For tull particulars apply to any Agent of the Company in the United
States or Canada, or to
GEO.  McL.   BROWN,
General  Passenger   Jigent,
Canadian Pacific Ry.  Atlantic S.S. Lines,  Montreal. ^T7
<r*-^
bO<C^O<Z>)0<r>)0<Z>00<r=>00<^^^
The   Ancient   City
NINETEENTH     EDITION
PUBLISHED      BY     THE
CANADIAN    PACIFIC    RAILWAY  COMPANY
Copyright, 1894, by the Chateau Frontenac Co.
I
E. '07
o<cz>oo<cr>oo<^^oo<ri>oo<=r>oo<^ I iF
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=£TO.
The   Ancient    City
(3=
QUEBEC
r
"*0 THE stranger within its gates Quebec wields a charm
and a spell. So near to the great centres of American
life, yet it belongs to other times, and has preserved
that uniqueness which makes it the most interesting city
on this side of the Atlantic. What constitutes the charm
of this old capital of Canada? Is it the story of the great
struggle of nations for supremacy, or the glamour
of romance connected with the daring and dashing adventurers who came from the
brilliant Court of France where La Pompadour wielded so potent a sway ?
Certain it is, the charm is there; the
charm of dead centuries; the charm and
flavor of imperishable deeds and the
glory of immortal actions.
But there is another subtle- charm, and it is the setting of the
old fortress city. What a panorama on all sides! Wherever
the eye rests there is a picture, and such beauty of perspective,
especially in the broad sweep of the mighty St. Lawrence seaward, as leaves a lasting impression. Yes, Quebec is quaint,
and full of years and honours, but she holds that within her old
walls which draws tourists from all quarters, who, going
hence, are loud in praise of the venerable city enthroned
upon Cape Diamond.
Historically, it stands pre-eminent. Here the germ of
European civilization was planted in this new northern
land, and the two greatest of old-world monarchies battled
for half a continent. Here mediaeval ideas of fortification
and defence may be seen; here the bold, fortress-crowned
rock, and the majestic river, with tribute of the whole western world at its feet,show Nature in her most wonderful mood QUEBEC
It is of Quebec that Charles Dickens, writing of his visit sixty years ago,
said: "The impression made upon the visitor by this Gibraltar of America,
its giddy heights, its citadel suspended, as it were, in air; its picturesque
steep streets and frowning gateways; and the splendid views which burst upon
the eye at every turn is at once unique and lasting. It is a place not to be
forgotten." Henry Ward Beecher, too, was greatly impressed with the city,
for he wrote:    "Curious old Quebec—of all cities on the continent of America—
Part of the Old City Walls, Quebec.
the quaintest. It is a populated cliff. It is a mighty rock, scarped and
graded. * * * Here is a small bit of media? val Europe perched upon a rock,
and dried for keeping—a curiosity that has not its equal in its kind on this side
of the ocean. Strolling in Lower Town one might fancy himself in Amiens or
Dieppe, and along the Grand Allee, running right across the plains of Abraham
you might be in Brussels or Paris, only that Clifton Terrace seems to recall
Kensington. "Dear delightful old Quebec, with her gray walls and shining tin
roofs; her precipitous, headlong streets and sleepy squares and esplanades; her QUEBEC
narrow alleys and peaceful convents; her harmless antique cannon on the
parapets and her sweet toned bells in the spires; her towering chateau on the
heights and her long, low, queer smelling warehouses in the lower town; her
spick and span caleches and her dingy trolley cars; her sprinkling of soldiers
and sailors with Scotch accent and Irish brogue and cockney twang on a
background of petite bourgeoise speaking the quaintest of French dialects;
her memories of an adventurous glittering past and her placid contentment
with the tranquil grayness of the present; her glorious daylight outlook over
the vale of the St. Charles, the level shore of Montmorenci, the green He
d'Orleans dividing the shining reaches of the broad St. Lawrence, and the blue
Laurentian mountains rolling far to the eastward, and at night the dark bulk
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The Chateau Frontenac from Lower Town, Quebec
of the citadel outlined against the starry blue, and far below the huddled housetops, the silent wharves, the lights of the great warships swinging with the
tide, the intermittent ferryboats plying to and fro, the twinkling lamps of
Levis rising along the dim southern shore and reflected on the lapsing, curling
seaward sliding waves of the great river! What city of the new world keeps
so much of the charm of the old?"
The City of Quebec is such a convenient resting place between Montreal
and the several points of interest on the Lower St. Lawrence, and is of itself
so interesting, and so unlike other cities of the continent, that very few making
the tour of the St. Lawrence pass its memorable walls, without spending a
few days within them.    They desire to see where Cartier, the Columbus of the 6
QUEBEC
North, first landed; where Champlain founded the first French colony; where
Wolfe fell, and Montcalm received his death wound; and where Montgomery,
the American general, was killed, while besieging the city on 31st December,
1775. The streets of Quebec are redolent of the religious and military history
of early Canada, and more historic memories linger about this ancient stronghold, than round any other city on the continent. The "Break Neck Steps"
leading from Mountain Hill to Little Champlain Street (once a leading thoroughfare), although demolished and replaced by a modern structure, will
yet strike the visitor as well deserving their name, and in that portion of the
Break Neck Stairs,
Sous le Cap Street
Two Far-Famed Streets in Quebec
city called "Sous le Cap," he will see a great contrast to corresponding portions
of any American city he is acquainted with. Every spot, now dismissed
in a sentence, was the centre of events which seemed, to the actors of them,
to be fraught with far-reaching consequences, as indeed many of them were.
It is three hundred and seventy-one years since Jacques Cartier anchored
off what was then the Indian village of Stadacona, and, of course, claimed
the rest of it all, whatever it might prove to be, for the King of France. He
made no permanent settlement here, but in 1549, the Sieur de Roberval spent QUEBEC
one winter with a small colony he had brought out, and then retired. In 1608
Champlain arrived, and succeeded in establishing the French possession of the
country, and commenced to provide material for history. His romantic reign,
as practical King of the St. Lawrence, and the eventful times of his French
successors, have been so frequently, and so well described by Parkman,
Kingsford, Stewart, Le Moine, Bourinot, Chambers and Harper that it is
not necessary to say any more of them here. Quebec has seen more of war,
probably, than any other place on the continent.
The mere sight of the city recalls to memory the long succession of
thrilling historical events, in which many nations were deeply interested. The
French, the English, the Americans, and the aboriginal Indians, have all
The Famous Chateau Frontenac
played their parts in the stirring drama, whose scenes were laid around the
fortress-crowned rock; and the final struggle for Canada, between the French
and English, which closed on the heights of Abraham, saw the end of France
in the northern half of the continent, and commenced the regime which was
inevitably destined to result in the self-governing liberty which Canada now
enjoys.
Quebec's Famous Hotel and its matchless situation.
The Chateau Frontenac, the favourite resort of tourists, is a magnificent fire-proof hotel, operated by the Canadian Pacific Railway Company,
and stands at the eastern end of a splendid esplanade known as Dufferin
Terrace, just below the King's Bastion of the Citadel, commanding delightful 8
QUEBEC
views of the St. Lawrence as far as the eye can reach, down past the Isle
d'Orleans, across to Levis and beyond, up stream to Sillery, and to the left, the
country along the beautiful valley of the St. Charles River. The grandeur
of the scenery is matchless in diversity and charming in effect. No finer site
for such a structure could be found on the continent, and it would not be easy
to combine the advantages it possesses, in any other place. This elegant hotel,
on which over $1,000,000 has been judiciously expended, is erected on a historic spot of more than ordinary interest—the site of the old Chateau St. Louis,
so famous in Canadian
history, and once the viceregal residence of the Governors of Canada, both
before and after the conquest. "A massive, shapely
edifice is this grand hotel
on Dufferin Terrace,"
writes the well-known
authoress, Faith Fenton;
"a veritable old-time chateau, whose curves and
cupolas, turrets and
towers, even whose tones,
of grey stone and dull
brick, harmonize well with
the sober, quaint, architecture of our dear, old
Fortress City. Chateau Frontenac has been
planned with a strong
sense of the fitness of
things. In exterior it
blends with its surroundings; it is part of the
wondrous picturesqueness. The interior, magnificent outlook and hotel luxury
are so commingled that neither seems to have been sacrificed to the other.
The architect, Mr. Bruce Price, must have had a cunning brain to have thus
devised this quaintly shaped hotel, and so mapped out its interior that all
the offices and service rooms, even the main entrance hall, with its pillared
gateway, look out upon the inner curve, leaving every bit of the outer circle
that faces the magnificent stretch of river and sky and far off hills, to be
devoted to guest rooms.    It was clever and difficult planning; it required an
The Gateway into the Courtyard—Chateau Frontenac QUEBEC
9
equally clever and difficult furnishing, for this splendid edifice possesses as
manv interior curves and corners as outer ones. It is delightfully unexpected
in its ways. Rooms that are bow-shaped, crescent-shaped, circular; rooms
that are acute-angled, obtuse-angled, triagonal, sexagonal—everything except
right-angled. And then the stairways—they are everywhere, and equally
pretty and unique in effect. Every corner that one peeps into along these
wide, curving corridors holds an inviting little stairway—bright and soft,
with rich carpeting and oak bannisters—that tempts one to ascend or descend just to find where it leads. Ascending the main stairway, which leads
by easy turns from the vestibule, we come upon one of the most artistic effects
in the building, for, standing in the broad corridor, beautiful with its white
panellings, oak floor, and Axminster, we look between large, creamy,
daintily-moulded pillars into the long drawing-room, and beyond it into the
ladies' pavilion. It brings a suggestion of the Renaissance, and the white
and gold days of Louis Quinze. The ladies' drawing-room is delightful. It
is perfectly round, of course, with those fine square carven pillars forming
the entrance way, and a central round pillar supporting the graceful spray
of lights.
In this grand hotel, which is now being enlarged, are many suites, some
of them containing as many as eight rooms and of one the following description
is given: "Two
dainty bedrooms
and two equally
dainty bathrooms, lead from
either end of a
bow-shape d
boudoir, whose
curve is one unbroken line of
beautiful windows, creamy
panellings,
tinted walls and
ceiling, deep
window seats—
all   these   the
Entrance to the Chateau Frontenac
room
but one sees
them not; they
are  as  nothing 10
QUEBEC
'  1 \
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s]
1     1
:; v;
P:M
i
'     'm^R: ±M
The Courtyard,
Chateau Frontenac
stering in each room.
"It is one of the
features of Chateau
Frontenac that, from
lowest to topmost story
everything is of the best
It is equally a feature that
the fourth, fifth and sixth
stories are more desirable
than the lower ones, for
the higher one climbs, the
wider the panorama of
river and sky that unrolls
to one's view.
Dufferin Terrace.
The pride and glory
of Quebec is Dufferin
Terrace, an unrivalled
promenade   and   public
compared to the
great curve of
radiance that
shines and
sparkles from
this splendid
bow of light
The furniture is chiefly
oak. The bed-
r o o m furnishings are much
alike throughout
—h a n d s o m e
brass bedsteads,
oak furniture,
and cosy uphol-
A Corner in the Courtyard, Chateau Frontenac QUEBEC
11
rendezvous. From it, or better, from any of the windows in the Chateau
Frontenac, which stands at its eastern limit and at the base of the
Citadel, a view, unsurpassed for beauty and grandeur, bursts upon the
beholder. Elevated 200 feet above the St. Lawrence, which here contracts its
high banks until but a mile separates them, the terrace is a point of vantage
from which to drink in the feast of scenic splendor which is spread out before
one.    There is the mighty river—on whose waters float craft of every descrip-
The Famous Dufferin Terrace
tion, from the huge ocean liner to the primitive canoe of the Indians; across the
water is Levis, on whose crowning cliffs, rising higher even than those of
Quebec, are three immense forts erected by the British Government at a cost
approaching $1,000,000; down the stream is the beautiful Isle d'Orleans—
the Isle of Bacchus of Jacques Cartier, and at a later time known as Sorcerer's
Island, for in the fire-fly lights that danced over its swamps the native Indians
and the early French settlers saw the work of His Satanic Majesty and his
uncanny followers. Farther away is Cap Tourmente, and along the shores,
are the quaint villages of the habitants and the narrow stripped farms which 12
QUEBEC
excite the surprise and curiosity of the traveller. To the left the St. Charles
gracefully sweeps and blends its waters with the greater stream. Forest
and river and mountain and cultivated broad acres combine to make gorgeous
landscape, and in the rear tower the Laurentian Hills, whose purpled crests
lose themselves in the fleecy clouds. At one's feet are the bustling Lower Town
and the ships in port, and above is the frowning citadel whose hoary walls
environ Quebec with a glamour of romance and renown.
The broad promenade is fully a quarter of a mile long, and erected on it
are five handsome kiosks, to which the names of a Plessis, Frontenac, Lome and
Louise, Dufferin, and Victoria, have been given, besides another for the use of
bands of music, which at times are those belonging to British and French
warships visiting the port. At the further end a succession of small stairways
lead to another promenade along the cliff and around the base of the walls of
the Citadel to connect the Terrace with the Cove Fields,the extended promenade having a total distance of nearly 4,000 ft. On these fields, where the old
French earthworks still remain, are the finest natural golf links in America.
Every foot of land here is historic ground; the very air breathes of deeds
of valour and military prowess, which even the peaceful aspect of the present,
or the hum and bustle of every day business nearby, fail to dispel. For here
the Kings of old France sent their men and treasure to build up a New France,
on this side of the Atlantic, where these gallant adventurers lived and plotted
and fought, and wrested countless leagues of land from the savages. Looking
down from the Terrace front, the narrow street bearing the name of the
founder of Quebec, is seen, and its long length followed, to the foot of the
Citadel cliff, just beyond which is the narrow pass where Montgomery fell,
mortally wounded, while heroically leading his men, in a rash and daring
attack on the city. Almost
directly under the northern
end of the Terrace, where
the cliff stands back farther
from the river and the streets
are huddled closer together,
is the historic Church of
Notre Dame des Victoires.
A little to the south is the
Champlain market hall, and
very near its site the first
building in Quebec, which included a fort, a residence and
stores, was erected in 1608
by    the    adventurous    and
Champlain Monument, on Dufferin Terrace QUEBEC
13
chivalrous Champlain, whose memory is perpetuated in a magnificent statue
on the Terrace. Here was the first clearing made; the next was that
upon a portion of which the Ghateau Frontenac now stands, where Champlain
erected the Chateau St. Louis, which played so prominent a part
in Canadian history; at a later era being the castle from which the
French Governors exercised undisputed sovereignty from the mouth
of the Mississippi to the great inland lakes of Canada, and along the
shores of the St. Lawrence and its Gulf. Its cellar still remains under the
wooden covering of the present Dufferin Terrace, immediately adjoining the
Parliament Buildings, Quebec
Chateau Frontenac. In the rear of the Chateau St. Louis was the area of the
fort now covered by the Place d'Armes and a part of the hotel, which was
frequently attacked by the intrepid and ferocious Iroquois, who having overthrown the outposts, more than once threatened the Fort itself. Just beyond
are the high-peaked Commissariat building of the Imperial Government, the
Kent House where resided King Edward's grandfather when commandant
of the Imperial forces in Canada, the head-quarters of Montcalm, and the
place where the gallant soldier died; the old building having been replaced by
a modern structure now occupied as a livery stable and numbered 45 and 47
St. Louis Street. Across the Place d'Armes is the English Cathedral, constructed soon after the British occupation, by the Royal Engineers. 14
QUEBEC
The Citadel
The Citadel occupies the most commanding position in Quebec, overlooking the St. Lawrence and the country round, and having a clear range for
its guns in every direction. It stands 303 feet above the river, and at one
time was considered impregnable, so much so, that Quebec has been sometimes
called the Gibraltar of America. Though still a fortress, its principal use is as
a barrack, and in it are kept large military stores. Access is gained to the
trenches by the Chain gate, and to the Citadel by the Dalhousie, named after
a former Governor. The Citadel is about ten minutes' walk from the Chateau
Frontenac.
The Citadel, Quebec
The Governor's Garden.
The Governor's Garden, is a public park a little in the rear of the Dufferin
Terrace, and between the Chateau Frontenac and the Citadel. It is a pretty
little retreat, and in it is a dual-faced stone column to Wolfe and Montcalm,
erected in 1827 and 1828, in joint honor of the illustrious generals, to whom,
in the words of the inscription, "Valour gave a common death, history a common fame, and posterity a common monument." QUEBEC
15
Plains of Abraham
The Plains of Abraham is one of the chief points of interest. Here was
the battlefield where Wolfe fell, and Montcalm fought his last fight. The
plain is the tableland on the crest of the heights, on the north bank of the St.
Lawrence River, which were thought to be too precipitous for an enemy to
climb. The heights were, however, quietly and successfully scaled, and on
13th September, 1759, the memorable battle was fought there, which decided
the fate of Canada. A tall marble shaft now stands to mark the spot where
Wolfe fell, mortally wounded, and bears the inscription: "Here died Wolfe
victorious." His illustrious rival, Montcalm, also wounded, retreated within
the walls to die there. On the plains, where some of the heaviest fighting occurred in the famous battle, are three Martello towers, dating from 1805,
which, while formidably built, were weakly constructed towards the city, so
that in case of capture they might easily be destroyed. The actual clash between the two armies only lasted a dozen minutes—so short a time can decide
a nation's fate. The British line
was drawn up, not far from the
new Franciscan Church, on the
Grand Allee, and the French were
about forty yards from them, between them and the city. The field
of the battle is a short and pleasant
walk, or drive, from the hotel, a
little beyond the St. Louis gate on
the road to Spencerwood, the
official residence of the Lieut-
Governor of the Province of
Quebec, and in olden days the
home of the Governors-General of
Canada. A short distance off, on the
escarpment overhanging the St.
Lawrence, is the path by which the
British troops scaled the cliffs on
the night before the battle, and at
the foot of the rocks is Wolfe's Cove,
two miles above which is Sillery, a
place of historical interest, where
Maisonneuve spent his first winter
in Canada, and the scene of the hor=
rible massacre of Christian Hurons
and their  missionaries, by  savage      . n     ., ,  ~       .   ,       , , , ,
t inntf A Beautiful   Uroup in front or the entrance  of the
IroqUOlS in   166o. Parliament Buildings, Quebec 16
QUEBEC
The Ursuline Convent.
The Ursuline Convent is directly connected with this important battle on
the Plains of Abraham, by reason of its containing the remains of Montcalm,
whose body is buried in the Convent, while his skull is kept in the chaplain's
parlor, to which visitors are freely admitted This, the oldest convent in
Quebec, was founded in 1639, destroyed by fire in 1650, rebuilt to meet a
similar fate in 1686; but the original foundations, and the walls, of the second
building, are still in the third structure. The convent is a group of massive
stone edifices, of irregular design, covering an area of seven acres. The interior
halls and chambers are imposing. The chapel contains the remains of Montcalm, and what are claimed to be the following relics. The body of St. Clement
from the Catacombs of Rome, brought to the Ursulines in 1687; the skull
of one of the companions of St. Ursula 1675; the skull of St. Justus, 1662; a
piece of the Holy Cross, 1657; a portion of the Crown of Thorns, brought from
Paris in 1830. It is open to visitors, who may there see some rare works of
art, including paintings by Vandyk, Ristoul, and Champagny, the property of
the Sisters of the Convent.
The Hotel  Dieu.
The Hotel Dieu, a convent
and a hospital, founded in 1639
by Duchess D'Arguillon, a niece of
Cardinal Richelieu, is the most
ancient institution of its kind in
America, and has recently been
modernized. In this historic
structure are some famous old
pictures, amongst which are: The
Nativity, by Stella, the Virgin and
Child (Noel Coypol), Vision of Ste.
Theresa (Guel Monaght), the Descent from the Cross (copy by
Plamondon), etc. In the chapel of
the convent is the skull of Jean de
Brebceuf, the great Jesuit missionary, of whose doings Parkman and
Charlevoix have given a most interesting and trustworthy account.
The establishment is open to
visitors, on application to the Lady
Superior.
Short-Wallick  Monument QUEBEO
17
Literary Treasures.
The libraries~of Quebec are rich in literary treasures, and contain many
rare old books which are most interesting to the student of antiquarian lore.
The legislative Library in the Parliament Buildings, and that of Laval University, are the two most pretentious in the city. In the latter are over 10,000
valuable volumes. The literary and Historical Society has also an invaluable
collection in the Morrin College, and the French Society, l'lnstitut Canadien,
has a fine Library in the city hall.    These are open to the public.
The Basilica and Cardinal's Palace
Facing the historic old market square, which dates back to 1686, where
in olden times stood the public pillory, is the Basilica, the mother church of
Roman Catholicism in North America. Its erection was commenced in 1647,
and since its definite opening in 1657, services have been held in it uninterruptedly, except during the period required for making repairs necessitated by
the disastrous siege of that year. The design of the chancel is in faithful imitation of that of St. Peter's at Rome. On its walls hangs a rich collection of
paintings, many of them priceless works of art, which were rescued from
destruction during the Reign of Terror in France, when the mob pillaged
churches and monasteries. Amongst other paintings is Vandyk's Christ on
the Cross, Plamondon's Ste. Anne, and the Tomb of the Saviour, Fleurets'
Christ submitting to the
Soldiers, The Holy Family
by Jacques Blanchard. The
Annunciation by Jean
Restout, etc., etc. Adjoining
the Basilica and Laval is
the Cardinal's Palace. In
its grand salon de reception
are the Cardinal's throne, and
rare gifts from the Pope.
Seminary and Laval
University.
The Seminary of Quebec
was founded in 16 6 3 by
Laval, the first appointed
prelate of Canada. The
buildings are valued at,
$1,000,000, and   consist   of
The Basilica, Quebec 18
QUEBEC
four large wings five stories high. The institution includes the Grand and
Petit Seminaries, the latter being especially interesting to Americans from the
fact that the officers under Montgomery and Arnold who were captured during
the siege of 1775 were incarcerated in it. The grand Seminary, known as
Laval University, is the chief French-Canadian university, and the oldest in
Canada. Laval has an excellent museum and library, and many art treasures
in its keeping. In its gallery of paintings—a miniature Vatican collection, are
Market in Quebec—An attractive place for tourists
two Salvator Rosas,  three Teniers, a Rommeneli, a Joseph Vernet, a Puget,
two Vandykes, a Perocc Poussin, and many other masterpieces.
Chien D'Or.
In the northern facade of the post-office is the gilt figure of a dog gnawing
a bone, about which exists a legend, which Kirby has woven into a charming
romance. Under the French regime there stood on the site now occupied by
the post-office, the house and shop of Philibert, a wealthy merchant, who
waged commercial war on the corrupt company of New France, nicknamed by QUEBEC
19
the farmers "La Fripone." The real head of this company was Intendant
Bigot, whose threats against Philibert resulted in the latter placing over his
door a sculptured tablet, with an inscription of which the following is a trans
lation:
I am a dog gnawing a bone,
While I gnaw I take my repose,
The time will come, though not yet,
When I will bite him who would have bitten me.
Philibert was assassinated, and the prevailing impression was that it was
at the instigation of Bigot.
The English Cathedral.
The English Cathedral was erected in the first years of the 19th century
by the British Government, and is interesting, not for its architectural beauty,
but for its historic association and for the splendor of its mural monuments,
chancel windows, and elaborate solid silver communion service,—the latter
costing $10,000 and was a present from King George III.
St.   Louis  Gate, Quebec
The City's Gates and Walls.
The gates which pierce the fortifications are comparatively modern
structures—Kent and St. Louis—the former being named after the Duke of
Kent, grandfather of King Edward, who in 1791-4, was commander of the
British forces in Canada. St. John's, rebuilt in 1867, was demolished in the
summer of 1897 to give right of way to the invading electric car. The last
vestige of the original portals—St. Louis, Palace and St. John—disappeared 20
QUEBEC
in 1871, and the structures with which they are replaced, with Hope (1786)
and Prescott (1815) gates, built by the British since the Conquest have,
within recent years, met a similar fate, with the exception of St. Louis, which
was erected in 1879.
The walls of the city, which afford a pleasant promenade, can be
reached by stone steps at either St. Louis or Kent gates or along the
glacis at the Esplanade. An expanse of tree-fringed verdure extends
from St. Louis gate to the site of St. John's gate. The walk on the walls can
be extended, in one direction to the Citadel, and in the other to where the
St. John's gate once stood.
Church of Notre Dame Des Victoires.
This historic little edifice is one of the interesting sights of the Lower
Town, having been partially destroyed by the^fire of the Levis batteries during
Wolfe's siege of Quebec in 1759, and subsequently rebuilt on its old walls. The
fete of Notre Dame de la Victoire was established in sacred commemoration
of defeat of the British invaders under General Phipps, in 1690, to be annually
celebrated in the church on October 7th, and after the shipwreck of the second
British invading fleet, fourteen years later. This the French inhabitants regarded as a miraculous interposition of Providence in their favor, and the
edifice given the name it bears.
Historic Ruins.
Over in the valley of the St. Charles, the gaunt ruins of the famed Chateau
Big®t still remain.   The lodge in which perished by poison at the instigation of
her fair rival,
young Caroline de
St. Cast in, the
beautiful mistress
of the profligate
Intendant, still
stands in the midst
of the forest labyrinth; but the ruins
give only a faint
conception of the
original building.
The girl was the
daughter of a gentleman of Acadia,
and   had been in-
Ruins of the Chateau Bigot duced    by    Bigot's QUEBEC
21
fair promises to fly from her home only to be held a prisoner in the Chateau until
her tragic death. Another of Bigot's palaces stood within a stone's throw of
the Canadian Pacific Railway station, its solid foundation wall being utilized
by a brewing company, in the erection of one of its offices.
From Levis, a magnificent view of Quebec and its surroundings can be
obtained. The military forts, on the heights above, from which, during the
summer of 1759, the cannon of the English bombarded the city with shot
and shell, until the whole of the Lower Town was a confused mass of ruins,
are worth visiting, and so is the Engineer's Camp at St. Joseph de Levis—
magnificently wooded meadows, once the camping ground of the Royal
Engineers, whose name it has continued
to bear. An electric Railway meets
all boats at the ferry, and then proceeds east along the river bank to
Fraser Street, where it begins to climb
to the top of the cliff; here it turns,
and runs back towards the ferry on
the higher level. The view from this
point is one of the finest imaginable,
for it is possible to see both up and
down the river from one place. Across
the river are seen the villages of
Beauport and Montmorency, the
beautiful church of the former lifting
its twin spires against the purple
mountains; to the right the heavily
wooded end of the Island of Orleans;
while to the left, the Chateau Frontenac
and the massive stone fortress are outlined against the sky.
Another interesting excursion to
be made at Levis is round the three
modern forts, built on the heights
behind the town. The most easterly,
constructed by the Royal Engineers,
commands the approaches up the
river, while the others, built by the
Dominion Government, have an unsurpassed view for forty miles to the
south over a natural glacis.
Falls of Montmorency QUEBEC
Isle D'Orleans.
A sail down the river to this beautiful island, where a number of wealthy
Quebecers have summer residences, is one of the attractions which should not
be missed, and an afternoon can be pleasantly spent, by taking steamer immediately after luncheon, and returning to the Chateau Frontenac in time for
dinner.
The Falls of Montmorency.
These are situated about seven miles below Quebec. The drive to them,
a favorite trip with all visitors—is through an almost continuous succession of
French Canadian farms and cottages. On the road is Beauport, a place bombarded by Wolfe, and now containing one of the principal Canadian hospitals
for the insane. The Falls of Montmorency are over 100 feet higher than those
of Niagara, and in former years a large cone of ice, which was frequentlv utilized
by pleasure parties from Quebec and other parts of Canada, as a toboggan slide,
usually formed at the foot. At the head of the Falls is Kent House, the
residence while in Quebec of the Duke of Kent, grandfather of King Edward
VII. There are also to be seen the Zoological Gardens, owned by Holt,
Renfrew & Co., Quebec, which were opened a short time ago. Within the last
year or two they have been considerably enlarged, and can now be looked upon
as containing one of the best collections of Canadian live animals to be seen
anywhere. The latest addition to the latter is the Beaver Colony where the
animals are given every opportunity to enjoy their freedom in an enclosed
valley with a pretty brook running through it.    At Montmorency may be
Playing Golf en Historical' Grcir.df QUEBEC 23
seen a succession of rocky ledges which seem to have been cut out of the solid
rock ages ago and forming natural steps about a mile above the Falls, where
the river dashes wildly through a deep canon, and constitute the grandest
features of Montmorency. The tourist may also go to Montmorency by the
Quebec Electric Railway.
The Quebec Golf Club.
What will be of especial interest to tourists is the knowledge that in connection with the Chateau Frontenac is the Quebec Golf Club Links. The
most interesting feature of these splendid links is the fact that they form part
of the original battle field of the Plains of Abraham. From a golfing point of
view, pure and simple, they absorb one's attention, because the topography
being of such a varied nature, renders them eminently fitted for enjoyment
of the sport, almost every species of hazard being present at one point or
other of the course. Scenery we admit has few charms for the golfer, but
any one who has traversed this historic ground cannot fail to be impressed
with the remarkable view.
The ruins of Montcalm's old fortifications form some of the hazards, the
old masonry is still visible in various places. The second green being inside
one of the forts of 200 years ago. The Quebec and Montreal links may be
called the pioneers of the Royal and Ancient game on this continent, these
clubs being founded in 1874 and 1875 respectively, though records prove the
game was played by individuals some years previous.
Guests of the Chateau Frontenac have only to apply at the office for
permission to play over these links on payment of a small fee.
La Bonne Ste. Anne.
The shrine of Ste. Anne de Beaupre, for over 250 years the rendezvous of
devout pilgrims seeking restoration of health, is twenty-one miles from Quebec,
and is reached by the Quebec Electric Railway, which closely follows the bank
of the St. Lawrence, or by steamer in summer. Tradition relates that in the
early part of the seventeenth century some Breton mariners, who were overtaken by a violent storm while navigating the St. Lawrence, solemnly vowed
to Ste. Anne that, if delivered from the dangers which encompassed them, they
would erect a sanctuary in her honor on the spot on which they should land.
Their prayers being heard,they built a small wooden chapel in fulfilment of their
vows, which has since become famous. The primitive little church was replaced by a larger structure in 1660, which was subsequently enlarged; then,
after about a century's existence, it was almost entirely rebuilt in 1787, and
again in 1878, and converted into a chapel—still occupying its original site
near the "sacred spring," whose waters have, it is claimed, miraculous propre- 24
QUEBEC
ties. Across the street, in wide contrast to this unpretentious building, is the
magnificent edifice which although opened for public worship in 1876, and raised
to the dignity of a Basilica by Pope Pius IX. ten years later, was not entirely
completed until 1889. It is a fine specimen of Corinthian architecture,.and is
of immense proportions. A colossal statue of Ste. Anne, of marvellous beauty,
surmounts the facade between twin towers rising to a great height. The interior of the sacred edifice rivals the most famous cathedrals in the world in
beauty and imposing grandeur, the magnificent paintings and statuary representing different scenes in the life of Christ. On each side of the entrance
are large pyramids of crutches, and canes, and trusses, and splints left by former
owners as mute testimony to the efficacy of the saint's intervention on their
behalf. Near the altar is another statue of Ste. Anne, resting on a column of
onyx, and in the sanctuary a fragment of a finger-bone of the saint procured
Famous Church   of  Ste.   Anne de Beaupre
by Laval, the first Bishop of New France; a part of the saint's wrist, sent by
Leo XIII; and a portion of the rock from the grotto in which Ste. Anne gave
birth to the Virgin Mary, besides many valuable gifts from distinguished personages, amongst which is a superb chasuble, the work and gift of Anne of
Austria, Queen of France and mother of Louis XIV. The Scala Santa, "holy
stair," which the zealous suppliants ascend upon their knees, is built in imitation of Pilate's Palace at Jerusalem, each step containing relics of the Holy
Land. Over half a million tourists annually visit this fragment of the old time
Palestine, impelled by the religious ceremonies witnessed there and the costly
works of art possessed by the sanctuary; and the high esteem in which the
patron saint is held is shown by the remarkable increase in the perennial pilgrimages to her shrine. Formerly the pilgrimages were from the Province
of Quebec^only; but now they are from the other provinces of Canada, and
i QUEBEC
25
from the United States, Europe,
and in fact from all quarters of
the globe. Accommodation is
provided for visitors on a large scale.
Six miles away are the beautiful
falls of Ste. Anne, and beyond
them again are the Seven Falls.
Cap Tourmente and Grosse Isle can
be seen from Ste. Anne de Beaupre.
Lorette.
Lorette is another place to
which visitors are fond of driving.
It is an Indian Village on the St.
Charles River, about nine miles
from Quebec, and there are some
beautiful falls in the immediate
neighborhood, differing widely from
the cataract of Montmorency, but
equally striking in their beauty.
Here will be found the remnant of
the once powerful Hurons, who,
after the treacherous massacre of
their tribe by the Iroquois, sought
refuge near Quebec, and adopting
the religion and language of the
early French settlers, allied themselves with them, in resisting the
incursions   of   the   common enemy
Monument  erected   to the   French   and English
Soldiers who fell at Quebec
The village was first settled in 1697.
The Lorette Chapel, nearly 200 years old, is of the same model and dimensions as that of the Santa Casa, from which the image of the Virgin, a copy
of that in the famous sanctuary, was sent to the Indians.
In every direction around Quebec the country affords charming drives,
and at the French-Canadian villages, which occur with more or less frequency,
a stranger will be able to compare the peculiarities of life amongst a people
who, more than any other in America, have preserved the traditions of their
ancestors, with the essentially modern customs and lines of thought which
characterize the rural settlements of other parts of the continent.
Down the Gulf.
A pleasant trip down the river and Gulf of St. Lawrence is afforded the
visitor to Quebec.    Passing Cap Tourmente and Grosse Isle, the quarantine
\ 26
QUEBEC
station for Quebec, and indeed for the entire St. Lawrence trade, many
islands of remarkable scenic beauty dot the river. Murray Bay, Riviere
du Loup, Cacouna and Tadousac, at the mouth of the Saguenay, are fashionable
watering resorts, with good hotel accomodation and excellent bathing facilities.
The trip can be extended down the Gulf to Prince Edward Island and to St.
John's, Newfoundland, Halifax, N. S., and to New York, Boston and other
American ports.
Quebec in Winter.
While Quebec is pre-eminently a charming summer resort and a city of
unusual interest at all times, it offers to many, perhaps, its chief attractions
during the winter months in its "pure array of regal ermine, when the drifted
snow envelopes Nature." It is then that the native population gives itself up
very largely to those forms of social and physical enjoyment which are characteristic of its picturesque life and environment. Then too, the atmosphere is
at its purest and best and defies the existence of insomnia, malaria and diseases
of the respiratory organs. Instead of the enervating climate of the South,
that makes exertion of every kind a burden, physical exercise in Quebec,
during the season of frost and snow, is a positive pleasure. The more one
walks, or skates, or drives, or tramps on skis, or snow-shoes, the more temptation there is to repeat the experience. The bracing air of the Canadian winter
is the very elixir of life, ennui and enervation giving way to exhilaration and
health. The lungs expand to the enormous inhalations of oxygen, and the
purified and brightened blood courses freer and more invigoratingly through
the veins. Clad in raiment befitting the climate, with accompaniments of
the beautiful furs that are here so fashionable, discomfort is absolutely unknown, and luxury and exhilaration are the order of the day. Strangers who
desire to participate therein are warmly welcomed by the different winter
clubs, and quickly initiated into the various forms of local sport.    Skating, on
the different rinks, is continuously in progress here during
the winter months. There are
both indoor and outdoor rinks,
to which guest tickets of
admission may be had by nonresidents for the asking, and the
fancy skating daily witnessed
here is alone well worth a long
journey to see.
The   most   exciting winter
Ladies' Curling Club, Quebec game     of     Quebec     is    hockey, QUEBEC 27
which, with the possible exception of polo, is the fastest known to lovers of
athletic sport. Quebec has two curling rinks and many lovers and excellent
players of the 'roarin' game. Tobogganing down the hills of the Cove Fields
that form part of the historic Plains of Abraham, or at Montmorency Falls,
is a favorite amusement with Quebecers, and a thrilling experience for
visitors. Sleighing is also a very fashionable amusement and the roads round
about the city are kept in excellent condition. In the streets hundreds of
carioles, queer little sleds peculiar to this quaint old place, dash along, their
jingling bells filling the air with silvery music. The various snow-shoe clubs
contribute largely to the social life and enjoyment in the winter season.
The long night tramps to their country rendezvous, are often headed by a
bugle band, and they present a highly picturesque appearance, tramping in
Indian file over the snow, clad in their multi-colored blanket suits, and
bearing torches. Skiing is also a fashionable source of amusement, and is
yearly growing in popular favor.
The healthfullness of the winter climate is one of the attractive features
of Quebec. Dr. Grondin, Professor of the University of Laval, and one of the
leading physicians of the Province, establishes this in a letter to an enquirer
from the United States.    The Doctor writes:
"Dear Sir,—In compliance with your desire to know my opinion on the
influence that our Canadian winters have on health in general and more especially on certain diseases, I do not hesitate to declare that Quebec in particular,
owing to its altitude, has a pure and remarkable atmosphere, a dry and regular cold, which agrees admirably with those predisposed to consumption.
"Foreign doctors at times send, and rightly so, some of their patients
suffering from pulmonary complaints to a cold climate,where the temperature
varies but little, and I have asked myself, why do not the American doctors
send their subjects here where the good climate, and the exceptional beauty
of the place, would readily bring about good and beneficial results. HOW TO CO TO QUEBEC
Quebec is easily reached from all directions. From Montreal, which may
be regarded as the starting point for the lower St. Lawrence, there is a choice
of routes by rail and river. By the Canadian Pacific Railway (from Place
Viger passenger station), it is about four-and a half hours' run along the bank
of the St. Lawrence river, through the old French settlements that in many
places, are almost as primitive as in the days of Champlain and Frontenac.
The railway runs directly under the walls of the old fortifications, and yet into
the city, which has largely outgrown the area enclosed within the defences.
The Grand Trunk and the Intercolonial Railways, on the other side of the St.
Lawrence, run to Levis directly opposite Quebec, the river being crossed by
steam ferry. During the season of navigation, the steamers of the Richelieu &
Ontario Navigation Co. ply between Montreal and Quebec. Tourists from the
New England States, who do not wish to visit Montreal, can reach the ancient
Capital by way of Sherbrooke, thence via the Quebec Central or Grand Trunk
Railways, or by Dudswell Junction, and thence by Quebec Central to Levis.
Those from the Maritime Provinces reach Levis, either by the Canadian Pacific
Short Line to Megantic, and thence by the Quebec Central, or by the Intercolonial Railway; and, in summer, the Canadian Pacific Steamships, from
Liverpool and European ports, make Quebec their Canadian port.
A Quebec Caleche MONTREAL
The Commercial Metropolis of Canada.
The majority of visitors to Quebec do not fail to make a trip to the commercial metropolis of Canada, Montreal, the largest city in Canada, and second
only to Quebec in historic interest. It is picturesquely situated on an island
in the St. Lawrence River at the head of ocean navigation, and yet over
600 miles inland, and is the commercial metropolis and the railway centre of the
Dominion. Montreal ranks amongst the most beautiful cities of the continent, and has very many attractive and historic spots which cannot fail to
interest and delight sightseers. It distinctively presents all the aspects and
elements of metropolitan life, with evidences of material, wealth and pros-
,,,;j  j  ^;
.&*&
•.*»n»
Windsor Street Station, Montreal
perity on every hand. Pre-eminently a city of churches, surpassing Brooklyn itself in this respect, in the midst of the bustle of the city's commerce
are gray sanctuaries and stately cathedrals which rival the grandest edifices of
Europe in splendor and historic interest. The cathedral of St. James, modelled
after St. Peter's at Rome, the old church of Notre Dame with its famous bell
which is classed amongst the largest in the world, the Jesuit Church and College, Notre Dame deLourdes, Bonsecours Church, dating from 1659, the English
Cathedral, St. James (Methodist), and Erskine, St. Paul's and St. Andrew's 30
QUEBEC
(Presbyterian) are worth seeing. Mount Royal, from which the city takes its
name, affords a delightful drive (or it can be ascended by incline railway), and
from its summit is seen the grandest panorama of the picturesque valley of
the St. Lawrence that is obtainable. Beyond the iBelceil peaks eastward the
Green Mountains of Vermont can be distinguished on clear days; to the south
are the Adirondacks; and along the north runs the Laurentian range, oldest
of the world's mountains. Other points of interest are the Victoria Bridge,
spanning  the  St.   Lawrence, McGill  University, Royal Victoria College  for
ppw
Montreal,  from Mount Royal
Women, Windsor Station and offices of the Canadian Pacific Railway Co.,
Nelson Monument, Champ de Mars (the military parade ground of the early
days), the Maisonneuve Monument on Place d'Armes, the immense C.P.R.
Angus shops at the east end, Dominion Square, Royal Victoria Hospital, Place
d'Armes, Chateau de Ramezay, Bonsecours Market on market days, the Place
Viger Hotel and passenger station of the Canadian Pacific Railway, a magnificent modern structure recently erected opposite Place Viger, from which
trains leave for and arrive from Quebec, and which is also convenient to the
docks of the lake and ocean steamers. A run down the Lachine Rapids is an enjoyable experience and a visit to the curious old Indian village of Caughnawaga,
opposite Lachine, the home of the remnant of a once   powerful   nation, QUEBEC
31
St. Helen's Island, Back River, Bout de l'Isle, Isle Gros Bois, Westmount the
fashionable suburb, or any of the numerous city parks and public buildings
is worth making. Montreal has an admirable electric street car system, and
its cab service is noted for its excellence and cheapness.
Ottawa, The Capital of Canada
Visitors to Quebec, via Montreal, can easily reach Ottawa, the Capital of
the Dominion, by the Canadian Pacific or other railways, or by river in summer
the railway run being three hours from the commercial metropolis by the C.P.R
The Famous Caledonia Springs Hotel
Midway between Montreal and Ottawa.    Noted for the Wonderf; ;1 Curative Properties of the Waters.
short line, which runs up the Ontario bank of the Ottawa river. The site of
Ottawa for picturesque grandeur, it has been stated, is only second to that
of Quebec. It is located on the Ottawa river, where the Rideau and Gatineau
join, and where the waters of the first named hurl themselves over the Chaud-
iere Falls into a seething cauldron below. But it is the national buildings
which are the chief pride of Ottawa, and the principal objects of interest to
tourists. They stand out boldly on Parliament Hill, overlooking the Ottawa,
in all the beauty of seemingly varied architecture. They were erected at a cost
of about $5,000,000, the corner stone being laid in 1860 by the Prince of Wales
now King Edward VII. The octagonal shaped library in the rear of the
^Houses of Parliament is one of the most complete in the world, and contains 300,000 volumes, some of which are exceedingly rare. Other objects of
interest are Rideau Hall, the home of the Governor-General of Canada,
Rideau Canal, connecting the Ottawa with Lake Ontario at Kingston,
built in 1827, for military purposes, the Fisheries Exhibit, National Art
Gallery, Geological Museum, the Lover's Walk, Central Experimental Farm,
Rockliffe and Major Hill Parks, the city buildings, extensive saw-mills, and
the timber slides by which the square timber from the Upper Ottawa passes
down without damage into the navigable waters below. To go down these
slides, as many visitors do, is an exciting and exhilarating experience.
Opposite Ottawa is the French city of Hull, and combined they have a
population of about 90,000.
There are many pleasant resorts near Ottawa, and the Gatineau Valley,
reached by rail, is a delightful summering place for the pleasure and health
seeker, the angler and the sportsman in quest of large and small game.
Quebec   Cab   Tariff
BY  THE DRIVE
Time allowed, Fifteen Minutes,
For one or two persons $0.25
For three or four persons 40
Time allowed, Thirty Minutes,
For one or two persons $0.40
For three or four persons      .60
BY THE HOUR
For First   Hour,
For one or two persons $0.75
For three or four persons     1.00
For Every Subsequent Hour,
For one or two persons $0.60
For three or four persons    0.75
TWO HORSE  VEHICLES
Time allowed, Fifteen Minutes,
For one or two persons ,. .$0.50
For three or four persons    0.65
Time allowed, Thirty Minutes.
For one or two persons $0.65
For three or four persons    0.75
BY THE HOUR
For one or two persons $1.00      |       For three or four persons $1.25
BAGGAGE
For each trunk or box carried in any such vehicle, 10c, but no charge shall be made
for travelling bags, valises, boxes, or parcels, which passengers can carry by hand.
For drives between midnight and four o'clock in the morning, fifty per cent, shall
be added to the tariff rates above mentioned.
Children under five years of age, and sitting on their parent's or guardian's lap,
will be admitted free of charge, and shall not be held as being included in the word
persons in the said tariff.
The word drive, whenever it occurs in the said tariff, shall be held to admit stoppages within the time fixed for said 4riv§s.
Cape Diamond
Citadel
Parliament Bldg.
Chateau Frontenac
Basilica
Laval University
Lower Town!
C, P. R. Docks
z
\
4
\
6
I
6
Point Levis
QUEBEC FROM POINT LEVIS,
Empress of   Britain Publications
Issued by the
CANADIAN
PACIFIC
RAILWAY
COMPANY
" THE HIGHWAY TO THE ORIENT "
" SUMMER TOURS "
" QUEBEC "
" FISHING AND SHOOTING »
" OPEN SEASONS, FOR FISH AND GAME »
" MONTREAL "
• ST. ANDREWS-BY THE-SEA "
•' WESTWARD TO THE FAR EAST "
" ANNOTATED TIME TABLES"
THE CHALLENGE OF THE MOUNTAINS *'
11 THE GLACIERS "
" AROUND THE WORLD "
" HAND-BOOK AND TIME-TABLE "
"MUSKOKA LAKES"
NEARLY all these publications are handsomely illustrated, and all contain much useful
information in interesting shape.   " The Annotated Time-Table " will be found a valuable companion for all transcontinental travellers.    Other pamphlets descriptive of
the Dominion—" Western Canada," "British Columbia "—are also issued by the Company
Copies may be obtained FREE from Agents of the Company, or will be mailed to any address
on application to undersigned.
€. B. FOSTER,
District Passenger Agent,
71 Yonge St., Toronto.
F. R. PERRY,
District Passenger Agent,
362 Washington Street, Boston.
W. B. HOWARD,
District Passenger Agent,
St. John, N.B
A. C. SHAW,
General Agent, Passenger Dept.,
232 South Clark St.  Chicago, 111.
E. J. COYLE,
Assistant General Passenger Agent,
Vancouver, B.C.
E. V. SKINNER,
Assistant Traffic Manager,
458 Broadway, N.Y.
W. R. CALLAWAY,
General Passenger Agent Soo Line
Minneapolis.
L. M. HARMSEN.
City Ticket Agent,
Soo Line, St. Paul, Minn.
WM   STITT,
Genl. Pass. Agent, Eastern Lines,
Montreal.
C. K. B. USSHBR,
Assistant Passenger Traffic Manager,
Winnipeg.
ALLAN  CAMERON,
General Traffic Agent,
6.2 65 Charing Cross, S.W., and 67-68
King William St., E. C, London, Eng.;
24 James St., Liverpool;  67 St. Vincent St., Glasgow.
F. W. HUNTINGTON,
General Agent, Passenger Dept.,
629-631 Chestnut St., Philadelphia.
A. W. ROBSON,
Passenger & Ticket Agent,
127 E. Baltimore St., Baltimore.
Wm. LINSON,
City Passeng r Agent,
Bond Bldg., 14th St. & New York Ave.
Washington, D,C.
E. E. PENN,
General Agent,  Passenger Dept.
Jas. Flood Building,
San Francisco.
M. ADSON,
General Passenger Agent
D., S. S. & A. Ry.,
♦Duluth, Minn.
D. W. CRADDOCK,
General Agent, China, Japan  etc.,
Hong Kong.
c. e. Mcpherson,
Genl. Passr. Agent, Western Lines.
Winnipeg.
ROBBRT KBRR.
Passenger Traffic  Manager,
Montreal. (CANADIAN;
iPACIFICi
%RAILWAY#
•   .  '

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