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Quebec Province and the Canadian Pacific Canadian Pacific Railway Company 1924

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Canadian Pacific  z
The Vision of the Early Pioneers of the Ancient Province Becomes a
Reality in the Building and Development of Canada's
Great  Transcontinental  Railroad
THE inspiration which led to the earliest exploration of the continent of North America and
especially of Canada, arose in what is now the
Province of Quebec. The impulse which subsequently consolidated the Canadian territories thus
discovered into one great national entity also arose
mainly in the Province of Quebec. The French
explorers, pressing sunsetward from Montreal,
Quebec and Trois Rivieres in search of the unknown
Western Sea, and the Scottish-Canadian fur-trading
explorers, with headquarters in Montreal, who
followed them, blazed the trail. It remained for a
railway company formed in the Province of Quebec,
with its headquarters in Montreal, to convert that
trail into a steel road which halted only on that
Western Sea and drew those vast spaces into the
united whole which is Canada.
Later, that railway company, playing a leading
part in the development of the West, helped to
create prosperity of which this province has reaped
much of the benefit.
The railway company referred to, whose fortunes
were and are so intimately associated with the
Province of Quebec, is the Canadian Pacific.
It is our purpose here to tell something of this epic,
in which romance more brilliant than any fiction
conceivable by the most imaginative story-teller is
blended with an almost unbelievable record of swift
material progress on a gigantic scale.
The statement that the main line of the Canadian
Pacific is built in the very track of the early explorers
of the Canadian West is no idle straining after
picturesque effect, as is easily seen by a glance
through history. In 1611, Etienne Brule, paddling
up the Ottawa in his great birch canoe, crossed to
Lake Nipissing and thence swept down French River
to Lake Huron—the first white man known to look
upon that virgin wilderness. In 1613-1615 Champlain followed Brule's trail. In 1661 Radisson and
Chouart (Sieur des Groseilliers), tracing Champ -
Iain's route, extended the track as far as the northwestern end of Lake Superior—known to us to-day
as the 'head of the lakes'—on their northward
journey to Hudson Bay—some say that they even
went to Lake Winnipeg. De La Noue, Setting out
from Montreal, built a post at Kaministiquia in
1717 as a base for the long-contemplated march to
the western coast. Joseph La France appears to have
pushed on beyond that post to Lake Winnipeg in
1740. In 1731 La Verendrye and his sons, greatest
of all seekers of the sunset sea, whose early associations with Trois Rivieres render that town immortal, left Montreal to begin the long series of
explorations which carried on the trail to the site of
the present Winnipeg and Portage La Prairie, and
reached the Rockies on a line south of the present
main line of the Canadian Pacific.
In the closing years of the 18th Century and opening years of the 19th, Scottish-Canadian fur-traders,
especially those of the North-West Company, setting out originally from Montreal, men like the
Alexander Henrys, Harmon and David Thompson,
completed the blazing of the trail, so that but for a
pass or two in the Rockies, to be discovered later on
at great hazard by James Hector, Sandford Fleming
and Major Rogers, it lay ready for the coming railroad builders. Three-quarters of a century passed.
Then on that trail from Montreal, by the Ottawa,
and skirting the shores of Lake Nipissing, through
the wilderness north of Lake Superior to the ' head
of the lakes,' past Kaministiquia to Winnipeg and
Portage La Prairie, and on across the great plains,
through the mountains to the Western Sea, the railroad builders set their rails. And to-day the greyhounds of the Canadian Pacific tear over that line
which follows the path of Brule, Champlain, Radisson, Chouart, De La Noue, La France, La Verendrye
and the fur-traders, from Montreal in their mother
province, to halt at last upon the shores of the ocean
which the first adventurers sought.
Thus the Canadian Pacific consolidates the work
the explorers began and the Province of Quebec
stands as mother of them all. A proud record and a
great part for one province to play in the high task
of nation-building!
The period which lay between the blazing of the
last tree upon that truly national trail and the turning of the first sod by the railroad builders was not
one of great commercial expansion in Canada, but
it was one of progress and of vast intellectual activity,
all tending towards that national ideal which eventually found its expression in Confederation and the
subsequent construction of a line whose purpose was
to bind the provinces together. In order to appreciate the changes which came afterwards, it is
necessary to know something of the situation in
Canada, and especially in the Province of Quebec,
before the line was built.
In the opening years of the last century, almost all
the trade of Canada with the outside world flowed
to and fro along the St. Lawrence route. There
were no railways, so that hauls from the interior of
the country to the ports of the present Maritime
Provinces or to any points in the United States other
than those along the international boundary were
out of the question.    Hence the St. Lawrence route
Page Three Quebec Province and
had no serious rival whatever and the two chief
ports of that route, Montreal and Quebec, were
Of these ports, Quebec was then much the more
important. This was partly due to the shallowness
of the river above Trois Rivieres. It was not until
the Fifties and later that the deepening of the ship
channel to Montreal relegated Quebec to second place.
Of this change more will be said in due course. The
lumber trade of Quebec was of immense importance
in the early days of the century. It, too, declined,
when the manufacture of sawn lumber in Canada
checked the flow of square timber from the Ontario
timber limits and the Gatineau via the St. Lawrence
to the mills of the United Kingdom, a flow upon
which Quebec's prosperity at that time largely
depended. To take care of this great overseas
lumber trade, Quebec, in those days, built many fine
wooden ships, a fact which added to her prosperity.
But the decline of the lumber trade and the advent
of steamships brought with it the decline of the shipbuilding industry, and the deepened channel, permitting vessels which had hitherto been able to ascend
the river only as far as Quebec, to go to Montreal,
provided, as already stated, the additional impetus
necessary to swing the balance in favour of Montreal,
which, till then, had known nothing but a little
export trade in grain and flour.
Quebec, then, was Canada's leading port one
hundred years ago. At the time when David Thompson and his confreres were beating out the last stage
of the trans-continental trail, which is the logical
point at which to begin this review of conditions
preceding the building of the Canadian Pacific, her
lumber trade was in its infancy, but her shipbuilding
industry, which had been going on since 1787, had
already reached importance. In 1811, for example,
a year coinciding fairly closely with those final trail-
blazing activities in the far West, 54 ships, totalling
13,691 gross tons, were constructed at Quebec.
Montreal, though not then a great port, for
reasons already indicated, was still an important
point, with a population approximately equal to t^at
of Quebec, about 16,000, The old fortifications of
the French Regime, though long since fallen into
disuse, were still standing, and the majority of
Montreal's citizens were still crammed within their
limits.    As in Quebec, the streets were still excess-
Windsor Street Station, Montreal, Headquarters and Largest Passenger Terminal
of the Canadian Pacific Railway
Page Four The Canadian Pacific
The First Locomotive built by the Canadian Pacific, a product of the
Hochelaga Shops, Montreal
ively narrow, and, again as in Quebec, there were
no gas nor water works.
But signs of progress were not wanting. Two
years before, in 1809, for example, when Quebec's
Board of Trade was founded, an event of far-reaching significance in the commercial history of the
province had occurred. Though Quebec was by far
the more important shipbuilding community, Montreal had also for some years past been engaged in that
industry, the chief builders being David Munn and
Robert Hunter, who turned out vessels of from 200
to 600 gross tons. In 1809, the first steamboat to
run between Quebec and Montreal, the * Accommodation,' pride of her owners, John Molson and Sons,
early representatives of a name which is still a household word in Canada, was launched at the latter
city.    The new era thereupon began.
True, it did not come to a head quickly. Fifteen
years later, that is, in 1824, just one century ago,
there were only two wharves at Montreal, one opposite the present offices of the Harbor Board and
one between it and the present Customs House. The
draught of the river was only 11 feet at low tide.
Two stone windmills on Windmill Point, now
crowded with sheds and other buildings, represented
industrial progress west of McGill Street. The roadways on the river bank sloped to the water's edge,
children played on the long beach, and an unbroken
line of trees and shrubberies extended beyond
Maisonneuve, where powerful locomotives now haul
merchandise from 15,000 ton vessels to the terminals
of the Canadian Pacific!
But in the following year came another epoch-
marking event, the opening of the Lachine Canal.
The citizens of Montreal, who, in anticipation of great
benefits to follow the canal opening, had formed their
Board of Trade in 1822, now prepared a great
petition requesting that the ship channel be deepened
to 16 feet, and in the year 1826 this petition was duly
presented to the Legislature by Mr. (afterwards the
Hon.) James Leslie. In 1830 the Government in
some measure acceded to their request by appoint
ing the Montreal Harbor Commission, of three
members, the Hon. Geo. Moffatt, Mr. Jules Quesnel
and Captain Robert Piper, R.E., with authority to
make certain improvements.
Some account of the first works constructed by the
Commissioners is interesting. They included a
revetment wall, wharves, ramps, slips for boats, and
a bridge to what was then called Oyster Island, the
principal wharf. The appropriation for the first
three years was $4,000! One smiles when one compares this with the great sums now spent annually
on Montreal Harbor, but it is as well to remember
that heavier expenditures were not then justified, as
the entire shipping trade of Montreal for a season at
that time was so small that one or two large vessels
of the modern era could have carried it all with ease.
But what is this, in 1833? Here is an event which
is of equal, if not of more, importance. Many
Canadians do not know, and others have forgotten,
that the first ship to cross the Atlantic by steam
power alone was built in Quebec, engined in Montreal and safely navigated to England from a Canadian port (Pictou, Nova Scotia) by Canadians.
This was the ' Royal William' and she crossed in
1833. They did not know it, but it is a fact that
when the carpenters of Quebec drove home the nails
of that gallant vessel they not only ushered in a new
epoch in world history, but also drove home the nails
in the coffin of Quebec's shipbuilding industry and
old-time lumber trade, however far off their decline
might be.
In 1836 Montreal as a port had grown to the extent of importing goods that year to the value of
£1,446,239, 13s. 8d. Things looked very rosy then,
for was that not also the year when the enterprising
people of the Province of Quebec opened the first
railway in Canada, the Champlain and St. Lawrence,
running from La Prairie to St. Johns, the pioneer
representative of the new invention which was yet to
revolutionize transportation, an invention just as
telling as the steamboat?
The records now yield up isolated facts which are
of interest mainly in their indications of progress:
1840, 26,561 gross tons of shipping built in the city
Page Five Quebec Province and
of Quebec; 1843, the launching, at Montreal, of the
first iron steamship built in Canada; 1848, the opening to navigation of the St. Lawrence canals; 1852,
the arrival at Quebec of Lloyd's surveyor, whose
expert knowledge was to add so much to Quebec's
ability to construct fine vessels—these are instances.
In this last year, 1852, we find that Montreal's
population, 57,715, exceeded that of Quebec, 42,052,
and, despite the terrible outbreak of typhus, which
was responsible for 25,000 deaths, the population of
the province was also steadily increasing. So we
arrive at the year 1853, in which the first chapter of
the province's modern development truly begins.
For it was in 1853 that the ship channel to Montreal
was deepened to 15 feet 2 inches, that the first ocean
steamship sailed up the St. Lawrence and that the
Montreal Ocean Steamship Company, afterwards
the Allan Line, was established.
Great as the two former events were, they are
entirely overshadowed by the third. Upon this
last some detail may be given, not only because the
Allan Line was to prove of so much importance to
Montreal, Quebec, this province and Canada, but
also because, through its ultimate absorption of the
line, the Canadian Pacific steamship service is linked
with the pioneer steamship line of this Dominion.
Some eighteen years prior to the founding of the
Montreal Ocean Steamship Company, Captain
Alexander Allan had sailed up the St. Lawrence to
Montreal in his brig 'Favorite.' He was accompanied by his son, Hugh, a lad of 17, later to be
famous as Sir Hugh Allan. In 1831 Hugh joined the
firm of Messrs. Millar, Edmonstone and Co., ship
owners and builders, whose fast 350-ton sailing
vessels often arrived at Montreal from sea with ice-
blocks round their bows as early as the 15th of April.
In 1835 the young man became a partner, and four
years later his brother Andrew was also taken into
partnership. When in 1853 the 'Genova,' the first
ocean steamship to reach the port, arrived in Montreal, Hugh saw that the time had come when a
Canadian ocean-going line might be profitably
established. He enlisted the support of several
wealthy men and the Montreal Ocean Steamship
Company was born.
In 1856, the 'Canadian,' a great ship in her day,
with a speed of eleven knots, and costing about
$250,000, the 'Indian,' the 'Anglo-Saxon,' and the
'North American,' of the Montreal Ocean Steamship Company, began the first regular fortnightly
steamship service inaugurated in Canada. The
Government paid the Allans an annual mail subsidy
of $120,000, and in 1858 increased the subsidy to
$208,000, when four new vessels were added,
inaugurating a weekly service. The credit panic
of 1857 made itself felt on Montreal trade in 1859,
and an incredible number of losses in the Allan fleet,
through incompetent pilots, poor lighting on the
river, and so on, severely affected the company.
But the brothers, aided by a doubled mail subsidy,
stuck it out with real courage, and by 1872 had
weathered the storm and were firmly established.
The zenith of the Quebec lumber trade was
reached in the Sixties, it being then comparatively
common for 1,800 ships to sail to and from the port
on this trade annually. The decline of shipbuilding
had begun, however, despite the somewhat imposing figures for 1863, and the next fifteen years
were to witness its almost total extinction.
By far the greatest event of 1864 was, of course,
the Quebec conference on Confederation, which
foreshadowed the construction of the Canadian
Pacific and to which fuller allusion will be made
elsewhere. Three years later came Confederation
During the thirteen years following, the battles
which ultimately culminated in the signing of a
contract for the construction of the Canadian Pacific
were fought and won. To realize the vast development which succeeded the construction of that road,
it is necessary to summarize the position of Quebec
in 1881, when the first sod was turned.
The population of the province had by that time
reached 1,359,027, an increase of 167,513 for the
period. Imports were valued at $51,071,013, or
$20,130,672 more than in 1869, an increase of approximately 40 per cent. Exports totalled $48,965,-
087 in value, or $20,741,819 more than in 1869, an
increase of about 60 per cent. The ports of the
province recorded the arrival or departure of vessels
totalling 3,225,274 gross tons, a very considerable
increase of 978,383 gross tons over the figures for
1869. Montreal and Quebec had also grown substantially, the former's population now totalling
155,238, or approximately 55,000, some 50 per cent.,
more than in 1867, while the latter's totalled 62,446,
approximately 5,000, or slightly over 10 percent.,
more than it had been in the year of Confederation.
Later, it will be our purpose to show how enormously the Province of Quebec has expanded beyond
the limits of 1881, and to point out the influence
which the Candian Pacific has wielded in this
The progress of the province has now been traced
from the era of Thompson and his associates,
who marked out, in most particulars, the last stage
of the route to be followed by the Canadian Pacific,
to the point where the Canadian Pacific itself is about
to appear upon the stage. There were times, in that
long period of years, when the faith of many Canadians must have wavered. Yet the great majority remained confident. Newton Bosworth, F.R.A.S.,
writing of Montreal in 1839, long before expansion on a large scale had begun, had said: ' Placed
at the head of the navigation of the St. Lawrence
for sea-going vessels, it (Montreal) has ever been,
and must continue, an important place of commerce.
Even if the magnificent idea should ever be realized
of forming a channel for ships up to Lake Huron,
it must still secure a large share of commercial
activity.' The national vision of such men as
D'Arcy McGee, who, many years prior to Confederation, saw the Dominion bound like the shield of
Achilles by the oceans, has been recorded in history.
And so the phase which followed the trail-blazers
closes and the phase of the trail-builders begins.
The adventurers of old Quebec have nobly cleared
the way. The people of old Quebec have responded
to the summons thrown back from the beckoning
skyline by those great pioneers. It remains for
old Quebec to give birth to the Canadian Pacific,
which will consolidate the trail.
For many years, now, the necessity of adequate
transportation as the vital factor in the upbuilding
of a powerful  confederation  of British  states  or
Page Six The Canadian Pacific
■m '%
The Chateau Frontenac, the palatial Canadian Pacific Hotel
on the Heights of Quebec
colonies in North America had been as clearly foreseen as had been the importance of such transportation to the development of the individual provinces.
A route to the Pacific by water had been suggested
as early as 1829. In 1840 Carmichael Smyth advocated the building by convict labor of a railroad
from Halifax to the Pacific. Two years later Joseph
Howe prophesied that many then alive would travel
by train to the Western coast in five or six days.
In the same year Allan McDougall published a
pamphlet called ' A Railroad from Lake Superior to
the Pacific. The shortest, cheapest, and safest
communication for Europe with Asia.' McDougall's
appreciation of the importance of the project is well
shown by this title. He made an endeavor to form
a company to construct the road, and the ensuing
years witnessed many other such attempts. But the
time was not then ripe, though the railroad continued to be one of the most discussed and most
vital national issues before the country.
In 1857 the first practical step was taken
when the Imperial Government commissioned
Captain Palliser to survey a route for a transcontinental railway across British North America.
Palliser spent four years on the task, and one of his
followers, Dr. (later Sir James) Hector, discovered
the Kicking Horse Pass, through which the Canadian Pacific now runs. Nevertheless, Palliser
reported that the choice of the 49th parallel as
Canada's boundary had made a British trans-continental  line in North   America an  impossibility.
'It remained for Sandford Fleming,' of the Canadian
Pacific, 'to achieve this impossibility.'
What one might call 'the Canadian Pacific idea'
was finally brought to a head by the Quebec conference on Confederation in 1864, to which allusion
has already been made. The resolutions of the conference included a statement that 'the communications with the North-Western Territory and the
improvements required for the development of the
trade of the great West with the seaboard'—how
clearly the fathers of our country foresaw the future
relations of East with West!—'are regarded as. . .
subjects of the highest importance to the federated
Provinces and shall be prosecuted at the earliest
possible period the state of the finances will admit.'
As Sir Etienne Tache, who presided, and who,
with the notable co-operation of Sir George Cartier
and others of the province, fought the battles of the
future transcontinental for many years, was, of
course, among the great leaders of Quebec, and as the
conference which crystallized the issue was held in
the city of Quebec, it is hardly too much to say that
the honor of having cradled not only the great
Dominion but her great national transcontinental
belongs to old New France.
The Province of Quebec, moreover, has other
titles to that claim.    Leaving aside for the moment
Page Seven Quebec Province and
the fact that the Canadian Pacific Railway Company, when finally incorporated, was formed by her
citizens and within her boundaries, one still finds
many indications that she was ever foremost in the
fight for better railways. The first railroad in
Canada, already mentioned, the Champlain and St.
Lawrence, was a Quebec road. The first railroad
ever projected in Canada, the St. Andrew's and
Quebec, later to form part of the Canadian Pacific
and give the latter its place in this country's earliest
railway history, was largely a conception of the city
of Quebec. The railway policy of the Provincial
Government included the granting of subsidies,
during the period 1869, when the first was voted,
to 1913, when they ceased to be required, amounting
finally to $26,811,078.37. These facts speak for
It is unnecessary here to enter into a description
of the events following the Quebec conference of 1864
which led up to the signing, in 1880, of the contract
authorizing the construction of the Canadian Pacific
by the syndicate which built the road. It is sufficient to recall that the Dominion Government
attempted to construct this national transcontinental
and made so little progress that it was finally compelled to recognize the fallacy of the policy of
Government construction and to look to private
enterprise for the completion of the task. The
Government sought everywhere for this enterprise,
turning to the Grand Trunk, among others, but none
of these individuals or corporations could see any
profit in it. Hence it was that by the time the
contract was signed with the syndicate headed by
George Stephen, the work for which it stood had
become the great national objective of the day, the
very fate of the Dominion hanging upon it, on account
of the natural insistence of British Columbia that
construction begin at once, and the general demands
for its completion.
The preliminary surveys were carried out under
the direction of Sandford Fleming, afterwards
knighted, during the period 1872-1880. The Canadian Pacific contract was signed on October 21st,
1880, a date which thenceforward is significant in
British history for more than the victory of Trafalgar.
The terms of the contract provided that the Company
should build the line within ten years, and in return
would receive a grant of $25,000,000 and 25,000,000
acres of land, would be perpetually exempt from all
forms of taxation on the railway or capital and exempt for twenty years from taxation on its land.
Under the contract, the Dominion Government also
turned over to the Company the 713 miles of railroad already constructed or contracted for in
the abortive attempts already made to build the
line, which consisted of the sections from Selkirk to
Lake Superior and from Kamloops to Port Moody.
Power was also granted the Company to construct
telephones, telegraphs, docks, vessels, elevators and
other buildings. The cash subsidy was subsequently increased by $10,000,000 and the land grant
reduced by 6,700,000 acres.
The prominence of citizens of the Province of
Quebec in this undertaking is indeed remarkable.
Among the men who formed the Canadian Pacific
Syndicate were George Stephen (afterwards Lord
Mount Stephen), President of the Bank of Montreal, who had lived in Montreal since early manhood; R. B. Angus, his cousin, Manager of that
bank, and also a Montrealer by adoption; D. J.
Mclntyre, Manager of the Canada Central Railway,
A Great Moment in Canada's History.    Sir Donald A. Smith, afterwards Lord Strathcona,
driving the Last Spike of the Canadian Pacific at Craigellachie, B.C.,
November 7th, 1885
Page Eight The Canadian Pacific
The Canadian Pacific Steamship Terminals, Quebec, with a Canadian Pacific Liner
at the Wharf.
another Montrealer; Hon. J. Cochran, a Quebec
cattle dealer; and Donald A. Smith (afterwards
Lord Strathcona). From the beginning the headquarters of the Canadian Pacific were in Montreal.
The difficulties the Company encountered in its
early days were solved chiefly in Montreal and
citizens of the Province of Quebec held over one-fifth
of the stock and practically all the Canadian allotment of shares at that time.
On February 16th, 1881, the Canadian Pacific
contract was approved by Parliament, and on the
following day the Syndicate became the Canadian
Pacific Railway Company, with George Stephen,
President, Duncan Mclntyre, Vice-President, R.
B. Angus and J. J. Hill forming the Executive Committee. Of the forming of the Company Skelton
says: 'An entirely new turn had been given to the
situation and the most important chapter in Canada's railway annals, if not her national life, had
begun . . . Probably never in the history of
railway building . . . had the call of the railway
brought together in a single enterprise men of such
outstanding individuality, of such ability and persistence and destined for success so notable.'
The first sod was turned in May, 1881. On
November 7th, 1885, the last spike was driven at
Craigellachie. Great obstacles were encountered,
natural, financial and political. In 1885 so sorely
beset was the Company that its stock for a time sold
at only 33 f in London and even lower on this side of
the Atlantic. Construction costs, especially in the
Rockies and north of Lake Superior, were very
heavy. But the determination of the builders did
not falter. With George Stephen, that man of
'indomitable persistence, unquenchable faith, unyielding honour . . . one of the greatest of
Empire-builders,' at the helm, and W. C. (later Sir
William) Van Home, who personified ' indomitable
courage, tenacity of purpose, breadth of vision,
mastery of organization and detail,' directing building operations, records in construction were constantly broken.    When the last spike was driven in
the 4,651 miles of road which represented the entire
trackage of the Company at the end of 1885, the
plaudits of Queen Victoria, the declaration of a
former Governor-General, the Marquis of Lome,
that the achievement was 'a noble work, nobly
performed' and the general sentiment of approval
which subsequently crystallized into the statement
that the Canadian Pacific 'found Canada scarcely
a geographical expression and made it a nation,' set
the seal of the Empire's approval on the feat these
men and their followers accomplished.
On June 28th, 1886—here is another association
linking the Province of Quebec with the Canadian
Pacific—the first through train left for Vancouver
from Montreal. This historically interesting event
is so well worthy of more than passing comment
that a portion of the account of it appearing in the
' Montreal Gazette'  on the following day is quoted:
' When the history of the Dominion comes to be
written in the future, the 28th of June, 1886, will be
recorded as a remarkable day in the progress of
Canada. The great continental railway from the
Atlantic to the Pacific may be said to celebrate its
premier birthday when the first through train left
the Dalhousie Square Station on its long pilgrimage
of 2,920 miles through the fertile prairies, the woods
primeval and the noble mountains of the broad
Dominion to Vancouver on the western coast.
' The event was an important one for the city of
Montreal, and the citizens, in organizing a spontaneous demonstration, manifested their high appreciation of the significance of the occasion.
'At 20 o'clock (8 p.m.) the ten cars and engine,
which comprise the first all through train, started on
its first journey, amidst the cheers of the thousands
assembled and the booming of the guns of the Field
Battery, which fired fifteen guns outside the depot.
Col. Stevenson, with Capt. J. S. Hall, Jr., was in
command of the battery.
' The members of the City Council assembled in
the City Hall and proceeded in a body to the depot
to witness the departure of the train.'
Page Nine Quebec Province and
According to the 'Gazette,' the citizens present
included Wm. (afterwards Sir William) Whyte,
General Superintendent Western Division, W. C.
(afterwards Sir William) Van Home, Vice-President,
T. G. (afterwards Lord) Shaughnessy, Assistant
General Manager, G. W. Swett, Superintendent,
Dining, Sleeping and Parlor Car Department, and
George Olds, General Traffic Manager, Canadian
Many years have passed since that first transcontinental, 'swift shuttle of an Empire's loom,'
traversed the Dominion, drawing its towns and
villages and vast areas into unity on a thread of steel,
and the expansion of the Canadian Pacific has exceeded the wildest hopes of the officials who saw the
train set out. 'The enlargement of the hopper,'
said Sir William Van Home, ' necessitated a widening
of the spout.' After its first five months of operation, the Company owned 7 locomotives, 2 first-class
passenger cars, 1 baggage car, 6 box and 40 platform cars. In 1886 it owned 336 locomotives and
7,835 freight cars, and its trackage approximated
5,000 miles. At the end of 1886, its telegraph
system embraced 4,525 miles of poles, 14,506 miles
of wire and 50 miles of cable, and had handled 567,840
messages in the year. Its fleet then consisted of 3
small lake steamers and some small sailing ships, and
its hotels numbered 3, Mount Stephen House at
Field, Glacier House at Glacier and Fraser Canyon
House at North Bend, all in British Columbia. In
1882, the year when it was first established, the
affiliated Dominion Express Company earned a
gross revenue of $1,087.11. The gross earnings of
the Canadian Pacific for 1886 were $10,081,803, the
working expenses $6,378,317 and the net earnings
Compare these figures with the latest available.
At the end of 1923, the Company owned 2,255
locomotives, 2,207 passenger, baggage and colonist
cars, 90,542 cattle and freight cars, and its trackage
approximated 20,000 miles, of which it actually
owned some 15,000 miles. Its telegraph system
then included 15,000 miles of poles, 125,000 miles of
wire and 215 miles of cable, giving service to every
point of note in Canada and the United States and
to Europe and the Orient, while it handled
6,000,000 messages during the year. At the end of
1923, its fleet consisted of 83 steamers (28 on the
Atlantic, 4 on the Pacific and 51 inland and coastal).
It then maintained a chain of 13 palatial hotels
across the continent and 12 bungalow camps. The
Dominion Express Company in 1923 earned approximately $14,000,000.00. The gross earnings
of the Canadian Pacificfor 1923 were $195,837,089.61,
the working expenses $158,358,079.54 and the net
earnings $37,479,010.07.
The progress of the Province of Quebec, in the
forty years which have elapsed since the completion
of the Canadian Pacific, has been equally remarkable.
In 1901, fifteen years after the driving of the last
spike, her population was 1,648,898; in 1921 it was
2,361,199, an increase over 1881 of 1,002,172, or
nearly 100 per cent. Her imports in 1901 were
valued at $76,716,920, and at $362,495,158 in 1921,
the greatest year, from that viewpoint, in Quebec's
history, the 1923 imports, valued at $222,478,422,
having been roughly worth $140,000,000 less than in
1921, though $171,407,409, some 150 per cent., more
than in 1881. The volume of shipping business
increased so enormously that in 1901 sea-going
vessels totalling 3,136,334 gross tons called at
Montreal alone, a figure almost equal to that recorded
for the entire province in 1881, and in 1910 the Montreal figure, 6,561,021 gross tons, was more than
double that of 1881 for all Quebec ports.
The factories of the province, which had produced $104,662,258 worth of goods in 1881, increased
this figure to $158,287,999 in 1901, and $1,121,227,-
989 in 1920, $962,939,990, approximately 600 per
cent., more than the total for 1881. The value of
the province's field crops rose from $47,480,033 in
1901, to $143,051,000 in 1923, $95,570,967, or more
than 200 per cent., increase; of her mineral products
from $2,960,704 in 1901 to $15,522,988 in 1921
and $18,335,153 in 1922, $15,374,449, or more than
600 per cent., increase; and of her forest products
from $18,969,716 in 1901, to $70,773,745 in 1921
and $46,829,316 in 1922, the latter being $27,859,-
600, or about 150 per cent., more than the total
for 1901.
Especially striking in the more recent development of the province has been the enormous expansion of industries dependent on the forests, and
of water power. In the pulp wood industry, for
example, she easily leads the whole of Canada, her
1920 production having been 974,766 tons, or
320,365 tons more than the quantity produced in
that year by her next nearest rival, Ontario. One of
her companies produces more ground wood pulp
than any other mill in the world. As for water
power, she has already developed 1,073,883 horsepower, and there is still available for development
in the province approximately 15,000,000 horsepower, which she is proceeding to utilize. This
work is under the direction of the Quebec Streams
Commission. Two important storage dams have
been built, one of which, the Gouin, at La Loutre,
on the St. Maurice, with a capacity of 160,000,000,-
000 cubic feet, is the largest in the world.
The great progress of the province since the
construction of the Canadian Pacific is very largely
typified by that of her two chief cities during that
time. Admirably sited in sheltered water 400 miles
from the sea, the first important port of call on the
popular St. Lawrence route, and one of the few ports
in the world where the largest ships can dock
without assistance, Quebec was bound to grow, and
she has grown to an extent which only Montreal
can rival. Many cities would have thrown up their
hands in surrender at the loss of their chief industries,
as Quebec might well have done when her shipbuilding and her timber export trade disappeared.
But she courageously set about putting her house in
order and has built up her general import and export
trade and an enormous boot and shoe industry.
Her population, which is to-day 118,950, is nearly
double that of 1881. Her imports and exports for 1921
were $26,663,862 and $28,799,768 respectively; while
for 1922 they were $16,629,601 and $12,984,029 respectively. Vessels totalling 3,768,214 gross tons, or
542,940 gross tons more than the figure for 1881,
visited the port last year. In the 1923 season, she
received approximately 6,000,000 bushels of grain
at her terminals, and, of this quantity, exported
3,733,927 bushels. She has also developed a great
tourist traffic, which draws hundreds of thousands
of visitors to enjoy her unrivalled scenic and historic
Page Ten The Canadian Pacific
The Canadian Pacific Place Viger Hotel at Montreal, connected with Place Viger Station,
Terminus for Quebec City and Laurentian Lines
attractions   in   summer   and   her   extremely   well
organized sports in winter.
Since Confederation, the Quebec Harbor Commission has done a great deal for the port. The
Dominion Government, commencing this work
under the later administration of Sir John A. MacDonald, has expended a total of $13,000,000 on the
harbor of Quebec and its facilities. The Louise
docks have accommodation for 22 vessels. The
berths for ships of 400 to 500 feet in length number
6 in the wet dock, 4 in the tidal harbor, 4 at the
breakwater, 4 at Point-a-Carey wharves, and 7 on
the River St. Charles Basin. The least depth of
water at low tide is 28 feet at the wet dock, while
the tidal harbor has 30 feet at low tide, the St
Charles 35 feet at low tide and the breakwater and
Point-a-Carcy wharves 40 feet at low tide.
There is one fire-proof concrete grain elevator, of
2,000,000 bushels capacity. The Harbor Commission operates its own railway, totalling 16 miles
of track, and has its own locomotives for handling
freight cars. The Quebec terminals of the Canadian
Pacific are within the harbor area. Several coaling
plants and two oil tanks with pipe lines to all berths
take care of the fuel problem for visiting vessels.
One 50-ton floating crane and five locomotive
cranes, with a lifting capacity up to 38 tons, are
available for handling cargo. Two graving docks,
one 600 feet long by 62 feet wide at the entrance,
and one 1,150 feet long by 120 feet wide at the
entrance, can take the largest ships afloat and have
workshops capable of executing all repairs. Sheds
equipped with many modern conveniences, having
a capacity of 2,000 head, are available to handle the
large cattle trade Quebec has recently built up.
Remarkable as the expansion of Quebec has
been, that of Montreal since the completion of the
Canadian Pacific is one of the most wonderful
instances of growth in the entire history of this
continent. In 1891, five years after the transcontinental line was opened, the vessels entering Montreal totalled only 938,657 gross tons. In 1901, it
had risen to 1,453,048 gross tons. In 1921 it was
2,891,956 gross tons. It leaped to 3,932,637 gross
tons in 1922 and last year it was 3,728,740 gross
tons. The city's exports were valued at $39,344,783
in 1891, $56,220,759 in 1901, $173,010,996 in 1921
and $190,222,570 last year. The value of her imports in 1891 was $48,418,569, $65,632,086 in 1901,
$191,379,484 in 1921 and $192,398,207 last year.
Words fail one in attempting to comment on
such development. Like Quebec, Montreal owes
much of this gigantic trade to the excellence of the
St. Lawrence route, one of the safest, best marked
and most comfortable in the world.
Montreal, to-day, with a population of 850,000, is
not only the fifth largest city and second largest
port on the continent, but the fifth largest port and
the largest inland port in the world. Nearly fifty
per cent of Canada's export trade passes through it.
A total of $39,000,000 has been spent upon improvements to its port facilities, which include such items
as lighthouses, lightships, submarine bell stations,
buoys, the dredging of the main channel, the reorganization of the pilotage system and so forth.
It has eight and a half miles of fully modern concrete
wharves with corrugated iron two-storey sheds on
steel foundations. Eighteen 1,000-foot vessels can
be berthed in the harbor at one time. Several
large privately owned coaling plants are available
for replenishing steamers.
Of special equipment worthy of more than passing
notice, one may mention the immense floating dry-
dock, the Duke of Connaught, towed across the
Atlantic from the Old Country on completion in
1912.    It is 600 feet long, 135 feet wide and can
Page Eleven Quebec Province and
accommodate vessels of 25,000 gross tons. A great
warehouse and cold storage plant, 440 feet long,
110 feet wide and 10 storeys high, with a storage
capacity of 4,628,000 cubic feet, has been recently
completed by the Harbor Commissioners.
For the handling of heavy freight, such as locomotives, boilers and machinery, the port is equipped
with a floating crane with a lifting capacity of 75 tons.
Twelve floating and locomotive cranes with a lifting
capacity from 5 to 15 tons are also operated. The
Harbor Terminal Railroad, with which the Canadian Pacific connects, is owned and operated by the
Harbor Commission. It is 65 miles in length and
serves the entire harbor as well as adjacent factories.
Great as the Port of Montreal undoubtedly is in
every respect, it is as a grain port that it excels. For
in this respect Montreal leads the world. In 1891
8,836,594 bushels were shipped through Montreal;
2,333,118 in 1901; 127,356,314 in 1921; 155,000,000
in 1922, and approximately 120,000,000 in 1923.
The port of Montreal has elevator capacity for
12,500,000 bushels of grain and can deal with grain
more swiftly and economically than is possible for
any other North American port. Elevator No. 1 is
the world's largest seaport elevator, with a storage
capacity of 4,000,000 bushels. Elevator No. 2,
connected with Elevator No. 1, has a capacity of
2,662,000 bushels. Elevator B has a storage capacity of 3,500,000 bushels. Elevator No. 3, now being
constructed, will be ready for operation in 1924.
It will have an initial storage capacity of 2,000,000
bushels, capable of extension to 14,000,000 bushels.
In view of all this, one is not surprised to find the
proceedings of a recent meeting of the American
Society of Port Authorities commenting upon
Montreal's position as follows:—'Montreal now
handles a greater volume in value of business than
any   port   on   the   American   continent   with   the
exception of New York. Think of the compliment
implied in that fact. Canada has less than 9,000,000
population. The United States has more than
110,000,000, and yet,with this tremendous advantage
in its favor, the United States can only build up one
port that handles more business than Montreal.'
Such has been the expansion of the Province of
Quebec and its chief cities in recent years. Two
questions occur to one in reading this truly remarkable record. The first is: What caused such colossal growth? The second is: What connection has
all this with the Canadian Pacific? The answer
to one is in reality the answer to both these
questions. In the frequent references made in the
foregoing to immigration and grain lies a hint of
the truth, which is that the growth of the Province
of Quebec, and certainly the development of her
two leading centres, is very largely due to the
growth of the Canadian West, which followed the
construction of the Canadian Pacific. And in this
growth the Canadian Pacific, which has been one of
the leaders, if not the leader, in Western development, can claim, without undue self-assertion, to
have played a dominant share.
Consider the facts. In 1881 the population of
the entire Canadian West was but 168,165. In
1921 it was 2,491,350. In 1881 the grain crop of
the West was practically negligible. In 1923,
according to official estimates, it was 885,872,000
bushels, and it produced 446,570,000 of the 469,761,-
000 bushels making up Canada's 1923 wheat crop.
These figures are far more eloquent than words.
Now, what has the Canadian Pacific done to
develop Western Canada and thus, indirectly, to
bring prosperity to the Province of Quebec? Let
us first consider immigration to the Canadian West.
A General View of the Locomotive Works
at the Canadian Pacific Angus Shops, Montreal
Page Twelve The Canadian Pacific
. W.
The Palais Station, Quebec, Built in the XVII Century Chateau Style.    This Station
Harmonizes Perfectly with the Characteristics of the Ancient Capital
Here is what the'Canada Year Book,' a Government
publication, has to say: 'The increased immigration
during this period' (1882-1894) 'was due to the
opening in 1886 of the new Canadian Pacific
Railway and the consequent settlement of the great
north-west. Immense activity in railway construction, coupled with a new policy of effective advertising of the agricultural capabilities of Western
Canada, marked the opening years of the 20th
Century, with the result that from 1903 to 1913'
(the period of the most intense activity of the
Canadian Pacific), 'broken only by occasional setbacks due to the enforcement of more rigid regulations to exclude the unfit, there was an annually
increasing stream of immigrants.'
Again, this publication says: 'The high rate of
increase' (in Canada's population in the period
1871-1921) 'has been chiefly due to the settlement
of the three Prairie Provinces and, especially since
the beginning of the century, of the two new provinces of Saskatchewan and Alberta.' The population of the three Prairie Provinces, in the period 1900-
1916, increased from 419,512 to 1,698,220, a ratio of
over 404 per cent. From 1867 to 1882, when Canadian
Pacific trains began to operate, the yearly highest
total immigration was 50,050, attained in 1873.
But in 1882, when the line was opened and the
colonization publicity campaign of the Company
began, it rose to 112,458. It was 133,624 in 1883,
82,165 in 1891, and in 1913, the peak year, 402,432.
Since the War it has fallen off, but there are signs of
a great revival.
It is impossible to estimate accurately what percentage of the total immigration to Western Canada
has been handled by the Canadian Pacific, though
it is safe to say that more than half these immigrants
were brought in, either directly or indirectly, by the
Company. But the Canadian Pacific's contribution
towards the development of the West has not stopped
there. In the period 1881-1921, it has actually
settled 55,000 heads of families on farms embracing
no less than 30,000,000 acres, or approximately
one-third of the total number of acres settled under
the Dominion Government's Free Homestead
Scheme. It inaugurated the policy of the 'ready
made' farm, at a cost to the Company, to date, of
over $2,000,000. Its experimental and demonstration farm at Strathmore, for the assistance of
settlers, has cost the Company approximately
$975,000 hitherto and has been of incalculable value.
Its vast irrigation projects in Southern Alberta, which
thus far have cost over $23,000,000 and include the
largest single system in North America, have literally
transformed 3,000,000 acres in that territory.
The Company has erected vast elevators at important points in Western Canada. Last year, it
brought thousands of harvesters from Great
Britain to reap the record crop. In few words, it is
almost impossible to find any phase of agricultural
activity which the Canadian Pacific has not
fostered. Its expenditure, from 1881 to date, on
immigration, colonization and development, has
exceeded $60,000,000, which is considerably more
than the sum expended on immigration during that
period by the Dominion Government.
But even the immensity of these activities is
exceeded by the part the Company has played in
hauling the agricultural produce of Western Canada
to Montreal, Quebec and other points of export.
At no time from 1881 to date has the Canadian
Pacific failed to tower over its competitors in the
work of grain transportation. In 1882 the Company transported only 3,937,166 bushels of grain.
Nevertheless, this included all the Western grain
carried Eastward that year. Since then the
Canadian Pacific has kept pace with the crop, until
in 1923, of the 315,536,108 bushels carried by the
railroads during the period between harvest time
and the end of the year, the Company transported
nearly 60 per cent, or 188,141,675 bushels, smashing
Page Thirteen Quebec Province and
all grain-loading records. It brought down to the
head of the lakes 186,000,000 bushels during the
season—a quantity equal to the total volume of
grain moved by all the railways of the United
States in the same time to the terminals at Minneapolis, Chicago and Duluth.
From these figures, some conception may be
gained of what the Canadian Pacific has meant to the
grain trade of Montreal and Quebec and the
Province of Quebec generally.
Hitherto we have dealt only with the influence of
the Canadian Pacific in upbuilding the province
through the medium of its work in the West. Turning now to its work within the province, we find an
equally impressive record.
While the Company was building the road from
Callender, on Lake Nipissing, to the Pacific, its
easterly expansion was also in progress. From the
beginning, the Company had been empowered to
acquire the Canada Central, which ran from
Ottawa via Carleton Place to Pembroke, and which,
it will be recalled, was controlled by a Canadian
Pacific director, D. J. Mclntyre. The Company was
also empowered to acquire connections with the
The upbuilding of the Company's system in the
Province of Quebec was a piecemeal business
covering many years, though carried out systematically, with a concerted plan in mind. In 1882, the
Montreal Northern Colonization was sold to the
Company. This line formed the western, or
Montreal-Ottawa, division of the Quebec, Montreal,
Ottawa, and Occidental Railway, which had been
begun as private enterprises and subsequently
taken over by the Provincial Government. By
this purchase, the Company acquired the main line
from Montreal to Aylmer, the branch and bridge to
Ottawa, and the branch to St. Jerome. In 1884,
a majority of the shares in the St. Lawrence and
Ottawa were acquired. The lease, in 1884, of the
Ontario and Quebec gave the Company access to
important ports and connections, additional facilities in Montreal, and the right to build the St.
Lawrence (Lachine) bridge. In 1885, the North
Shore, or eastern section of the Quebec, Montreal,
Ottawa and Occidental, connecting Montreal with
Quebec, was purchased. In 1886, the St. Lawrence
bridge was commenced. The Atlantic and North-
West, giving the Company power to build a line to
the Atlantic from any port on Lake Superior,
was taken over on perpetual lease, and telegraphic
communication was opened between the important
towns of Quebec and Ontario.
The International Railway Company (running
Lennoxville-Megantic-the international boundary)
was also leased in that year. In 1887 the Company
took over control, on the owners' account, of the
South-Eastern, which included the lines Stanbridge
to St. Guillame, Drummondville to Enlaugra,
and West Farnham (now Brookport) to Newport.
The St. Lawrence bridge was completed that year,
a line thence to Farnham was also completed, and
a line was also built from Smiths Falls to connect
with the Atlantic and North-West in Montreal.
The Montreal freight terminals were greatly improved in 1888 and telegraphic communication was
established with the Pacific Coast.
The Montreal and Ottawa was acquired in 1892,
and  an  Ottawa  to  Montreal   (the  present  south
shore) line completed six years later. In 1902, the
Ottawa, Northern and Western was leased, including
the Hull Junction-Maniwaki, Hull-Aylmer, Hull-
Ottawa and Alymer-Waltham lines. The Orford
Mountain, which connected the Montreal-St.
John line with the Newport or Boston lines at Troy
Junction, was acquired in 1909; the St. Maurice
Valley—Trois Rivieres to Grandmere—in 1910; the
Cap de Madeleine—Piles Junction to Cap de Madeleine—in 1912; and the Quebec Central, affording
two lines from Levis, one to Sherbrooke and one to
Megantic, also in 1912. A branch from Valley
Junction to St. Sabine and English Lake (now Lac
Frontier) was built in 1915-1919. The Glengarry
and Stormont Railway—St. Polycarpes Junction
to Cornwall—was acquired in 1915. The Scotts
Junction-Diamond Junction branch, giving improved access to the New Palais Station at Quebec,
was built in 1920-1921. And finally, in 1921-1923,
the Kipawa to Des Quinze River, with a branch to
Ville Marie, was constructed.
The expansion of the Company's telegraphs in
the province has been very extensive. In 1886,
when the commercial telegraph service was opened
in Quebec, there were approximately 700 miles of
poles and 2,500 miles of wire. To-day there are 1,291
miles of poles and 8,300 miles of wire. In 1886, the
mileage of underground cable conductors was nil.
In 1924, it was 189, with 4 miles of submarine
cable conductors. In 1886 there were approximately
50 employees connected with the Company's telegraphs in Quebec.    To-day there are 300.
No account of the Canadian Pacific in the Province of Quebec would be complete without some
details of the establishments it maintains or has
maintained within the province. Its first headquarters were in the old City Bank (now the Royal
Trust) Building, on the corner of Place d'Armes
Hill and St. James St., Montreal. A year or two
later they were moved to the Thomas May's
Building. In 1881, when they were opened, the
entire headquarters numbered only 30 or 40 employees, these devoted individuals performing the
duties which, owing to the enormous growth of the
Company, now require the attentions of some 3,000 f
The Hochelaga Station, acquired when the Montreal Northern Colonization was purchased, was the
Company's first passenger station in Montreal.
This station is still in existence, though it dropped
out of the scheme of things, as far as passenger
traffic is concerned, many years ago. The first
Canadian Pacific station in Quebec City was the
old Palais, then the terminus of the North Shore
The Quebec Ticket Office Building was erected
in 1880, at a cost of about $37,000, before the
Canadian Pacific was founded. In 1883, the
Company's first shops, at Hochelaga, were built.
These shops constructed locomotives and passenger
cars, and their establishment at this date is evidence
of the early determination of the Canadian Pacific
executive to make their organization in all respects
The original Windsor St. station, five and six
storeys high, was built in 1886 and occupied shortly
afterwards by headquarters. The cost of this
erection, which was of stone, was $300,000. The
Osborne St. wing, five storeys high, was added in
1900, at a cost of $320,000. In 1906, there were
further extensions, of concrete, two storeys in height,
and costing $142,000.    In 1910, the power house at
Page Fourteen The Canadian Pacific
Westward ho!
The Trans-Canada Limited, Crack Train of the Canadian Pacific,
Leaving Windsor St. Station, Montreal
the corner of Mountain and St. Antoine Sts. was
built at a cost of $75,000. Two years later, the
St. Antoine St. office wing, eight storeys, the tower,
fifteen storeys, and the waiting room, five storeys, all
of stone and involving an expenditure of $1,572,000,
were built, and the following year witnessed the
erection of the $850,000 concourse and train sheds.
In 1922, the Osborne St. wing was again extended at
a cost of $180,000, to provide offices for the
steamship and other departments.
In designing the new Windsor St. station the
architects had to keep in mind the necessity of
planning a structure which would not only favorably
impress trie new arrival from Europe, who is apt to
judge the country by such things as the first big
station he sets eyes on, but which would also provide
head offices worthy of a gigantic transportation
system. They did not fail. This huge grey
castellated building is dignified and handsome.
Some further facts about Windsor St. station, in
view of its importance to the Company, are interesting. The top of the great tower is 225 feet
above the St. Antoine St. level. The building
covers a large city block. Its floor space, exclusive
of train sheds, approximates 102,000 square feet in
area. The interior is of marble. The train shed,
which covers 11 tracks, is over 1,000 feet long. The
public rooms include a nursery, barber shops,
bathrooms, parcel room, information bureau,
telephone and telegraph offices, dining room, restaurant, and immense waiting rooms and concourse.
Approximately 325 offices, dealing with every phase
of the Company's activities and including the offices
of the chief executives, are housed in the floors above.
The St. Lawrence, or Lachine bridge, built in
1886-7, the finest maintained in the province by the
Canadian Pacific, was a single-track structure and,
when erected, considered an outstanding example of
advanced bridge design. It had three 80-foot deck
girders, one 120-foot deck truss span, eight 240-foot
deck trusses, two 270-foot flanking spans and two
channel spans each 408 feet long. When, in recent
years, traffic on the Farnham sub-division so increased as to demand double tracking of this
bridge, a number of unusual engineering problems
arose, which were made more difficult by the necessity of keeping the bridge open to traffic while the
work went on. But the Company's experts solved
all these problems and the old single-track structure
was replaced by two parallel single-track bridges
designed for much heavier loading.
In 1894, the Chateau Frontenac, at Quebec, was
erected. As then built, it consisted of six storeys.
Since that time it has been very greatly enlarged, as
a six-storey extension was added in 1904, a seven-
and nine-storey extension (to the Mount Carmel
wing) in 1906, and another six-storey extension
in 1915, while a portion of the building damaged
by fire was rebuilt in 1916. Finally, great additions,
including a gigantic eighteen-storey tower, were
begun in 1920 and are now practically completed.
These latter additions bring the number of rooms
in the hotel up to 700, more than double the former
The remodelled Chateau Frontenac is undoubtedly
one of the finest hotels on the continent. Designed
on the lines of a 17th century French chateau, and
set like an eagle's nest on the towering heights at
the very spot where the castle of the Governor once
stood, it harmonizes perfectly with the historic
atmosphere of Quebec. Always noted as the centre
for the city's summer tourist and winter sports
activities, it is now in a position to render visitors
even better service than formerly.
In 1897, the combined Place Viger Hotel and
Station  at Montreal   was  erected.    The  building
Page Fifteen Quebec Province and
cost $450,000, and was a four - and five-storey structure of stone and brick, with a seven-storey tower.
The Company's 1900 programme included the
erection of the eight-storey stone and brick Telegraph Building in Montreal costing just under
$400,000. Three years later the enormous Angus
Shops were established at Montreal. They then
included some 31 buildings, and cost $2,250,000.
Since that time, extensions in 1908, 1912, 1913, 1918
and 1920 have increased the total cost of the shops,
exclusive of tracks and most of the machinery, to
approximately $4,000,000. The establishment,
broadly speaking, is divided into shops devoted
exclusively to car works, shops for locomotive
construction and repairs and shops common to both
these departments, is equipped with machinery of
the finest and most modern type and is capable of
building one complete freight train and one complete
passenger train every day. When fully manned,
the shops give employment to 9,000 persons, no
small proportion of the population of Montreal.
The present two-storey concrete Place Viger
station was built in 1911 and in the following year
alterations, including the remodelling of the former
station and its conversion to hotel use, were carried
The Lachine canal swing bridge, replacing a single-
track structure built in 1887, was erected in 1913 at
the time of the Montreal-Brigham Junction double-
tracking operations, is of a remarkable type and
was constructed with remarkable speed—in 20
weeks, to be exact. In 1915, the Quebec freight
office building and sheds, one and two storeys in
height, were erected at a cost of $114,000. There
are two sheds, one for inbound and one for outbound freight, having a floor space of 30,000 and
12,000 square feet respectively.
The new Palais station was built at Quebec in
1916, near the old station, at the foot of Palace Hill.
Costing $335,000—$365,000 if one includes the
power house—it is a one- and two-storey structure of
stone and brick with concrete foundations. This
station, designed in a similar style to that of the
Chateau Frontenac, is undoubtedly one of the most
beautiful on the continent, especially in its appropriate interior decorations.
The Canadian Pacific terminals at Montreal
are extremely impressive both for extent and activity.
There are over 20 stations, yards and terminals
almost completely encircling the city. At Glen
Yard are the passenger-coach storage and repair
depots, and the sleeping and dining car depot, which
sends out an average of 500 buffet and dining cars
a month and is believed to be the largest of its kind
in North America. The Angus Shops, Place
Viger and Windsor Street stations have already
been described. Sortin handles westbound freight
trains and holds export freight pending the arrival
of ships to take it. St. Luc Junction is a busy
sorting yard. At Outremont, the largest Montreal
freight terminal, all freight going east via St.
Martin's Junction is assembled. Mile End yards
are also busy with freight. The East End cattle
yards are nearly always crowded. Hochelaga is a
freight shed and a passenger coach supply depot for
Place Viger. The freight car repair shops for the
Quebec district are also here. On the Lachine
canal are the terminals for the Cote St. Paul and
Atwater lines.
Among its establishments in the Province, the
Company's East End abattoir at Montreal should
not be forgotten. This abattoir, which adjoins
the Canadian Pacific Eastern cattle market, is
operated on lease entirely under Canadian Pacific
management. It was opened in 1921, to fill an
urgent need. Previously maintained by a Montreal
company, it was closed down when the firm to
which it belonged opened an abattoir in another
portion of the city. This action inflicted inconvenience and hardship on the retail butchers situated
in the East End, who petitioned the city and the
Canadian Pacific to re-open the abattoir. After
other private enterprises had been unsuccessfully
solicited, the Canadian Pacific once more stepped
into the breach for the service of the community and
agreed to take over the plant.    Hence it is   in   no
-HUM   W^W\ *.':i
! m
>         ft
It           .. ......         .   ,^„>      '             ^,.                     '      ,f
Laying of the Con
ier-stone of the Palais Station, Quebec, 1915, by Si
K.C.M.G., Premier of Quebec
■>,'>-■'■■'■ ■     ;■     ~m£&. :        -::^.■..■■
r Lomer Gouin,
Page Sixteen The Canadian Pacific
The Re-constructed Canadian Pacific St. Lawrence Bridge near Lachine.
Inset: The Original Bridge under Construction, Winter of 1886-1887
sense in competition with the packing companies,
but is operated solely to meet the wishes of the
East End butchers.
The killing and chilling plant of this abattoir is
one of the finest in Canada, with a weekly capacity
of 1,200 head of cattle, 2,500 sheep and lambs and
2,000 hogs. It kills and chills stock brought in to
the market by drovers and farmers and offered for
sale on the market. It also handles stock from the
Winnipeg market.
So much for the Company's establishments.
Turning now to its work in co-operation with the
province, we find an extremely satisfying record.
In aiding industrial development in Quebec, for
example, the Canadian Pacific has followed its
long established policy of working very closely in
touch with the various towns and cities located
along its lines.
The Industrial and other departments have made
a point of assisting Boards of Trade, City Councils
and other municipal bodies, in helping to establish
industries in towns such as Shawinigan Falls, St.
Johns, St. Hyacinthe, Sherbrooke, Hull, Trois
Rivieres, Drummondville and other places.
Much of this growth, with the consequent influx
of outside capital, has been induced by calling attention to industrial opportunities in the province, and
manufacturers have been furnished with detailed
reports and facts covering their particular problems.
No less in Quebec than in all other parts of Canada
the Canadian Pacific has done a great work in the
encouragement of better farming. The primary
importance of this branch of industry to the country
and province has never failed to receive its full
recognition by those responsible for the Company's
policies, and the fact that Canada has won recognition as one of the world's foremost agricultural
nations is in an important measure due to the
Company's activities in that regard.    Better farm
ing and consequently more prosperous farmers is the
goal to which Canada must work, and recognizing
this fact the Canadian Pacific has sent over its lines
in Quebec as well as in the West, 'Better Farming
Trains,' which have given valuable instructive
lectures and demonstrations in livestock and
poultry husbandry and in apiculture, horticulture,
field crops and grains and in domestic science.
Upon more than one occasion, also, the farmers of
Quebec have been assisted in tiding over periods of
particular difficulty by special rate arrangements
put into effect by the Company.
Again, there is the tourist traffic. The Province
of Quebec, with its unusually diverse and picturesque history, its magnificent scenery, the quaint
old-world atmosphere of its capital and of its little
villages and its wonderful hunting and fishing, is one
of the most attractive pleasure grounds it is possible
to imagine. The Canadian Pacific, early recognizing this, has built up a gradually increasing tourist
traffic in certain parts of Quebec, such as the capital,
the Laurentian Mountains, the Gatineau Valley,
the Pontiac, Kipawa, Eastern Townships and St.
Maurice districts, which has brought them a large
measure of prosperity. This is especially true of
Quebec City, the Laurentians and the Gatineau
Valley, which the Canadian Pacific may justly
claim to have placed on the tourist's map.
As a result of the persistent work of the Company,
it gradually became known throughout the United
States that there was an old but ever-youthful city
on the St. Lawrence which had been the birthplace of North American civilization, that it offered
all the color of the 17th Century in the midst of the
20th, that its summer attractions and winter sports
facilities were unexcelled, and that there was a palatial hotel there—the Chateau Frontenac—from
which  one   might  enjoy   these   delights   in  ultra-
Page Seventeen Quebec Province and
modern comfort. It also became known that in the
province of which this city was the capital, there
were places far from the trials and cares of city life,
yet easily accessible by Canadian Pacific, where, in
the proper season, one might get that record moose
head or trout, hunt the deer, go swimming, canoeing, enjoy such pastimes as boating and tennis or
simply 'laze around,' with the maximum of pleasure
and the minimum of effort.
As a result of this campaign, thousands of sportsmen now throng the woods and fish the lakes and
streams of Quebec's magnificent hinterland each
year, revelling in its beauty and the plentitude and
diversity of its game, while visitors from all parts of
the continent are drawn to the capital for the winter
sports and carnival. Last season over one thousand
people came up from the United States alone to see
the Eastern International Dog-sled Derby, which
the Canadian Pacific has fostered by the donation of
a fine cup and by the expenditure of much hard cash.
Other events of the carnival have been generously
supported by the Company. Great sums have been
spent on publicity drawing the attention of tourists
to the advantages offered by the Province of Quebec.
It would be hard to estimate the benefits, financial
and otherwise, reaped by the people of the province
in consequence of this lavish scattering of good
seed on the part of the Canadian Pacific.
In no field has the Canadian Pacific done more to
build up the Province of Quebec than in her steamship service. It was in 1903 that the world-famous
red and white checks of the Canadian Pacific house
flag appeared upon the Atlantic—the Pacific fleet
having then been established for many years. The
fifteen fine vessels maintained by the Elder, Dempster Company on their service between Canada and
England were purchased outright for the sum of
approximately £1,500,000. This new departure was
in accordance with the long-established policy of the
Company of not merely waiting for passenger and
freight traffic to support the railway but of creating
With the founding of its trans-Atlantic service,
the Canadian Pacific added the final lap to the 'all-
red ' road it has since maintained from Europe via
Canada to the Orient, half-way around the globe,
and thrust a giant pipe-line into the Old World to
carry into this country a fair share of the vast flood
of immigration pouring constantly Westward. The
imposing immigration figures of the 1903-1913
period are surely sufficient testimony to the value
of that pipe-line. That the Canadian Pacific
might justly claim to have been the dominating factor
in building up those figures is also made evident by
the fact that the Company's steamship service soon
took the lead as the greatest and most active fleet
plying between Canada and Europe, and, of late
years, has been so far ahead of its competitors that it
has frequently had a larger passenger tonnage in
operation than all other steamship lines serving
Canada put together. The benefits reaped by the
Province of Quebec from this activity lie in the
exclusive use, during the seven and a half months'
open season, of the St. Lawrence route, with its
chief ports, Quebec and Montreal, by the Canadian
Pacific   steamships.
Since 1903, the trans-Atlantic service has rapidly
grown to enormous dimensions. Vessel after vessel
has been built and added, and the acquisition of the
Allan Line, carrying with it the great traditions
based on its proud record as Canada's oldest
steamship company, crowned the Canadian Pacific
service with supremacy.
There are at present 17 passenger and 11 cargo
vessels flying the Canadian Pacific flag on the
Atlantic. Of these, the renowned 'Empresses,'
the 'Empress of Scotland,' 25,000 gross tons, and the
'Empress of France,' 18,400 gross tons, the 'Mont-
laurier,' 17,000 gross tons, and the 'Montroyal,'
15,850 gross tons, the latter of the popular 'M*
class, are the largest. But the remainder of the
trans-Atlantic fleet includes some of its finest
ships, among which may be mentioned the 'Montcalm,' 16,400 gross tons, 'Montrose,' 16,400 gross
tons, 'Montclare,' 16,400 gross tons, 'Minnedosa,'
14,000 gross tons, and 'Melita,' 14,000 gross tons.
A Glimpse of the Canadian Pacific docks in Montreal Harbor
with one of the Canadian Pacific liners
Page Eighteen The Canadian Pacific
A word as to the future, in closing this account of
the Company's work in the Province of Quebec,
is apt. The 1924 programme of construction
includes:—a new station, with subways to connect the passenger platforms, modern freight shed
and offices with team delivery tracks, at Trois
Rivieres; completion of rock-ballasting on the main
line between Montreal and Toronto and continuation
of that work between Montreal and Quebec;
building of passing tracks, business tracks and yard
extensions at Eastray, Fulford, West Shefford,
Adamsville, Montreal and Joliette; a new passenger
station at Labelle; extension of platforms at all
stations between Montreal and Vaudreuil; new
engine-houses    and    engine-house    extensions    at
Trois Rivieres, St. Gabriel and Grandes Piles;
new water-tanks, 60,000 gallon capacity, of reinforced concrete and creosoted timber, at Megantic
and Rigaud; additional mechanical and car department equipment at Farnham, Outremont, Glen
Yard and Trois Rivieres; and the usual programme
of bridge and building repairs and replacements,
ballasting and railroad tie renewals.
As for the steamships, 13 passenger and 10 cargo
vessels will be in commission on the St. Lawrence
route in 1924, a considerable increase over 1923,
with the immense total of 254,606 gross tons
(196,071 of which is passenger tonnage). The
'Empress of France' will appear almost as a new
Looking towards the Isle of Orleans from a Window of the Prince of Wales' Suite,
Chateau Frontenac, with a Canadian Pacific Liner in Mid-stream
Page Nineteen Quebec Province and the Canadian Pacific
ship, having been completely renovated and converted to an oil-burner, with speed increased. All
vessels will terminate their voyages at Montreal
except the 'Empresses,' the 'Montroyal,' and the
'Montlaurier,' which make Quebec their terminus.
According to the latest sailing list, the passenger
fleet will make 71 round voyages to Montreal and
31 to Quebec. A great year is anticipated in both
freight and passenger traffic, especially in the latter,
on account of the intensified immigration policy of
the Dominion Government and the bonus of $15
allowed on the steamship passages of British
One wishes that one might linger over the human
side of the story of the relations of the Canadian
Pacific with the Province of Quebec. For upon
this side there lies so much which is so well worth
the telling. Perhaps it is because of the notable
and invaluable support her great leaders gave to the
Canadian Pacific in the trying days of the Company's
infancy and have since given it; perhaps because she
so  well   realizes  that   the   Company   has   been   of
assistance to her; perhaps because the heart of the
Company has always been within her boundaries,
and its foremost officials have ever been citizens of
her chief city, by adoption at least, and long familiar,
not as mere names but as human beings, to her own
people; whatever the cause, the Province of Quebec
has constantly shown a peculiar affection for the
Canadian Pacific. She has proven it scores of times,
as when her men and women recently turned out by
thousands in pouring rain to mourn with the
Company the loss of Lord Shaughnessy. And the
Canadian Pacific reciprocates the feeling and has
tried to show its gratitude. But the human side
in its entirety is a story to be read only between the
lines of this record.
One thing, however, is certain. With the good
feeling which exists between the Canadian Pacific
and the great old Province of Quebec, neither,
as they march forward in unity along the trail
blazed by those gallant adventurers of long ago
towards the goal of an ever greater Canada, need
fear the future.
The Canadian Pacific Memorial to Abraham Martin,
First King's Pilot of the  St. Lawrence,
Unveiled May 12th, 1923
Page Twenty  


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