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Your journey through the Canadian Rockies : westbound Canadian Pacific Railway Company. Public Relations & Advertising 1937

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CANADIA
ROCKIES
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Published by Canadian Pacific News Department—Price 25 cents
CANADIAN PACIFIC Spans   the   Vr orld
• 39% Less Ocean to Europe
AIR-LINE ROUTE . . . Frequent sailings via the smooth St. Lawrence
Seaway from Montreal and Quebec (summer) . . . Saint John, N.B.,
and Halifax, N.S. (winter) ... to and from British and Continental
ports . . . the majestic Empress of Britain and other great Empress,
Duchess and "Mont" ships of the CANADIAN PACIFIC fleet set new
standards of trans-Atlantic service.
FAST FREIGHT SERVICE provided by Empress, Duchess, "Mont"
liners and "Beaver" cargo ships.
• Canada and United States
THE CANADIAN PACIFIC RAILWAY (comprising 21,235 miles
of operated and controlled lines) reaches from the Atlantic to the Pacific,
across Canada and into the United States. The main line, Montreal to
Vancouver, 2,886 miles, passes through the heart of the famous Canadian
Rockies, with their crowning jewels of Banff, Lake Louise and Emerald
Lake, unsurpassed as vacation resorts. Modern and comfortable
trans-continental and local passenger train services link the important
cities, industrial sections, agricultural regions and holiday resorts.
Fast and efficient freight service. Convenient coastal and inland
steamship services. Builds and operates own sleeping, dining and parlor
cars.
ALASKA—Frequent service by Canadian Pacific "Princess" liners from
Vancouver (connections from Victoria and Seattle) to Skagway and return via the sheltered "Inside Passage."
GREAT LAKES—Canadian Pacific inland steamships sail semi-weekly
during the summer months between Port McNicoll and Fort William
via an attractive lake and river route.
• Honolulu, Orient and South Seas
Regular sailings between Vancouver, Victoria and Yokohama, Kobe,
Nagasaki, Shanghai, Hong Kong, Manila, provide convenient passenger
and freight schedules.
DIRECT EXPRESS ROUTE TO ORIENT . . . swift sister ships,
Empress of Asia and Empress of Russia . . . Yokohama in 10 days flat!
VIA HONOLULU . . . The mighty Empress of Japan and her running
mate, Empress of Canada, make Honolulu in 5 days, Yokohama in just
8 days more.
SOUTH SEAS . . . Canadian Australasian Line fast modern liners to
Honolulu, Fiji, New Zealand and Australia.
• Round-ihe-World
ANNUAL WORLD CRUISE on the famous Empress of Britain,
perfectly timed to see world-renowned beauty spots at their best . . .
Other attractive cruises to West Indies, Norwegian Fjords, etc.
INDEPENDENT ROUND-THE-WORLD TOURS, choice of over
200 itineraries ... 179 offices maintained throughout the World to
assist CANADIAN PACIFIC patrons.
• Hotels, Express, Communications, Colonization
HOTELS ... A chain of comfort across Canada from Atlantic to
Pacific . . . Fifteen hotels in leading cities and resorts, including
Chateau Frontenac, Quebec; Royal York, Toronto; Banff Springs;
Empress Hotel, Victoria . . . Eight rustic lodges in the Canadian
Rocjqes and at Ontario fishing resorts.
COMMUNICATIONS AND EXPRESS . . . owned and operated by
the CANADIAN PACIFIC . . . trans-Canada service . . . worldwide connections . . . travellers' cheques-^—gppd the world over.
COLONIZATION . . . Canadian Pacific land-^ttlement policies,
together with the large acreage of fertile agricultural la^p! still for sale
in the West, are helping to develop a richer Canada.
CANADIAN   PACIFIC
WORLD'S GREATEST TRAVEL SYSTEM Your Journey
THROUGH THE
CANADIAN ROCKIES
From Calgary, Alberta, to Vancouver and
Victoria in British Columbia
^he Canadian Rockies, which by
their giant bulk divide the Prairies and
the Pacific Coast, form one of the most remarkable mountain regions of the world. Composed
of some five ranges, they offer over 600 miles
of magnificent scenery—snowy peaks, glaciers,
rugged precipices, waterfalls, foaming torrents,
canyons, and lakes like vast sapphires and amethysts set in the spruce-clad mountains. Five
National Parks are located in this Alpine
wonderland, and the Canadian Pacific is the
only rail route serving them; they are: the Banff,
Kootenay, Yoho, Glacier and Mount Revelstoke national parks.
^he Canadian Rockies attract every
year thousands of eager visitors, for whom
attractive hotels and rustic mountain lodges
provide comfortable headquarters.
A Canadian Pacific Publication
Published by the News Department
Canadian Pacific Railway
PRICE 25 CENTS
Printed in Canada 1937 CANADIAN
PACIFIC
RAILWAY
STEAMSHIPS
COMMUNICATIONS
^EXPRESS   -   HOTELS
HOW TO READ THIS BOOK
This book is written for the reader travelling westward;
a companion booklet is written for readers travelling eastward.
At the head of almost every page is a list of stations
identified by mileage from the previous divisional point.
Underneath, those places are described.
Mileage.      Mileage boards are attached to telegraph poles alongside
the track.
Calculate westwards from  the  divisional point.    Thus, Banff is 81.9
miles west of Calgary—Glacier is 85.4 miles west of Field.
North and South of Track.    If you  ride facing the   locomotive,   the
north is:
On your right—travelling westward
The mileage boards are calculated from the previous divisional
point.    These divisional points are, going westward:
Calgary, Field, Revelstoke, Kamloops, North Bend, Vancouver.
Contents Text Map
Calgary to Banff  3 5
Banff to Lake Louise  16 18
Lake Louise to Field  23 27
Motor Drives in the Rockies  30
Field to Revelstoke  34 35, 38, 42
Lake Windermere Branch  35
Arrow Lakes Steamer Service  43
Revelstoke to Kamloops  44, 47        45, 47
Okanagan Valley Branch  45
Kamloops to Vancouver  48 47, 49, 54
Vancouver to Victoria and Seattle  60 Calgary
Calgary—The Hotel Palliser
Hotel At the west end of the
Palliser station block is the imposing Canadian Pacific
hotel, the Palliser. This handsome
structure comprises fourteen floors
in an "E" shape, which makes
every room an outside room. From
the roof garden one can obtain
a beautiful view of the Canadian
Rockies.
CALGARY (population 84,000)
the most important city on this
route between Winnipeg and Vancouver, is the business centre of
southern Alberta. Founded a little
over fifty years ago, it is a flourishing industrial, agricultural and
educational centre, with fine buildings and many manufacturing
establishments.
Natural Resources At the east end of the platform is the building of
the Natural Resources Department of the Canadian Pacific Railway, which administers all the company's land,
mineral and timber interests in the west. The Canadian Pacific has a
very simple but excellent method of settling experienced irrigation
farmers on the land, giving thirty-five years for payment of the cost
of the land, and after a down payment of 7% of the purchase price,
first year's use of the land is free. This method has been the means
of creating many fine homes and contented settlers.
A Beautiful City Calgary has municipally owned water works, electric light and power system and street railway and
asphalt paving plants. Natural gas is piped at very cheap prices,
principally from the Turner Valley. The city has some beautiful parks
and many golf courses, including a municipal course.
The city is well supplied with clay and building deposits, and is
close to immense developed coal areas, large developed water powers,
and large gas and oil deposits. A 2,500,000-bushel Dominion Government terminal elevator is located here. Amongst the important industries of the city are meat packing, flour milling and oil refining.
Immediately to the east of Calgary, and extending close to the
railway, and on both sides, for about 140 miles, is a large irrigated land
project developed by the Canadian Pacific Railway. Drawing its
water supplies from the Bow River, this block consists of over 3,000,000
acres, of which a great portion will ultimately be brought under irrigation. 4
The  Foothills
Calgary
Mileage
Altitude
South Side of Track
west of
above
North Side of Track
Calgary
sea-level
0.0
CALGARY
3438
The railway follows the
valley of the Bow River
crossing to the north
side of the river 7K
miles west of Calgary.
Bow River.
9.4
Keith
3563
The motor road from
Calgary to Banff may
be seen now and again.
In the foothill country.
22.8
Cochrane
3750
Many stock ranches may
be seen.
33.0
Radnor
3896
The valley of the Ghost
River enters the Bow
River at this point and
is dammed to form a
lake—Ghost Lake—for
power development.
In    the    heart    of    the
41.6
Morley
4078
Bow River.
Stoney  Indian  Reserve.
(See page 5).
52.1
Seebe
4218
Site of hydro-electric
plants.
Cross   the    Bow   River
after leaving Seebe.
Calgary (continued)
The Stampede Alberta, still a country of considerable stock-raising
interests, was until recent years one of the principal
ranching sections of Canada; and in the "Stampede" held every summer at Calgary—a famous frontier-day celebration that draws competitors from all parts of the continent—the glories of the Old West
are revived annually in a week's carnival of cowboy sports and contests.
Tributary to Calgary is a most prosperous agricultural, beef-raising
and ranching district, in area some thousands of square miles, and by
virtue of the nutritious and abundant grasses growing throughout this
territory, cattle raised are of excellent quality. Grain and vegetables
produced in this district are also very fine.
Calgary is an important railway centre. Branch Canadian Pacific lines run (a)
north to Edmonton, the capital of Alberta, through a prosperous mixed farming
country; (b) south to Lethbridge and Macleod. The main line continues eastward
from Calgary to Regina, Winnipeg, Toronto, Ottawa and Montreal.
Nearing the Rockies Westward from Calgary we enter the Canadian
Rockies, which interpose their giant bulk
between the provinces of Alberta and British Columbia. The Rockies
can actually first be seen about sixty miles east of Calgary, but the finest
distant view is that obtained from the roof garden of the Palliser
Hotel.    Now we leave the city and the hotel behind.    From Calgary A  Ranching  Country
tyring
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10
The Route from Calgary to Banff
to Banff the railway climbs 1,100 NATURE has thrown up the
feet in eighty miles. The great Canadian Rockies on so vast a
stretches of level prairie cease, and scale that the human mind can
the rolling, grassy foothills succeed, with difficulty grasp their great-
rising tier upon tier to the base of ness, except by some com-
the great ranges to which they are parison. The "Dominion," fastest
the outposts. There, hung among Canadian Pacific train, takes
the clouds and quivering in the twenty-three hours to pass from
warm summer air, sharp as a knife Cochrane, at the entrance to the
blade, they are a dramatic sight Rockies, to Mission, where it
never to be forgotten. enters the coastal plain.    Two of
the  best  known  railway  routes
The In the lower valleys can   across   the   Swiss   Alps   are   the
Foothills     be seen many ranches,   St. Gothard and the Simplon.   It
for this is a great stock  takes an express train five hours
raising country, and on the higher  to travel from Lucerne to Como,
terraces are often to be witnessed  or from Lausanne to Arona.
great   herds  of  cattle  and  sheep       Wh therefore,  Edward
^e l°ng transverse valleys of whymper, the hero of the Matter-
this foothill country are the old hor* yde'scrihed the Canadian
grooves down which came the
spent glaciers from the higher
mountains.      Here,    and   through
nearly t.he .^hole eastern slope of Canadian  Ro*£es  stretch  from
the Rocky Mountains to the Great  th  G     Dracticanv to Vancouver
Divide,   the   railway   follows   the _oVer six hundred mUes of Alpine
tumultuous course of the glacial-  scenerv
green Bow River—part of one of
the greatest river systems of America, subsequently becoming a
tributary of the South Saskatchewan River, which eventually, as the
Saskatchewan River, drains into Lake Winnipeg.
Cochrane      is one of the principal points in the ranching country.
Ascending the Bow  River from  here,  and gaining the
top of the first terrace, a full view of the Rockies is at last obtained.
Morley is the modern home of the Stoney Indians, once a very warlike race but now the most industrious of red men. The
foothills are full of Indian lore. The whole district was conceived as
a great giant; thence there are the Knee Hills, the Hand Hills, the
Elbow and the Ghost Rivers, and other names equally picturesque.
Kananaskis Falls, on the Bow River, were named after a mythical
Cree chief, the word meaning "a tall straight pine with branches near
the top."
Seebe     is the site of two hydro-electric power plants which supply
Calgary with its electrical power.    The lower plant was completed in 1911, the upper one in 1915.    The latter can be seen from
Rockies as fifty Switzerlands
thrown into one, this certainly
was no exaggeration.    The Entering  the  Rockies
South Side of Track
Mileage
west of
Calgary
Altitude
above         North Side of Track
sea-level
57.3
Exshaw
4260
Cement mills.
The  railway  enters  the
mountains   through   a
62.3
Gap
4248
Grotto Mountain (8880
feet).
narrow opening.
A coal mining town.
The Three Sisters (9744
feet).
67.1
Canmore
4296
Fairholme Mountains.
The railway crosses Cascade River just before
reaching Bankhead.
Mount     Rundle     (9675
feet).
79.6
Bankhead
4581
Coal mining town—now
abandoned.
Headquarters   of   Banff
National Park.
81.9
BANFF
4534
Cascade Mountain (9830
feet).
Sulphur Mountain (8040
feet).
Banff Springs Hotel
the railway. These two plants, with the sub-stations and transmission
lines, represent an investment of about five million dollars. Generators
with a capacity of 31,000 horse power are installed in these power
houses, supplying a current of 55,000 volts which is transmitted over
two high tension transmission lines to the city of Calgary. A supply
of 4,000 horse power at 12,000 volts is also transmitted to the cement
mill at Exshaw.
The upper darn consists of a solid concrete structure 600 feet in
length, capable of discharging 40,000 cubic feet of water per second.
The company has completed a third transmission line to the city of
Calgary, to meet the growing demand for power.
Kananaskis    The district surrounding Kananaskis is rich in  Indian
lore.
Exshaw    has   a   large  Portland cement  mill,   with  an  average
output   of 4,000  barrels a  day.     It  draws  its  supplies  of
limestone and shale
from the excellent deposits close to the mill.
The Gap
The Gap Two almost
vertical
walls of dizzy height,
streaked and capped
with snow and ice,
where the mountains
look almost impenetrable, form what is
known as The Gap, by
which the Canadian
Pacific enters the first
real range of the
Rockies. On the north
is the Fairholme
Range,' the prominent
peak being Grotto
Mountain, while on
the south is the Goat
Range, with Pigeon
Mountain, Wind
Mountain and the
Three  Sisters.    The V\mtiot
MiinUtellffllllllllllilllllllllll/llllllMIDM
Mount Rundle, Vermillion Lake 8
Banff National  Park
Mount Edith
peaks in the Fairholme Range BANFF NATIONAL PARK, in
are fantastically broken; the ones which are situated Banff and
opposite are massive snow-laden Lake Louise, is bounded on the
promontories, rising thousands of west by the interprovincial
feet and penetrated by enormous boundary between Alberta and
alcoves imprisoning all the hues of British Columbia, and on the east
the prism. by,  approximately, the first big
ranges of the Rockies. It has an
A Colossal Upheaval Hundreds of area of 2,585 square miles, its
thousands greatest length being about one
of years ago, in some huge up- hundred miles. No part of the
heaval toward the end of the Rockies exhibits a greater variety
Cretaceous Age, these mountains of sublime and romantic scenery,
were lifted up; some sections were and nowhere are good points of
thrust high in the air, others view and features of special in-
remained almost as level as before, terest so accessible, with so many
Others were tilted more or less good roads and bridle paths,
toward the west, and still others
bent and crumbled under the tremendous pressure from the sides.
We see to-day only the colossal fragments of the original thrusts.
The principal mountain ranges of Banff National Park are the
Vermilion, Kananaskis, Bourgeau, Bow, and Sawback ranges; its
principal river is the Bow. Of the many beautiful lakes within the
Park, the principal are Louise, Moraine, Minnewanka, Hector, Spray,
Kananaskis and Bow.
The Three Sisters   A profile so striking that it is easily distinguishable is formed in the southern range near Canmore
by three companion peaks known as the Three Sisters, the highest
peak reaching a height of 9,734 feet.
In the same neighborhood is a curious group of pillars known as
"hoodoos," some of them ten times as tall as a man and of sufficiently
hard material to withstand the weatherings that have played havoc
with the surrounding bank.
Cascade Mountain As we pass Bankhead, the great bulk of Cascade
Mountain blocks the view. The pass narrows
suddenly. On the left, the sharp peak is Rundle, so called in honor
of an early missionary to the Indians. Here we leave the Bow for a
time and strike up the valley of the Cascade River, directly in the
face of Cascade Mountain, which, apparently but a stone's throw
distant, is really miles away.
(Railway Journey resumed on page 14) Banff
Banff Springs Hotel
BANFF is the administrative
headquarters of Banff National
Park. The town lies embowered
in pine forests and lawns, in a
pocket of a wide circle of pearly-
grey limestone peaks. Warmed by
clear sunshine and kissed by clear
air, exhilarated by the glacial-
green Bow River that flows
through its centre, Banff is the
summer social centre of the
Canadian Rockies.
The Panorama    From the station
of Banff a magnificent pan
orama is to be
witnessed. To the north is the
grey bulk of Cascade Mountain,
towering above the town like a
grim old idol. To the east are
Mount Inglismaldie and the heights
of the Fairholme sub-range. Still
farther to the east the sharp cone of
Mount Peechee closes the view in
that direction.    To the left of Cas
cade rises the wooded ridge of Stoney
Squaw. To the west and up the valley are the distant snowy peaks
of the main range above Simpson Pass. To the left is Sulphur
Mountain; to the south-east the isolated wooded bluff of Tunnel
Mountain and the long serrated spine of Mount Rundle.
From the Bow Bridge the view is even more magnificent, for the
river runs through the centre of the picture, and one who has caught
his first glimpse of this picture close to sunset will never forget its
breath-taking beauty. From the high elevation of Banff Springs
Hotel a somewhat different view is obtained, looking across the junction
of the Bow with the smaller and darker Spray River to the distant
snow-clad barrier of the Fairholme Range.
Banff Springs Hotel Banff is one of the most popular mountain resorts
on the continent—due not only to its environment but also to the beautifully situated and splendidly appointed
Banff Springs Hotel. It has been characterized as probably the finest
mountain hotel in the world. The entire first floor is given over to
public rooms, artistically decorated and furnished, in which the architect
has provided a Scottish baronial atmosphere. Among the features
are the period suites—the Vice-Regal, Georgian, Jacobean, Tudor,
Swiss, Italian and others; the period influence also dominates the
lounges, of which the finest is the Mount Stephen Hall.
At the hotel there is entertainment all the time. One could be perfectly happy just looking out towards the enclosing mountains, watching the swimmers in the warm sulphur-water pool, swimming oneself,
playing tennis, or studying the cosmopolitan types which one meets at
this great caravanserai. 10
Banff
Sight-seeing from an open observation car
Hot Springs Had Banff not become famous for its beauty, it must
have become famous for its hot springs, which are
amongst the most important of this continent. The five chief springs
have a total flow of about a million gallons a day, and issue from the
ground the year round at a temperature of over 90 degrees Fahrenheit.
Excellent swimming in warm sulphur water is afforded at the Upper
Hot Springs (on Sulphur Mountain), the Cave and Basin Bath House,
and at the Banff Springs Hotel. At the Upper Hot Springs, and the
Cave and Basin, the Government has erected handsome swimming pools
and bath houses. Banff Springs Hotel has its own large and beautiful
open-air pool. Here, where the temperatures of the summer air and
the water are delightfully blended, and spring diving-boards offer
opportunity for sport to expert swimmers, the sloping depth of the
bath gives confidence to beginners at the shallow end; while the enclosed
cold fresh-water pool adjacent to the warm bath provides an invigorating
plunge. Expert masseurs are in attendance at the Turkish baths
attached.
The Animal Corral The tourist will find plenty of interest in the
little town of Banff itself, with its churches,
cinemas and shops, interspersed with groups of cowboys in woolly
chaps and gay-colored kerchiefs, sloe-eyed Indians in buckskin coats
and moccasins, packers, trappers, guides and other truly mountain
men. Near the fine bridge over the Bow River are the Administration
Offices of the Park, the Museum, Zoo and Royal Canadian Mounted
Police headquarters.
The animal corral is 1J^ miles from the town, an immense fenced-in
area where a herd of buffalo, Rocky Mountain sheep, goat, moose,
antelope, elk and other kindred of the wild roam at will through the
vast forested pasturage. You can drive into this corral quite close up
to the buffalo and enjoy studying them in these surroundings.
Golf and Tennis An eighteen-hole golf course, superbly located on
the banks of the Bow River and guarded by huge
bastions of rock, turreted and pinnacled like the fortified castle of old,
is open to all visitors to Banff for a small fee. The course has been
entirely reconstructed by the Canadian Pacific, under the supervision
of Stanley Thompson, and now offers one of the finest, most perfectly
balanced and most scenically beautiful courses in the world. An
attractive club house, at the first tee, with a "Pro." in attendance, has
a supply of balls, clubs, etc.
For tennis players the hotel has several admirable hard courts, and
because the exquisite summer climate of Banff is very conducive to
both golf and tennis, a large number of people may always be seen
enjoying the games. il/liimiiii|m..,..,,nii.,l,,,,,,mu,MIMrTmTTT— 12
Banff
ROADS
■ TRAILS
Scale of Miles
12      3      4      5
_! I I 1_
CANADIAN PACIFIC RY.
Banff and its vicinity
Recreation Grounds This section of the park, by the Bow River, is
not far from the bridge and can be reached by
a delightful road by the river, or from the Cave and Basin motor road.
There is a building for recreation purposes, also spaces for baseball,
tennis, football and cricket. The club house of the Banff Gun Club
is not far distant, and here trap shooting competitions are held.
Boating and A few minutes from the bridge is the Bow River
Launch Trips Boat-house. From here motor launches set out on
a 12-mile trip in which the surrounding mountains
are seen from a unique and advantageous point of view. Here, also,
canoes and row boats are obtainable.
"Indian Days" "Indian Days" at Banff is one of the most colorful
spectacles on the North American continent. Between
three and four hundred Stoney Indians come from the Morley reserve,
40 miles east of Banff, for their tribal sports. Each morning they have
a parade in which the majority of the Indians take part, the tribe
all mounted, while many splendid horses are used, resplendent in
gorgeous trappings and headpieces. The costumes of both men and
women are creations of white buckskin, beadwork and ermine, their
color schemes being exceedingly wonderful, and they ride with dignity
and poise. yilllllEI
The Braves
greet
the Fair
immmm.
K21111W
Banff offers
varied skiing terrain
Ski Meet at Mt. Norquay near Banff 14 Banff
Walking       There are a large num- IN THE various mountain ranges
and Riding   ber of beautiful trails that    make    up    the    Canadian
and roads leading from Rockies—the Rockies proper, the
Banff, offering delightful rides, drives Selkirks, and the Monashee, Coast
and walks of almost any desired Cascade   and   Purcell   Ranges—
length. Just three minutes from the there are,  according to Govern-
Banff Springs Hotel is one of the ment measurements, not including
most beautiful spots in Banff, the innumerable mountains that have
Bow Falls; and from here one may not yet been named or measured,
keep on going down a lovely pine- 630 peaks over 6,000 feet above
canopied avenue which leads from sea-level; 308 between 7,000 feet
the Bow Bridge to the foot of the and   10,000   feet;   161   between
falls below the hotel. 10,000 feet and 12,000 feet; 4 over
12,000 feet.
On the east side of the Bow Falls Many of the principal moun-
is the road which runs up Tunnel tains seen by the traveller from
Mountain.      It    affords    splendid the train or at the most popular
views of the Bow Valley and the mountain resorts—at and around
surrounding    mountains.    Another Banff, Lake Louise, Moraine Lake,
beautiful walk is past the Cave and Lake    O'Hara,    Field,    Emerald
Basin to Sundance Canyon.    Sul- Lake,    and    the    Yoho    Valley,
phur   Mountain,   a   long   wooded etc.— average    a    height   above
ridge, at the summit of which is an the floor of the valleys at their
observatory, and on the slopes of base of almost a mile. The Cana-
which is the clubhouse of the Alpine dian Rockies, being rich in glaciers
Club of Canada;  Cascade  Moun- and   neve   fields,   are   generally
tain,   a  massive  giant  facing  the snow-covered the year round,
station; Mount Rundle, the sharp
pointed edge of which forms one of the most striking features of the
landscape—Mount Norquay and Stoney Squaw—-are all within easy
walking distance, and afford climbs not exceeding one day.
Motoring Many of the walking trips mentioned may be taken by
saddle-pony or automobile, and in addition there are
scores of other trips too lengthy for the ordinary walker.
A short motor run of eight miles brings you to the shores of Lake
Minnewanka, a beautiful sheet of steel-blue sheen where you can catch
huge lake trout. A well-graded road leads out from Banff westward
for sixteen miles up the Bow Valley to Johnston Canyon, where a series
of waterfalls, ending in a final foaming cascade, is most attractive.
This road continues to Lake Louise, the Yoho Valley, Field, Emerald
Lake and Golden. fe:
(See also Banff-Windermere Road, page 15)
Trail Trips Numerous as are the motor drives about Banff, beautiful
as are the spots reached by car, there are many places
which can only be approached by trail that rank amongst the most
attractive playgrounds of the Rockies. There are over 700 miles of
good trails in Banff National Park, many of which radiate from Banff.
With guides and ponies the visitor may find his way to Mystic Lake,
in the heart of the Sawback Range, to Ghost River, and through the
Indian Reservation to the town of Morley, the Spray Lakes, the Kananaskis Lakes, and dozens of other magic places.
Mount Assiniboine A particularly fine pony trip from Banff, and
one on which a week can be profitably spent,
is that to Mount Assiniboine—the "Matterhorn of the Rockies." This
can be reached over the spectacular new trail by way of Brewster
Creek, or by way of the Spray Lakes, and the return made by traversing the beautiful summit country in the vicinity of the mountain,
through the heather and flowers of Simpson Pass and down Healy
Creek. The route has been well established, with overnight accommodation at convenient points en route, while camp facilities are
available at Mount Assiniboine Lodge, at the foot of the Mountain.
Winter Sports      Banff is rapidly becoming an important centre for
winter sports, the Annual Winter Sports Carnival in
February attracting large crowds.    Ski-ing, tobogganing, skating, and
bob-sledding are amongst the attractions. Banff-Windermere  Road      15
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On The Banff-Windermere Road
Banff-Windermere Of great interest
Road to   automobile
enthusiasts is the
Banff-Winder mere automobile road
across the Canadian Rockies. This
spectacular journey through a hundred miles of the most magnificent mountain scenery in America
can be commenced at either Banff or
Lake Louise, the road being at first
that which connects those two
points. At Castle Mountain it
crosses the Bow River, turns south
past where it crosses the Vermilion
Pass (altitude 5,264 feet).    Here it
KOOTENAY National Park
(area 587 square miles) lies
between the southern portions
of Banff and Yoho Parks, and
comprises the Vermilion, Mitchell
and Briscoe Ranges. The Kootenay River flows through its
southern part, with a large tributary in the Vermilion. At the
southwest end it almost touches
the eastern bank of the Columbia
River a little below Lake Windermere. The Banff-Windermere
Road traverses the centre of this
park.
enters Kootenay Park. From
Marble Canyon (about 9 miles from the summit of the pass),
a remarkable fissure three hundred feet deep, there is a trail to the
curious Ochre beds.
The road then follows the Vermilion River to its junction with the
Kootenay River. Crossing the Kootenay, it leads through a beautiful
avenue of virgin forest, and, ascending the Sinclair Pass between the
Briscoe and Stanford Ranges, reaches Radium Hot Springs, long
famous for their therapeutic qualities; there the Canadian Government
operates a fine swimming pool. Emerging through the gap of Sinclair
Canyon it meets the Columbia River and—nine miles beyond—the
beautiful Lake Windermere.
Radium This drive has been rendered even more delightful
Hot Springs by the construction of a rustic lodge   at   Radium
Lodge Hot Springs, perched above the road so as to com
mand a wonderful view of the Purcell Range
through the Canyon Gap. Lake Windermere can be reached also by
railway from Golden. (See page 35). The journey can be continued
along the east or west side of Lake Windermere and the Kootenay
River, through Canal Flats and Fort Steele, to Cranbrook. There
the road connects with other highways leading south across the
international boundary, thus forming the last link in the "Grand
Circle Tour" to California.
Excursions are available from both Banff and Lake Louise during
the summer months for this trip to Lake Windermere—including the
3-day ''Lariat Trail" to Radium Hot Springs and thence back over
the Columbia River Highway to Golden and the Kicking Horse Trail. 16
Castle  Mountain
South Side of Track
Mileage
west of
Calgary
Altitude
above North Side of Track
sea-level
Motor Detour to Lake Louise, Yoho Valley,
Emerald Lake and Golden,
See page 30.
Following along the Bow
River. 81.9
Bourgeau   Range   (8415
feet).
Mount   Lougheed (8888    88.0
feet).
Mount   Massive    (7990
feet).
Pilot    Mountain    (9690    92.9
feet). Rustic bridge leading to Redearth  Creek.
Copper Mountain (9170
feet).
Storm Mountain (10372
feet) and Vermilion Pass.
Motor   Road   to   Lake
Windermere.
BANFF
Sawback
Massive
4534
4543
4585
Mount Edith (8380 feet)
is the pointed spire-like
peak.
Mount Cory (9194 feet).
Sawback Range (10,000
feet).
Castle Mountain (9040
feet). The line follows
the base of this mountain for several miles.
99.0    Castle Mountain     4676
Eldon
4822
4918
A glimpse of Mount Bi- 106.5
dent (10119 feet) through
gap in the peaks.
A fine view of the great 110.6 Temple
peaks in the Valley of
the Ten Peaks. Delta-
/orm (11235 feet) being
conspicuous.
Mount Temple (11626
feet).
Chateau Lake Louise is 116.6      LAKE LOUISE      5050
3    miles   from   station.
Moraine Lake Lodge is 9 Chateau Lake Louise
miles from the Chateau.
Slate Mountains.
Trail to the Ptarmigan
country, with its magnificent alpine flower-
gardens.
Leaving Banff Between Banff and Lake Louise, some magnificent
views of the surrounding mountains are to be obtained, and for quite a considerable way the railway follows the course
of the Bow River, first skirting the Vermilion Lakes. Visible also for
part of the way is the motor road from Banff to Lake Louise and
Golden. Of the many mountains on the north side of the track,
Hole-in-the-Wall Mountain is interesting in that it has a cavern which
has been used as a meeting place for the Masonic Lodge at Banff.
Johnston Canyon, on the north, is a beautiful spot that one visits from
Banff.
To the north, also, is the bare, rugged and sharply serrated subrange known as the Sawback. The Slate Mountains, which appear in
the foreground at Lake Louise, are a spur from this range. Far to
the south are the snowy peaks that enclose Simpson Pass; one of
them is Pilot Mountain, whose easily identified head makes it a landmark visible from either end of the Bow Valley.
Castle Mountain Castle Mountain is a sheer precipice of over 4,000
feet above the valley floor, named for its resemblance to a giant mediaeval keep. Turrets, bastions and battlements
can easily be distinguished. The mountain is eight miles long, and its
highest point is 9,040 feet above sea-level. Back in the eighties there
was a mining camp at its base, brought thither by a brief boom; and
during the Great War a large internment camp was here.
Just beyond Castle Mountain station the Banff-Windermere road
turns south, crosses the river, and heads away over Vermilion Pass to
Lake Windermere. (See page 15). Facing it is the magnificent peak
of Storm Mountain; farther to the east is the snowy dome of Mount
Ball. The winding Bow River 18
Lake  Louise
.. 4led^1 Mt
Xke LOUISEv^'\
#"//,
.*?     Bonnet Mtn.  ^
^"%
tV
Pinnacl/W      ^J^C1?11 «m\$
-——W   Moraine Lake~jA^'"",A       /A \w//y i _> r
> Mt.
Allen
Mt. Fay
Bideritv
Mtn.
\s =.
% ' V
% \
r *
%
%   V
B
ankhead^
Townsite^
^|»\N*C>.
Quad©
X'   Chimney
^\\ux    '*     Pk.        v
Mt.AWU #fc .W/^Storm*   pilot Mtn." *
WHymper^g^     ^ JV   ^     "^S^ ^^
scale of Miles 'MUBaHH      ^H/y/'^Mt. Bret|S^
frafesive^
v. ^Mt. Louis% a\UA.   x
%feYX    .   ...    J*     *A,^
The Route from Banff to Lake Louise
Mount Temple From Eldon a wonderful array of peaks is presented.
There is a brief but fine view of the Valley of the Ten
Peaks, with the triangular-shaped Mount Deltaform standing out conspicuously. (See page 20). Loftiest and grandest of all towers Temple
Mountain. This great snowbound mountain, whose crest exhibits
precipitous walls of ice, flashing blue in the sunlight, is the most conspicuous and admirable feature of the wonderful valley.
Lake Louise Lake Louise, formerly called Laggan, has a charming
rustic station building. The famous lake- and the
equally famous Chateau are invisible from the station, as they are some
3 miles distant. To reach them we must ascend another 630 feet,
which we do by motor bus or private automobile. This trip is through
a deep forest, with the sky a narrow strip above the tall tree-tops;
and turning a shoulder of the mountain, across a rushing mountain
torrent, we come suddenly into full view of the lake.
(Railway Journey resumed on page 23)
The Chateau O n t h e
margin
of this most perfect lake,
in a wonderful Alpine
flower garden where
poppies, violets, columbines, anemones and
sheep laurel slope
through terraced lawns
to the water's edge—the
Canadian Pacific has
placed its great Chateau
Lake Louise (altitude
5,680 feet). This has
been repeatedly enlarged
to meet the demands of
an ever-increasing
stream of tourists, until
today a fireproof modern
and luxurious hotel with
accommodation for seven
hundred guests now
stands there (open summer months).
Johnston Canyon, near Banff Lake Louise
19
The Chateau Lake Louise
Across the front of the hotel extends a vast lounge that commands
an uninterrupted view of the Lake
through beautiful single - pane
windows of enormous size. The
dining-room, in the right wing, has
the same wonderful windows and
view. From the ballroom in the
left wing the lake may be seen
through the arches of the cloistered
terrace.
The Chateau has many attractions. Two fine hard tennis courts
are attached to the hotel, and a
boat-house supplies rowing boats
to the many who cannot resist the
magnetism of the clear blue water.
Below the dining-room and overlooking the lake is an attractively
terraced concrete swimming-pool
filled with heated glacial water and
with an instructor in attendance.
LAKE LOUISE—probably the
most perfect gem of scenery in the
known world—bears the liquid
music, the soft color notes of its
name, almost into the realm of the
visible. It is a dramatic palette
upon which the Great Artist has
splashed His most gorgeous hues, a
wonderful spectrum of color.
Deepest and most exquisitely colored is the lake itself, sweeping
from rosy dawn to sunset through
green, blue, amethyst and violet,
undershot by gold; dazzling white
is the sun-glorified Victoria Glacier
at the farther end; sombre are the
enclosing pine-clad peaks that dip
perpendicularly into the lake; and
magnificent are the stark immensities of the snow-covered peaks
that enclose the picture except for
the fleecy blue sky overhead.
A Circle of Peaks The peaks that surround Lake Louise form such a
magnificent background that many visitors ask
nothing better than to sit on the hotel verandah watching the marvellous kaleidoscope of beauty and color that they present. From left
to right they are:—Saddleback, Fairview, Lefroy, Victoria, Collier,
Popes Peak, Whyte, the Devil's Thumb, the Needles, Big Beehive,
Niblock, St. Piran, and Little Beehive. At the far end of the Lake,
catching for the greater part of the day the full glory of the sun, their
snowfields standing out in dazzling whiteness, are the glaciers that
drop down from Mount Victoria and the lofty ice-crowned head of
Mount Lefroy.
Along the westerly shores of Lake Louise a delightful mile-and-a-half
walk by a level trail affords splendid views of further peaks—Mount
Haddo, Aberdeen and The Mitre. 20 Lake Louise
Moraine Another pearl of the IT IS difficult to imagine anything
Lake Rockies is Moraine more fascinating than to start out
Lake, 9 miles from Lake in the early morning, stepping in
Louise at the end of one of the half an hour from the perfect civil-
finest short motor rides in the moun- ization of a luxurious hotel into
tains. This lovely mountain lake, the primitive glory of cliff and
exquisitely blue-green in color, lies crag, winding waterway and frozen
in the Valley of the Ten Peaks— grandeur, to spend the day among
a tremendous and majestic semi- the mountains. With a blue sky
circle that with jagged profile en- overhead, the air soft with the
circles the eastern and southern end sweet resinous spice of the forest,
of the lake. Not one of these and all cares left far behind, one
peaks is less than 10,000 feet in sees only beautiful sights, hears
height—the highest, Mount Del- only wonderful sounds, and for a
taform, is 11,235 feet. Standing off whole long day lives close to the
a little, as a sort of outpost, is the very heart of Nature in her most
Tower of Babel, an interesting peak splendid mood,
formation of unusual shape. The Canadian Rockies present
Beside the lake is Moraine Lake *> the mountain climber one of
Lodge an admirable centre for trail- ??-mosJ ^tensive and interesting
• i i n i . , , fields of any easily accessible
riders   and   wa kers who wish  to es of the  world#   Noted
explore the valley s surroundings, climbers make their way thither
and for mountaineers who aspire to from all parts of the workL There
the peaks. An attractive excursion are easy climbs, too, for the novice
is to the Consolation Lakes, within to graduate from—on some, in-
easy reach of the Lodge and a good deed, he or she can ride or walk
place for trout-fishing. good trails almost to the summit.
Lakes in the Clouds     One of the finest and most popular excursions,
either by walking or on a sure-footed mountain
pony, is to the Lakes in the Clouds, nestling a thousand feet and more
higher up in the mountain ranges.
The trail, leaving the west end of the Chateau, rises gradually
through spruce and fir forests to Mirror Lake, thence upward to Lake
Agnes. These lakes are good examples of * 'cirque" lakes—deep,
steep-walled recesses caused by glacial erosion. The view from the
edge of Lake Agnes—where a charming little rest and tea house has
been established—is magnificent.
Plain of the Besides the mighty tongue of the Victoria Glacier,
Six Glaciers many smaller glaciers descend into the cirque, and on
the right side of the cirque is the Plain of the Six
Glaciers, where a spacious tea-house with broad verandahs has been
placed at the head as an excellent resting place. The Plain can be
reached by trail from the Lake Agnes tea-house or directly from the
Chateau.
Saddleback Another excellent walking or pony excursion is to
Saddleback. Crossing the bridge over Lake Louise
creek, the trail rises rapidly on the slopes of Mount Fairview, between
that mountain and Saddleback. The view of Paradise Valley and
Mount Temple from this point is one of the finest in the Rockies.
Paradise Valley Between Moraine Lake and Lake Louise lies Paradise Valley, carpeted with Alpine flowers. Great
peaks rise around it like citadel walls. The valley can be reached
from the Saddleback down a steep zig-zag trail to the "Giant's Steps,"
and continued across the valley to Lake Annette. From the Giant's
Steps a trail leads across the valley to Sentinel Pass, whence descent
can be made through Larch Valley to Moraine Lake.
Easy Climbs Lake Louise is one of the recognized mountain climbing centres of the Rockies, and has many good climbs
both for the novice and the experienced alpinist. Some short and
easy climbs will be found in the Beehive, Mount St. Piran, Saddle
Mountain and Mount Fairview. jMlllll
Moraine Lake
Lodge
J       	 22
Lake Louise
Lake Louise and its vicinity
For the expert alpinist there are plenty of climbs around Lake
Louise that will provide him with sufficient opportunity to use his
skill. Swiss guides are attached to the Chateau Lake Louise for those
who wish to visit the glaciers, climb mountains, or make some of the
more strenuous trips through the passes.
Abbot Pass      From the Victoria Glacier there is a fine climb over
Abbot   Pass,   between   Mounts  Victoria  and   Lefroy,
descending to Lake O'Hara (see page 24).    This should not, however,
be attempted by the novice, unless accompanied by skilled guides.
Trail Trips Lake Louise is a good starting point for riding and
camping trips over the trails maintained by the National
Parks Department through the magnificent Alpine country of this
region of the Great Divide. The Ptarmigan Valley, Hector Lake, Bow
Lake, the Molar Pass, the Skoki Valley, Baker Creek are but a few
suggestions. The Pipestone Valley, some nineteen miles from the
Chateau, is a splendid camping trip ending at an Alpine meadow amid
high glacial surroundings of spectacular grandeur and beauty. It
affords some good trout fishing. The  Kicking Horse Pass
23
South Side of Track
Mileage
west of
Calgary
Alutuae
above
sea-level
North Side of Track
Mount  St.   Piran   (8691  116.6      LAKE LOUISE
feet).
This is the highest eleva- 122.2 The Great Divide 5338
tion reached by the railway, the boundary between Alberta and British
Columbia and the watershed.    (See page 24).
We are now in Yoho Na- 122 . 7 Stephen
tional Park.
Mount    Niblock    (9764
feet).
Cataract Creek and trail 124.9 Hector
to Lake  O'Hara   Lodge
8 miles.
Cathedral Crags  (10081 Wapta Lodge
feet).
Ptarmigan Peak (10070
feet) and Mount Hector
(11135 feet). Cross Bow
River and follow  Bath
Creek.
5050    Waputik    Peak    (8977
feet).
5332
5219
Mount Bosworth (9093
feet), Mount Daly(10342
feet).
Wapta Lodge on north
side of the Lake. Paget
Peak (8417 feet).
Kicking Horse River
rises in Wapta Lake.
We enter Kicking Horse
Pass.
Lake Louise (concluded)
Motoring Visitors to Lake Louise will find a number of very attractive motor excursions available. Besides the one to
Moraine Lake mentioned above, there is the drive to Banff. The road
from Banff to Lake Louise has been continued to Field, Emerald Lake
and Golden. This leads west on a high line to the Great Divide and,
crossing the tracks near Wapta Lodge at Hector, follows the Kicking
Horse River. It is a spectacular ride and links up with established
roads in Yoho National Park. A new motor road has been constructed
running north by way of Bow Lake and skirting the Columbia Ice
Field with the ultimate intention of providing a southern entrance
to Jasper National Park.
Kicking Horse Pass The twenty-mile rail journey between Lake
Louise and Field, with its vivid and startling
realization of the elevations reached, of the grades necessitated, and of
the engineering difficulties encountered and overcome, leaves one
breathless and amazed, full of admiration for the master minds which
conceived and carried through the construction of this transcontinental
railway.
Between the Great Divide and Field, a distance of fourteen miles,
the railway descends nearly a quarter-mile through the Kicking Horse
Pass.    The gradient through the pass is a particularly difficult one.
Wapta Lodge 24
Wapta  and  O'Hara
make a special appeal to the
It is climber, the trail rider or the hiker;
they are, on the whole, less formal
than the hotels. The accommodation provided consists of a large
lished at Lake Wapta, Lake
O'Hara, Yoho Valley, Moraine
Lake, and Radium Hot Springs.
Lake O'Hara Lodge
The Great    Six miles west of Lake  Lodges   are   located   at   several
Divide Louise   and    fourteen  points in the Canadian Rockies,
miles east of Field is both to supplement the capacity
at once the highest elevation of of the hotels and also to provide
the Canadian Pacific Railway, the accommodation of a somewhat
boundary between Alberta and different kind. These lodges
British Columbia, and the very
backbone of the continent,
marked by an arch spanning a
stream under which the water
divides.    The waters that flow to
the east eventually reach Hudson's central building, serving as the
Bay and the Atlantic Ocean; the dining and community house, and
rivulet that runs to the west joins of separate sleeping bungalows
the Kicking Horse River and adds its of various sizes,
mite to the volume of the Pacific by These lodges are now estab-
way of the great Columbia River.
On the left is the granite shaft
erected to the memory of Sir James
Hector, the discoverer of the Kicking Horse Pass, which permits the Canadian Pacific Railway to cross
the Rockies. The pass owes its name to an incident of exploration
days, in which a "kicking horse" which lashed out with its legs at one
of the explorers figured literally.
Wapta Lodge     Just west of the Great Divide is Lake Wapta.    Like
most of the Rocky Mountain lakes its color is an
indescribable green. On its shore, across from Hector station and on
the motor road, is Wapta Lodge, with its community house and log
cabins, which can accommodate 54 guests. From the lodge you can
see stern Mount Stephen, Victoria with her gleaming opalescent scarf
of snow and ice, Narao and Cathedral crags. There is good trout
fishing in the lakes. Two and a half miles will take you to Sherbrooke
Lake, where there is also fishing. In another direction is Ross Lake
hidden between Niblock and Narao.
Lake O'Hara     Lake O'Hara lies eight miles south of Wapta, and can
be reached by a splendid trail. Lake O'Hara Lodge
stands on the edge of the lake. The lodge consists of a central building,
on the Swiss Chalet style, and a group of log cabins, which together
accommodate 43. The lake is well stocked with trout. This is a good
centre from which to visit Lake MacArthur, Lake Oesa, and the
Opabin Pass. 3iimiiiiHfiimiiiii<iiniMfiHtifi
M3iflfffff/jr
Kllll\\\%
Mount Stephen, from tunnel 26
The  Spiral  Tunnels
South Side of Track
Mileage
west of
Calgary
Altitude
above North Side of Track
sea-level
Enter first of the famous
Spiral Tunnels (See below). Cathedral Mountain (10464 feet).
130.2
Mount   Stephen   (10495
feet).
Monarch   Silver   Mines
on slopes.
Wapta Lodge
Yoho
Cathedral
4719 Between the two Spiral
Tunnels a view is obtained of the celebrated
Yoho Valley.
Enter Second Tunnel.
Mount Ogden (8805
feet).
4495    Mount Field (8655 feet).
136.6 FIELD 4075
Emerald Lake Chalet
Yoho Valley Lodge
Mount
feet).
Burgess    (8473
The Spiral Tunnels Formerly the section between the Great Divide
and Field was a difficult one, the gradient being
4.5 per cent; but by two wonderful tunnels—one of the most notable
engineering feats in existence—this difficulty has now been eliminated,
and the grade reduced to 2.2 per cent. These tunnels are the famous
"Spiral Tunnels." From the east, the track enters the first tunnel
under Cathedral Mountain, 3,206 feet in length; and after turning
almost a circle and passing under itself emerges into daylight 48/feet
lower.
The track then turns easterly, and crossing the river enters the
second tunnel, 2,890 feet long, under Mount Ogden. Again turning
part of another circle and passing under itself, it comes out 45 feet
lower and continues westward to Field. The whole thing is a perfect
maze, the railway doubling back upon itself twice and forming a rough
figure "8" in
shape. If the
train is run in
two sections,
passengers are
able to see the
other section at
a higher or lower
level (according
to which one
they happen to
be in) making its
way down the
big grade.
The Yoho The
Valley Yoho
Valley,
one of the most
beautiful in the
entire Rockies,
runs into the
Kicking Horse
Valley from the
north at roughly
right angles. A
distant view
can be obtained
Field—The Spiral Tunnels Emerald  Lake
27
•Hr,,   Mt. Gordon^ \
mt   ''< f ^Mt. Olive ..„
Molar Mtn.
Yoho Pk.^%
Isolated Pk.
-ROADS
- TRAILS
Scale of Miles
2        3        4
CANADIAN PACIFIC RY.
1
Yoho National Park
from the high elevation of the track between the two tunnels. The
valley can be reached from Wapta Lodge by good road; or also from
Field.    A popular Lodge is situated at Takakkaw Falls.    (See page 31).
Field Towering six thousand feet higher than the little town of Field
is lofty Mount Stephen (10,495 feet), at the base of which
roars the turbulent Kicking Horse River on its way to join the mighty
Columbia. Field is a railway divisional point between the Alberta and
British Columbia districts of the Canadian Pacific; and here time
changes from Mountain Time to Pacific Time, the latter being an hour
slower.
(Railway Journey resumed on page 34)
To Emerald Lake All the points in Yoho National Park at which
accommodation is provided for visitors are linked
up, either by road or good trail; and therefore Emerald Lake is not
only of itself one of the most popular centres, but also the axis for
excursions to other places. From Field it is seven miles out by motor
to Emerald Lake, by a fine road through the hush of a scented pine-
forest. Soon you reach Natural Bridge—an ineffective effort on the
part of nature to curb the foaming passage of the Kicking Horse by
choking the river bed with huge boulders. The road becomes Snowpeak Avenue—because at either end of its straight cathedral-stiff
avenue can be seen a towering snow-capped mountain. 28
Emerald  Lake
Emerald Lake Chalet
The   superb   green   of   Emerald   YOHO PARK (area 507 square
Lake   is   almost   beyond   Nature's  miles) immediately adjoins Banff
achievement in any other lake in
the Rockies. Tall pines crowd to
the water's edge to see their perfect reflection, and to see inverted
in the emerald mirror the snowy
giants that surround it. Burgess
looms at one end of the lake,
while more distant are Wapta,
Michael, President, Carnarvon and
Emerald.
The Chalet
National Park on the west, and
lies, broadly speaking, on the descending slopes of the Rockies,
with the President and Van Home
ranges as its western boundary.
It is a region of charm and winsome beauty, of giant mountains
and deep forests, of rushing rivers
and sapphire-like lakes. Its principal river is the Kicking Horse,
with the Ottertail and Yoho as
main tributaries; its chief lakes are
Emerald, Wapta, McArthur,
O'Hara and Sherbrooke. The
Canadian Pacific runs through the
middle of Yoho Park, following the
Kicking Horse River.
Emerald Lake Chalet
is built of great
squared timbers fortress-like in their
solidity, surrounded by rustic design
chalets. The settlement now
consists of three units—the original
Chalet, the Club House, and the bungalows. The Chalet, recently
enlarged, is along Swiss Chalet lines, with deep overhanging balconies.
The Club House is what its name implies; it is an especial favorite at
nights, either the verandah, with its magnificent sunset and moonlight
views, or indoors, where a good floor for dancing, comfortable chairs
for lounging, card-tables, a library and a great log fire provide entertainment for all.
The bungalows are of various sizes, most daintily and comfortably
furnished, with hot and cold running water, bathrooms, stoves and
good sized cupboards. All of them have their individual verandahs, and
the larger ones are "en suite" with connecting doors.
Many Excursions Emerald Lake has a fair supply of trout, and its
vicinity affords many charming excursions on
foot or by trail. There is a good trail all around the Lake, which is the
shortest four and a half miles you've ever walked, and perhaps the
loveliest, and another to Hamilton Falls. A boat-house provides skiffs
for water excursions. flwujTfinnii
Lake O'Hara
Tiii(iiiii!iiiiiii(iiiMiMiMMfii!iriiiiriiiiiiii(i/iiiiiii]iiiiiiiiiiiiii., 30    MOTOR DRIVES IN THE ROCKIES
MOTOR DETOUR:  Banff-Golden
The Motor Detour is designed to give Canadian Pacific eastbound or
westbound passengers an opportunity of seeing the scenic highlights of
the Canadian Rockies in the limited time they may have at their
disposal. Going WEST, passengers leave their train at Banff and
make the Detour to Golden in the comfortable buses of the Brewster
Transport Company. From Golden they resume their rail journey.
Going EAST, passengers leave the train at Golden, resuming their rail
journey at Banff.
Highlights of the Motor Detour include Banff, Lake Louise, The
Great Divide, the Kicking Horse Canyon, Yoho Valley and Emerald
Lake.
Stop-over privileges are allowed at any point en route. Passengers
may therefore spend three or four days, or even longer, on the Detour.
It can, however, be made in 24 hours by those whose time is strictly
limited.
THE LARIAT TRAIL:    Three Days—Three National Parks
This magnificent 300 mile ride not only follows the same route as
the Motor Detour mentioned above, but also includes the far-famed
Banff-Windermere Road. Overnight stops at Emerald Lake Chalet
and Radium Hot Springs Lodge.
RAWHIDE TRAIL TRIP:  Emerald Lake—Waterton Lakes
This 2J^ day trip runs between Emerald Lake and Waterton Lakes
(in both directions) through the Kicking Horse Canyon, Columbia
River Valley and the Crow's Nest Pass. Overnight stops are made at
Radium Hot Springs Lodge and Blairmore.
BANFF GENERAL DRIVE
A comprehensive 2% hour drive round Banff including the Sulphur
Springs, Buffalo Park, Tunnel Mountain and the Golf Links.  22 miles.
BANFF—LAKE LOUISE
An enchanting 42 mile drive with a stop at Johnston Canyon. Operated in both directions.
LAKE MINNEWANKA
A combined 3 hour motor and launch trip to Lake Minnewanka,
from Banff.
LAKE LOUISE TO EMERALD LAKE
VIA YOHO VALLEY
Across The Great Divide and along the Canyon of the Kicking Horse
River.    42 miles one way, 3 hours.    Return, all day.
LAKE LOUISE TO MORAINE LAKE
AND VALLEY OF THE TEN PEAKS
Unsurpassed scenic drive mid mountains towering ten and eleven
thousand feet above the sea.    18 miles, round trip, 2J^ hours.
YOHO PARK CIRCLE TOUR
FROM FIELD        ,
Comprehensive tour of Yoho Park for those with limited time at
their disposal.    4 hours.
Operated by
BREWSTER TRANSPORT COMPANY The  Yoho  Valley
31
Yoho Valley Lodge
Yoho Pass One of the finest trail trips from Emerald Lake, on
the back of a sturdy sure-footed mountain pony, is
to the Summit—the pass leading into the Yoho Valley. The return
journey can be made in four hours afoot or by pony, but many people
prefer to make it an all-day affair. Following the road to the end of
the Lake, you begin to climb up an eighteen-hundred-foot treeless cliff,
while more and more of the world spreads out beneath you, and Emerald
Lake far below grows smaller and greener.
A last stiff pull and you are over the top, cantering gaily through
a cool moist forest, and then Yoho Lake, green like Emerald, but not
so large, flashes in the clearing.
From Yoho Pass there is a good trail leading down to the Yoho
Valley, coming out near the Lodge. The view from the top is a
magnificent one of wide vistas, with Takakkaw Falls on the far side of
the Valley.
Yoho Valley The Yoho Valley can be reached also direct from
Field, by a good motor road (11 miles) that follows
the Kicking Horse River and then turns at the Yoho River, near the
entrance of the valley at Mount Field, round which it swings, and up
the valley until some precipitous cliffs are reached. The pine forest
gives a welcome shade and fragrance, and, as the way winds up the
cliffs to a higher level, the Yoho torrent foaming below shrinks with
distance. Up these it zigzags to a still higher level, ending a short
distance past the Takakkaw Falls. Takakkaw, the stream that comes
down from the Daly Glacier, is 1,200 feet high.
Yoho Valley Lodge The Lodge, with accommodation for 64 people,
is situated in a meadow within sight and sound
of Takakkaw Falls. It is an ideal place for hikers and riders; and
like the other Lodges of the region, consists of a central club house
with separate wooden sleeping bungalows.
Upper Valley The Yoho Valley is one of the most beautiful in the
entire Rockies. From the Lodge a fine trail winds
into the upper part of the valley, past Laughing Falls and the Twin
Falls (two vast columns of water that drop almost perpendicularly),
to the Yoho and President Glaciers and the Waputik ice fields. The
Yoho Glacier is one of the most interesting in the Canadian Rockies,
and is highly picturesque.
(Continued on page 34) Banff Springs Hotel and Golf Course
© A.S.N. 34
The  Yoho Valley
South Side of Track
Mileage
west of
Field
Altitude
above         North Side of Track
sea-level
Mount   Stephen   (10495
feet) and Mount Dennis
(8336 feet).
0.0
FIELD
4075
From Field to Golden
we follow the canyon of
the Kicking Horse River.
Ottertail River is crossed.
4.1
Emerald
3900
Fine view of President
Range looking back
north.
Mount Hurd (9275 feet).
8.2
Ottertail
3702
Van Home Range—
Mount King (9466 feet).
The railway, which runs
17.0
Leanchoil
3685
Two miles west of Lean-
almost north and south
between here and Field,
turns west. Note valley
of the Beaverfoot.
Beaverfoot Range.
22.5
27.8
Palliser
Glenogle
3288
3008
choil we pass western
boundary of Yoho Park.
Looking eastward, there
is a very striking view
of Mount Chancellor
(10761 feet).
Slopes of Mount Hunter
(8662 feet).
From the train we have
a very fine view of the
new "Kicking Horse
Trail" — a spectacular
motor road from
Emerald Lake to Golden.
Motor Detour to Emerald Lake, Yoho Valley,
Lake Louise and Banff
Seepage 30
The Kicking Horse River
enters the Columbia, the
wide valley of which is
seen to the south.
Branch to Lake Windermere and Cranbrook.
(See page 35).
34.9
GOLDEN
2583    Western end of Rockies.
The Yoho Valley (Continued)
The High Trail You can return by the "High Trail," mounting
through Alpine meadows, carpeted with purple and
white bryanthus, till you come out of the scent of wild flowers and
balsam high over Yoho Valley. Across the valley, the great Waputik
snowfield and Takakkaw Falls glisten in the sun and you can pick out
in that clear air the faint black of the Canadian Pacific track going
into the Spiral Tunnels beyond the Kicking Horse River. Soon you
reach Yoho Lake.
Burgess Pass Or from Yoho Lake you can turn in another direction, round on to Burgess Pass, altitude 7,160 feet.
It is a wonderful journey. The great crags of Wapta flaunt up to the
left, and to the right, at every step, there appear higher up new visions
of the President Range. The guide can point out to you the way to
the now well-known Burgess Pass Fossil Quarry, which was discovered
by Dr. Walcott in 1910.   Descent to Field can be made from the Pass.
Main Line Journey Resumed
Kicking Horse Canyon Resuming our journey westward from Field,
the route for some 35 miles is parallel to the
turbulent Kicking Horse River. The railway begins to descend
steadily, until at Golden it is nearly 1,500 feet lower. The narrow
valley of the Kicking Horse divides the Ottertail Range on the south
from the Van Home Range on the north, and a vivid contrast in
mountain formation is evident between the two ranges. One mile
west of Emerald, Mount Goodsir (11,686 feet) can be seen on the
south, while on the north we get a fine glimpse of the President Range. Kicking  Horse  Canyon
35
The Route from Field to Golden
Leaving Yoho Park On the south
Mounts Vaux
and Chancellor are seen, the glacier
on the former plainly visible.
Mount Chancellor (10,761 feet) is
one of the giant peaks of the Ottertail Range. At the base of Mount
Hunter   the   river   turns   abruptly
A TRAIL TRIP into the depths
of the mountains forms the most
enjoyable way of visiting beautiful
spots that would not otherwise be
easily accessible.
The mountain pony, mountain-
bred, fool-proof, untiring, can be
ridden    by    practically    anyone,
and plunges into the lower Kicking  whether he or she has ever before
Horse Canyon.
The canyon rapidly deepens until,
beyond Palliser, the mountain
sides become vertical. The roar of
the river as it rushes from side to
side of the narrow gorge, the
thunder of the train as it follows the
river—-pandemonium increased a
thousandfold by the reverberations
of the canyon  walls—-give an  in-
been on a horse or not. From
all Canadian Pacific hotels and
mountain lodges, there are good
roads and trails radiating in all
directions, which are kept up by
the National Parks Department.
Some trail trips are of one day's
duration only; others stretch over
several days. Several circle trail
rides are arranged for visitors' convenience.
describable sensation until at Golden
we suddenly reach daylight again and the noisy, turbulent Kicking
Horse is received into the calm bosom of the mighty Columbia.
For most of the way, you can see from the train the spectacular new
"Kicking Horse Trail" motor road. At many points it is considerably
above the level of the railway, winding its way around the cliffs. This
is the route of the new "Motor Detour."   (See page 30).
Golden      is an  interesting town  with  large  lumbering and  mining
interests, commanding the trade of the fertile Windermere
Valley to the south.
(Transcontinental Journey resumed on page 36)
To Lake Windermere
From Golden this branch line runs south through the fertile Columbia
Valley, touching for a considerable part 6i the journey the beautiful
Lake Windermere, and joining the Crow's Nest Line at Colvalli.
From Golden we travel past many new settlements, from the clearings of which smoke is sometimes still rising, until we reach Spillimacheen, where there is a wonderful view of the Purcell Range.
The Banff-Windermere motor road (see page 15) joins the Columbia. 36 Lake Windermere
Branch line to Columbia Valley
and Crow's Nest Pass
Mileage
south of
Golden
Altitude
above
sea-level
0.0
GOLDEN
2583
Connecting east or west.
41.1
For Radium Hot Springs
Lodge.                                    65.3
Spillimacheen
Radium
2590
2606
73.9
LAKE
WINDERMERE
2615
143.7
Fort Steele
2510
157.7
Bull River
2462
166.7
194.5
Colvalli
CRANBROOK
2653
3013
Connecting east to Calgary or west to Nelson.
River Highway near Radium Hot Springs, about 60 miles from Golden.
The scenery of this valley is splendid, and the canyons and creeks on
either side furnish excellent sport. On the left is the slope of the
Rockies; on the right, the panorama of the Purcell Range.
Lake Windermere is a popular centre for excursions into the beautiful
country surrounding. One of the most delightful
warm water lakes in British Columbia, it is the starting point for excursions up Toby Creek and Horse Thief Creek to the great ice fields of the
Purcells, notably the Lake of the Hanging Glaciers. There are curative
hot springs at Radium and Fairmont. Bathing, riding, boating, fishing and motoring can be enjoyed on the shores of this lake, and alpine
climbers can make expeditions into the Purcells. There is good trout
fishing in nearby creeks and some of the smaller lakes.
Lake Windermere was discovered by the famous explorer, David
Thompson, in 1807; and a memorial fort, reproducing his stockaded
post, has now been built.
Fort Steele     has grown up to meet the needs of the ranching and
fruit-growing   districts   surrounding   it.    Lead,   copper,
silver, gold and iron are found in the neighbourhood.
Bull River      is a lumbering town, with some important sawmills, and
the source of power supply for the Sullivan Mines at
Kimberley.    Good fishing and hunting may be obtained in the vicinity.
Cranbrook is the trading centre for a rich mining and agricultural
region in the Crow's Nest Pass country. It is an important
point on the more southerly Crow's Nest Pass line of the Canadian
Pacific, from Lethbridge to Kootenay Lake and Nelson, whence there
is an alternative route to Vancouver.
Main Line Journey Resumed
Edelweiss Just west of Golden, north of the track, is the model
Swiss village of "Edelweiss," erected by the Canadian
Pacific for the Swiss guides whom it employs for the benefit of mountain climbers. Previous to the erection of this village, which lies on
the slopes of a hill and reproduces with remarkable verisimilitude the
characteristic architecture of the Swiss chalet, the guides had always
returned to Switzerland at the end of each season, but now they live
in Canada the entire year.
The Selkirk Range Everything combines to make the scenery
between Golden and Glacier a climax of mountain grandeur. There is first the magnificent eastern thrust of the
Selkirks, with its glorious array of mountain peaks culminating in the
lofty pinnacle of Sir Donald; then there are mountain torrents that The  Co
1
u m b
i a
River             37
Mileage
South Side of Track         west of
Field
Altitude
above         North Side of Track
sea-level
35.0
Dogtooth  Mountains,  a    41.5
part of the Purcell Range.
Golden
Moberly
2583    Edelweiss, winter home
of the Swiss guides.
Cross     the     Blaeberry
River.
2558    Moberly    Peak     (7731
feet).
Columbia River.
At this point we leave
the Columbia which
flows north in a "Big
Bend" around the Selkirks. We shall see it
again at Revelstoke.
Cross the Beaver River.
47.5
51.5
52.7
63.0
66.2
67.8
70.9
Forde
Donald
Beavermouth
2563
2580
2433
Rogers
2592
Cross Blaeberry River.
Cross the Columbia
River.
Canyon of the Columbia River.
After leaving Beavermouth we follow the
Beaver River.
Beaver  River   Canyon.
Gateway of the Beaver.
The line is rising rapidly
to  the  summit  of  the
Selkirks.
Cross Mountain Creek,
150 feet above stream.
tumble in splendid cascades, through the narrow gorges cut deeply
into the steep hillsides, the Rocky Mountain trench, flanked by the
two highest mountain systems of the Canadian Rockies; and the
Columbia River itself, which for more than twenty-five miles parallels
the railway line, and at the base of the Selkirks is a raging roaring
flood, forcing its way through precipitous canyons to the high slopes
along~which the railway creeps.
Moberly takes its name from Mount Moberly, one of the most
prominent peaks for some miles along the river valley.
About two miles west of Moberly, on the south just before crossing
Blaeberry River, is the site of the oldest cabin in the mountains—the
cabin where a government survey party, under Walter Moberly,
engaged in the preliminary survey for the railway, passed the winter
of 1871-2. They wintered their stock on the shore of what is now
Lake Windermere.
Beavermouth     is the farthest north station of the transcontinental
route, at the base of the Selkirks.
Columbia River The Columbia River, which with but one exception
is the largest river on the west side of America,
rises in Columbia Lake; and then, flowing through Lake Windermere,
runs north-westerly. From Golden to Beavermouth it is paralleled by
the railway; then we take leave of it as it makes its famous "Big
Bend" round the northern spur of the Selkirks, until we meet it at
Revelstoke, southward bound through the Arrow Lakes, for the
United States and its even greater majesty.
The Columbia River is nearly 1,400 miles long, and drains a basin
of nearly 300,000 square miles. It is the route of history, the path
by which some of the earliest explorers reached the Pacific Ocean.
Climbing Again Following the Beaver River, the line now begins its
1,300 feet climb to the summit of the Selkirk Range.
This range is geologically much older than the Rockies, and the tooth
of time was already gnawing at its scarred sides long before the Rockies
were pushed up from the crumpled sea-bottom. A few miles beyond
Rogers we enter Glacier National Park. 38
The  Selkirk  Range
The Route from Golden to Glacier
Rogers Pass Until the year 1916, the railway crossed the Selkirks
through Rogers Pass (altitude 4,342 feet), following
Bear Creek and then bending round to Glacier and back again to the
lllecillewaet River in a series of sharp loops. This was a most spectacular route, affording some magnificent views of Mount Macdonald,
Mount Tupper, and other giant peaks; but it had many disadvantages,
amongst which were the enormous track curvature and the necessity
of maintaining long stretches of snow sheds. These difficulties were
finally overcome by the construction of the Connaught Tunnel.
Rogers Pass was named in honor of Major Rogers, one of the pioneer
surveyors of this region, who discovered this route.
Stoney Creek Not only is
the scenery
impressive, but the engineering feats are particularly remarkable, especially in the
construction of bridges and
tunnels. West of Cedar Creek
is a very high bridge, spanning a foaming cascade
whence one of the most beautiful prospects of the whole
journey is to be had. So
impressed were the builders
with the charm of this magnificent picture that they
named the spot "The Surprise."
The bridge which crosses
Stoney Creek, 270 feet above
the gorge, is the highest on
the main line of the Canadian
Pacific. Stoney Creek is a
noisy mountain torrent, flowing in the bottom of a narrow
V-shaped channel cut deeply
into the steep slopes along
which the railway creeps.
Kicking Horse Canyon, near Field, B.C. Milium:
S
inTiiniiiiiiii<iiiii)i]iiiiiM^
V/SJIVOK
xam%i\£
Beavermouth Canyon 40
Connaught Tunnel
South Side of Track
Mileage
west of
Field
Altitude
above North Side of Track
sea-level
3K   miles  from   Rogers    67.8
we enter Glacier Park.
74.6
We enter Connaught
Tunnel (5 miles long)
under Mount Macdonald, piercing the summit
of the Selkirks.
Glacier is stopping place
for lllecillewaet Glacier
and many fine mountain
trips.
Mount Sir Donald (io-
818 feet), the pyramidal-
shaped peak.
76.6
78.9
85.4
Rogers
Stoney Creek
Connaught
GLACIER
2592
3778
Cross Surprise Creek,
170 feet above stream.
Cross Stoney Creek,
270 feet above stream.
Hermit Range.
We emerge from the
Connaught Tunnel on
the western slopes of
the Selkirks.
Mount Cheops (8516
feel) and road to Nakimu Caves.
The line descends rapidly following the lllecillewaet River, crossing
and recrossing it.
Connaught Tunnel The Connaught Tunnel, which (as before stated)
was constructed to overcome track curvature,
pierces Mount Macdonald, which towers more than a mile in vertical
height above the railway and makes a most impressive picture. It was
named in honor of the Duke of Connaught, Governor-General of Canada
at the time of its opening in 1916. It was until recently the longest
tunnel in America, measuring slightly over five miles from portal to
portal;  and  it not only eliminated track curvature to an amount
corresponding to
seven complete
circles, but also
lowered the summit
attained by the railway by 552 feet, reduced the length of
the line by 43^ miles
and dispensed with
4J^ miles of snow-
sheds. The tunnel
is double tracked,
cement-lined and
measures 29 feet from
side to side and 21^
feet from the base of
rail to the crown.
Its construction involved the tunnelling
of a pioneer bore
paralleling the centre
line of the main
tunnel-a feature that
was new and aroused
the interest of tunnel
engineers the world
over. The railway
emerges from the
tunnel at Glacier
The lllecillewaet Valley, Glacier Station. Glacier
41
Mount Sir Donald, near Glacier
Glacier
GLACIER PARK, covering an
area of 521 square miles, differs
very noticeably from the other
parks of the Canadian Rockies. It
has an atmosphere of austere ma-
Glacier is the station for
Glacier National Park—
the features of which include the
lllecillewaet Glacier, the Asulkan
Valley,   the   Nakimu   Caves,   and
some magnificent climbing. At the jesty and high loveliness. With its
present time some of the peaks in massive peaks and giant glaciers,
the Park have still to be climbed.       Glacier Park has somewhat of an
. air of isolation and mystery.  Sur-
The lllecillewaet Glacier This great  rounding it, too, are some dense
.        . plateau of  forests of fine trees, of great age;
gleaming   ice,   framed   in   a   dark  these will be particularly noticed
forest of giant cedar   hemlock and  on the way to Nakimu Caves, in
spruce trees,  scarred by immense  the Cougar Valley,
crevasses of great  depth  and
covering an area of about ten square miles, is about four miles from
the station. It affords some remarkable opportunities of observing
the movements and recession of glaciers. Mount Sir Donald, a magnificent peak named after Sir Donald Smith, later Lord Strathcona, can
be reached by an extension trail from the glacier trail, and furnishes
one of the most attractive climbs of the region. The return trip may
be taken along the alternative trail on the east bank of the river.
The Nakimu Caves These curious caves, discovered in 1904, are
situated on the lower slope of Mount Cheops
and Ursus Major, in the Cougar Valley. A series of subterranean
chambers, formed by water erosion, they are characterized by beautiful
interior marble markings, and have been explored for a distance of
nearly a mile from the entrance.
Down Hill Again From Glacier, which lies near the summit of the
Selkirk Range, we begin our long journey to the
Pacific Ocean—a journey that except for one or two minor climbs is
uniformly downhill. For several miles the line follows the lllecillewaet
River which, tumbling along precipitous gorges, rushing and foaming
in splendid cascades, pours its flood from its glacier source to the
broad waters of the majestic Columbia River, over 2,000 feet below.
Here we notice how a river taking its source in a glacier differs from
an ordinary upland stream. The latter, as it tumbles from great
heights, may be foamy and tumultuous; but the water does not show
that peculiar milk-green colour, characteristic of a glacier-fed stream, 42
Revelstoke
The Route from Glacier to Revelstoke
South Side of Track
Mileage
west of
Field
Altitude
above
sea-level
North Side of Track
Mount   Bonney   (10215
feet).
Ross Peak (7728 feet).
Mount Green (8870 feet).
Valley of Flat Creek.
89.7
93.2
98.2
Ross Peak
Flat Creek
lllecillewaet
104.9      Albert Canyon
Revelstoke  National
Park.
Mount Mackenzie (8064 119.6
feet).
Branch line to the Arrow 125.7
Lakes.
Greely
REVELSTOKE
3434
3094
2713 At this point we pass
the western boundary
of Glacier Park.
2226 A stop is made (in
summer only) to see
Albert Canyon, a fine
rock gorge about 150
feet deep.
1667
1496 Western end of the Selkirks*
due to its sediment of glacial silt.    This silt is composed of infinites-
imally fine particles ground from the rocks by scraping ice.
Albert Canyon      is a deep fissure in the solid rock, its walls rising
straight up on both sides to wooded crags.    The
railway runs along the very edge of this gorge.    We see the river nearly
150 feet below, boiling angrily in a narrow twenty-foot flume.
Revelstoke a flourishing city, with a population of 3,500, lies in the
beautiful Columbia River Valley, surrounded by lofty
and picturesque mountains, some clothed with trees and verdure to
their very peaks, others crowned with rugged and rocky spires or
glistening glaciers.
It is the gateway to the Kootenay and Arrow Lakes, and is the
centre of large timber and mineral districts. Revelstoke is in the heart
of very fine hunting grounds, and the Alpine climber will find whole
worlds to conquer. Besides the drive up Mount Revelstoke, there is
also the beautiful excursion along the Columbia River. In winter, a
very popular winter-sport carnival is held here, and as a matter of fact
some of the finest ski-jumpers of Canada have graduated on the "Big
Hill" at Revelstoke.
Mount Revelstoke
National Park
100 square miles in extent, is bounded on the
south  by the  lllecillewaet  River.    It  includes
not only the striking mountain from which it
derives its name, but also the Clachnacudainn Range. The Arrow Lakes
43
Revelstoke, from Mount Revelstoke
The park, altogether a mountain-top one, provides a wonderful
automobile trip. A road, as hard and smooth as a city boulevard,
has been constructed by the Dominion Government to the summit.
The road ascends by an easy grade through a virgin forest, winding
along rocky ledges and on the verge of deep chasms. The glory of the
ride is the remarkable view that can be obtained all the way up of the
valley below—the Selkirks towering on the one hand, the Monashee
Mountains on the other, and the Columbia and lllecillewaet Rivers
twisting like ribbons around the city.
(Main Line Journey resumed on page 44)
Branch line to Arrow Lakes
By Rail.
Mileage                                     Altitude
south of                                      above
Revelstoke                                  sea-level
/    0.0      REVELSTOKE       1196    Connecting east or west.
\ 27.5          Arrowhead           1405
By Lake Steamer
f                     Arrowhead
40.4             Halcyon
<   64.4              Nakusp              1414    Branch   line   to   Kaslo,
on Kootenay Lake.
[156.4        Robson West         1422
By Rail.
/                  Robson West
\ 183.8             NELSON             1774    Connecting east to Calgary  or  west  to  Van
couver.
From Revelstoke this branch runs south to Arrowhead, whence a
delightful trip is made down the Arrow Lakes to Nelson. The service
down this lake is provided by the excellent and comfortable steamer
service of the Canadian Pacific. The Arrow Lakes, lying in a long
deep valley between the western slopes of the Selkirks and the
Monashee Mountains, are formed by the Columbia Valley's broadening
out on its way south. These beautiful lakes, although virtually
one, are classified as two, Upper and Lower, very much the same size
and connected by a wide but circuitous channel. The surrounding
country has supplied lumber from the forests that clothe its slopes to
many a sawmill, while of recent years settlers have come in and made
clearings for orchards. The population, however, is still comparatively
sparse.
Halcyon Hot Springs     are well and favorably known owing to the
curative properties of the waters, which contain a high percentage of lithium.    There is a comfortable sanatorium
hotel here. 44
Craigellachie
Nakusp is the distributing centre of the upper lake, which is here
about three miles wide. There are some excellent hot springs
in the hills, about nine miles from the town. Nakusp is the headquarters of the Arrow Lake lumber industry, the shipping point for
vast quantities of lumber, poles, fence posts, and other timber products.    A branch line runs from here to Roseberry.
Along the lower lake there has been some development in fruitgrowing, very fine cherries, apples and melons being produced. At
Robson West rail connection is made to Nelson or westward to Penticton and Vancouver.
Nelson is charmingly situated on a commanding eminence overlooking the West Arm of Kootenay Lake, and is the commercial centre of the Kootenay district. At the convergence of lake
and rail systems, it is an attractive city in which life passes very
pleasantly. Nelson is the centre of a very large mining district:
immediately behind it is the mountain in which is located the famous
"Silver King" mine. Connection for the Crow's Nest Pass route to
Lethbridge and Calgary is made here.
Main Line Journey Resumed
Revelstoke—See page 42.
Eagle Pass Between Revelstoke and Sicamous is the Monashee
mountain system, the most conspicuous peak being
Mount Begbie. Eagle Pass, through which the railway crosses,
appears to have been cut purposely for it, so deep and direct is it.
Several lakes occur at short intervals, and in turn force the railway
into the mountain sides. Open-top Observation Cars are attached to
the rear end of Canadian Pacific passenger trains through the mountains
during the summer season. These cars afford superb opportunities
for viewing the magnificent scenery.
Craigellachie From Revelstoke our course is now downhill practically
all the way to the Pacific ocean, for with the exception
of one or two occasional rises, the altitude gets lower and lower. Entering the Monashee Mountains, we reach in about 28 miles the historic
spot named Craigellachie.
Here an obelisk alongside the track commemorates the completion
of the Canadian Pacific Railway from coast to coast. It was here, on
November 7th, 1885, that the rails from the East met the rails from
the West, and the long-
cherished vision of a
Canadian transcontinental railway became
a reality.
The first through
train from East to West
left Montreal on June
28th, 1886, and reached
Port Moody—then the
Pacific terminal of the
road—on July 4th.
Sicamous on Shuswap
Lake, is not
only the junction of
the main line with the
Okanagan Valley branch;
it is also a favorite
stop-over point for trav-
ellers who, having
traversed the mountains, wish also to see by
daylight the wonderful
canyon scenery that lies
The Hotel Sicamous Sicamous
45
The Route from Revelstoke to Sicamous
South Side of Track
Mileage
west of
Revelstoke
Altitude
above
sea-level
North Side of Track
Mount
feet).
Begbie     (8956      0.0       REVELSTOKE       1494
The railway follows the
narrow valley of the
Tonkawatla River.
Shortly after leaving
Revelstoke, we cross the
Columbia River. (See
Page 39) >
Mount   MacPherson
8
5
Clanwilliam
1820
The railway climbs up
(7962 feet).
to the Eagle Pass which
is reached here.
Three Valley Lake.
14
6
Three Valley
1636
Griffin Mountain   (7075
Eagle Pass Mountains.
feet).
24
2
Taft
1279
Follow    the    valley    of
28
3
Craigellachie
1225
Monument to commem
Eagle River to Sicamous.
orate completion of the
Canadian Pacific at this
point.    (See page 44).
Hunters Range.
Shuswap Mountain.
Branch line to Okanagan
44
7
SICAMOUS
1153
Shuswap Lake.
Valley.
Hotel Sicamous
between here and Vancouver. To accommodate this traffic, the
Canadian Pacific owns a comfortable hotel on the shore of the lake
and it is operated by a lessee. Lake Shuswap is a large body of water
which affords some wonderful trout fishing.
{Main Line Journey resumed on page 47)
Branch line to Okanagan Valley
Enderby      is a progressive town in a fertile fruit-growing and mixed-
farming country, with considerable dairying and also an
enormous lumber output.   Fishing is good and the big game plentiful.
Armstrong    is another flourishing town with a large central creamery
and several industries, and a prosperous tributary agricultural country; it is particularly noted for the production of celery.
Vernon    is the largest town, the judicial centre, and the central distributing  point  of  the  northern   Okanagan  Valley.    Near
here is the famous Coldstream Ranch, with about 13,000 acres of fruit
lands. 46
The Okanagan Valley
Mileage
south of
Sicamous
Altitude
above
sea-leve]
By Rail
0.0
23.0
31.8
46.2
79.6
SICAMOUS
Enderby
Armstrong
Vernon
Kelowna
1153
1160
1182
1250
1133
Connecting east or west.
By Stage
I
Kelowna
Peachland
Summerland
Naramata
PENTICTON
1133
1133
1133
1133
Connecting west to Vancouver or east to Nelson
and Calgary.
Okanagan Lake This is one of the most famous fruit-growing regions
of Canada. Journeying by rail and stage, one sees
striking examples of "bench-land" formation—orchards rising tier by
tier in what look like gigantic steps. On these bench-lands, on the
occasional bottom lands, and even on the hilly slopes that descend into
the water, grow all kinds of sub-tropical fruit, peaches, apricots, cherries,
apples, plums, walnuts, almonds and grapes of superfine quality. Irrigation is practised, the flume that carries the life-giving water being a
conspicuous feature of the orchard country. At Killiney on the west
shore at the north end of the Okanagan Lake and at other points,
attractive arrangements can usually be made for summer guests. It
is reached by stage from Vernon.
Kelowna     is an important city, with some fifty thousand acres of first-
class  fruit   lands,   much   of   which   is  under  cultivation,
tributary to it.    The city has several packing plants and canneries.   It
is a pretty point and has an attractive park with a lake frontage.
Peachland, Summerland and Naramata are fertile fruit-raising districts, with a certain amount of cattle-raising a few miles back.
Penticton at the southern end of the lake, is a very prosperous city,
centre of a rich fruit-growing district, and very attractive to
the tourist. It has a good hotel in the Incola. The Canadian Pacific
railway line from Vancouver to Nelson passes through Penticton, and
affords an alternative to the more popular route through the Rockies.
Okanagan Lake Lake  Shuswap
47
The Route from Sicamous to Ashcroft
South Side of Track
Mileage
west of
Revelstoke
Altitude
above
sea-level
North Side of Track
A fine fruit district adjacent to railway.
From this summit the
line descends to Shuswap
Lake.
44.7
63.4
70.6
79.8
87.8
93.7
95.6
128.8
Sicamous
Salmon Arm
Tappen
Notch Hill
Squilax
Chase
Shuswap
KAMLOOPS
1153
1157
1158
1691
1288
1183
1153
1159
The railway follows the
Salmon Arm of Shuswap Lake.
The railway leaves the
lake to climb over
Notch Hill.
Pass along the shores of
Little Shuswap Lake.
Follow the shore of the
South Thompson River
to Kamloops.
The North Thompson
joins the South Thompson at this point, the
two rivers forming the
Thompson River.
Sicamous—See page 44.
Salmon    Salmon Arm and the beautiful South Thompson River, which
Arm flows from the western arm of Shuswap Lake, provide inter
esting and varied scenery between Sicamous and Kamloops. Lake Shuswap is a large body of water of irregular shape
which, with its bordering slopes, reminds one strongly of Scottish
scenery and affords wonderful fishing. It has the reputation of containing more varieties of trout and other fish—including steel-head
and land-locked salmon—than any other water in British Columbia.
Salmon Arm (population 800) is a very prosperous fruit and mixed
farming community, situated on a long arm of Shuswap Lake.
Notch Hill      is the only elevation of any considerable height along
the line.    Here the railway leaves the open and takes
a circuitous course through the forested slopes which surround its base,
but soon joins the South Thompson River.
Chase      (Population 600) is the gateway to an extensive territory for
big-game hunting, bird shooting and fishing.    The various
waters in the vicinity are plentifully stocked with trout.
About two miles east of Kamloops, between the railway and the
South Thompson River, are sites of semi-subterranean prehistoric
Indian houses, which can be seen from the passing train. 48
Kamloops
ilii
Kamloops
South Side of Track
Mileage
west of
Kamloops
Altitude
above
sea-level
North Side of Track
Valley of the Nicola.
0.0
8.7
19.7
25.2
47.3
55.9
72.7
KAMLOOPS
Tranquille
Munro
Savona
Ashcroft
Basque
Spence's Bridge
1159
1142 The Thompson River
widens and is known as
Kamloops Lake.
1143 The Painted Bluffs,
brilliantly colored rocks,
are seen across the Lake.
1163 Leave the Lake a short
distance west of Savona
and follow the Thompson River.
1004 The gateway to the
Cariboo country.
The Black Canyon of
the Thompson seen at
mile 52.5.
892
774
Kamloops (Population 6,100), bearing an Indian name which means
"the meeting place of the waters," traces its history
back more than one hundred years to the time when the old Hudson's
Bay Company fort was the scene of thriving fur-trading and centre of
the then meagre white population of the interior. Here the South
Thompson joins the North Thompson to form the main Thompson
River which will bear the traveller company on the journey to the
Pacific.
Looking north to the station, with its gardens which are the summer
glory of the community, the great valley of the North Thompson
can be seen, guarded on the right by Peter Peak, which hides behind
its arid shoulders the beautiful wooded valley of Paul Lake and half
a dozen other lakes known to anglers who prize the gameness of
Kamloops trout.
Back from the main valley of the Thompson, north and south, the
country holds rich surprises for the traveller who investigates. There
are many lakes and streams, most of them well stocked with game
trout; irrigated farms and vast grazing reaches for cattle and sheep
are the locale for some of the largest ranches in British Columbia—
a country surprisingly different from that seen in the Thompson valley. The  Thompson  Canyon
49
Gold, copper and iron come
from mines in the Kamloops
area, and the city is a distribution centre for a big district. It
has well-paved streets, a fine
water supply, and electric power
from a hydro plant on a tributary of the North Thompson.
Thompson River As the train
slips out of
Kamloops on its journey to the
Pacific, the Thompson river
begins to widen into Kamloops
Lake, the last placid piece of
water on this river before it ends
its course in the turbulent Fraser. Early morning and evening
scenes on this lake equal anything seen in the course of the
mountain journey for vividness
of color and splendid perspective.
At mile 5 the train passes
the loading station for the Iron
Mask mine, a big copper producer from which the concentrates come down a thousand
feet to the track through a pipe
line. Looking north across the
lake one sees the Tranquille
Sanatorium of the British Columbia government. At mile 11,
frowning Battle Bluff rises
abruptly from the water across
the lake. On the bluff, close to
the high water line, a careful
observer can see a spot of red—
a painted reminder, often renewed by the present day I ndians,
of the fierce tribal struggle from
which the height takes its name.
The Route from Ashcroft to Petain
Difficulties of railway construction are realized as the train passes
through tunnel after tunnel, constantly curving in and out along the
lake shore line to Savona, where the Thompson begins its mad race to
the level of the Fraser.
Ashcroft      once  a  busy   gateway   to  the   Cariboo   gold  fields,   now
exports prosaic carloads of fruit,  vegetables,  cattle and
sheep.    It is famous for its potatoes—being one of the chief centres
from which the delightful British Columbia "spud" is marketed.
The Black Canyon where the roaring "white water" of the
Thompson battles around hairpin turns in
funereal cliffs, is seen at mile 52.5. A splendid view of this canyon is
obtained by looking back as the train passes the gloomy gorge. The
Nicola River, joining the Thompson from the southeast, is crossed
and the train arrives at Spence's Bridge. Since leaving Ashcroft the
line has run almost due south.
Spence's Bridge     where the Nicola River joins the Thompson, is the
business centre for the  Nicola Valley,  a country
with varied industries, such as ranching, lumbering and mining.
From Spence's Bridge there is a branch line to Brookmere. 50
The Old Cariboo Road
Mileage
South Side of Track west of
Kamloops
Altitude
above North Side of Track
sea-level
85.6
90.1
94.9
At mile 101 we cross the
Fraser   140   feet   above
the River.
Canyon  scenery  fine 103.9
from   mile   100  to  mile
102.
Note   the   old   Cariboo 116.5
road    on   the    opposite
side of the valley.
121.5
Thompson
Gladwin
Lytton
Kanaka
Chaumox
NORTH BEND
673
758
693
613
568
493
Thompson Canyon,
very fine, east and west
of this point.
At mile 93.5 note the
striking pinnacle (Botanie Crag) on the opposite side of the river.
The Fraser River comes
in from the North and
joins the Thompson.
Salmon River is crossed
at mile 113.8; note fine
gorge up stream.
The general direction of river and railway is here southwest, but a
few miles farther it turns again almost due south. River, rail and
highway seem to fight for space in the Thompson canyon as the mountains close in and the river boils through succeeding gorges. At low
water jagged teeth of rock, the terror of the first river-travellers, can
be seen vainly trying to stem the torrent which foams through narrower openings until The Jaws of Death gorge is seen at mile 87.5.
Here the river is confined to a span which seems ridiculously narrow as
one peers down from the tracks. The rocks take on blazing hues, and
the scene is one of wild grandeur as Botanie bluff looms up across the
river at mile 93.5, with its green granite crest hanging over a many-
colored gorge.
Lytton The railway suddenly emerges on a
narrow plateau and
the gardens of
Lytton make a
foreground for the
traveller's first
glimpse of the
mighty Fraser.
Below this once
important staging
point on the historic
Cariboo road, the
Thompson joins the
Fraser and they
there begin their
united course to the
sea through the
magnificent Fraser
Canyon.
The railway line
not only tunnels
through great rock
spans but also
crosses from side to
side in the great
canyon.
The Thompson River Canyon The Fraser  Canyon
51
The Fraser River Canyon—showing the Old Cariboo Road
The Fraser, the chief river of British Columbia, comes down from the
north between great lines of mountain peaks, and its turbid flood soon
absorbs the bright green waters of the Thompson. The Fraser is
navigable for steamers from its mouth to about Yale. The river, 800
miles in length, is an historic one; its name and that of the Thompson
commemorate two of the earliest and most famous explorers who sought
the Pacific Ocean overland from the east.
Fraser Canyon As the train swings out of Lytton and the traveller
looks north and west to catch a last sight of the
mountain-flanked valley of the Fraser above that point, it is but a few
miles to the bridge where the rails swing out over the turbid torrent
and pierce a wall of rock to gain foothold on the north (here west)
bank of the river. This is the first and only crossing of the Fraser/*
As the waters of Kwoieke Creek rush beneath the tracks near mile
106, after the wild glories of the canyon to that point, a fine view is
obtained of Jackass Mountain, a little farther down the canyon.
Over this height the highway which follows the old Cariboo road is
forced to climb thousands of feet above the river to make progress.
As the train crosses Salmon river near mile 113 a glimpse is obtained of
the gorge this tributary of the Fraser has cut from guardian heights.
There are Indian reservations all along the river; and here and there
until North Bend is reached can be seen a garden or orchard struggling
for existence on tiny benches grudgingly left by the roaring Fraser.
North Bend On the limited bench above the ever-roaring Fraser,
the company has established divisional point yards,
leaving room for bright gardens which greet the summer visitor.
It is noticeable at this point that the foliage, changing constantly
since Lytton was left behind, is much more luxuriant. The woods
begin to take on that richness of growth which is found on the lower
levels.
Once more off on the descent to the Pacific, the mountains crowd in
on the river and seem to offer no way out. Small tributaries join the
Fraser on both sides in increasing numbers. At mile 4 the mountains
across the river loom close and as mile 5 is reached the Fraser is compressed into still narrower gorges. At mile 5.5 the Skuzzy river drops
into the Fraser under the railway bridge in a series of basins up which
the salmon vainly struggle during the running season. 52
Hell  Gate
South Side of Track
Mileage
west of
North Bend
Altitude
above
sea-level
North Side of Track
From North Bmd west
the Canyon becomes
more and more impressive, reaching a climax
at   Hell   Gate,  8   miles
0.0      NORTH BEND
493
Railway bridges span
fine rock gorges at
Skuzzy River (mile 5.5)
and White's Creek (mile
9.7).     Between  mile  9
from North Bend.
The site of an old trading    post   of    Hudson's
Bay Company.
15.5
27.1
Spuzzum
Yale
399
220
and 10 we pass through
a series of tunnels.
Jet. with southern route
through the Rockies.
41.7
Petain
183
The   line   westward    is
double-tracked  to  Van
48.0
Ruby Creek
103
couver.
The   Harrison   River   is
crossed at this point.
58.9
68.1
Agassiz
Harrison Mills
60
47
Government Experimental Farm.
Mount Baker.
76.7
Nicomen
30
Hell Gate At mile 7.8 is the culmination of a series of gorges.
In this narrow neck the water boils through on a
wicked crest and the rock markings plainly show to what almost
unbelievable heights the river rises during flood periods. Past Hell
Gate the traveller looks back to see the Devil's Washbasin—a swirling
pool below the giant portals.
Around Hell Gate and below that point there can be seen parts of
the old Cariboo trail and as the train glides down the next few miles,
passing Williams' Creek and White's Creek, the backward glance
reveals a number of superb views of the canyon. Between the numerous tunnels the traveller sees signs of that age-old fight of water
against rock as the Fraser batters its way seaward.
Spuzzum once a Hudson's Bay Company trading post, and a place
of some importance when the Cariboo road crossed the
Fraser on the old suspension bridge, crowds another bench above the
river. The floods have taken out the old bridge and the other historic
landmarks have disappeared in the luxuriant vegetation. The modern
highway crosses the river here on a new suspension bridge.
Hell Gate, Fraser Canyon Ml HICK
31     The "Lions," Vancouver    Lfj—i
riMiiiiiiMimuuJMJiilHUMninniiHWiiiumiuu
Suspension Bridge,
Capilano Canyon, Vancouver 54
Harrison  Hot  Springs
SilvevrvPk."''X#
The Route from Petain to Vancouver
The canyon closes in again at mile 19 and great barriers of rock curb
the river in its drop. Stages where the Indians net salmon can be
seen and on the high rocks are the racks where they smoke the fish.
At mile 22.5 a great rock rises in the middle of the river and stands like
an island fortress against the rush of the current. Another five miles
of rugged grandeur takes us to Yale. The Fraser has shown us its last
wild scenes. Man and his steamboats navigated the stream as far as
Yale in the days before the railway supplanted the stage coach.
Yale Yale lives in memories of its historic greatness. Once the
head of navigation on the Fraser and the "kicking off"
place for the Cariboo road, it was one of the first incorporated communities on the mainland and boasted of a population estimated
variously from seven to ten thousand.
Behind the station the Historic States and Monuments Branch of the Dominion
Government has marked the spot where British army engineers started the famous gold
trail to the Cariboo.    A rough stone bears a tablet which sets out:
"Here began the Cariboo wagon road which extended four hundred miles to northward to the gold mines of Cariboo. Built in 1862-5. In the olden days of Cariboo, over
this great highway, passed thousands of miners and millions of treasure."
As we leave Yale slumbering in its peaceful vale of apples, plums,
cherries and memories, the tangents lengthen; the railway no longer
has to burrow into the rock for foothold; an occasional glance at the
Fraser shows a more placid surface and the railway begins its last big
swing toward the west.   We prepare to say farewell to the mountains.
Petain     is  the junction  of the  more  southerly  route  through  the
Rockies with the northerly.    Looking across the Fraser one
sees the canyon from which the turbulent Coquihalla pours into the
larger river and joins the majestic roll of the Fraser to the sea.
The southerly line furnishes an alternative route from the prairies to Vancouver.
It has some spectacular scenery, especially along the Canyon of the Coquihalla River.
This southern route is linked to the main line by branches at Sicamous, Revelstoke
and Golden.
Ruby Creek       obtains   its   name   from   the   garnets   found   in   the
neighborhood.    From here on to Vancouver there is
double track right of way.
Agassiz has a Government Experimental Farm and is also the
station for Harrison Hot Springs. From Agassiz there is a
ferry service to Chilliwack. The Chilliwack Valley comprises over
55,000 acres of rich agricultural land and is well known for its dairying.
As one races along the wide reaches of the lazy Fraser, it is hard to
picture it as the roaring terror of Hell Gate. Rich orchards appear,
beautiful pastures and hay meadows border the track, fat dairy cattle
give the train a passing glance and Harrison River is reached and
crossed. New Westminster
55
Mileage
Altitude
South Side of Track          west of
above
North Side of Track
North Bend
sea-level
Branch to Huntingdon.      87.3
Mission
27
96.3
Whonnock
23
Cross Stave Creek.
Fraser River.                       105.1
Hammond
28
107.3
Pitt Meadows
38
At mile 109.7 the Pitt
River is crossed.
Branch   to   New   West- 112.5
Coquitlam
39
The Coquitlam River is
minster.
crossed before reaching
this point.
116.5
Port Moody
14
Reach the head of Burrard Inlet.
129.0
VANCOUVER
14
Hotel Vancouver
Harrison         Some seventy
miles before
reaching Vancouver, about
Hot Springs   five miles from
Agassiz Station, is
the delightful resort
of Harrison Hot Springs. Situated on Harrison Lake,
a large and picturesque body of water that flows into the Fraser River
from the north, this resort has sulphur and potash hot springs of great
curative and medicinal values; and recently a new and attractive
hotel, with which are combined a covered swimming pool and private
Turkish baths, was opened to serve as a focus for the district. Splendid opportunities are available for fishing, hunting, trap shooting,
golfing, boating, tennis and horseback riding.
Mission Fertile Fraser flats extend along the route to salt water.
At Nicomen on a clear day it is possible to see snow-capped Mount Baker, a solitary peak standing over the U.S. border directly
south. Then comes prosperous Mission, a fruit-growing and dairy
centre. Stave River, waters of which help to supply Vancouver with
electrical power, is crossed; Pitt River is reached and Coquitlam offers
junction facilities for New Westminster.
From Mission, a branch line runs 10 miles south to Huntingdon, on the international
boundary between Canada and U.S. From Coquitlam another branch runs 8 miles
south to New Westminster.
New Westminster so named by Queen Victoria, is known as "The
Royal City," but makes other claims for recognition. It is the third city of the province and its industries are growing constantly. Ocean shipping makes its way to New Westminster
docks up the deep Fraser. It ships much lumber and wheat. It is
connected with Vancouver by several fine highways (123^ miles).
Burrard Inlet There is a tang in the air as Coquitlam is passed;
and when Port Moody comes in view the end of the
long journey is near, for the traveller is looking out across the upper
end of Burrard Inlet—Vancouver's magnificent harbor. Port Moody
was the original terminal of the Canadian Pacific in 1886. Vancouver
was not founded then. The first cargo ever carried across the Pacific
Ocean   for   the   Canadian   Pacific   arrived   in   Port   Moody   from
Yokohama on the
* brig "W. B. Flint"
j on July 26th, 1886.
Still following the
shore line of beautiful Burrard Inlet we
soon meet the suburbs of Vancouver;
and in a short time
roll quietly into the
handsome station
there, with the docks
on the north side
and many large
ocean-going steamers visible, and
climbing the stairs
to street level, find
ourselves at the end
of the journey.
Harrison Hot Springs H
Photo A. Curtis 56
Vancouver
Vancouver
(Population
with suburbs
360,000) is situated on Burrard Inlet,
which here is
over two miles
wide. A long
peninsula,
within which
is embraced
beautiful
Stanley Park,
curves round
north-westward from the
city, and almost landlocks
Vancouver
Harbor. On
the north side
of the Inlet is
a magnificent
mountain
range; the
most prominent features
thereof are two
peaks    which,
silhouetted against the sky and remarkably resembling two couchant
lions, are visible from any point in the city or harbor and have earned
it its appropriate name of "The Lions' Gate."
The Hotel Vancouver
Hotel Vancouver The Hotel Vancouver, situated on Granville
Street about one-half mile from the Canadian
Pacific station, is the finest hotel of the North Pacific. From its roof-
garden some wonderful views of the Strait of Georgia can be obtained.
Adequate sight-seeing services, visiting all parts of the city and its
environs, are operated and leave the hotel daily.
A Summer    Vancouver is a favorite summer city, for its mild climate,
City floral luxuriance and closeness to water make life there
very pleasant. There are many bathing beaches, parks,
boulevards, automobile roads, and short and long steamer trips. All
kinds of water sports are available, and are encouraged by a mild
climate. The roads around the city are famous for their excellence,
and there are many fine drives, varying from an hour to a day in time.
Stanley Park Amongst the shorter drives may be mentioned Stanley
Park—one of the finest natural parks in the world,
a primeval forest right within the city limits and containing thousands
of Douglas firs and giant cedars of a most amazing size and age. The
park is encircled by a perfect road, nine miles in length.
"Marine Drive" which girdles Point Grey, is one which takes one
through Vancouver's most interesting residential sections and gives
a wonderful opportunity to enjoy the run through luxuriant woods
which crowd down to the very tide mark.
Capilano, etc. The North shore of the harbor offers the visitor
the awesome Capilano canyon, where suspension
bridges hang hundreds of feet over a torrent which has carved its way
down through perpendicular walls of granite. West Vancouver, with
its cosy little rock-clinging gardens and its impressive sea cliff drive,
offers the visitor another tempting trip. Vancouver
57
Vancouver Harbor
Grouse Mountain, rising nearly
four thousand feet above North
Vancouver, is a unique trip. A
fine motor road climbs the mountain
to a comfortable chalet, where guests
can be accompanied for short or
long visits. From this height one
looks directly down on Vancouver
and the view extends, in clear
weather, to Vancouver Island, forty
miles distant.
Still another fine drive is to New
Westminster. (See page 55). The
Pacific Highway, including Kings-
way, runs through Vancouver, connecting up with the main American
roads of the Northwest. This road
runs all the way from Vancouver to
Mexico.
VANCOUVER, terminal of Canadian Pacific trans-continental rail
and trans-Pacific steamship routes,
is the largest commercial centre in
British Columbia. In and around
Vancouver are immense lumber
and shingle mills. Mining, lumbering, farming, shipbuilding, and
shipping, with a vast Oriental
business, form the reason of the
city's remarkable growth and
prosperity. From a forest clearing
forty years ago it has become one
of the most important seaports of
the Pacific Ocean.
Vancouver is also one of the
great vacation objectives of the
Pacific Coast, and because of its
beauty and hospitality has become
very popular in this regard.
Bathing       There  are  numerous  fine
couver.    The most easily
bathing beaches around Van-
, reached are English Bay and
Kitsilano—both on the street-car line. The scene on a sunny afternoon
at English Bay, which lies at one entrance to Stanley Park, is one of
great animation.
Burrard Inlet, English Bay, and the North Arm are excellent places
also for boating. Vancouver boasts of one of the finest yacht clubs
on the Pacific Coast.
Golf        Vancouver has many good golf courses, all of them 18-hole
courses and all open to visitors.    Included in these is a public
course,   "Langara,"  owned by the  Canadian   Pacific.    There  are a
number of good tennis clubs.
Steamer Trips Some fine steamer trips can be made from Vancouver.
Chief amongst them, perhaps, is the 4-hour trip
across the Gulf of Georgia to Victoria. Then there are a particularly
interesting trip to Nanaimo, a cruise amongst the Gulf Islands, and
others to Comox, Powell River, etc. An excellent circle tour may be
made by taking a "Princess" steamer to Victoria, the E. & N. train
from Victoria to Nanaimo, thence back to Vancouver by steamer. 58 Vancouver
English Bay, Vancouver
Many delightful short excursions are made by Canadian Pacific
Coast steamers during June, July and August, including one-day
cruises to Jervis Inlet, afternoon cruises to the Gulf Islands, Newcastle
Island, etc.    These are advertised in the Vancouver newspapers.
The West Coast of Vancouver Island may be called the Canadian
Norway, with its rugged coast line, and heavy-timbered slopes that
drop sheer into the water. Little villages and Indian settlements are
found along the coast. The Canadian Pacific steamships "Princess
Norah" and "Princess Maquinna", built especially for this service, sail
regularly from Victoria during June, July and August. They visit
numerous ports en route, on their five-hundred mile journey to Port
Alice in Quatsino Sound.
Sporting A great variety of fishing can be obtained around Vancouver. In season, salmon, spring, cohoe and tyee, steel-
heads, Dolly Varden, rainbow, cut-throat, and sea trout are plentiful.
Within easy reach there is also wonderful shooting. Grouse, duck, teal,
mallard, snipe, pheasants and partridges are plentiful in season.
A Busy Port Vancouver is a highly important port. From here the
well-known Canadian Pacific "Princess" steamers
provide local services to Victoria, Seattle, and Northern British Columbia. Another very popular trip is by "Princess" steamer to Alaska—
a nine-day two-thousand mile journey there and back through the
fiord-like scenery of the Northland.
There is a huge trans-Pacific business, with services to the Oriental
and Antipodean countries via several routes. The Canadian Australasian
Line runs regularly from Vancouver to Honolulu, Fiji, New Zealand
and Australia. Its high-speed motorship "Aorangi," and her running
mate  "Niagara,"  have many  devices  for comfort  in tropic waters.
Empresses The fastest trans-Pacific service is furnished by the
of the Pacific Canadian Pacific Steamships, which maintain regular
services to Honolulu, Japan, China and the Philippines.
This well-known "White Empress" fleet consists of four magnificent
passenger ships, the "Empress of Japan," the "Empress of Canada,"
the "Empress of Asia" and the "Empress of Russia," and comprises
the largest and fastest vessels on the Pacific. A large proportion of
the silk trade of the Orient passes through Vancouver.
Grain and Tramp ships from the seven seas ply into Vancouver.
Lumber Lumber from the forests of British Columbia is a great
item in her exports; but the giant elevators around the
harbor indicate the growth of grain export, for much Western grain finds
its way to Vancouver elevators. Pulp, paper, canned goods, fruit and
hundreds of manufactured lines are handled. i
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Oak Bay
Golf Course,
Victoria
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Malahat Drive, Victoria 60
Victoria
A Canadian Pacific "Princess" Steamer from Vancouver to Victoria
The Triangle Route
British Columbia Coast Steamship Service
In connection with its trans-continental rail service, the Canadian
Pacific operates an extensive steamship service on the British Columbia
Coast as far north as Alaska. On Puget Sound two magnificent
steamers, the "Princess Kathleen" and the "Princess Marguerite,"
the fastest in the North Pacific coastwise business, operate on the
"Triangle Route" between Vancouver, Victoria and Seattle.
Nautical
Miles
0.0
72.0
142.0
126.0
VANCOUVER
VICTORIA
SEATTLE
SEATTLE
(direct)
Full particulars of this
service may be found in
the Company's time
tables or consult any
Canadian Pacific agent.
Victoria Victoria (Population 62,000) stands on a promontory overlooking the Straits of Juan de Fuca across to the snowcapped Olympic Mountains on the mainland. Owing to the characteristic beauty of its residential district, it has often been called "a bit
of England on the shores of the Pacific." Victoria's beauty lies in its
residential districts, its boulevards, parks, public buildings, numerous
bathing beaches and semi-tropical foliage.
Empress Hotel The Empress Hotel, most western of the chain of
Canadian Pacific hotels, overlooks the inner harbor, within a stone's throw of the Parliament buildings. It is an hotel
of stately architecture, hospitable spirit, spacious atmosphere, and
social warmth. Its beautiful gardens are a fitting accompaniment
of its own ivy-grown walls.
Crystal Garden     Adjoining the Empress Hotel an amusement casino,
the  Crystal  Garden,   contains  one  of the  largest
glass-enclosed salt-water swimming pools in the world, together with
dancing floors, promenades, etc.
Parliament Buildings Victoria is the capital of British Columbia.
The Parliament Buildings, which rank among
the handsomest in America, overlook the inner harbor. Adjoining
them is the Provincial Museum, very complete and interesting, and
containing a large assortment of specimens of natural history, native Victoria
61
The Empress Hotel, Victoria
woods, Indian curios and prehistoric instruments. The Provincial
Library contains a large collection
of historical prints, documents, and
other works of great value and
interest.
Beacon Hill Park One of the city's
public parks,
Beacon Hill Park, contains 154 acres
laid out as recreation grounds
and pleasure gardens, fifteen minutes' walk from the Empress Hotel
and included in all sight-seeing
trips in the city. Magnificent views
can be obtained from Beacon Hill
across the Straits of Juan de Fuca
and of Olympic Mountains on the
mainland.
CHARMINGLY situated at the
southern end of Vancouver Island,
Victoria—-the capital city of British Columbia—gives a bright welcome to the arriving traveller.
Although its enterprising business
district speaks of a rich commerce
drawn from the forest, mineral and
agricultural resources of Vancouver Island, Victoria is essentially
a home city, with beautiful houses,
bungalows, gardens, lawns, boulevards and parks; and it has furthermore a distinct charm of its
own that has made it a favorite
residential and vacation city for
both summer and winter alike.
Brentwood Near Brentwood, a charming resort on Saanich Inlet
about fifteen miles from the city by street-car or automobile, are the beautiful and famous gardens of Mr. R. P. Butchart.
In no part of America can any more diversified gardens be found than
these, for besides sunken gardens there are acres of rose gardens,
stretches of velvet lawns bordered with flowers of every description,
and a Japanese, or fairy, garden. Visitors are admitted without charge
every day.
Saanich Mountain
Observatory
Reached by automobile or street-car. The new
telescope, which has a 72-inch reflector, is the
third  largest in the world.    The observatory, in
addition to being of interest itself, commands from its site one of the
finest views on the Pacific Coast.
Golf Victoria can be considered as an approximation to the "golfer's
paradise," for in its equable climate golf can be enjoyed every
day of the year. Three 18-hole and two 9-hole courses are open to
visitors, and are all convenient to the city, well kept and of fine location.
Guests at the Empress Hotel have special privileges at the Colwood
Golf and Country Club. 62
Seattle
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,
The Crystal Garden, Victoria
Sporting
The fishing and shooting on Vancouver Island are of the
best—trout, salmon, pheasant, grouse, cougar, bear, deer
and moose being the prizes. Shawnigan Lake, Cowichan Lake, Sproat
Lake, Great Central Lake and Campbell River are amongst the most
famous fishing waters of this continent. There are also excellent bird
shooting and big game hunting. Sportsmen wishing fuller information
should communicate with the Information Desk, the Empress Hotel,
Victoria.
Motoring There are as many good motor trips radiating from Victoria
as from any other place in America. The roads are
excellent. Among the popular trips is the famous Malahat Drive to
Shawnigan and Duncan; Nanaimo via Parksville to Cameron Lake,
on over Alberni Summit; another is the Grand Island Highway Tour—
Victoria, Duncan, Nanaimo, Cameron Lake, Port Alberni, Qualicum
and Campbell River, and the entire Georgian Circuit International
Tour, the greatest and most complete scenic tour on the continent.
Vancouver Island From Victoria delightful excursions may be made
into the interior of Vancouver Island, either by
the Esquimalt and Nanaimo Railway or by automobile. Excellent
hotels are to be found at Cameron Lake and elsewhere. Spendid
fishing can be enjoyed at numerous places, for salmon and trout. The
immense Douglas fir forests of the interior and the balmy climate
make a trip into the interior wonderfully attractive.
Seattle Seattle is the largest city in the State of Washington, and
one of the most important on the Pacific Coast. It is a
beautiful and progressive city, with a rapidly increasing population.
Situated on the east side of Puget Sound, up the slopes of the hills that
front the latter, it has a fine harbor accessible to the largest vessels
afloat. Lake Washington, a body of fresh water about twenty miles
long and three miles wide, bounds the city on the east, and is now
connected with the Sound by the Lake Washington Canal, a very
notable feat of engineering that has a great and important bearing
upon Seattle's future. The downtown business section of Seattle has
many skyscraper buildings.
Seattle has a very pleasing residential section, especially in the
vicinity of the University of Washington, and many beautiful parks
and summer resorts. A large number of enjoyable trips can be made
from Seattle, by train, steamer, and motor, such as to Bellingham,
Everett, Tacoma, Mount Rainier, the Olympic Peninsula wonderland,
and to many resorts and lakes in the Cascadejand Olympic mountain
ranges. %VV\lUtl
waumirjr
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iiimv*
Lynn Canal, near Skagway LODGES
IN THE CANADIAN ROCKIES
Lake Wapta     Overlooking beautiful Lake Wapta, just west of the
Lodge Great   Divide.    Fishing,   boating,   centre  for  Alpine
climbing, drives, pony rides and hikes to Lake O'Hara,
the Yoho Valley, the Kicking Horse Canyon, etc.
Postal Address: Lake Wapta Lodge, Hector, B.C.
Lake O'Hara    This Alpine lake, of exquisite coloring and charm, is a
Lodge splendid climbing, riding, fishing and walking centre.
Excursions to Lake McArthur and Lake Oesa, or over
Abbot Pass to Lake Louise. Reached by trail from Lake Louise and
Wapta.
Postal Address: Lake O'Hara Lodge, Hector, B.C.
Yoho Valley     At the most delightful location in Yoho Valley, facing
Lodge Takakkaw Falls.    Excursions to the upper valley or
to Emerald Lake.    Hiking, climbing, riding.
Postal Address: Yoho Valley Lodge, Field, B.C.
Moraine At the head of the Valley of the Ten Peaks.    Good
Lake Lodge      trout fishing, climbing, riding and hiking to Consolation Lakes, Paradise Valley, Wenkchemna Pass, etc.
Postal   Address:   Moraine   Lake   Lodge,   Lake   Louise, Alta.
Radium Hot       Second stop on the Banff-Windermere Road.  Swim-
Springs Lodge    ming in Radium Hot Springs Pool, hiking, fishing
and climbing.    Wonderful view of the Selkirks.
Postal   Address:    Radium   Hot   Springs   Lodge,    Radium   Hot
Springs, B.C.
Mount Assiniboine   Two-days'   trail  ride  from   Banff   (34  miles),
Lodge stopping overnight at half-way camp.    Rates
on application.
Postal  Address:   Mount  Assiniboine Lodge,   Banff,  Alta.
These attractive lodges are open during   the summer months   and
the rates are extremely reasonable. CANADIAN PACIFIC HOTELS
Banff Springs Hotel
Banff, Alta.
Altitude, 4,625 feet
Chateau Lake Louise
Lake Louise, Alta.
Altitude 5,680 feet
Emerald Lake Chalet
near Field, B.C.
Altitude 4,272 feet
Hotel Sicamous
Sicamous, B.C.
Altitude 1,153 feet
(Operated by lessee)
Hotel Vancouver
Vancouver, B.C.
Empress Hotel
Victoria, B.C.
Hotel Palliser
Calgary, Alta.
Hotel Saskatchewan
Regina, Sask.
Royal Alexandra Hotel
Winnipeg, Man.
The Royal York
Toronto, Ont.
Chateau Frontenac
Quebec, Que.
McAdam Hotel
McAdam, N.B.
The Algonquin
St. Andrews-by-the-Sea,
N.B.
The Pines
Digby, N.S.
Cornwallis Inn
Kentville, N.S.
Lakeside Inn
Yarmouth, N.S.
Halifax, N.S.
THE ROCKIES
A magnificent hotel in the heart of the Banff National Park,
backed by three splendid mountain ranges. Alpine climbing,
motoring and drives on good roads, bathing, hot sulphur
springs, golf, tennis, fishing, boating, riding, hiking. (Open
summer months).    European plan.    1J^ miles from station.
Facing an exquisite Alpine Lake in Banff National Park.
Alpine climbing with Swiss guides, pony trips or walks to
Lakes in the Clouds, Saddleback, etc., drives or motoring
to Moraine Lake, boating, fishing. (Open summer months).
European plan.    3J/£  miles  from  station  by  motor  bus.
A Chalet hotel situated at the foot of Mount Burgess, amidst
the picturesque Alpine scenery of the Yoho National Park.
Roads or trails to the Burgess Pass, Yoho Valley, etc.
Boating, fishing, hiking. (Open summer months). American
plan.    Seven miles from station.
Junction for the orchard districts of the Okanagan Valley,
and stop-over point for those who wish to see the Thompson
and Fraser Canyons by daylight. Lake Shuswap district
offers good boating and excellent trout fishing and hunting
in season.    (Open  all   year).    American plan. At station.
THE PACIFIC COAST
The largest hotel on the North Pacific Coast, overlooking the
Strait of Georgia, and serving equally the business man and
the tourist. Situated in the heart of the shopping district of
Vancouver. Golf, motoring, fishing, hunting, steamer excursions. (Open all year). European plan. One-half mile
from station.
In the Garden City of the Pacific Coast. An equable climate
has made Victoria a favorite summer and winter resort.
Motoring, yachting, sea and stream fishing, shooting and
all-year golf. Crystal Garden for swimming and music.
(Open all year).    European plan.    Facing Inner Harbor.
THE PRAIRIES
Suited equally to the business man and the tourist en route to or from
the Canadian Rockies. Good golfing and motoring. (Open all year).
European plan.    At station.
In the old capital of the Northwest Territory, headquarters of the
Mounted Police.    Golf, tennis.    (Open all year).    European plan.
A popular hotel in the capital of the Province of Manitoba, appealing to
those who wish to break their transcontinental journey. The centre of
Winnipeg's social life. Good golfing and motoring. (Open all year).
European plan.    (Subway connection with station).
EASTERN CANADA
■%
The largest hotel in the British Empire.    (Open all year).    European plan.
Subway connection with Union Station.
A metropolitan hotel—in the most historic city of North America. (Open
all year).    European plan.
A commercial and sportsman's hotel.
At station.
(Open all year).   American plan.
The social centre of Canada's most popular Atlantic Coast summer resort.
Unsurpassed golf.     (Open summer months).    American plan.
Nova Scotia's premier summer resort.     Golf, swimming in glass-enclosed
sea-water pool.     (Open summer months).    American plan.
In the Annapolis Valley near Evangeline's Grand Pri.
American plan.
Delightful   summer   resort—all   outdoor   recreations.
months).    American plan.
Lord Nelson Hotel.
Nelson Hotel Co.
(Open all year).
(Open   summer
(Open all year).   European plan.    Operated by Lord
For further information, reservations, etc., apply to hotel management or
nearest Canadian Pacific agent. t/ikattpAs tA&
CANADIAN
ROCKIES
CANADIAN PACIFIC

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