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Your journey through the Canadian Rockies : eastbound Canadian Pacific Railway Company. Public Relations & Advertising 1932

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Array f7DZ.
ourney
Canadian /
c7i^ Rockies
Published by Canadian Pacific News Department—Price 25 cents
Canadian Ricific CANADIAN  PACIFIC
WORLD'S GREATEST TRAVEL SYSTEM
22,000 Miles of Railway
Serving all the important industrial, commercial and
agricultural sections of Canada, as well as many parts
of the United States. It reaches large cities, famous
historic spots, wonderful vacation and sporting resorts,
and some of the most magnificent scenery in the world.
Ocean Steamships
Across the Atlantic from Montreal or Quebec by the
"White Empresses/' "Duchesses" or Cabin Class steamships to European ports.
Across the Pacific from Vancouver and Victoria to
Honolulu, Japan, China and Manila by the "White
Empress" fleet, comprising the largest and fastest steamships on the Pacific.
Traffic Agents for the Canadian-Australasian Line. Sailings from Vancouver and Victoria to New Zealand and
Australia via Honolulu and Suva.
Inland and coastal steamships on the Great Lakes,
Pacific Coast and Atlantic Coast.
Seventeen Hotels
In the Canadian Rockies, at the Pacific Coast, on the
Prairies, and in the East. Nine delightful Chalet-
Bungalow Camps in the Rockies and Ontario.
Crui:
ses
Next winter—Canadian Pacific de luxe cruises Round-
the-World, to the Mediterranean and to the West Indies.
Telegraph System
Extending the entire length of the railway and reaching as
well every point of importance in Canada away from it.
Express System
World-wide merchandise and financial service.
Colonization
Canadian Pacific land-settlement policies, coupled with
the large acreage of fertile agricultural land still for sale
in the west, are helping to develop a richer Canada.
CANADIAN PACIFIC—"/* Spans.the World" :■•■-■
Your Journey
THROUGH THE CANADIAN
ROCKIES
From Victoria and Vancouver to Calgary
f f f
^5he Canadian Rockies, which interpose
their giant bulk between the Pacific coast and
the prairies, form one of the most remarkable
mountain regions of the world. Composed of
some five ranges, they offer nearly 650 miles of
magnificent scenery—snowy peaks, glaciers,
rugged precipices, waterfalls, foaming torrents,
canyons, and lakes like vast sapphires and
amethysts set in the pine-clad mountains. They
attract every year thousands of eager visitors,
for whom luxurious hotels and comfortable
chalet-bungalow camps provide headquarters.
Published by the News Department
Canadian Pacific Railway
PRICE 25 CENTS
Printed in Canada 1932 HOW TO READ THIS BOOK
This book is written for the reader travelling eastward;
a companion booklet is written for readers travelling
westward.
At the head of almost every page is a list of stations identified by mileage from the previous divisional point. Underneath, those places are described. Travelling eastward
these divisional points are:
Vancouver, North Bend, Kamloops, Revelstoke, Field, Calgary.
North and South of Track.    If you ride facing the locomotive, the
north is:
On your left—travelling eastward
Contents Text Map
Victoria to Seattle and Vancouver  3
Vancouver to Kamloops  9 10, 15 .16
Kamloops to Sicamous  15 16
Okanagan Lake Steamer Service  17
Sicamous to Revelstoke. .  19 19
Branch Line Arrow Lakes  20
Revelstoke to Golden :*  21 21, 24
Lake Windermere Branch  26
Motor Drives in the Rockies  27
Golden to Field  30 30
Field to Lake Louise  36
Lake Louise to Banff  43 45
Banff to Calgary  52 51 Victoria
The Empress Hotel, Victoria
Although the Canadian Pacific CHARMINGLY situated at the
rail services do not begin until we southern end of Vancouver Island,
reach Vancouver, and although Victoria—the capital city of Brit-
there are some Canadian Pacific ish Columbia—gives a bright wel-
steamer services which travel afield come to the arriving traveller,
much farther than Victoria, we will Although its enterprising business
begin our journey through the district speaks of a rich commerce
Rockies at this beautiful city. drawn from the forest, mineral and
agricultural resources of Vancou-
Victoria Victoria (Population ver Island, Victoria is essentially
65,000) stands on a pro- a home city, with beautiful houses,
montory overlooking the Straits of bungalows, gardens, lawns, boule-
Juan de Fuca across to the snow- vards and parks; and it has fur-
capped Olympic Mountains on the thermore a distinct charm of its
mainland. Owing to the charac- own that has made it a favorite
teristic beauty of its residential dis- residential and vacation city for
trict, it has often been called "a bit both summer and winter alike,
of England on the  shores of the
Pacific."   Victoria's beauty lies in its residential districts, its boulevards,
parks, public buildings, numerous  bathing beaches and  semi-tropical
foliage.
Empress Hotel      The Empress Hotel, most western of the chain of
Canadian Pacific hotels, overlooks the inner harbor>
within a stone's throw of the Parliament buildings. It is an hotel of
stately architecture, hospitable spirit, spacious atmosphere, and social
warmth. Its beautiful gardens are a fitting accompaniment of its own
ivy-grown walls.
Crystal Garden     Adjoining the Empress Hotel an amusement casino,
the Crystal Garden, contains one of the largest
glass-enclosed salt-water swimming pools in the world, together with
dancing floors, promenades, etc.
Parliament Buildings Victoria is the capital of British Columbia.
The Parliament Buildings, which rank among
the handsomest in America, overlook the inner harbor. Adjoining
them is the Provincial Museum, very complete and interesting, and
containing.a large assortment of specimens of natural history, native
woods, Indian curios and prehistoric instruments. The Provincial
Library contains a large collection of historical prints, documents, and
other works of great value and interest.
Beacon Hill Park    One of the city's public parks, Beacon Hill Park,
contains 154 acres laid out as recreation grounds
and pleasure gardens, fifteen minutes' walk from  the Empress Hotel Victoria
The Crystal Garden, Victoria
and included in all sight-seeing trips in the city. Magnificent views
can be obtained from Beacon Hill across the Straits of Juan de Fuca
and of Olympic Mountains on the mainland.
Brentwood Near Brentwood, a charming resort on Saanich Inlet
about fifteen miles from the city by street-car or automobile, are the beautiful and famous gardens of Mr. R. P. Butchart.
In no part of America can any more diversified gardens be found than
these, for besides sunken gardens there are acres of rose gardens,
stretches of velvet lawns bordered with flowers of every description,
and a Japanese, or fairy, garden. Visitors are admitted without charge
every day.
Saanich Mountain
Observatory
Reached by automobile or street-car. The new
telescope, which has a 72-inch reflector, is the
second largest in the world.    The observatory, in
addition to being of interest itself, commands from its site one of the
finest views on the Pacific Coast.
Golf Victoria can be considered as an approximation to the "golfer's
paradise," for in its equable climate golf can be enjoyed every
day of the year. Three 18-hole and two 9-hole courses are open to
visitors and are all convenient to the city, well kept and of fine location.
Guests at the Empress Hotel have special privileges at the Colwood
Golf and Country Club.
Sporting The fishing and shooting on Vancouver Island are of the
best—trout, salmon, pheasant, grouse, cougar, bear, deer
and moose being the prizes. Shawnigan Lake, Cowichan Lake, Sproat
Lake, Great Central Lake and Campbell River are amongst the most
famous fishing waters of this continent. There are also excellent bird
shooting and big game hunting. Sportsmen wishing fuller information
should communicate with the Victoria and Island Publicity Bureau,
Victoria.
Motoring There are as many good motor trips radiating from Victoria
as from any other place in America. The roads are
excellent. Among the popular trips is the famous Malahat Drive to
Shawnigan and Duncan; Nanaimo, via Parksville to Cameron Lake,
on over Alberni Summit; another is the Grand Island Highway Tour—
Victoria, Duncan, Nanaimo, Cameron Lake, Port Alberni, Qualicum
and Campbell River, and the entire Georgian Circuit International
Tour, the greatest and most complete scenic tour on the continent. Seattle
A Canadian Pacific *'Princess" Steamship from Victoria to Vancouver
The Triangle Route
British Columbia Coast Steamship Service
In connection with its trans-continental rail service, the Canadian
Pacific operates an extensive steamship service on the British Columbia
Coast as far north as Alaska. On Puget Sound four magnificent
Princess steamships, the fastest in the North Pacific coastwise business,
operate on the "Triangle Route" between Vancouver, Victoria and Seattle.
Nautical
Miles
0.0
VANCOUVER
72.0
VICTORIA
142.0
SEATTLE
126.0
SEATTLE
(direct)
Full particulars of this
service may be found in
the Company's time
tables or consult any
Canadian  Pacific  agent.
Vancouver Island From Victoria delightful excursions may be made
into the interior of Vancouver Island, either by
the Esquimau: and Nanaimo Railway or by automobile. Excellent
hotels are to be found at Cameron Lake and elsewhere. Splendid
fishing can be enjoyed at numerous places, for salmon and trout. The
immense Douglas fir forests of the interior and the balmy climate
make a trip into the interior wonderfully attractive.
Seattle Seattle is the largest city in the State of Washington, and
one of the most important on the Pacific Coast. It is a
beautiful and progressive city, with a rapidly increasing population.
Situated on the east side of Puget Sound, up the slopes of the hills that
front the latter, it has a fine harbor accessible to the largest vessels
afloat. Lake Washington, a body of fresh water about twenty miles
long and three miles wide, bounds the city on the east, and is now
connected with the Sound by the Lake Washington Canal, a very
notable feat of engineering that has a great and important bearing
upon Seattle's future. The downtown business section of Seattle has
many skyscraper buildings.
Seattle has a very pleasing residential section, especially in the
vicinity of the University of Washington, and many beautiful parks
and summer resorts. A large number of enjoyable trips can be made
from Seattle, by train, steamer, and motor, such as to Bellingham,
Everett, Tacoma, Mount Rainier, the Olympic Peninsula wonderland,
and to many resorts in the Cascade and Olympic mountain ranges. Vancouver
Vancouver
(Population
with suburbs
341,000) is situated on Burrard Inlet,
which here is
over two miles
wide. A long
peninsula,
within which
is embraced
b e a u t i f u 1
Stanley Park,
curves round
north-westward from the
city, and al-
mostlandlocks
Vancouver
Harbor. On
the north side
of the Inlet is
a magnificent
mountain
range; the
most prominent features
thereof are two
peaks    which,
silhouetted against the sky and remarkably resembling two couchant
lions, are visible from any point in the city or harbor and have earned
it its appropriate name of "The Lions' Gate."
Hotel Vancouver
Hotel Vancouver The Hotel Vancouver, situated on Granville
Street about one-half mile from the Canadian
Pacific station, is the finest hotel of the North Pacific. From its roof-
garden some wonderful views of the Strait of Georgia can be obtained.
Adequate sight-seeing services, visiting all parts of the city and its
environs, are operated and leave the hotel daily.
A Summer    Vancouver is a favorite summer city, for its mild climate,
City floral luxuriance and closeness to water make life there
very pleasant. There are many bathing beaches, parks,
boulevards, automobile roads, and short and long steamer trips. All
kinds of water sports are available, and are encouraged by a mild
climate. The roads around the city are famous for their excellence,
and there are many fine drives, varying from an hour to a day in time.
Stanley Park Amongst the shorter drives may be mentioned Stanley
Park—one of the finest natural parks in the world,
a primeval forest right within the city limits and containing thousands
of Douglas firs and giant cedars of a most amazing size and age. The
park is encircled by a perfect road, nine miles in length.
"Marine Drive,"" which girdles Point Grey, is one which leads
through Vancouver's most interesting residential sections and gives
a wonderful opportunity to enjoy the run through luxuriant woods
which crowd down to the very tide mark.
the visitor
suspension
Capilano, etc.      The  North  shore  of  the  harbor  offers
the   awesome   Capilano   canyon,   where
bridges hang hundreds of feet over a torrent which has carved its way
down through perpendicular walls of granite.   West Vancouver, with
its cosy little rock-clinging gardens and its impressive sea cliff drive
offers the visitor another tempting trip. Vancouver
Vancouver Harbor
Grouse Mountain, rising nearly
four thousand feet above North
Vancouver, is a unique trip. A
fine motor road climbs the mountain
to a comfortable chalet, where guests
can be accommodated for short or
long visits. From this height one
looks directly down on Vancouver
and the view extends, in clear
weather, to Vancouver Island, forty
miles distant.
Still another fine drive is to New
Westminster. (See page 9). The
Pacific Highway, including Kings-
way, runs through Vancouver, connecting up with the main American
roads of the Northwest. This road
runs all the way from Vancouver to
Mexico.
VANCOUVER, terminal of Canadian Pacific transcontinental rail
and trans-Pacific steamship routes,
is the largest commercial centre in
British Columbia. In and around
Vancouver are immense lumber
and shingle mills. Mining, lumbering, farming, shipbuilding, and
shipping, with a vast Oriental
business, form the reason of the
city's remarkable growth and
prosperity. From a forest clearing
forty years ago it has become one
of the most important seaports of
the Pacific Ocean.
Vancouver is also one of the
great vacation objectives of the
Pacific Coast, and because of its
beauty and hospitality has become
very popular in this regard.
Bathing There are numerous fine bathing beaches around Vancouver. The most easily reached are English Bay and
Kitsilano—both on the street-car line. The scene on a sunny afternoon
at English Bay, which lies at one entrance to Stanley Park, is one of
great animation.
Burrard Inlet, English Bay, and the North Arm are excellent places
also for boating. Vancouver boasts of one of the finest yacht clubs
on the Pacific Coast.
Golf      Vancouver has many good golf courses, all of them 18-hole
courses and all open to visitors.   Included in these is a public
course,   "Langara,"  owned  by the  Canadian  Pacific.    There  are  a
number of good tennis clubs.
Steamer Trips Some fine steamer trips can be made from Vancouver.
Chief amongst them, perhaps, is the 4-hour trip
across the Gulf of Georgia to Victoria. Then there are a particularly
interesting trip to Nanaimo, a cruise amongst the Gulf Islands, and
others to Comox, Powell River, etc. An excellent circle tour may be
made by taking a "Princess" steamer to Victoria, the E. & N. train
from Victoria to Nanaimo, thence back to Vancouver by steamer. 8 Vancouver
English Bay, Vancouver
Many delightful short excursions are made by Canadian Pacific
Coast steamers during June, July and August, including one-day
cruises to Jervis Inlet, afternoon cruises to the Gulf Islands, etc. These
are advertised in the Vancouver newspapers.
Sporting A great variety of fishing can be obtained around Vancouver. In season, salmon, spring, cohoe and tyee, steel -
heads, Dolly Varden, rainbow, cut-throat, and sea trout are plentiful.
Within easy reach of the city there is also wonderful shooting. Grouse,
duck, teal, mallard, snipe, pheasants and partridges are plentiful in
season. Lulu Island, Sea Island, the North Shore and Seymour Flats
are all within an hour of the Hotel Vancouver.
A Busy Port Vancouver is a highly important port. From here the
well-known Canadian Pacific "Princess" steamers
provide local services to Victoria, Seattle, and Northern British Columbia. Another very popular trip is by "Princess" steamer to Alaska—
a nine-day two-thousand mile journey there and back through the
fiord-like scenery of the Northland.
There is a huge trans-Pacific business, with services to the Oriental and
Antipodean countries by several lines. The Canadian-Australasian Line
runs regularly from Vancouver to Honolulu, Suva (Fiji), New Zealand
and Australia. Its liners, the high-speed motorship Aorangi and her
running mate Niagara, have every device for comfort in tropic waters.
Empresses The fastest trans-Pacific service is that of the Canadian
of the Pacific Pacific Steamships, which maintain regular services to Honolulu, Japan, China and the Philippines.
This well-known "White Empress" fleet consists of four magnificent
passenger ships, the "Empress of Japan," the "Empress of Canada," the
"Empress of Asia" and the "Empress of Russia," and comprises the
largest and fastest vessels on the Pacific. A large proportion of the
silk trade of the Orient passes through Vancouver.
Grain and Tramp ships from the seven seas ply into Vancouver.
Lumber Lumber from the forests of British Columbia—Van
couver's first commercial love—is still a great item
in her exports, both by rail and water; but the giant elevators which
annually increase in number around the harbor bear witness to the
phenomenal growth of grain export, for now trains through the Rockies
pour a golden flood of Alberta and Saskatchewan grain in Vancouver
elevators. Pulp, paper, canned goods, fruit and hundreds of manufactured lines are handled. The visitor who is interested may spend
many enjoyable hours on the waterfront of the main harbor, both on
the south side and in North Vancouver, and a trip past the "second
narrows" to the upper reaches of the inlet and its magnificent North
Arm will well repay the time so spent. New   Westminster
Mileage
Altitude
South Side of Track
east of
above
North Side of Track
Vancouver
sea-level
VANCOUVER
14
Hotel Vancouver
12.5
Port Moody
14
Reach the head of Burrard Inlet.
Branch   to   New   West
-    16.5
Coquitlam
34
The Coquitlam River is
minster.
crossed after leaving
this point. Three miles
further and the Pitt
River is crossed.
21.7
Pitt Meadows
38
Fraser River.
23.9
Hammond
26
32.7
Whonnock
23
Cross Stave Creek.
Branch to Huntingdon.
41.7
Mission
27
Burrard Inlet Returning to Vancouver after our triangle trip, we
begin our journey eastward, forsaking the beauties
of the Pacific coast for the promise of the majestic grandeur of the
Rockies. Leaving behind the throbbing activity of the great Pacific
outlet, we pass through its suburbs and follow the shore line of beautiful
Burrard Inlet.
Soon we reach Port Moody at the head of Burrard Inlet. Port
Moody was the original terminal of the Canadian Pacific in 1886 for
Vancouver had not then been founded. The first cargo ever carried
across the Pacific Ocean for the Canadian Pacific arrived in Port
Moody from Yokohama on the brig "W. B. Flint" on July 26th, 1886.
With the tang of the salt sea air still in our nostrils, we speed on to
Coquitlam which offers junction facilities for New Westminster.
New Westminster so named by Queen Victoria, is known as "The
Royal City"; but makes other claims for recognition. It is the third city of the province and its industries are growing constantly. Ocean snipping makes its way to New Westminster
docks up the deep Fraser. It ships much lumber and wheat. It is
connected with Vancouver by several fine highways (12 3^ miles).
Mission With Coquitlam left behind, Stave River is crossed, the
waters of which help to supply Vancouver with electrical
power, then comes prosperous Mission, a fruit growing and dairy
centre. At Nicomen on a clear day it is possible to see snow-capped
Mount Baker, a solitary peak standing over the U. S. border directly
south. Fertile Fraser flats have extended along the route from salt water.
From Mission, a branch line runs 10 miles south to Huntingdon, on the International
boundary between Canada and U.S. From Coquitlam another branch runs 8 miles
south to New Westminster.
Harrison Some   seventy   miles   after   leaving   Vancouver,   about
Hot Springs five miles from Agassiz Station, is the delightful resort
of Harrison Hot Springs. Situated on Harrison
Lake, a large and picturesque body of water that flows into
the Fraser River
from the north, this
resort has sulphur
and potash hot
springs of great curative and medicinal
values; and recently
a new and attractive
hotel, with which are
combined a covered
swimming pool and
private Turkish
baths, was opened to
serve as a focus for
the district. Splendid
opportunities are
available for fishing,
hunting, trap shooting, golfing, boating,
tennis and horseback
riding. Harrison Hot Springs 10
Harrison   Hot   Springs
The Route from Vancouver to Petain
Agassiz Harrison River is reached and crossed and we pass through
rich orchards, beautiful pastures and hay meadows which
will soon disappear as the Fraser River narrows. Racing along its
wide reaches, it is hard to picture it as the roaring terror it is soon to
become at Hell's Gate. Agassiz is next reached, the station for Harrison Hot Springs. There is a Government Experimental Farm at
Agassiz and from the town there is a ferry service to Chilliwack. The
Chilliwack Valley comprises over 55,000 acres of rich agricultural land
and is well known for its dairying.
Ruby Creek     The double track from Vancouver extends to Ruby
Creek which obtains its name from the garnets found in
the neighborhood.
Petain is the junction of the Canadian Pacific more southerly
route through the Rockies with the more northerly. Looking
across the Fraser one sees the canyon from which the turbulent Coquihalla
pours into the larger river and joins the majestic roll of the Fraser to
the sea.
The southerly line furnishes an alternative to the more popular northerly route from
Vancouver to the Prairies. It has some spectacular scenery, especially along the
Canyon of the Coquihalla River. This southern route is linked to the main line by
branches at Sicamous, Revelstoke and Golden.
Yale As we approach Yale, we prepare for our introduction to
the mountains. An occasional glance at the Fraser shows a
less placid surface and soon the railway will be compelled to burrow into
the rock for its foothold; but Yale slumbers in its peaceful vale of
apples, plums and cherries. It lives in memories of its historic greatness. Once the head of navigation on the Fraser and the "kicking off"
place for the Cariboo road, it was one of the first incorporated communities on the mainland and boasted of a population estimated
variously from seven to ten thousand.
Behind the station the Historic Sites and Monuments Branch of the Dominion
Government has marked the spot where British army engineers started the famous gold
trail to the Cariboo.   A rough stone bears a tablet which sets out:
"Here began the Cariboo wagon road which extended four hundred miles to northward to the gold mines of Cariboo. Built in 1862-5. In the olden days of Cariboo, over
this great highway, passed thousands of miners and millions of treasure."
The way to the mountain passes is through the canyons of the
Fraser and the Thompson rivers and now the Fraser will reveal some
of its wild scenes. Passing through five miles of rugged grandeur we
see a great rock rising in the middle of the river and standing like an
island fortress against the rush of the current. Another three and a
half miles and the canyon closes in, great barriers of rock curbing the
river in its drop. Stages where the Indians net salmon can be seen
and on the high rocks are the racks where they smoke the fish. Hell's   Gate
11
Mileage
Altitude
South Side of Track
*ast of
above
North Side of Track
Vancouver
sea-level
Mount Baker.
52.3
Nicomen
30
The   Harrison   River  is
60.9
Harrison Mills
47
crossed at this point.
70.1
Agassiz
60
Government   Experimental Farm.
The line from Vancouver
81.0
Ruby Creek
103
to  this  point  is  double
tracked.
Jet.   with   the  southern
87.3
Petain
183
route through the Rockies
The site of an old trad
101.9
Yale
220
ing post of Hudson's Bay
Company.
113.5
Spuzzum
399
7   miles from Spuzzum,
After passing a series of
Hell's  Gate, the climax
tunnels, we bridge fine
of    Fraser   Canyon,   is
rock gorges at White's
reached.
Creek and Skuzzy River.
129.0
NORTH BEND
493
Spuzzum Spuzzum, crowding a bench above the river, is reached—
once a Hudson's Bay Company trading post and a place
of some importance when the Cariboo road crossed the Fraser on the
old suspension bridge. The floods have taken out the old bridge and
the other historic landmarks have disappeared in the luxuriant vegetation. The modern highway crosses the river here on a new suspension
bridge.
Hell's Gate Between the numerous tunnels the traveller sees signs
of that age-old fight of water against rock as the Fraser
batters its way seaward. White's Creek and Williams' Creek are
passed with occasional glimpses of the old Cariboo trail. Two jutting
promontories suddenly compress the river and force it to escape in a
roaring cataract through a bottle-necked outlet. This is the famous
Hell's Gate.
Hell's Gate, Fraser Canyon 12
The   Fraser   Canyon
\
The Fraser River Canyon—showing the Old Cariboo Road
In this narrow neck the water boils through on a wicked crest and
the rock markings plainly show to what almost unbelievable heights
the river rises during flood periods.
North Bend Roughly two and a half miles past Hell's Gate the
Skuzzy river drops into the Fraser under the railway
bridge in a series of basins up which the salmon vainly struggle during
the running season. The track, hewn from the solid rock, not only
crosses from side to side in the great canyon but tunnels through great
rock spurs. As we approach North Bend, the foliage becomes less
luxuriant. Here, on the limited bench above the ever-roaring Fraser,
the company has established divisional point yards, leaving room for
bright gardens which greet the summer visitor. North Bend is a
desirable stopping place for those who wish to see more of the Fraser
Canyon than is possible from the train.
After leaving North Bend there can be seen here and there a garden
or orchard struggling for existence on tiny benches grudgingly left by
the roaring Fraser. There are Indian reservations all along the river,
and often Indians may be seen spreading salmon or scooping them out
with their dip reeds.
Lytton Six miles before reaching Lytton we cross the canyon by a
steel cantilever bridge. This is the first and only crossing
of the Fraser. The scenery grows wilder than ever. The great river
is forced between vertical walls of black rock where, repeatedly thrown
back upon itself, it madly foams and roars.
The little trading town of Lytton is the junction of the Fraser and
Thompson rivers; the former has come down from the north between
two great lines of mountain peaks and from now on we shall follow the
Thompson. The difference between the two rivers is noticeable; the
Fraser was a muddy one, the Thompson is bright green. Both rivers
are historic, their names commemorating two of the earliest and most
famous explorers who sought the Pacific Ocean overland from the east.
The Fraser, the chief river of British Columbia, is 800 miles in length
and is navigable from its mouth to about Yale. The   Thompson   Canyon
13
Mileage
South Side of Track      east of
North Bend
Altitude
above     North Side of Track
sea-level
Note the old Cariboo
road on the opposite side
of the valley.
Canyon scenery fine
mile after leaving Kanaka.
Fraser crossed 140 feet
above the river.
5.0
17.6
26.6
NORTH BEND
Chaumox
Kanaka
493
568
613
Lytton
31.6 Gladwin
35.9 Thompson
758
673
iy2 miles further Salmon River is crossed.
Note fine gorge up
stream.
693
The Fraser River comes
in from the North and
joins the Thompson.
\\i miles further note
the striking pinnacle
(Botanie Crag) on the
opposite side of the
river.
Thompson Canyon very
fine east and west of
this point.
A mile past Lytton the scene is one of wild grandeur as Botanie bluff
looms up across the river with its great green granite crest hanging
over a many colored gorge. Soon we find ourselves running upon a
ledge cut out of the bare hills on the irregular south side of the river.
The mountains draw together and we wind along their face and gaze
upon the boiling flood of Thompson canyon hundreds of feet below.
About seven miles from Lytton we see The Jaws of Death gorge. Rail,
river and highway seem to fight for space in the Thompson canyon.
At low water jagged teeth of rock, the terror of the first river travellers,
can be seen vainly
trying to stem the
t orre nt which
foams through narrower openings. W
Spence's Spence's
Bridge Bridge
is at the
junction of the Nicola and Thompson
rivers and is the
business centre for
the Nicola Valley,
a country with
varied industries,
such as ranching,
lumbering and mining. The track
opposite Spence's
Bridge leading up
country is none
other than the old
wagon road to the
famous Cariboo
gold country.
The Thompson River Canyon 14
Kamloops   Lake
Kamloops
Mileage
South Side of Track       east of
North Bend
Altitude
above    North Side of Track
sea-level
Valley of the Nicola.
48.8      Spence's Bridge       774
66.7
Basque
74.2
Ashcroft
96.2
Savona
101.7
Munro
121.4
KAMLOOPS
Two miles east the
Black Canyon of the
Thompson is seen.
1004 The gateway to the
Cariboo country.
1163 Thompson opens out into Kamloops Lake.
1143 The Painted Bluffs,
brilliantly colored rocks,
are seen across the Lake.
1159
Ashcroft Passing through the gloomy gorge of the Black Canyon we
speed on to Ashcroft, once a busy gateway to the Cariboo
gold fields, but now exporting prosaic carloads of fruit, vegetables,
cattle and sheep. It is, incidentally, famous for its potatoes. In
addition to fruit farming, the surrounding country is admirably suited
for cattle raising.
At Savona the Thompson opens out into Kamloops Lake, a beautiful
sheet of water. Early morning and evening scenes on this lake equal
anything seen in the course of the mountain journey for vividness of
color and splendid perspective. The railway runs along the south shore
of Kamloops lake for twenty miles and, because of the series of mountain spurs projecting into the lake, a number of tunnels punctuate this
twenty miles.
Eleven miles from Kamloops frowning Battle Bluff rises abruptly
from the water across the lake. On the bluff, close to the high water
line, a careful observer can see a spot of red—a painted reminder,
often renewed by present day Indians, of the fierce tribal struggle from Kamloops
15
which the height takes its name. Difficulties of railway construction
are realized as the train passes through this section between Ashcroft
and Kamloops.
Looking north across the lake one sees the Tranquille hospital of the
British Columbia government. Five miles from Kamloops the train
passes the loading station for the Iron Mask mine, a big copper producer
from which the concentrates come down a thousand feet to the track
through a pipe line.
Kamloops       After the run of twenty miles along the south shore of
Kamloops lake we reach Kamloops (population 6,100).
Kamloops, bearing an Indian name which means "the meeting place
of the waters," traces its history back more than one hundred years to
the time when the old Hudson's Bay Company fort was the scene of
thriving fur-trading and centre of the then meagre white population
of the interior. Here the South Thompson joins the North Thompson
to form the main Thompson River. Both rivers drain fertile valleys.
Kamloops is a beautiful city, with a climate that makes it a most
desirable resort.
Looking north from the station, with its gardens which are
the summer glory of the community, the great valley of the
North Thompson can be seen,
guarded on the right by Peter
Peak, which hides behind its
arid shoulders the beautiful
wooded valley of Paul Lake and
half a dozen other lakes known
to anglers who prize the game-
ness of Kamloops trout.
Back from the main valley of
the Thompson, north and south,
the country holds rich surprises
for the traveller who investigates. There are many lakes and
streams, most of them well
stocked with game trout; irrigated farms and vast grazing
reaches for cattle and sheep are
the locale for some of the largest
ranches in British Columbia—
a country surprisingly different
from that seen in the Thompson
valley.
Gold, copper and iron come
from mines in the Kamloops
area, and the city is a distribution centre for a big district. It
has well-paved streets, a fine
water supply, and electric power
from a hydro plant on a tributary of the North Thompson.
About two miles east of
Kamloops, between the railway
and the South Thompson River,
are sites of semi-subterranean
pre-historic Indian houses, which
can be seen from the passing train.
The Route from Petain to Ashcroft 16
Lake   Shuswap
The Route from Ashcroft to Sicamous
Mileage
Altitude
South Side of Track       east of
above
North Side of Track
Kamloops
sea-level
KAMLOOPS
1159
The North Thompson
joins the south Thompson at this point, the
two rivers forming the
Thompson River.
33.2
Shuswap
1153
Follow the shore of the
South Thompson to
Shuswap Lake.
35.1
Chase
1183
41.0
Squilax
1288
Pass along the shores of
Little Shuswap Lake.
49.8
Notch Hill
1691
Railway climbs over
Notch Hill.
58.2
Tappen
1158
A fine fruit district ad-    65.4
Salmon Arm
1157
The railway follows the
jacent to railway.
Salmon Arm of Shuswap Lake.
84.1
Sicamous
1154
We are now approaching Lake Shuswap, a large body of water of
irregular shape which affords wonderful trout-fishing. With its bordering slopes it reminds the traveller strongly of Scottish scenery. It has
the reputation of containing more varieties of trout and other fish—
including steel-head and land-locked salmon—than any other water in
British Columbia.
Chase      Chase is the gateway to an extensive territory for big game
hunting, bird shooting and fishing.    The various waters in
the vicinity are plentifully stocked with trout.
Notch Hill      To avoid the circuitous course around the lake, the railway strikes through the forest over the top of Notch Hill.
Salmon Arm Salmon Arm is a very prosperous fruit and mixed
farming community, situated on a long arm of Shuswap
Lake.
Sicamous    Sicamous is the junction of the main line with the Okanagan
Valley branch.
(Main Line Journey resumed on page ip) j The   Okanagan Val 1 ey
17
By Rail
Mileage
south of
Sicamous
Altitude
above
sea-level
f    0.0        SICAMOUS 1154
23.0 Enderby 1160
\  31.8 Armstrong 1182
| 46.2 Vernon 1250
( 51.0 Okanagan Landing 1133
Connecting east or west.
By Lake Steamer
f
91.0
114.0
135.0
144.0
155.0
Okanagan Landing
Kelowna 1133
Peachland 1133
Summerland 1133
Naramata 1133
PENTICTON 1133
Connecting west to Vancouver or east to Nelson
and Calgary.
Branch line to Okanagan Lake
Enderby     is a progressive town in a fertile fruit-growing and mixed-
farming country, with considerable dairying and also an
enormous lumber output.    Fishing is good and the big game plentiful.
Armstrong     is another flourishing town with a large central creamery
and several industries, and a prosperous tributary agricultural country; it is particularly noted for the production of celery.
Vernon is the largest town, the judicial centre, and the central distributing point of the northern Okanagan Valley. Near
here is the famous Coldstream Ranch, with about 13,000 acres of fruit
lands. At Okanagan Landing we board a Canadian Pacific steamer
for the remainder of the trip.
:ifiilli,,.,
■■■■■    ■ ■■■.■■ :     ' "' "    ' !■■
mm.
i^ff^^fi^
An Orchard in the Okanagan 18
Okanagan   Lake
Mileage
South Side of Track      east of
Kamloops
Altitude
above    North Side of Track
sea-level
Branch line to Okanagan    84.1
Valley.
Hunters Range.
Follow    the    valley    of 100.5
Eagle River from Sicamous.
104.6
Griffin Mountain (7,072
feet).
Three Valley Lake. 114.2
Mount   MacPherson 120.3
(7,893 feet).
The railway follows the
narrow valley of the Ton-
kawatla River.
Mount    Begbie    (8,956 128.8
feet).
SICAMOUS
Hotel Sicamous
Craigellachie
1153    Shuswap Lake.
Taft
Three Valley
Clanwilliam
REVELSTOKE
1225
1279
Shuswap Mountain.
Monument to commemorate completion of the
Canadian Pacific at this
point.    (See page 19).
Eagle Pass Mountains.
1636
1820    Eagle   Pass  is  reached
here.
1494 Shortly before reaching
Revelstoke, we cross the
Columbia River.
Okanagan Lake The steamer makes a number of calls down the lake
at the various landings, the journey taking about
six hours. This is one of the most famous fruit-growing regions of
Canada. Journeying down the lake, one sees striking examples of
"bench-land" formation—orchards rising tier by tier in what look like
gigantic steps. On these bench-lands, on the occasional bottom lands,
and even on the hilly slopes that descend into the water, grow all kinds
of sub-tropical fruit, peaches, apricots, cherries, apples, plums, walnuts,
almonds and grapes of superfine quality. Irrigation is practised, the
flume that carries the life-giving water being a conspicuous feature of
the orchard country. At Killiney on the north shore of the Okanagan
Lake an attractive summer guest house, "The Forest House," is
operated. It is reached by Canadian Pacific steamer. The Okanagan
Valley is renowned for the quality of its produce, and fruit from
this district has on several occasions taken championship prizes at
international shows.
Kelowna     is an important city, with some fifty thousand acres of first-
class  fruit  lands,   much   of  which  is   under  cultivation,
tributary to it.    The city has several packing plants and canneries.   It
is a pretty point, with a park with a lake frontage.
Peachland, Summer-
land and Naramata are
fertile fruit-raising districts, with a certain
amount of cattle-raising
a few miles back.
Penticton at the southern end of
the lake, is a very prosperous city, centre of a
rich fruit-growing district, and very attractive
to the tourist. It has a
good hotel in the Incola.
The Canadian Pacific
line from Vancouver to
Nelson passes through
Penticton, and affords
an alternative to the
more popular route
through the Rockies.
The Hotel Sicamous Craigellachie
19
The Route from Sicamous to Revelstoke
Main Line Journey Resumed
(Sicamous to Revelstoke)
Sicamous Sicamous is also a favorite stop-over point for travellers
who, having traversed the canyons, wish also to see by
daylight the wonderful mountain scenery that lies between here and
Calgary. To accommodate this traffic, the Canadian Pacific has
erected a comfortable hotel on the shore of the Lake.
Craigellachie From Sicamous, in three quarters of an hour we reach
Craigellachie, where an obelisk alongside the track
commemorates the completion of the Canadian Pacific Railway. It
was here, on November 7, 1885, that the rails from the east met the
rails from the west and the long cherished vision of a Canadian transcontinental railway became a reality. The first through train from
East to West left Montreal on June 28, 1886, and reached Port Moody
—then the Pacific terminal of the road—on July 4.
Eagle Pass Between Sicamous and Revelstoke is the Monashee
mountain system, the most conspicuous peak being
Mount Begbie. Eagle Pass, through which the railway crosses,
appears to have been cut purposely for it, so deep and direct is it.
Several lakes occur at short intervals, and in turn force the railway
into the mountain sides. Observation cars are attached to all Canadian Pacific passenger trains through the mountains, during the summer
season. These cars afford the utmost opportunities for viewing the
magnificent scenery.
Revelstoke a flourishing city, with a population of 3,500, lies in the
beautiful Columbia River Valley, surrounded by lofty
and picturesque mountains, some clothed with trees and verdure to
their very peaks, others crowned with rugged and rocky spires or
glistening glaciers.
It is the gateway to the Kootenay and Arrow Lakes, and is the
centre of large timber and mineral districts. Revelstoke is in the heart
of very fine hunting grounds, and the Alpine climber will find whole
worlds to conquer. Besides the drive up Mount Revelstoke, there is
also the beautiful excursion along the Columbia River, In winter, a
very popular winter-sport carnival is held here, and as a matter of fact
some of the finest ski-jumpers of Canada have graduated on the "Big
Hill" at Revelstoke.
Mount Revelstoke      100 square miles in extent, is bounded on the
National Park south  by  the   lllecillewaet  River.    It includes
not only the striking mountain from which it
derives its name, but also the Clach-na-Cudainn Range.
The park, altogether a mountain-top one, provides a wonderful
automobile trip. A road, as hard and smooth as a city boulevard,
has been constructed by the Dominion Government to the summit.
The road ascends by an easy grade through a virgin forest, winding 20
The   Arrow   Lakes
Revelstoke, from Mount Revelstoke
along rocky ledges and on the verge of deep chasms. The glory of the
ride is the remarkable view that can be obtained all the way up of the
valley below—the Selkirks to the south-east, the Monashee Range to
the southwest, and the Columbia and lllecillewaet Rivers twisting like
ribbons around the city.
(Main Line Journey resumed on page 21)
Branch line Arrow Lakes
Mileage
Altitude
south of
above
Revelstoke
sea-level
/    0.0      REVELSTOKE
\ 27.4           Arrowhead
1196    Connecting east or west.
By Rail
1405
{                    Arrowhead
|  40.4             Halcyon
By Lake Steamer
\  64.4              Nakusp
1414    Branch  line  to   Kaslo,
on Kootenay Lake.
[156.4        Robson West
1422
/                  Robson West
\183.8            NELSON
By Rail
1774    Connecting east to Cal
gary  or  west to  Van
couver.
From Revelstoke this branch runs south to Arrowhead, whence a
delightful trip is made down the Arrow Lakes to Nelson. The service
down this lake is provided by the excellent and comfortable steamer
service of the Canadian Pacific. The Arrow Lakes, lying in a long
deep valley between the western slopes of the Selkirks and the Monashee Range, are formed by the Columbia Valley's broadening out on
its way south. These beautiful lakes, although virtually one, are
classified as two, Upper and Lower, very much the same size and
connected by a wide but circuitous channel. The surrounding country
has supplied lumber from the forests that clothe its slopes to many a
sawmill, while of recent years settlers have come in and made clearings
for orchards. The population, however, is still comparatively sparse.
Halcyon Hot Springs are well and favorably known owing to the
curative properties of the waters, which contain a high percentage of lithium. There is a comfortable sanatorium
hotel here.
Nakusp is the distributing centre of the upper lake, which is here
about three miles wide. There are some excellent hot springs
in the hills, about nine miles from the town. Nakusp is the headquarters of the Arrow Lake lumber industry, the shipping point for
vast quantities of lumber, poles, fence posts, and other timber products.    A branch line runs from here to Sandon and Kaslo. The    Kootenays
21
The Route from Revelstoke to Glacier
South Side of Track
Mileage
east of
Revelstoke
Altitude
above
sea-level
North Side of Track
Branch line to the Arrow Lakes.
Revelstoke  National
Park.
Mount Mackenzie (8,064
feet).
6
1
REVELSTOKE
Greely
1496
1667
Western end of the Selkirks.
20
9
Albert Canyon
2226
A stop is made (in summer only) to see Albert
Canyon, a fine rock
gorge about 150 feet
deep.
Valley of Flat Creek.
27
32
5
4
lllecillewaet
Flat Creek
2713
3094
At this point we pass
the western boundary
of Glacier Park.
MountGreen (8,870feet).
Ross  Peak  (7,728feet).
Mount   Bonney   (10,215
feet).
36.
1
Ross Peak
3434
Along the lower lake there has been some development in fruitgrowing, very fine cherries, apples and melons being produced. At
Robson West rail connection is made to Nelson or westward to Penticton and Vancouver.
Nelson is charmingly situated on a commanding eminence overlooking the West Arm of Kootenay Lake, and is the commercial centre of the Kootenay district. At the convergence of lake
and rail systems, it is an attractive city in which life passes very
pleasantly. Nelson is the centre of a very large mining district:
immediately behind it is the mountain in which is located the famous
"Silver King" mine. Connection for the Crow's Nest Pass route to
Lethbridge and Calgary is made here.
Main Line Journey Resumed
(Revelstoke to Field)
We now ascend the western slopes of the Selkirk Range, the second
largest of the various great mountain systems that compose the Canadian Rockies. The scenery is magnificently impressive, a foretaste of
what we shall traverse for nearly three hundred miles. From Revelstoke to Glacier we follow the lllecillewaet River, which presently owing
to the presence of glacial mud grows pea-green in color. Twin Butte
takes its name from the double summit nearby to the right, now known
as Mounts Mackenzie and Tilley. In this district is the home of the
woodland or blackfaced caribou, the mountain goat and the grizzly,
cinnamon and black bear. 22
Glacier
Mount Sir Donald, near Glacier
Albert Canyon       is a deep fissure   GLACIER  PARK,   covering  an
in the solid rock,   area of 468 square miles, differs
its walls rising straight _up on both   very  noticeably  from  the  other
sides to wooded crags. The railway
runs along the very edge of this
gorge. We see the river nearly 150
feet below, boiling angrily in a narrow twenty-foot flume. Continuing
the   ascent   to   Glacier,   the   line
touches for a moment on the base rounding it, too, are some dense
of Ross Peak and confronts Mount forests of fine trees, of great age;
Cheops, on the other side of the these will be particularly noticed
lllecillewaet
parks of the Canadian Rockies. It
has an atmosphere of austere majesty and high loveliness. With its
massive peaks and giant glaciers,
Glacier Park has somewhat of an
air of isolation and mystery.  Sur-
Glacier
on the way to Nakimu Caves, in
the Cougar Valley.
Glacier is the station for
Glacier National Park—
the features of which include the lllecillewaet Glacier, the Asulkan
Valley, the Nakimu Caves, and some magnificent climbing.   At the
present time many cf the peaks in the Park have still to be climbed.
The lllecillewaet Glacier     This great plateau of gleaming ice, framed
in a dark forest of giant cedar, hemlock and
spruce trees, scarred by immense crevasses of great depth and covering
an area of about ten square miles, is about four miles from the station.
It affords some remarkable opportunities of observing the movements
and recession of glaciers. Mount Sir Donald, a magnificent peak
named after Sir Donald Smith, later Lord Strathcona, can be reached
by an extension trail from the glacier trail, and furnishes one of the
most attractive climbs of the region. The return trip may be taken
along the alternative trail on the east bank of the river.
The Nakimu Caves These curious caves, discovered in 1904, are
situated on the lower slope of Mount Cheops
and Ursus Major, in the Cougar Valley. A series of subterranean
chambers, formed partly by seismic disturbance and partly by water,
they are characterized by beautiful interior marble markings, and
have been explored for a distance of nearly a mile from the entrance.
Nakimu is the Indian for "grumbling caves." Connaught
Tunnel                23
Mileage
South Side of Track      east of
Revelstoke
Altitude
above      North Side of Track
sea-level
Mount Sir^ Donald (10,-
818 feet), the pyramidal-
shaped peak.
Glacier is stopping place
for lllecillewaet Glacier
and many fine mountain
trips.
Leave Connaught Tunnel.
40.3
46.8
49.1
51.1
57.9
GLACIER
Connaught
Stoney Creek
Rogers
3778
2592
Mount Cheops (8,506
feet) and road to Nakimu Caves.
Immediately on leaving
Glacier we plunge into
the Connaught Tunnel.
Hermit Range.
Cross Stoney Creek, 270
feet above stream.
Cross   Surprise   Creek,
170 feet above stream.
amount
ing   to
%,^-  i
Connaught Tunnel Immediately we leave Glacier station we plunge
into the Connaught Tunnel. Until the year
1916, the railway crossed the Selkirks through Rogers Pass (altitude
4,342 feet), following Bear Creek and then bending round to Glacier
and back again to the lllecillewaet River in a series of sharp loops.
This was a most spectacular route, affording some magnificent views of
Mount Macdonald, Mount Tupper, and other giant peaks; but it had
many disadvantages, amongst which were the enormous track curvature
and the necessity of maintaining long stretches of snow sheds. These
difficulties were finally overcome by the construction of the Connaught
Tunnel under Mount Macdonald, named in honor of H.R.H. The Duke
of Connaught, Governor-General of Canada at the time of its opening
in 1916. It was until recently the longest tunnel in America, measuring
slightly over five miles from portal to portal; and it not only eliminated
track curvature to an
correspond-
seven complete circles, but also
lowered the summit
attained by the railway by 552 feet, reduced the length of
the line by 4}^ miles
and dispensed with
43^ miles of snow-
sheds. The tunnel
is double tracked,
cement-lined and
measures 29 feet from
side to side and 21J^
feet from the base of
rail to the crown.
Its construction involved the tunnelling
of a pioneer bore
paralleling the centre
line of the main tunnel—a feature that
was new and aroused
the interest of tunnel
engineers the world
over. The lllecillewaet Valley, Glacier 24
The   Selkirk   Range
The Route from Glacier to Golden
Stoney Creek
Rogers Pass was named in honor of Major Rogers, one
of the pioneer surveyors of this region, who discovered
this route. Mount Macdonald (9,483 feet) towers nearly a mile above
the railway in almost vertical height.
The principal difficulty in constructing this part of the line was the
torrents, many of them in splendid cascades, which came down through
narrow gorges cut deeply into the steep slopes along which the railway
creeps. The greatest of all these bridges crosses Stoney Creek—a noisy
torrent flowing in the bottom of a narrow V-shaped channel 312 feet
below the rails—the highest bridge on the Canadian Pacific main line.
A little farther on, Cedar Creek is crossed, a little east of where a very
, high bridge, spanning a foaming cascade, affords one of
the most beautiful prospects
of the whole journey. So
impressed were the railway
builders with the charm of
this magnificent picture that
they named it The Surprise.
Beavermouth From Connaught to
Beavermouth we follow the
Beaver River, crossing it
about two miles before reaching the latter as well as crossing six streams flowing from
the north. A last look back
will reveal a long line of the
higher peaks of the Selkirks,
in echelon, culminating in the
exceedingly lofty pinnacle of
Mount Sir Donald. At
Beavermouth, the farthest
north station of the transcontinental route, we practically leave the Selkirks
proper, although for some
way we follow the Dogtooth
Range, a spur of the system.
Mount Macdonald and the
Connaught Tunnel The   Columbia   River
25
Mileage
South Side of Track       east of
Revelstoke
Altitude
above
sea-leve
North Side of Track
54.8
Cross Mountain Creek,
150 feet above stream.
57.9
Rogers
2592
At  this  point  we  meet
the Columbia which has
flowed   in   a   Big   Bend
around the Selkirks from
Revelstoke.
62.8
73.0
Beavermouth
2433
Farthest north station
of the transcontinental
route.
Cross the Columbia
River.
74.3
Donald
2580
78.3
Forde
2563
Dogtooth  Mountains, a
part     of     the     Purcell
84.3
Moberly
2558
Moberly Peak (7,731
feet).
Range.
90.8
Golden
2583    Edelweiss, winter home
of the Swiss Guides.
Columbia River Next we are in the upper canyon of the Columbia
River which, with but one exception, is the largest
river on the west side of America, and which, rising in the Upper
Columbia Lake and flowing through Lake Windermere, makes the
famous Big Bend, paralleling the railway for several miles until it
leaves it at the lower slopes of the Selkirks to re-appear at Revelstoke
on its way south to the United States. This is the solution of a problem
that sometimes puzzles the traveller, that the Columbia River should
apparently be flowing towards the mountains instead of away from
them. The mountain ranges force the river through a narrow gorge
to the high slopes above which the railway clings. The Columbia
River is nearly 1,400 miles long and drains a basin of nearly 300,000
square miles. It is the route of history, the path by which some of
the earliest explorers reached the Pacific Ocean.
Moberly About two miles before reaching Moberly, on the south
just before crossing Blaeberry River, is the site of the
oldest cabin in the mountains—the cabin where a government survey
party, under Walter Moberly, engaged in the preliminary survey for
the railway, passed the winter of 1871-2. They wintered their stock
on the shore of what is now Lake Windermere. Moberly takes its
name from Mount Moberly, one of the most prominent peaks for some
miles along the river valley.
Edelweiss To the left of the track, shortly before reaching Golden
station, can be seen the model Swiss village of "Edelweiss,"
erected by the Canadian Pacific for the Swiss guides whom it employs
for the benefit of mountain climbers. Previous to the erection of this
village, which lies on the slopes of a hill and reproduces with remarkable
verisimilitude the characteristic architecture of the Swiss chalet, the
guides had always returned to Switzerland at the end of each season.
Now they live in Canada the entire year.
Golden      Golden is an interesting town with large lumbering and
mining interests.    It commands the trade  of the  fertile
Windermere Valley to the south. 26
Lake   Windermere
Branch line to Columbia Valley
and Crow's Nest Pass
Mileage
south of
Golden
Altitude
above
sea-level
0.0
GOLDEN
2583
Connecting east or west
For Radium Hot Springs
Camp.
40.9
65.1
Spillimacheen
Firlands
2590
2606
73.7
LAKE
WINDERMERE
2615
143.5
Fort Steele
2510
157.5
Bull River
2462
166.5
194.3
Colvalli
CRANBROOK
2653
3013
Connecting east to Cal
gary or west to Nelson
Lake Windermere
From Golden this branch line runs south through the fertile Columbia
Valley, touching for a considerable part of the journey the beautiful
Lake Windermere, and joining the Crow's Nest Line at Colvalli.
From Golden we travel past many new settlements, from the clearings of which smoke is sometimes still rising, until we reach Spillimacheen, where there is a wonderful view of the Selkirk Mountains.
The Banff-Windermere motor road (see page 50) joins the Columbia
River Highway near Radium Hot Springs, about 60 miles from Golden.
The scenery of this valley is splendid, and the canyons and creeks on
either side furnish excellent sport. On the left is the slope of the
Rockies; on the right, the panorama of the Selkirks.
Lake Windermere is a popular centre for excursions into the beautiful
country surrounding. One of the most delightful
warm water lakes in British Columbia, it is the starting point for excursions up Toby Creek and Horse Thief Creek to the great ice fields of the
Selkirks, notably the Lake of the Hanging Glaciers. There are curative
hot springs at Radium and Fairmont. Bathing, riding, boating, fishing, motoring can be enjoyed on the shores of this lake, and alpine
climbers can make expeditions into the Selkirks. There is good trout
fishing in nearby creeks and some of the smaller lakes.
Lake Windermere was discovered by the famous explorer, David
Thompson, in 1807; and a memorial fort, reproducing his stockaded
post, has now been built.
On the shores of the lake is the Lake Windermere Ranch Camp for
Girls. Delightfully situated, the buildings of the camp are of log and
wood construction and consist of a main lodge with surrounding cabins.
Riding, hiking, swimming, canoeing, tennis and camp craft are some
of the outdoor activities the girls enjoy.
Fort Steele     has grown up to meet the needs of the ranching and
fruit-growing   districts   surrounding  it.    Lead,   copper,
silver, gold and iron are found in the neighbourhood.
Bull River      is a lumbering town, with some important sawmills, and
the source of power supply for the Sullivan Mines at
Kimberley.  Good fishing and hunting may be obtained in the vicinity.
Cranbrook is the trading centre for a rich mining and agricultural
region in the Crow's Nest Pass country. It is an important
point on the more southerly Crow's Nest Pass line of the Canadian
Pacific, from Lethbridge to Kootenay Lake and Nelson, whence there
is an alternative route to Vancouver. MOTOR DRIVES IN THE ROCKIES
MOTOR DETOUR:    Banff-Golden
The Motor Detour is designed to give Canadian Pacific eastbound or
westbound passengers an opportunity of seeing the scenic highlights of
the Canadian Rockies in the limited time they may have at their
disposal. Going WEST, passengers leave their train at Banff and
make the Detour to Golden in the comfortable busses of the Brewster
Transport Company. From Golden they resume their rail journey.
Going EAST, passengers leave the train at Golden, resuming their rail
journey at Banff.
Highlights of the Motor Detour include Banff, Lake Louise, The
Great Divide, the Kicking Horse Canyon, Yoho Valley and Emerald
Lake.
Stop-over privileges are allowed at any point en route. Passengers
may therefore spend three or four days, or even longer, on the Detour.
It can, however, be made in 24 hours by those whose time is strictly
limited.
THE LARIAT TRAIL:    Three Days—Three National Parks
This magnificent 300 mile ride not only follows the same route as
the Motor Detour mentioned above, but also includes the far-famed
Banff-Windermere Road. Overnight stops at Emerald Lake Chalet
and Radium Hot Springs Chalet-Bungalow Camp.
RAWHIDE TRAIL TRIP:    Emerald Lake—Waterton Lakes
This 23^2 day trip runs between Emerald Lake and Waterton Lakes
(in both directions) through the Kicking Horse Canyon, Columbia
River Valley and the Crow's Nest Pass. Overnight stops are made at
Radium Hot Springs Chalet-Bungalow Camp and Blairmore.
BANFF GENERAL DRIVE
A comprehensive 2J^ hour drive round Banff including the Sulphur
Springs, Buffalo Park, Tunnel Mountain and the Golf Links.    22 miles.
BANFF—LAKE LOUISE
An enchanting 42 mile drive with a stop at Johnston Canyon. Operated in both directions.
LAKE MINNEWANKA
A combined 3 hour motor and launch trip to Lake Minnewanka,
from Banff.
LAKE LOUISE TO EMERALD LAKE
VIA YOHO VALLEY
Across The Great Divide and along the Canyon of the Kicking Horse
River.    42 miles one way, 3 hours.    Return, all day.
LAKE LOUISE TO MORAINE LAKE
AND VALLEY OF THE TEN PEAKS
Unsurpassed scenic drive mid mountains towering ten and eleven
thousand feet above the sea.    18 miles, 2 Y2 hours.
YOHO PARK CIRCLE TOUR
FROM FIELD
Comprehensive tour of Yoho Park for those with limited time at
their disposal.    4 hours.
Operated by
BREWSTER TRANSPORT  COMPANY Banff Springs Hotel and Golf Course
Associated Screen News Photo 30
Kicking   Horse   Canyon
The Route from Golden to Field
Main Line Journey Resumed
Kicking Horse Canyon At Golden
we begin
ascending again. From here to
Field we shall climb 1,500 feet in
35 miles, for we are now entering the
Rockies proper, taking that name in
its scientific sense of meaning one
range only. For a considerable distance we follow the noisy, turbulent
Kicking Horse River on its way
to join the Columbia. The spectacular new "Kicking Horse Trail"
motor road can be seen. This is the
route of the new "Motor Detour."
For full information regarding this
spectacular motor run, and other
motor trips in the Rockies, see page
27.
A TRAIL TRIP into the depths
of the mountains forms the most
enjoyable way of visiting beautiful
spots that would not otherwise be
easily accessible.
The mountain pony, mountain-
bred, fool-proof, untiring, can be
ridden by practically anyone,
whether he or she has ever before
been on a horse or not. From all
Canadian Pacific hotels and chalet-
bungalow camps, there are good
roads and trails radiating which are
kept up by the National Parks Department. Some trail trips are of
one day's duration only; others
stretch over several days. Several
circle trail rides are arranged for
visitors' convenience.
The canyon rapidly deepens until, beyond Palliser, the mountain
sides become vertical. The roar of the river as it rushes from side to
side of the narrow gorge, the thunder of the train as it follows the
river—pandemonium increased a thousandfold by the reverberations
of the canyon walls—give an indescribable sensation.
Whether seen from the railway or from the motor road which is
often at a considerable height above the line, the canyon presents an
awe-inspiring sight and thrills the modern traveller as it thrilled the
pioneers who were laying the ribbon of steel across the continent and
making Confederation possible.
At the base of Mount Hunter we leave the canyon and the river
widens somewhat. The narrow valley of the Kicking Horse divides
the Ottertail Range on the south from the Van Home Range on the
north and a vivid contrast in mountain formation is evident between
the two ranges. The   Yoho   Valley
31
Mileage
South Side of Track        east of
Revelstoke
Altitude
above     North Side of Track
sea-level
The Kicking Horse River
enters the Columbia, the
wide valley of which is
seen to the south. Branch
to Lake Windermere and
Cranbrook (see page 26).
90.8
GOLDEN
2583    Western end of Rockies.
Motor Detour to Emerald Lake, Yoho Valley,
Lake Louise and Banff.
See page 27.
Beaverfoot Range.
98.0
103.2
108.7-
Mount Hurd (9,275 feet)   117.5
121.5
Mount  Stephen   (10,495 125.7
feet) and Mount Dennis
(8,336 feet).
Glenogle
Palliser
Leanchoil
3008
3288
Ottertail
3702
Emerald
3900
FIELD
4075
From the train we have
a fine view of the new
"Kicking Horse Trail"
—a very spectacular
motor road from Golden
to Emerald Lake.
Slopes of Mount Hunter (8,662 feet).
Two miles before reaching Leanchoil we enter
Yoho National Park.
Looking eastward, there
is a very striking view
of Mount Chancellor
(10,741 feet).
Van Home Range—
Mount King (9,466 feet)
Emerald Lake Chalet
Yoho Valley Chalet-Bungalow Camp
Entering Yoho Park At Leanchoil
we enter the
Yoho Park. On the right, Mounts
Vaux and Chancellor are seen, the
glacier on the former plainly visible.
Mount Chancellor (10,741 feet) is
one of the giant peaks of the Ottertail Range. One mile before reaching Emerald we can see Mount
Goodsir (11,676 feet) on the right,
the highest of the Ottertail group.
Field Field is the divisional point
between the British Columbia and Alberta districts of the railway. Towering 6,000 feet higher
than the little town is seen Mount
Stephen (10,485 feet) at the base of
which roars the turbulent Kicking
Horse River which the railway will
follow for a considerable distance.
YOHO PARK (area 476 square
miles) immediately adjoins Banff
National Park on the west, and
lies, broadly speaking, on the descending slopes of the Rockies,
with the President and Van Home
ranges as its western boundary.
It is a region of charm and winsome beauty, of giant mountains
and deep forests, of rushing rivers
and sapphire-like lakes. Its principal river is the Kicking Horse,
with the Ottertail and Yoho as
main tributaries; its chief lakes are
Emerald, Wapta, McArthur,
O'Hara and Sherbrooke. The
Canadian Pacific runs through the
middle of Yoho Park, following the
Kicking Horse River.
Yoho National Park Field is the gateway to the wonderful mountain resort area, the far-famed Yoho Valley,
which stretches away to the north between great glacier-bound peaks.
Yoho Park, another of the National Parks reached by the Canadian
Pacific, has an area of 476 square miles. All points in the Park at
which accommodation is provided are linked up either by road or good
trail. 32
Emerald   Lake
Molar Mfn.
^Oesa'pvlt. Lefpoy
.:^^/«. Mt-Tempie<)
=•   wHungabee^E,{fe|
Mt.Owen    /) McArthur'      $&       %flnuh?mh'iJ
*vV "*       1/ Mt RiHHiJ5'^        \ Wenkchemna Mt.
^//ynf-        {J Mt. Biddle
-ROADS
-/ TRAILS   _
Scale of Miles
2       3        4
CANADIAN PACIFIC RY.
±
Yoho National Park
Emerald Lake From Field it is seven miles out by motor to Emerald
Lake, by a fine road through the hush of a scented
pine-forest. Soon you reach Natural Bridge—an ineffective effort on
the part of nature to curb the foaming passage of the Kicking Horse
by choking the river bed with huge boulders. The road becomes
Snowpeak Avenue—because at either end of its straight cathedral-stiff
avenue can be seen a towering snow-capped mountain.
The superb green of Emerald Lake is almost beyond Nature's achievement in any other lake in the Rockies. Tall pines crowd to the water's
edge to see their perfect reflection, and to see inverted in the emerald
mirror the snowy giants that surround it. Burgess looms at one end
of the lake, while more distant are Wapta, Michael, President, Carnarvon and Emerald.
The Chalet Emerald Lake Chalet is built of great squared timbers
fortress-like in their solidity, surrounded by rustic
design chalets. The settlement now consists of three units—the original
Chalet, the Club House, and the bungalows. The Chalet, recently
enlarged, is along Swiss Chalet lines, with deep overhanging balconies.
The Club House is what its name implies; it is an especial favorite at
nights, either the verandah, with its magnificent sunset and moonlight
views, or indoors, where a good floor for dancing, comfortable chairs
for lounging, card-tables, a library and a great log fire provide entertainment for all. yjj)/iiiii!fTiii]ii)niimmijii| pm
Summit Lake
Rest House,
near Emerald
Lake
?i« in infill miKiiif if niMiffn'iiiariiiiriiiiKiiiiiiiiiiiijiiiiiiiiiiian...'.':
rfiinilmnnSa 34
Emerald   Lake
mmmSMm^
>m0^m£*
Emerald Lake Chalet
The bungalows are of various sizes,
most daintily and comfortably
turnished, with hot and cold running water, bathrooms, stoves and
good sized cupboards. All of them
have their individual verandahs,
and the larger ones are "en suite"
with connecting doors.
Many Excursions Emerald Lake
has a fair supply of trout, and its vicinity affords
many charming excursions on foot
or by trail. There is a good trail
all around the Lake, which is the
shortest four and a half miles you've
ever walked, and perhaps the
loveliest, and another to Hamilton
Falls. A boat-house provides skiffs
for water excursions.
CHALET-BUNGALOW CAMPS
are located at several points in the
Canadian Rockies, both to supplement the capacity of the hotels
and also to provide accommodation of a somewhat different kind.
These camps make a special
appeal to the climber, the trail
rider or the hiker; they are, on the
whole, less formal than the hotels.
The accommodation provided consists of a large central building,
serving as the dining and community house, and of separate
sleeping bungalows of various sizes.
These camps are now established at Wapta Lake, Lake
O'Hara, Yoho Valley and Moraine
Lake; and at Castle Mountain
and Radium Hot Springs on the
Banff-Windermere Road.
Summit Pass One of the finest trail trips from Emerald Lake, on
the back of a sturdy sure-footed mountain pony, is
to the Summit—the pass leading into the Yoho Valley. The return
journey can be made in four hours afoot or by pony, but many people
prefer to make it an all-day affair. Following the road to the end of
the Lake, you begin to climb up an eighteen-hundred-foot treeless cliff,
while more and more of the world spreads out beneath you, and Emerald
Lake far below grows smaller and greener.
A last stiff pull and you are over the top, cantering gaily through
a cool moist forest, and then Summit Lake (or Yoho Lake), green
like Emerald, but not so large, flashes in the clearing. Here is situated
a cosy little log-cabin Rest House, where you can sleep overnight.
From Summit Pass there is a good trail leading down to the Yoho
Valley, coming out near the Chalet-Bungalow Camp. The view from the
top is a magnificent one of wide vistas, with Takakkaw Falls on the
far side of the Valley. The   Yoho   Valley
35
:&^M:r^"imm.i
Yoho Valley Chalet-Bungalow Camp
Yoho Valley The Yoho Valley can be reached also direct from
Field, by a good motor road (11 miles) that follows
the Kicking Horse River and then^ turns at the Yoho River, near the
entrance to the valley at Mount Field, round which it swings, and up
the valley until some precipitous cliffs are reached. The pine forest
gives a welcome shade and fragrance, and, as the way winds up the
cliffs to a higher level, the Yoho torrent foaming below shrinks with
distance. Up these it zigzags to a still higher level, ending a short
distance past the Takakkaw Falls. Takakkaw, the stream that comes
down from the Daly Glacier, is 1,200 feet high.
Yoho Valley Chalet-    The    Chalet - Bungalow    Camp,   with   accom-
Bungalow Camp modation for 64 people, is situated in a meadow
within sight and sound of Takakkaw Falls. It is
an ideal place for hikers and riders; and, like the other Chalet-Bungalow
Camps of the region, consists of a central club house with separate
wooden sleeping bungalows
Upper Valley The Yoho Valley is one of the most beautiful in the
entire Rockies. From the Camp a fine trail winds
into the upper part of the valley, past Laughing Falls and the Twin
Falls (two vast columns of water that drop almost perpendicularly),
to the Yoho and President Glaciers and the Waputik ice fields. The
Yoho Glacier is one of the most interesting in the Canadian Rockies,
and is highly picturesque. A rest house is operated at Twin Falls,
and the visitor can spend the night there.
The High Trail You can return by the "High Trail," mounting
through Alpine meadows, carpeted with purple and
white bryanthus, till you come out of the scent of wild flowers and
balsam high over Yoho Valley. Across the valley, the great Waputik
snowfield and^ Takakkaw Falls glimmer in the westering sun and you
can pick out in that clear air the faint black of the Canadian Pacific
track going into the Spiral Tunnels beyond the Kicking Horse River.
Soon you reach Summit Lake. 36              The   Spiral
Tunnels
Mileage
South Side of Track          east of
Field
Altitude
above     North Side of Track
sea-level
Mount Stephen (10,495
feet).
Monarch   Silver   Mines
on slopes.
Enter second Tunnel.
Cathedral Mountain
(10,464 feet).
4.2
6.4
11.7
FIELD
Cathedral
Yoho
Wapta Camp
Hector
4075
4495
Mount   Burgess   (8,473
feet).
Mount Field (8,655feet).
Enter first of the famous
Spiral Tunnels. (See below).
Mount Ogden (8,805
feet).
4719 Between the two Spiral
Tunnels a view is obtained of the celebrated
Yoho Valley.
Kicking Horse River
rises in Wapta Lake.
5219    Station  for  Wapta
Camp.
Burgess Pass Or from Summit Lake you can turn in another direction, round on to Burgess Pass (altitude 7,150 feet).
It is a wonderful journey. The great crags of Wapta flaunt up to the
left, and to the right, at every step, there appear higher up new visions
of the President Range. The guide can point out to you the way to
the now well-known Burgess Pass Fossil Quarry, which was discovered
by Dr. Walcott in 1910.   Descent to Field can be made from the Pass.
The Spiral Tunnels From Field to the Great Divide, a distance of
fourteen miles, the railway has to climb nearly
a quarter of a mile through the Kicking Horse Pass. Formerly this
was a difficult track, the gradient being 4.5 per cent, but by two wonderful tunnels, forming one of the most notable engineering feats in
existence, this difficulty has now been eliminated and the grade reduced
to 2.2 per cent.   These tunnels are the famous "Spiral Tunnels.''   From the
west the track
enters the first
( ' tunnel, 2,900
feet long, under
Mount Ogden
(8,795 feet), and
after turning a
complete circle
and passing
above itself it
comes out 50
feet higher. The
track then turns
westerly and,
crossing the
river, enters the
second tunnel,
3,255 feet in
length, under
Cathedral
Mountain.
Again turning a
complete circle
and emerging
above itself, it
runs out into
daylight 54 ieet
higher.
Field—The Spiral Tunnels Wapta   and   O'Hara
37
Wapta Chalet-Bungalow Camp
Wapta Camp Hector is the detraining point for Wapta Chalet-
Bungalow Camp on the shores of Lake Wapta. The
lake itself is most beautifully set in an old glacier cup and, like most
lakes in the Rockies, its color is an indescribable green, varying with
every whim of the atmosphere. The Chalet-Bungalow Camp, with its
community house and log cabins, can accommodate 54 guests.
From the camp you can see stern Mount Stephen, Victoria with her
gleaming opalescent scarf of snow and ice, Narao and Cathedral Crags.
Two and a half miles of beautifully wooded trail will take you to
Sherbrooke Lake which lies in a depression between Mount Ogden and
Paget Peak. Here there is excellent fishing. In another direction is
Ross Lake hidden between Niblock and Narao.
Lake O'Hara     Lake O'Hara lies eight miles south of Wapta, and can
be reached by a splendid trail.    The trail winds on,
now ascending, now descending, first through a dense forest, thence
into an Alpine flower garden.
Lake O'Hara Chalet-Bungalow Camp is situated on the very edge of
the lake. The camp consists of a central building and a group of log
cabins, which together accommodate 43, the former on the Swiss Chalet
style, decorated in a rustic fashion.
O'Hara does not advertise modern luxuries, but its grate fires, comfortable chairs, hot and cold water baths, simple but well-cooked meals
and insomnia-proof beds take away the rough edges of camping life.
The lake is well stocked with trout.
Everybody who visits O'Hara takes the trip to Lake McArthur. It
is cupped in the Biddle amphitheatre, absolutely barren of trees and
overhung on one side by Schaffer and on the other side by Park Mountain. Where time permits, the journey should be continued to Lake
Oesa over which the very spirit of silence broods.
The Great Divide Six miles before Lake Louise and fourteen miles
after leaving Field is at once the highest elevation
of the Canadian Pacific Railway, the boundary between Alberta and
British Columbia, and the very backbone of the continent. It is
marked by an arch spanning a stream under which the water divides.
The waters that flow to the east eventually reach Hudson's Bay and
the Atlantic Ocean; the rivulet that runs to the west joins the Kicking
Horse River and adds its mite to the volume of the Pacific by way of
the Great Columbia River. 38
Lake   Louise
South Side of Track
Mileage
east of
Field
Altitude
above      North Side of Track
sea-level
Mount
feet).
Niblock    (9,764
11.7
13.9
This is the highest elevation reached by the railway, the boundary between Alberta and British Columbia and the
watershed. (See page 40).
Mount St. Piran (8,691
feet).
Lake Louise is 3% miles
from station. Moraine
Lake Chalet-Bungalow
Camp is 9 miles from
the Chateau.
Hector
Stephen
5219
Mount Bosworth (9,093
feet), Mount Daly (10,-
342 feet).
5332
14.4   The Great Divide    5338
20.0      LAKE LOUISE      5050    Waputik Peak.
Chateau Lake Louise
Trail to the Ptarmigan
country, with its magnificent Alpine flower
gardens.
On the left is the granite shaft erected to the memory of Sir James
Hector, the discoverer of the Kicking Horse Pass, which permits the
Canadian Pacific Railway to cross the Rockies. The pass owes its
name to an incident of exploration days, in which a ''kicking horse"
which lashed out with its legs at one of the explorers figured literally.
Lake Louise Twenty miles from Field we reach the little rustic
station of Lake Louise. The famous lake and the
equally famous Chateau are invisible from the station as they are some
3J^ miles distant. To reach them we must ascend another 620 feet,
which we do by motor bus or private automobile. This trip is through
a deep forest, with the sky a narrow strip above the tall tree-tops; and
turning a shoulder of the mountain, across a rushing mountain torrent,
we come suddenly into full view of the lake.
(Railway Journey resumed on page 43)
Lake O'Hara Chalet-Bungalow Camp Chateau   Lake   Louise
39
Chateau Lake Louise
The Chateau On the margin of LAKE LOUISE—probably the
this most perfect most perfect gem of scenery in the
lake, in a wonderful Alpine flower known world—bears the liquid
garden where poppies, violets, col- music, the soft color notes of its
umbines, anemones and sheep laurel name, almost into the realm of the
slope through terraced lawns to the visible. It is a dramatic palette
water's edge—the Canadian Pacific upon which the Great Artist has
has placed its great Chateau Lake
Louise (altitude 5,670 feet). This
has been repeatedly enlarged to
meet the demands of an ever-
increasing stream of tourists, until
today a fire-proof modern and
luxurious hotel with accommodation for seven hundred guests now
stands there (open summer
months).
Across the front of the hotel
extends a vast lounge that commands an uninterrupted view of the
Lake through beautiful, single-pane   that enclose the picture except for
windows   of   enormous   size.    The   the fleecy blue sky overhead,
dining-room, in the right wing, has
the same wonderful windows and view.   From the ballroom in the left
wing the lake may be seen through the arches of the cloistered terrace.
The Chateau has many attractions. Two fine hard tennis courts
are attached to the hotel, and a boat-house supplies rowing boats to
the many who cannot resist the magnetism of the clear blue water.
Below the dining-room and overlooking the lake is an attractively
terraced concrete swimming-pool filled with heated glacial water and
with an instructor in attendance.
splashed his most gorgeous hues, a
wonderful spectrum of color.
Deepest and most exquisitely colored is the lake itself, sweeping
from rosy dawn to sunset through
green, blue, amethyst and violet,
undershot by gold; dazzling white
is the sun-glorified Victoria Glacier,
at the farther end; sombre are the
enclosing pine-clad peaks that dip
perpendicularly into the lake; and
magnificent are the stark immensities of the snow-covered peaks
A Circle of Peaks The peaks that surround Lake Louise form such a
magnificent background that many visitors ask
nothing better than to sit on the hotel verandah watching the marvellous kaleidoscope of beauty and color that they present. From left
to right they are:—Saddleback,  Fairview,  Lefroy, Victoria,  Collier, 40 Moraine  Lake
Popes Peak, Whyte, the Devil's Thumb, the Needles, Big Beehive,
Niblock, St. Piran, and Little Beehive. At the far end of the Lake,
catching for the greater part of the day the full glory of the sun, their
snowfields standing out in dazzling whiteness, are the glaciers that
drop down from Mount Victoria and the lofty ice-crowned head of
Mount Lefroy.
Along the westerly shores of Lake Louise a delightful mile-and-a-half
walk along a level trail affords splendid views of further peaks—Mount
Haddo, Aberdeen and The Mitre.
Moraine Lake Another pearl of the Rockies is Moraine Lake, 9
miles from Lake Louise at the end of one of the
finest short motor rides in the mountains. This lovely mountain lake,
exquisitely blue-green in color, lies in the Valley of the Ten Peaks—
a tremendous and majestic semi-circle that with jagged profile encircles
the eastern and southern end of the lake. Not one of these peaks is
less than 10,000 feet in height—the highest, Mount Deltaform, is
11,235 feet. Standing off a little, as a sort of outpost, is the Tower of
Babel, an interesting rock formation of unusual shape.
Beside the lake is Moraine Lake Chalet-Bungalow Camp, an admirable centre for trail-riders and walkers who wish to explore the valley's
surroundings, and for mountaineers who aspire to the peaks. An
attractive excursion is to the Consolation Lakes, within easy reach of
the Camp and a good place for trout-fishing.
Lakes in the Clouds     One of the finest and most popular excursions,
either by walking or on a sure-footed mountain
pony, is to the Lakes in the Clouds, nestling a thousand feet and more
higher up in the mountain ranges.
The trail, leaving the west end of the Chateau, rises gradually
through spruce and fir forests to Mirror Lake, thence upward to Lake
Agnes. These lakes are good examples of "cirque" lakes—deep,
steep-walled recesses caused by glacial erosion. The view from the
edge of Lake Agnes—where a charming little rest and tea house has
been established—is magnificent.
Plain of the Six Glaciers        Besides the mighty tongue of the Victoria
Glacier, many smaller glaciers descend
into the cirque, and on the right side of the cirque is the Plain of the Six
Glaciers, where a spacious tea-house with broad verandahs has been
placed at the head as an excellent resting place. The Plain can be
reached by trail from the Lake Agnes tea-house or directly from the
Chateau.
Saddleback Another excellent walking or pony excursion is to
Saddleback. Crossing the bridge over Lake Louise
creek, the trail rises rapidly on the slopes of Mount Fairview, between
that mountain and Saddleback. The view of Paradise Valley and
Mount Temple from this point is one of the finest in the Rockies.
At the top is a rest house, over two thousand feet higher than Lake Louise.
Paradise Valley Between Moraine Lake and Lake Louise lies Paradise Valley, carpeted with Alpine flowers. Great
peaks rise around it like citadel walls. The valley can be reached from
the Saddleback down a steep zig-zag trail to the "Giant's Steps," and
continued across the valley to Lake Annette. From the Giant's Steps
a trail leads across the valley to Sentinel Pass, whence descent can be
made through Larch Valley to Moraine Lake.
Easy Climbs Lake Louise is one of the recognized mountain climbing
centres of the Rockies, and has many good climbs both
for the novice and the experienced alpinist. Some short and easy
climbs will be found in the Beehive, Mount St. Piran, Saddle Mountain
and Mount Fairview.
For the expert alpinist there are plenty of climbs around Lake Louise
that will provide him with sufficient opportunity to use his skill. Swiss
guides are attached to the Chateau Lake Louise for those who wish to
visit the glaciers, climb mountains, or make some of the more strenuous trips through the passes.  42
Lake   Louise
!ROADS
■ TRAILS
Scale of Miles
\ 3 4
CANADIAN PACIFIC RY.
J
Lake Louise and its vicinity
Abbot Pass From the Victoria Glacier there is a fine climb over
Abbot Pass, between Mounts Victoria and Lefroy,
descending to Lake O'Hara (see page 37). This should not, however,
be attempted by the novice, unless accompanied by skilled guides.
An Alpine hut has been erected near the summit, at an altitude of
over 9,500 feet, for the convenience of climbers, and the sunrise in the
morning, seen from here, is glorious.
Trail Trips Lake Louise is a good starting point for riding and
camping trips over the trails maintained by the National
Parks Department through the magnificent Alpine country of this
region of the Great Divide. The Ptarmigan Valley, Hector Lake, Bow
Lake, the Molar Pass, the Skoki Valley, Baker Creek are but a few
suggestions. During July and August, circle trail trips are operated
around the Chalet-Bungalow Camps from Lake Louise, each trip
lasting six days. The Pipestone Valley, some nineteen miles from the
Chateau, is a splendid camping trip ending at an Alpine meadow amid
high glacial surroundings of spectacular grandeur and beauty. It
affords some good trout fishing. Lake   Louise
43
South Side of Track
Mileage
east of
Field
Altitude
above
sea-level
North Side of Track
A fine view of the great
peaks in the Valley of
the Ten Peaks, Delta-
form (11,235 feet) being
conspicuous.
A glimpse of Mount
B i d e n t (10,119 feet)
through gap in the peaks.
Storm Mountain (10,-
319 feet) and Vermilion
Pass. Motor road to
Lake Windermere.
Copper Mountain (9,170
feet).
Pilot   Mountain   (9,690
feet).   Rustic bridge leading to Redearth Creek.
Mount   Massive   (7,990
feet).
Mount Lougheed (8,888
feet).
Bourgeau  Range   (8,415
feet).
20.0
26.0
30.1
43.7
LAKE LOUISE
Temple
Eldon
5050
4918
4822
37.5    Castle Mountain    4676
Massive
Sawback
4585
4543
54.7 BANFF 4534
Banff Springs Hotel
Castle Mountain (9,040
feet).
Sawback    Range    (10,-
000 feet).
Mount Cory (9,194 feet).
Mount Edith (8,380
feet) is the pointed
spire-like peak.
Motoring Visitors to Lake Louise
will find a number of
very attractive motor excursions
available. Besides the one to Moraine Lake mentioned above, there
is the drive to Banff. The road from
Banff to Lake Louise has been continued to Field, Emerald Lake and
Golden. This leads west on a high
line to the Great Divide and, crossing the tracks near Wapta Chalet-
Bungalow Camp at Hector, follows the Kicking Horse River. It
is a spectacular ride and links up
with established roads in Yoho National Park.
Leaving Leaving Lake Louise
Lake Louise we have magnificent
views of the surrounding panorama of mountains.
In front we see Pilot Mountain,
Copper Mountain, Mount Brett
and Vermilion Pass where the continental watershed sends the Vermilion
River westward into the Kootenay.
On the  south is   Storm   Mountain
IT IS difficult to imagine anything
more fascinating than to start out
in the early morning, stepping in
half an hour from the perfect civilization of a luxurious hotel into
the primitive glory of cliff and
crag, winding waterway and frozen
grandeur, to spend the day among
the mountains. With a blue sky
overhead, the air soft with the
sweet resinous spice of the forest,
and all cares left far behind, one
sees only beautiful sights, hears
only wonderland sounds, and for a
whole long day lives close to the
very heart of Nature in her most
splendid mood.
The Canadian Rockies present
to the mountain climber one of
the most extensive and interesting
fields of any easily accessible
ranges of the world. Noted
climbers make their way thither
from all parts of the world. There
are easy climbs, too, for the novice
to graduate from—on some, indeed, he or she can ride or walk
good trails almost to the summit.
(10,309 feet) and the snowy dome of
Mount Ball (10,825 feet). Loftiest and grandest of all towers Temple
Mountain (11,626 feet). This great snow-bound mountain, whose crest
exhibits precipitous walls of ice flashing blue in the sunlight, is the most
conspicuous and admirable feature of the wonderful valley.
Next we see to the left the bare, rugged and sharply serrated Sawback sub-range, with a spur called the Slate Mountain, in the foreground towards Lake Louise. 44
Castle   Mountain
Castle Mountain Chalet-Bungalow Camp
Castle Mountain Castle Mountain is a sheer
precipice of over 4,000 feet, named
for its obvious resemblance to a
giant mediaeval keep. Turrets, bastions and battlements can easily be
distinguished. The mountain is
eight miles long, and its highest
point is 9,040 feet above sea-level.
Back in the eighties there was a
mining camp at its base, brought
thither by a boom that died a
sudden death; and during the Great
War a large internment camp was
here.
Just beyond Castle Mountain
station the Banff-Windermere road
turns south, crosses the river, and
heads away over Vermilion Pass to
Lake Windermere. (See page 26).
Castle Mountain Chalet-Bungalow
Camp is about four miles from the
railway line.
A COLOSSAL UPHEAVAL—
Hundreds of thousands of years
ago, in some huge upheaval
toward the end of the Cretaceous
Age, these mountains were lifted
up; some sections were thrust
high in the air, others remained
almost as level as before. Others
were tilted more or less toward
the west, and still others bent and
crumbled under the tremendous
pressure from the sides. We see
today only the colossal fragments
of the original thrusts.
The principal mountain ranges of
Banff National Park are the Vermilion, Kananaskis, Bourgeau,
Bow, and Sawback ranges; its
principal river is the Bow. Of
the many beautiful lakes within
the Park, the principal are Louise,
Moraine, Minnewanka, Hector,
Spray, Kananaskis and Bow.
Proceeding, we round a sharp turn and on the right see Pilot Mountain, visible from either end of the Bow. Hole-in-the-Wall Mountain
has an interesting cavern running into the mountain which has been
used as a meeting place by the Masonic Lodge of Banff. We follow
the Bow River into Banff through a beautiful forested valley, skirting
the Vermilion Lakes and obtaining an excellent view of Mount Bourgeau on the right. Far to the south these snow peaks enclose Simpson
Pass.
Banff is the administrative headquarters of Banff National Park.
The town lies embowered in pine forests and lawns, in a pocket
of a wide circle of pearly-grey limestone peaks. Warmed by clear
sunshine and kissed by clear air, exhilarated by the glacial-green Bow
River, that frisks through its middle, Banff is the summer social centre
of the Canadian Rockies. Banff
45
,,-vij4AKE LOUISE;
KIT.        ^m f       s -/ >w
Ihate^^ %,[$     f   V,       J;       oonnex Mtn.j
Pinnacle
doraine Lake^>V
M«n A $    Camp^^t^-^S^ CSSfe Mtn
Tuzo     Xnln     Mt. Fay^^^O^^^  \      ,\t
N
Mt. Quadra^   Castle Mtn,  ^v>>
.1/%
^assive^
Cfr/fl^ C%
%
Bankhea*cb,
Townsite ^
#<
l^/SV.Castl'eV^ %
^f**   %ungalow^GanW^^^O'untain^
^Chimney      t^^^yrfamPl
Scale of Miles        "    i=        #^ 'Mt., Brett?
The Route from Lake Louise to Banff
The Panorama     From  the  station
of Banff a magnificent pan-
j   ; orama is to be wit
nessed. To the north is the grey
bulk of Cascade Mountain, towering
above the town like a grim old idol.
To the east are Mount Inglismaldie
and the heights of the Fairholme
sub-range. Still farther to the east
the sharp cone of Mount Peechee
closes the view in that direction.
To the left of Cascade rises the
wooded ridge of Stoney Squaw. To
the west and up the valley are the
distant snowy peaks of the main
range above Simpson's Pass. To the
left is Sulphur Mountain; to the
south-east the isolated wooded bluff
of Tunnel Mountain and
the long serrated spine
of Mount Rundle.
From the Bow Bridge
the view is even more
magnificent, for the river
runs through the centre
of the picture, and one
who has caught his first
glimpse of this picture
close to sunset will never
forget its breath-taking
beauty. From the high
elevation of Banff
Springs Hotel a somewhat different view is
obtained, looking across
the junction of the Bow
with the smaller and
darker Spray River to
the distant snow-clad
barrier of the Fairholme
Range.
BANFF National Park, in which
are situated Banff and Lake
Louise, is bounded on the west by
the interprovincial boundary between Alberta and British Columbia, and on the east by, approximately, the first big ranges of the
Rockies. It has an area of 3,834.5
square miles, its greatest length
being about one hundred miles.
No part of the Rockies exhibits a
greater variety of sublime and
romantic scenery, and nowhere
are good points of view and features of special interest so accessible, with so many good roads
and bridle paths.
Johnston Canyon, near Banff 46
Banff  Springs   Hotel
Banff Springs Hotel
Banff Springs Hotel Banff is one of the most popular mountain
resorts on the continent—due not only to its
environment but also to the beautifully situated and splendidly appointed Banff Springs Hotel. It has been characterized as probably
the finest mountain hotel in the world. The entire first floor is given
over to public rooms, artistically decorated and furnished, in which the
architect has provided a Scottish baronial atmosphere. Among the
features are the period suites—the Vice-Regal, Georgian, Jacobean,
Tudor, Swiss, Italian and others; the period influence also dominates
the lounges, of which the finest is the Mount Stephen Hall.
At the hotel there is entertainment all the time. One could be perfectly happy just looking out towards the enclosing mountains, watching the swimmers in the warm sulphur-water pool, swimming oneself,
playing tennis, or studying the cosmopolitan types which one meets at
this great caravanserai.
Hot Springs Had Banff not become famous for its beauty, it must
have become famous for its hot springs, which are
amongst the most important of this continent. The five chief springs
have a total flow of about a million gallons a day, and issue from the
ground the year round at a temperature of over 90 degrees Fahrenheit.
Excellent swimming in warm sulphur water is afforded at the Upper
Hot Springs (on Sulphur Mountain), the Cave and Basin Bath House,
and at the Banff Springs Hotel. At the Cave and Basin the Government has erected a handsome $150,000 swimming bath. Banff Springs
Hotel has its own large and beautiful open-air pool. Here, where the
temperatures of the summer air and water are delightfully blended, and
spring diving boards offer opportunity for sport to expert swimmers,
the sloping depth of the bath gives confidence to beginners at the
shallow end; while the enclosed cold fresh-water pool adjacent to the
warm bath provides an invigorating plunge. Expert masseurs are in
attendance at the Turkish baths attached.
Boating and A few minutes from the bridge is the Bow River
Launch Trips Boat-House. From here motor launches set out on a
12-mile trip in which the surrounding mountains
are seen from a unique and advantageous point of view. Here, also,
canoes and row boats are obtainable. Cascade
Mountain,
the
Bow River,
and Banff
mv^lJUliiajJiililiiluSI 48 Banff
On the Echo River
The Animal Corral The tourist will find plenty of interest in the,
little town of Banff itself, with its churches
cinemas and shops, interspersed with groups of cowboys in woolly
chaps and gay-colored kerchiefs, sloe-eyed Indians in buckskin coats
and moccasins, packers, trappers, guides and other truly mountain
men. Near the fine bridge over the Bow River are the Administration
Offices of the Park, the Museum, Zoo and Royal Canadian Mounted
Police headquarters.
The animal corral is \}/2 miles from the town, an immense fenced-in
area where a herd of buffaloes, mountain sheep, goat, moose, antelope
and other kindred of the wild roam at will through the vast forested
pasturage. You can drive into this corral quite close up to the buffaloes and enjoy studying them in these surroundings.
Golf and Tennis An eighteen-hole golf course, superbly located on
the banks of the Bow River and guarded by huge
bastions of rock, turreted and pinnacled like the fortified castle of old,
is open to all visitors to Banff for a small fee. The course has been
entirely reconstructed by the Canadian Pacific, under the supervision
of Stanley Thompson, and now offers one of the finest, most perfectly
balanced and most scenically beautiful courses in the world.
For tennis players there are several admirable hard courts, and
because the exquisite summer climate of Banff is very conducive to
both golf and tennis, a large number of people may always be seen
enjoying the games.
Recreation Grounds This section of the park, by the Bow River, is
not far from the bridge and can be reached by
a delightful road by the river, or from the Cave and Basin motor road.
There is a building for recreation purposes, also spaces for baseball,
tennis, football and cricket. The club house of the Banff Gun Club
is not far distant, and here trap shooting competitions are held.
"Indian Days"    * 'Indian Days" at Banff is one of the most colorful
spectacles on the North American continent. Between
three and four hundred Stoney Indians come from the Morley reserve,
40 miles east of Banff, for their tribal sports.  Each morning they have Banff 49
a parade in which the majority of the Indians take part; the tribe is
all mounted, while many splendid horses are used, resplendent in
gorgeous trappings and headpieces. The costumes of both men and
women are creations of white buckskin, beadwork and ermine, their
color schemes being exceedingly wonderful, and they ride with dignity
and poise.
Walking and Riding There are a large number of beautiful trails and
roads leading from Banff, offering delightful
rides, drives and walks of almost any desired length. Just three
minutes from the Banff Springs Hotel is one of the most beautiful spots
in Banff, the Bow Falls; and from here one may keep on going down a
lovely pine-canopied avenue which leads from the Bow Bridge to the
foot of the falls below the hotel.
On the east side of the Bow Falls is the road which runs up Tunnel
Mountain. It affords splendid views of the Bow Valley and the
surrounding mountains. Another beautiful walk is past the Cave and
Basin to Sundance Canyon. Sulphur Mountain, a long wooded ridge,
at the summit of which is an observatory, and on the slopes of which
is the clubhouse of the Alpine Club of Canada; Cascade Mountain, a
massive giant facing the station; Mount Rundle, the sharp pointed
edge of which forms one of the most striking features of the landscape;
Mount Norquay and Stoney Squaw—are all within easy walking
distance, and afford climbs not exceeding one day.
Motoring      Many of the walking trips mentioned may be taken by
saddle-pony  or automobile,  and in  addition   there  are
scores of other trips too lengthy for the ordinary walker.
A short motor run of eight miles brings you to the shores of Lake
Minnewanka, a beautiful sheet of steel-blue sheen where you can catch
huge lake trout. A well-graded road leads out from Banff westward
for sixteen miles up the Bow Valley to Johnston Canyon, where a series
of waterfalls, ending in a final foaming cascade, is most attractive.
This road continues to Lake Louise, the Yoho Valley, Field, Emerald
Lake and Golden.
(See also Banff-Windermere Road, page 50)
Trail Trips Numerous as are the motor drives about Banff, beautiful
as are the spots reached by car, there are many places,
which can only be approached by trail, that rank amongst the most
attractive playgrounds of the Rockies. There are 700 miles of good trails
in Banff National Park, many of which radiate from Banff. With
guides and ponies the visitor may find his way to Mystic Lake, in the
heart of the Sawback Range, to Ghost River, and through the Indian
Reservation to the town of Morley, the Spray Lakes, the Kananaskis
Lakes, and dozens of other magic places.
Mount Assiniboine A particularly fine pony trip from Banff, and
one on which a week can be profitably spent,
is that to Mount Assiniboine—the "Matterhorn of the Rockies." This
can be reached over the spectacular new trail by way of Brewster
Creek, or by way of the Spray Lakes, and the return made by traversing the beautiful summit country in the vicinity of the mountain,
through the heather and flowers of Simpson Pass and down Healy
Creek. The route has been well established, with overnight accommodation at convenient points en route, while camp facilities are
available at Mount Assiniboine Camp, at the foot of the Mountain. 50
Banff
■ ROADS
L
- TRAILS
Scale of Miles
?      3      4
CANADIAN PACIFIC RY.
Banff and its vicinity
Winter Sports Banff is rapidly be- KOOTENAY National Park (area
coming an impor- 587 square miles) tucks in between
tant centre for winter sports, the the southern portions of Banff
Annual Winter Sports Carnival in and Yoho National Parks, and
February attracting large crowds, comprises the Vermilion, Mitchell
Ski-ing, tobogganing, skating and and Briscoe Ranges. The Koote-
bob-sledding are amongst the at- nay River flows through its south-
tractions, ern part, with a large tributary in
the Vermilion. At the southwest
Banff-Winder- Of great interest end it almost touches the eastern
mere Road to automobile en-  bank  of the  Columbia  River  a
thusiasts is the little above Lake Windermere.
Banff-Windermere automobile road The Banff-Win derm ere Road
across the Canadian Rockies. This traverses the centre of this park,
spectacular journey through a hundred miles of the most magnificent mountain scenery of America
can be commenced at either Banff or Lake Louise, the road being at
first that which connects those two points. At Castle Mountain it
crosses the Bow River, turns south past Castle Mountain Bungalow
Camp and Storm Mountain, and rises to the Vermilion Pass (altitude
5,264 feet). Here it enters Kootenay Park. From Marble Canyon, a
remarkable fissure three hundred feet deep, there is a trail to the
curious Ochre beds. Banff-Windermere  Road
51
South Side of Track
Mileage
east of
Field
Altitude
above
sea-level
North Side of Track
Headquarters   of   Banff
National Park.
Sulphur  Mountain
(8,040 feet).
Mount    Rundle    (9,675
feet).
54.7
BANFF
4534
Cascade Mountain
(9,840 feet).
57.0
Bankhead
4581
Coal mining town now
abandoned.        Railway
crosses  Cascade  River.
A coal mining town. The
Three Sisters (9,744 feet)
69.5
74.3
Canmore
The Gap
4296
4248
Fairholme Range.
Grotto Mountain (8,880
feet).
Cement mills.
79.3
Exshaw
4260
The road then follows the Vermilion River to its junction with the
Kootenay River. Crossing the Kootenay, it leads through a beautiful
avenue of virgin forest, and, ascending the Sinclair Pass between the
Briscoe and Stanford Ranges,
reaches Radium Hot Springs, long
famous for their radium qualities.
Emerging through the gap of
Sinclair Canyon it meets the Columbia River and—-nine miles
beyond—the beautiful Lake Windermere.
Chalet-Bungalow
Camps
This drive has
been rendered
even more delightful by the construction of two
Chalet-Bungalow Camps en route.
These are at Castle Mountain (26
miles from Banff) and Radium Hot
Springs (91 miles). Lake Windermere can be reached also by railway
from Golden. (See page 26). The
journey can be continued along the
east side of Lake Windermere and
IN THE various mountain ranges
that make up the Canadian
Rockies—the Rockies proper, the
Selkirks, and the Monashee, Coast,
Cascade and Purcell Ranges—
there are, according to Government measurements, not including
innumerable mountains that have
not yet been named or measured,
630 peaks over 6,000 feet above
sea-level; 308 between 7,000 feet
and 10,000 feet; 161 between
10,000 feet and 12,000 feet; 4 over
12,000 feet.
Many of the principal mountains seen by the traveller from
the train or at the most popular
mountain resorts—at and around
Banff, Lake Louise, Moraine Lake,
Lake O'Hara, Field, Emerald
Lake, the Yoho Valley, and
Glacier—average a height above
the floor of the valleys at their
base of almost a mile. The Canadian Rockies, being rich in glaciers
and neve fields, are generally
snow-covered the year round.
the Kootenay River, through Canal
Flats and Fort Steele, to Cranbrook.
There the road connects with other highways leading south across the
international boundary, thus forming the   last   link   in   the   "Grand
Circle Tour" to California.
The Route from Banff to Calgary 52
The   Three   Sister
:i./*:Jvi||»
The Three Sisters, Canmore
Excursions are available from
both Banff and Lake Louise during
the summer months for this trip to
Lake Windermere—including the
3-day "Lariat Trail" to Radium
Hot Springs and thence back over
the Columbia River Highway to
Golden and the Kicking Horse Trail.
Leaving Banff Leaving Banff, we
leave the Bow
River for a time and strike up the
valley of the Cascade River.
Looking behind, we can see Cascade Mountain towering above the
valley. On the right is Rundle,
named in honor of an early missionary to the Indians.
The Three Sisters At Canmore is
obtained a
striking^ profile of the "Three
Sisters," companion peaks that
form one of the last notable sights
of the journey. The highest peak
reaches a height of 9,733 feet. The
curious group of pillars on the right,
some of them ten times as tall as a
man, are made of hard enough
material to withstand the weatherings that have pjayed havoc with
called "hoodoos."'
The Gap
NATURE has thrown up the
Canadian Rockies on so vast a
scale that the human mind can
with difficulty grasp their greatness, except by some comparison.
The "Dominion," fastest Canadian
Pacific train, takes twenty-three
hours to pass from Cochrane, at
the entrance to the Rockies, to
Mission, where it enters the coastal
plain. Two of the best known
railway routes across the Swiss
Alps are the St. Gothard and the
Simplon. It takes an express train
five hours to travel from Lucerne
to Como, or from Lausanne to
Arona.
When, therefore, Edward
Whymper, the hero of the Matter-
horn, described the Canadian
Rockies as fifty Switzerlands
thrown into one, this certainly
was no exaggeration. The
Canadian Rockies stretch from
the Gap practically to Vancouver
—over six hundred miles of Alpine
scenery.
the surrounding bank.    They are
Presently we rejoin the Bow River, which we shall follow
all the way into Calgary. A bend in the road brings us
between two almost vertical walls of dizzy height, streaked and capped
with snow and ice. This is "The Gap" by which we leave the mountains. On our left is the; Fairholme Range, opposite it is the Goat
Range. The prominent peak is Grotto Mountain, while those on our
right are Pigeon Mountain, Wind Mountain and the Three Sisters.
Contrast the ranges behind.' Those on the left are fantastically broken
and castellated; the ones opposite are massive snow-laden promontories, rising thousands of^eet and penetrated by enormous alcoves
imprisoning all the gorgeous hues of the prism. The  Foothills
53
Exshaw       Exshaw has a large Portland cement mill, with an average
output of 4,000 barrels a day.    It draws its supplies   of
limestone and shale from the excellent deposits close to the mill.
Kananaskis
Indian lore.
Kananaskis is the eastern boundary of Banff National
Park.    The district surrounding Kananaskis is rich in
Seebe is the site of two hydro-electric power plants which supply
Calgary with its electrical power. The lower plant was completed in 1911, the upper one in 1915. The latter can be seen from
the railway. These two plants, with the sub-stations and transmission
lines, represent an investment of about five million dollars. Generators
with a capacity of 31,000 horse power are installed in these power
houses, supplying a current of 55,000 volts which is transmitted over
two high tension transmission lines to the city of Calgary. A supply
of 4,000 horse power at 12,000 volts is also transmitted to the cement
mill at Exshaw.
The upper dam consists of a solid concrete structure 600 feet in
length, capable of discharging 40,000 cubic feet of water per second.
The company has completed a third transmission line to the city of
Calgary, to meet the growing demand for power.
Morley is the modern home of the Stoney Indians, once a very warlike race but now the most industrious of red men. The
foothills are full of Indian lore. The whole district was conceived as
a great giant; hence there are the Knee Hills, the Hand Hills, the
Elbow and the Ghost Rivers, and other names equally picturesque.
Kananaskis Falls, on the Bow River, were named after a mythical
Cree chief, the word
meaning "a tall straight
pine with branches
near the top."
Cochrane Still following the
course of the Bow
River, we enter the
rolling, grassy foothills,
rising tier upon tier to
the base of the great
ranges to which they
are the outposts. At
Cochrane we are well
within the foothill
country. In the lower
valleys can be seen
huge ranches, for this
is a great stock-raising
country, and on the
higher terraces can be
seen great herds of
cattle and sheep. These
transverse valleys are
the grooved courses of
ancient glaciers. Presently the foothills too
give place and are succeeded by the first
great stretches of level
prairie and we run in
between low hills to
Calgary. The Gap 54
Calgary
Calgary
Mileage
South Side of Track        east of
Field
Altitude
above     North Side of Track
sea-level
84.5
In    the    heart    of    the    95.0
Stoney   Indian   Reserve
(see page 53).
103.6
Seebe
Morley
Radnor
4218    Site    of    hydro-electric
plants.
4078
3896    The valley of the Ghost
River enter* the Bow
River at this point
and is dammed to form a
lake - Ghost Lake —for
power development.
In the foothill country.  113.8
Many stock ranches may
be seen.
Cochrane
3750
127.2
Keith
3563
The motor road between
Banff and Calgary may
be seen now and again.
136.6
CALGARY
3438
Hotel Palliser At the west end of
the station block
is the imposing Canadian Pacific
hotel, the Palliser. This handsome
structure comprises fourteen floors
in an "E" shape, which makes every
room an outside room. From the
roof garden one can obtain a beautiful view of the Canadian Rockies.
CALGARY (population 84,000),
the most important city on this
route between. Vancouver and
Winnipeg, is the business centre of
southern Alberta. Founded a little
over fifty years ago, it is a flourishing industrial, agricultural and
educational centre, with fine buildings and many manufacturing
establishments.
Natural Resources    At the east end
of the platform is the building of the Natural
Resources Department of the Canadian Pacific Railway, which administers all the company's land, mineral and timber interests in the
west. The Canadian Pacific has a very simple but excellent method
of settling experienced irrigation farmers on the land, giving thirty-five
years for payment of the cost of the land, and after a down payment of
7% of the purchase price, first year's use of the land is free. This
method has been the means of creating many fine homes and contented
settlers. Calgary
55
A Beautiful City Calgary has municipally owned water works, electric light and power system and street railway and
asphalt paving plants. Natural gas is piped from Bow Island at very
cheap prices.    The city has some beautiful parks and many golf courses.
The city is well supplied with clay and building deposits, and is
close to immense developed coal areas, large developed water powers,
and large gas and oil deposits. A 2,500,000-bushel Dominion Government terminal elevator is located here. Amongst the important
industries of the city are meat packing, flour milling and oil refining.
Immediately to the east of Calgary, and extending close to the
railway, and on both sides, for about 140 miles, is a large irrigated land
project developed by the Canadian Pacific Railway. Drawing its
water supplies from the Bow River, this block consists of over 3,000,000
acres, of which a great portion will later be brought under irrigation.
The Stampede Alberta, still a country of considerable stock-raising
interests, was until recent years one of the principal
ranching sections of Canada; and in the "Stampede" held every summer at Calgary—a famous frontier-day celebration that draws competitors from all parts of the continent—the glories of the Old West
are revived annually in a week's carnival of cowboy sports and contests.
Tributary to Calgary is a most prosperous agricultural, beef-raising
and ranching district, in area some thousands of square miles, and by
virtue of the nutritious and abundant grasses growing throughout this
territory, cattle raised are of excellent quality. Grain and vegetables
produced in this district are also very fine.
Calgary is an important railway centre. Branch Canadian Pacific lines run (a)
north to Edmonton, the capital of Alberta, through a prosperous mixed farming
country; (b) south to Lethbridge and Macleod. The main line continues eastward
from Calgary to Regina, Winnipeg, Toronto, Ottawa and Montreal.
Calgary-
riotei iraiiisei CHALET-BUNGALOW
CAMPS
IN THE CANADIAN ROCKIES
Wapta Camp Overlooking beautiful Lake Wapta, just west of the
Great   Divide.     Fishing,   boating,   centre  for  Alpine
climbing, drives, pony rides and hikes to Lake O'Hara, the Yoho Valley,
the Kicking Horse Canyon, etc.
Postal Address, Wapta Chalet-Bungalow Camp, Hector, B.C.
Lake O'Hara   This Alpine lake, of exquisite coloring and charm, is a
Camp splendid climbing, riding, fishing and walking centre.
Excursions to Lake McArthur and Lake Oesa, or over
Abbot Pass to Lake Louise. Reached by trail from Lake Louise and
Wapta.
Postal Address, Lake O'Hara Chalet-Bungalow Camp, Hector, B.C.
Yoho Valley    At the most delightful location in Yoho Valley, facing
Camp Takakkaw Falls.    Excursions to the upper valley   or
to Emerald Lake.    Hiking, climbing, riding.
Postal Address, Yoho Valley Chalet-Bungalow Camp, Field, B.C.
Moraine At the head of the Valley of the Ten Peaks.    Good
Lake Camp      trout fishing, climbing, riding and hiking to Consolation Lakes, Paradise Valley, Wenkchemna Pass, etc.
Postal Address, Moraine Lake Chalet-Bungalow Camp, Lake Louise,
Alta.
Castle Mountain   On the Banff-Windermere automobile highway, the
Camp most   spectacular  automobile  road   in   America.
Wonderful panoramic views of Castle Mountain
and other peaks.    Hiking, motoring, fishing, climbing.
Postal Address, Castle Mountain Chalet-Bungalow Camp, Post Office,
Banff, Alta.
Radium Hot       Second stop on the Banff-Windermere Road.   Swim-
Springs Camp    ming in Radium Hot Springs Pool,  hiking,  fishing
and climbing.   Wonderful views of the Selkirks.
Postal   Address,   Radium   Hot   Springs   Chalet-Bungalow   Camp,
Radium Hot Springs, B.C.
Mount Assiniboine   Two-days'   trail   ride   from   Banff   (34   miles),
Camp stopping  overnight  at half-way cabin.    Rates
on application.
The above camps are open during the summer months and the rates
are extremely reasonable. CANADIAN PACIFIC HOTELS
Empress Hotel
Victoria, B.C.
Hotel Vancouver
Vancouver, B.C.
Hotel Sicamous
Sicamous, B.C.
Altitude 1,153 feet
Emerald Lake Chalet
near Field, B.C.
Altitude 4,272 feet
Chateau Lake Louise
Lake Louise, Alta.
Altitude 5,670 feet
Banff Springs Hotel
Banff, Alta.
Altitude, 4,625 feet
Hotel Palliser
Calgary, Alta.
Hotel Saskatchewan
Regina, Sask.
Royal Alexandra Hotel
Winnipeg, Man.
The Royal York
Toronto, Ont.
Place Viger Hotel
Montreal, Que.
Chateau Frontenac
Quebec, Que.
McAdam Hotel
McAdam, N.B.
The Algonquin
St. Andrews, N.B.
The Pines
Digby, N.S.
Cornwallis Inn
Kentville, N.S.
Lakeside Inn
Yarmouth, N.S.
ON THE PACIFIC COAST
In the Garden City of the Pacific Coast. An equable climate
has made Victoria a favorite summer and winter resort.
Motoring, yachting, sea and stream fishing, shooting and
all-year golf. Crystal Garden for swimming and music.
(Open all year).   European plan.   Facing wharf.
The largest hotel on the North Pacific Coast, overlooking the
Strait of Georgia, and serving equally the business man and
the tourist. Situated in the heart of the shopping district of
Vancouver. Golf, motoring, fishing, hunting, steamer excursions. ^ (Open all year). European plan. One-half mile
from station.
IN THE ROCKIES
Junction for the orchard districts of the Okanagan Valley,
and stop-over point for those who wish to see the Thompson
and Fraser Canyons by daylight. Lake Shuswap district
offers good boating and excellent trout fishing and hunting
in season.    (Open all year).   American plan.    At station.
A Chalet hotel situated at the foot of Mount Burgess, amidst
the picturesque Alpine scenery of the Yoho National Park.
Roads and trails to the Burgess Pass, Yoho Valley, etc.
Boating and fishing. (Open summer months). American
plan.    Seven miles from station.
Facing an exquisite Alpine Lake in Banff National Park.
Alpine climbing with Swiss guides, pony trips or walks to
Lakes in the Clouds, Saddleback, etc., drives or motoring
to Moraine Lake, boating, fishing. (Open summer months).
European plan.    3% miles from station by motor bus.
A magnificent hotel in the heart of the Banff National Park,
backed by three splendid mountain ranges. Alpine climbing,
motoring and drives on good roads, bathing, hot sulphur
springs, golf, tennis, fishing, boating and riding. (Open summer months).    European plan.    \y% miles from station.
ON THE PRAIRIES
Suited equally to the business man and the tourist en route to or from
the Canadian Rockies. Good golfing and motoring. (Open all year).
European plan.    At station.
In the old capital of the Northwest Territory, headquarters of the
Mounted Police. Golf, tennis. Most central hotel for the prairies.
(Open all year).    European plan.
A popular hotel in the largest city of Western Canada, appealing to
those who wish to break their transcontinental journey. The centre of
Winnipeg's social life. Good golfing and motoring. (Open all year).
European plan.    At station.
IN EASTERN CANADA
The largest hotel in the British Empire. (Open all year). European plan.
Subway connection with Union Station.
A quiet hotel in Canada's largest city.  (Open all year). European plan.
A metropolitan hotel—in the most historic city of North America. (Open
all year).   European plan.
A commercial and sportsman's hotel. (Open all year). American plan.
At station.
The social centre of Canada's most fashionable seashore summer resort.
Unsurpassed golf.    (Open summer months).    American plan.
Nova Scotia's premier summer resort. Golf, swimming in glass-enclosed
sea-water pool.    (Open summer months).    American plan.
In the Annapolis Valley near Evangeline's Grand Pre.
American plan.
(Open all year).
Delightful summer resort—all outdoor recreations. (Open summer months).
American plan. urjourney
w/i Canadian/
Z7ky Rockies
Canadian Ricific

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