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By train... through the Canadian Rockies Canadian Pacific Railway Company 1955

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Array "Ey Train...
Jian Rockies
WAY The Bow Valley showing, upper left, Cascade Mountain,
the town of Banff, tunnel mountain. Lower right, Banff
Springs Hotel and the Bow River Valley.
Canadian Pacific, frequently referred to as the world's most
complete travel organization, had the good fortune to be routed through
some of the world's most spectacular mountain scenery
when its builders devised the main line through the Canadian Rockies
and subsequent developments added the Coquihalla Canyon-Crow's
Nest Pass route. Canadian Pacific, the world's first transcontinental
railroad, is more than a railroad. Canadian Pacific comprises railways;
trans-Atlantic, trans-Pacific, Coastal and Great Lakes steamships;
airlines—trans-Pacific and domestic; hotels—a chain of year-round
metropolitan hostelries and strategically-placed summer resorts
from sea to sea; telegraphs and express. All these services
are at your disposal through any Canadian Pacific office* BY TRAIN THROUGH THE CANADIAN ROCKIES
• This booklet is your welcome to the Canadian Rockies, the
view-filled four hundred miles of peaks and passes, crags and canyons, streams
and cataracts that make the journey by Canadian Pacific through the Rocky, Selkirk
and Coast Ranges one of the travel wonders of the world.
• The sequence of the following pages is from East to West,
but it is easy to use them as a guide in either direction.   First, run quickly over the
map on pages 2 and 3 to familiarize yourself with the terrain,
then turn to page 24 if eastbound, page 4 if headed west,
for more detailed descriptions.
• Running through the book you will find sketch maps of the railway,
each is complete and refers only to the same page.  The top of each page is North,
seen through right hand windows as you travel from East to West.
If you travel from the Pacific eastward, then "north" will refer to the left.
• For operating reasons the railway is divided into a number of divisions
and subdivisions of varying lengths.  Progress through each
subdivision can be noted by reference to mile-boards, like this, (123.4      )
which mark distances west of subdivisional points.  Each map, and
they are sketches remember, and not exactly to scale, covers the distance shown by
the mile-boards at the top of the page.
• Because this will be read
on trains moving in each direction
and on different timetables,
no times for arrivals
at different locations are used.
Where a warning of something very
spectacular coming up is given
the reference is by elapsed
time from the last station stop, or
by the nearest mile-board.
• Pages 20 to 24 inclusive
deal with the Coquihalla Canyon-
Crow's Nest Pass line,
an attractive alternative route through
the southern Canadian Rockies.
Connections are made with
the major transcontinental trains
in each direction.
• The building of the Canadian Pacific Railway was an epic of endurance, ingenuity
and sheer dogged determination.  Bearers of names that have become great in Canadian history
were familiar figures to the shirt-sleeved, horny-handed pioneers who surveyed the passes,
blasted the rock cuts and pushed the steel through.   Many of these names now identify stations or live
forever in peaks, passes, and towns along the line.
• It called for great engineering feats such as the Spiral Tunnels between Hector and Field,
the Connaught Tunnel between Stoney Creek and Glacier, and many outstanding
examples of bridge-building.
• The Canadian Pacific Railway was built primarily to pierce the great barrier between
the rest of Canada and the Pacific coast for economic reasons.  But as travel developed, the Canadian
Pacific realized the possibilities of the Canadian Rockies as an unsurpassable holiday area.
It built and operates luxurious hotels at Banff and Lake Louise as well as less pretentious resorts
at Emerald Lake, in the Yoho Valley, at Lake Wapta, Lake O'Hara and Moraine Lake.
Spectacular mountain highways connect Emerald Lake Chalet and the lodges with Chateau Lake Louise
and Banff Springs Hotel.   Hiking, some fishing, boating and mountain climbing, with the aic
Swiss guides, are common to these resorts and at Banff there is an eighteen hole golf course
The mountain playgrounds that extend from Banff to Emerald Lake are all ejjcompassec
Banff and Yoho National Parks where all wild life is protected and firearms fc
Canadian Government. Other National Parks in this mountain ardq include Gn
National Park and Mount Revelstoke National Park in the Selkirk
Although the Canadian Pacific main line journey from Calgary
Vancouver totals 640 miles, the most spectacular mountain cour
lies between Morley, 41 miles west of Calgary, and Kamlo\*ps.,
From there to Vancouver the line traverses the lowerinc
slopes of the coastal plain, its more placid scenery      X
punctuated by distant peaks of the coast range. y>
Detailed descriptions start overleaf for westbound \
travellers, on page 24 for the eastward journey>
Spectacular though the Banff-Lake Louise
main line is, it is far from beingvthe
in the great
f I RHOr
whole of the Canadian Rockies.  South of the main line,
another diesel-operated scenic route pierces the same
mountain chains to show new aspects of nature's scenic upheaval between Odium, B.C. at the
edge of the mountains and Crow's Nest, the easternmost pass. The Coquihalla Canyon-Crow's Nest line
opens lesser-known territory and is a pathway through the Okanagan Valley, the Kettle Valley,
the picturesque Kootenays and the Crow's Nest Pass.   For travellers with time to explore, there are
connections between Penticton and Sicamous by bus and rail, Robson West and Revelstoke
by stern-wheel steamer and rail, Colvalli and Golden - by rail through the Lake Windermere country. I       41.6)
(Laggan Subdivision)
(81.9        )
• Morley (altitude 4078 feet) 600 feet higher than Calgary, is still foothills country.  But ahead the
peaks that form the Canadian Rockies and the passes worn by ancient and long-dead glaciers march
ever closer. Grazing lands give way to the Stoney Indian Reserve through which the line passes
between Morley and Seebe.   The river widens at Exshaw into a pleasant lake
with Pigeon Mountain directly south.   Look for mallard ducks and Canada geese.  A little
fWUSMALgp  west of Kananaskis, north of the track, is the entrance to Banff National Park.
\v^^^> Ahead to the right is 8880 foot Grotto Mountain.
Mtmrduard   •   At Mile 62, thirty-five minutes from Morley and half-way to Banff, jus^befor,
MTPEEENE^) tlje track threads between a steep shoulder of the Fairholme Moun1|ain
on the north and the tumbling Bow River on the south throug
The Gap, keep a sharp lookout for bighorn sheep on the
ep slopes.   Southwest are the Three Sisters, a^TrtpteA
peaked mountain that poses for ma>»^^^ciejxiSpJ 4\
rth-eastward up the
wing Valley of
wait the Fairholme
Mountains to
the north and Mount
Rundle to the south.  Bo'
exceed 9800 feet in
height. Ten minutes after
leaving Canmore Carrot
Creek, coming from the
northeast round the Fairholme
Mountains, leads your eye to
Mount Peechee (9625'), Mount
Girouard (9875') and Mount Inglismaldie  (922
•    Now you curve to the left and, northwest, the southern tip of Cascade Mountain (9836') is marked by
thundering cascades, like thin rivulets in the distance.  The track crosses the Cascade River, parallels it
for a few hundred yards and turns sharply southwest. On the south Tunnel Mountain looms.  To the north,
on flat-lands at the feet of Cascade and Stoney Squaw Mountains is the National Parks Department
wild animal paddock for buffalo, rocky mountain goats and bighorn sheep.  In the evening, to the east
of the Paddock you are quite likely to see a number of bears.  Perhaps this is unromantic, but they are
probably on their way to a refuse heap where all sorts of sweet discards are an irresistible magnet.
Now get ready for a brisk walk on the platform at Banff Station — an opportunity for photographs of
Cascade, Stoney Squaw, Mount Norquay, Rundle and Sulphur Mountains.
P?^";----' :
Mount Eisenhower (        81.9]
(Laggan Subdivision)
(122.2    J
• In the forty miles on this page the Canadian Pacific
Railway, following the lowest levels the survey party
could find, climbs only 800 feet.  But the need of
this pass is evident in the increasing number of high
peaks that thrust skyward as the Canadian Rockies
reach for their greatest heights.
• Keep a look out for Banff Springs Hotel to the
south just after you start; and moose feeding in
Vermilion Lakes north of the track in the shadow of
Sulphur Mountain.  Other wild animals you may hope
to see in this area include deer and elk, many of whom
feed close to the right of way and—in tourist season—
an occasional black bear, sometimes with her cubs,
on the lookout for "handouts" from drivers on the
Banff-Lake Louise highway.  North of Vermilion Lakes
is Mount Norquay, site of excellent ski runs. To the
south is the Bourgeau Range. Ten minutes from Banff
the view to the north includes Mount Edith (8380')
and, closer to the track, a huge cave known as the
Hole-in-the-Wa!l in which Banff Masonic Lodge has
met, and Mount Cory (9194').
The Bow River changes in character as the land
colour takes on the milky jade typical of
The lowering peaks south of the track
are: Mount Bourgeau, in the distance; Massive
Mountain (7990') closer at hand and Pilot Mountain
directly south of Mile board 93.
• From this point the pass widens.   Redearth Creek
on the south and Johnston Creek west of Mount Ishbel
on the north, enter the Bow River within a mile of
each other.  Copper Mountain (9170') immediately
south of where Johnston Creek joins the Bow River,
warns you to look north for the south-eastern slopes of
Mount Eisenhower, the fortress-like mountain whose
base parallels the track for the next eight miles.
Formerly known as Castle Mountain, this tremendous
formation, battlemented like a medieval castle,
was renamed to honour General of the Army Dwight D.
Eisenhower, brilliant Supreme Commander of the Allied
Forces in Europe, six years before his election to
the Presidency of the United States.
• Storm Mountain, five or six miles south of Mile 106,
usually lives up to its name, its 10372 foot peak often
being wreathed in clouds.   Nearby, north of the tracks,
beaver often build dams at the water's edge.
• From here to Lake Louise Station, south of the track
are the many glaciers on the slopes of the Bow Range.
Tall peaks that tower above the nearer mountains
include Bident (10119'), Quadra (10420'), snow-covered
P™f™*af,        Mount Babel (10185') and the Ten Wenkchemna Peaks that surround the
famous Valley of the Ten Peaks. Tallest of all, four miles south of Mile 112,
is Mount Temple (11636').  To the north are Protection Mountain, Redoubt
Mountain (9520') and Ptarmigan Peak (10070').
•    The last four miles to Lake Louise show you, still to the south,
^        Saddle Mountain, Fairview Mountain and, seen between these two,
Sheol (9118'), Haddo (10083'), Mount Aberdeen (10350') and
Mount Victoria (11365').  Victoria's magnificent glacier
overhanging Lake Louise, and first sight to greet visitors at
Chateau Lake Louise, sheds its waters through the lake and by
way of Louise Creek to join the Bow River just before you
reach the station. From Lake Louise Station motor roads
lead: to the Chateau, a thousand feet higher;
Moraine Lake Lodge in the Valley of the Ten Peaks;
the Columbia Icefield, eighty-five miles to the north
where the Athabaska, Dome and Saskatchewan
Glaciers combine to form 150 square miles
of ice; Lake Wapta Lodge; Yoho
Valley Lodge; Emerald Lake Chalet
and Field.
In the next six miles the
line climbs 280 feet to
reach, at Stephen,
B.C., one mile
and 59 feet
above sea-
level, the highest       [£[$
point on the Canadian
Pacific Railway.   The
south side is still the more
spectacular as the line curves to
the left around the Beehive, Mount
St. Piran and Mount Niblock.   Mile
board 121 is a warning to look just sou
of the track for the sign, "The Great Di>
which marks the boundary between Alberta
British Columbia.   Beneath this sign, easily r
as your train slows to enter Stephen, a small brook
becomes two smaller streams that find their way,
westward to the Kicking Horse River, the Columbia and the
Pacific; eastward to the Bow River and eventually Hudson's
Bay and the Atlantic.
BANFF (122.2    )
(Laggan Subdivision)
•    Eight and a half miles as the crow flies but fourteen miles by the track and 1265 feet downhill
lies Field, divisional point for the mountain subdivision.   In the coming fourteen miles — forty thrill-packed
minutes — is concentrated some of the finest scenery and the most
interesting engineering feat of the journey, the world-famous Spiral
Tunnels.  At Stephen (5339'), entrance to the Kicking Horse Pass,
are Summit and Sink Lakes.  South of the track can be seen
Popes Peak (10376'), Narao Peak, and, at Mile 125, to the
north, Wapta Lake connected with the stream at the
Great Divide by Blue Creek, the site of Lake Wapta
Lodge, a popular mountain resort, in the shadow
of Mount Bosworth and Paget Peak. This
lake is the source of the Kicking Horse
River — first in your mountain journey
to flow from east to west.   South
(136.6     )
• Field marks the end of a time zone and watches
are set back one hour on the westward journey to
Pacific Time.  The train stays fifteen minutes while
competent crews minister to the operating needs of the
locomotive and cars.  The station platform is a
vantage point from which many successful photographs
of the surrounding mountains are taken.
• The stop at Field can provide you with
a variety of activities. The station facilities include
soda fountain, magazine stand with a good stock of
scenic post cards of this interesting area of the
Canadian Rockies and from the platform an unparalleled
view of the mighty peaks that surround "The Big
Hill".  It is by no means uncommon from the eastern
end of the platform, to see a bear or two looking
over the tourists.  Across the river, the trans-mountain
highway branches north up the Yoho Valley to
Takkakaw Falls, where Yoho Valley Lodge is sited.
Westward, the highway branches, again in a generally
northerly direction, through famous Cathedral
Avenue to Emerald Lake, overlooked by Emerald Lake
Chalet and its surrounding cottages.
of Lake Wapta, Cataract Brook parallels a canyon trail that leads to Lake O'Hara Lodge beside the
Lake of the same name in a valley sheltered by Wiwaxy peaks, Mount Schaffer and Mount Odaray.
At Mile 126 are Vanguard Peak, Cathedral Crags (1008T) and Cathedral Mountain (10464'), opposed
to the north by Mount Ogden and the lush Yoho Valley.
• Now in less than a mile, by means of two spiral tunnels, the track reverses itself twice and drops
ninety-eight feet.  Soon after Mile 127, to the north of the track and below it, you can see the
entrance and exit to the second tunnel from which the track continues its westward
journey.  A mile and a half west the train enters the first spiral tunnel under Cathedral Mountain and in
three fifths of a mile turns almost a complete circle and comes out heading north-east forty-eight
feet lower. The down grade continues until the entrance to the second tunnel is reached when almost
another circle is made and nearly a thousand yards later you leave the tunnel headed west again.
Now, look up to the south and you'll see the track you passed over a few minutes before.   North is
another view of the Yoho Valley, and to the south Mount Stephen (10495').  Below, the Kicking Horse River
makes its way along the pass. To the north, Mount Field and Mount Wapta border the Yoho Valley with,
beyond, Burgess Pass and Mount Burgess.
• From Field well-engineered motor roads lead up the scenic Yoho Valley to Yoho Valley Mountain
Lodge; and, past the "Natural Bridge" formed by the boring of the Kicking Horse River through
rock formations, north through the Valley of the Emerald River to Emerald Lake Chalet.
Two ends of the same tunnel-
els near Field In the lovely Valley of
the Kicking Horse,
Mount Stephen looms
where the Kicking Horse
and Amiskwi Rivers join.
The broad green levels of the
Bow Valley are a smooth road
bed from which mountain
scenery unrolls in a moving
panorama of beauty. (£
(Mountain Subdivision)
• Some idea of the steep grades met as your train follows the Kicking Horse River to its junction
with the Columbia River at Golden can be gained from the fact that in this thirty-five mile stretch the
drop in altitude is 1489 feet or nearly fifteen feet per minute of elapsed time.
• North of the track the Kicking Horse River winds its way at ever increasing speed through rock
strewn rapids and gorges, and at times sings a song loud enough to be heard above the sound of the train.
On the mountain slopes the ever present lodge-pole pine climbs to the timber-line with, here and the
stands of poplar, marked at grazing level by the teeth of countless winter feeding
elk.  Deer, bear, elk and moose are quite numerous in the country between
Field and Glenogle.  Best times to spot them are before nine in the morning and
between four p.m. and sundown.
• South of the track as you leave Field are Mount Dennis, Mount Duchesnay,
and to the north the broad divided valley formed by the Amiskwi River and
Otterhead Creek.  The railway line has swung steadily to the south as the pass
threads its way between the Van Home Range on the right and the Ottertail
Range on the left. At Mile 13 look two miles left for Mount Vaux (1089T) and
beyond it to the glacier between Allan and Hanbury Peaks. Ahead to the
left is Chancellor Peak (1076T), a sight left rapidly behind as, at Mile 15.3
the track turns sharply west and skirts the Beaverfoot Range to the south
for several miles.
• From the rear of the mountain observation car as the train swings west again
look due east for Mount Goodsir, its highest tower 11686 feet and then, as the
turn is completed, south through the densely wooded Beaverfoot River Valley.
• The Kicking Horse River, three miles to the south, has taken a sharp bend
^too and races at foaming speed into the narrow lower Kicking Horse Canyon
\e track follqytfsvthe canyon almost to Golden and the tumbling waters created
a sound effect that matches in awe the twisting,
^)))))/fflll(f\\Vv^!{n'n9/ tunr,k'm9 torrent that boils its way
yestward. To the north Mount Hunter,
\.spur of the Van Home Range,
lels the track.
After passing Glenogle^
Station carefully scan the
wall of the canyon on the \
side, where, soon after Mile board
the "Old Man of the Mountain", an interesting7
face carved by nature, shows high on the canyon
wall.   Five hundred feet above the rails, at the we
of the Cloister siding (Mile 31.7) is the highway,
train this mountain road looks as if it were suppor
In the distance north of the track as your train slows to enter Golden^/
is Moberly Peak, and on the south the canyon winds out into the Valley
of the Columbia. (35.0     )
(Mountain Subdivision)
t       67.8)
• For nearly thirty miles the Canadian Pacific now follows the Columbia River by taking advantage
of a fairly broad and fertile valley that the mighty river has created for itself extending around the northern
spur of the Dogtooth Mountains.
• A picturesque sight on the north side of the track, just beyond the outskirts of Golden, is Edelweiss,
a village of typical chalets built by the Canadian Pacific for the Swiss guides employed by the
company for mountain climbers.  Frequent sharp spurs of the Van Home Range on the
right and the Dogtooth Mountains on the left give rise to a succession of fast
running, picturesque creeks and rivers, the largest of which is
the Blaeberry, which joins the Columbia just west of Mile 44.
To the north is Willowbank Mountain, soon
after which the line swings west again,
crossing the Columbia at Mile 52,
half a mile west of Donald and entering a spectacular
canyon where it parallels the Columbia to Beavermouth, Mile
63, named for the junction of the Beaver and Columbia Rivers.
The level country between Golden and Beavermouth is home to large
numbers of deer and moose. But it takes a keen observer to spot them
through the heavy growth.
•     Now the Columbia fights its way north in the magnificent "Big Bend" and
forces its way through the Selkirks. We will see it again at Revelstoke. The
Canadian Pacific crosses the Beaver River a mile and a half west of Beavermouth
with the first peak of the Selkirks, Cupola Mountain (8678'), due north and again
follows a sharply defined narrow valley south-westerly to Rogers, Mile 67.8.
e     From Rogers the line climbs again, this time to cross the Selkirks, next of the mountain barriers.
In the eighteen miles covered in the map on this page, the track follows, at ever-increasing heights, the
Valley of the Beaver River, seen through left-hand windows. Wide flats and dead forests tell of long-gone
inundations.  To the right, as the train skirts the lower slopes of Mount Rogers (10,525'), steep,
tree-covered slopes march down to the valley.
10 t      67.8)
(Mountain Subdivision)
•    Two mountain cascades, crossed between Mile 74 and
Stoney Creek Station, are spectacular. Pouring down the
mountainside, Surprise Creek, no bigger at its greatest visible
height than a pencilled line, cuts its way through a gorge
spanned by a truss bridge and splashes, noisily and picturesquely
in a foaming cascade to the river bed 170 feet below.
®    The bridge crossing Stoney Creek, almost a twin brother of
Surprise, presented a stiff engineering problem. Here, the
steep sides of the gulch through which the torrent speeds,
drop 270 feet below the track level. The contour of the land
calls for a curve at the western end of the bridge and, to
cross the Stoney, it was necessary to build an arch bridge, the
western end of which is slightly curved. Although not
thought of as such in the engineers' plans, this unusual structure
is an ideal site for photographs, the curve of the train
enabling it to be shown in pictures shot from the mountain
observation car in the rear.
«    Three miles west, at Mile 80.2, an even greater problem
faced the engineers who built the line. Mount Macdonald
(9492') was in the way, its peak more than a mile above the
track level. To avoid it the first line was built through Rogers
Pass, compelling a climb of five hundred feet in five miles
and needing, for its protection from slides, more than four and
a half miles of snow sheds, some of which and the piers
of old bridges can be seen to the north. In 1916, by the boring
of the Connaught Tunnel — which we are now about to
enter — the climb was cut in half, the distance was shortened
by four and a third miles and curves equal to seven circles
were done away with.
•    A mile of solid
rock is the roof of
Connaught Tunnel, which
is of concrete construction,
twenty-nine feet wide and
twenty-one and a half
feet high.   Fresh air is
forced through by giant
ventilating fans at the western
end.   Just before entering
the tunnel your train moves
to the left, by automatic
switch to the double-tracks
that pierce the mighty
mountain.   This gives the
engineer a full view of
both tracks which dim'
fifty-two feet in each
The lovely Bow River Valley (tHZD
(Mountain Subdivision)
(125.7      )
• No matter how much the rugged scenery at the
entrance to Connaught Tunnel should have prepared
you, the return to daylight as you leave the tunnel
at Glacier is always a challenge to the senses with
its magnificent panorama of peaks, precipices and
glaciers.  South and east of the station — you will
have to crane your neck — look up the valley for the
lllecillewaet Glacier, outlet for the lllecillewaet
snow field, forcing its way between Lookout
Mountain and Perley Peak.  Beyond, thrusting its
peak 10,618 feet into the blue, is Mount Sir Donald.
• A mile from the station up the slope of Mount
Abbott to the south, ruined piers of an old bridge
show where the Rogers Pass line crossed Loop Brook
before the tunnel was bored.   Glacier is the station
for Glacier National Park, 521 square miles in area
in which a number of challenging peaks are still
unclimbed.   Between Glacier and Albert Canyon
you may spot mountain goats and sheep just below
• Watch for Mile board 102, for within the next mile Albert Canyon, a
narrow hundred and fifty foot gorge through which the river is forced,
parallels the rails to the north. The slow passage of the train gives you
a chance to see this fern-wreathed gorge. To the south lies the Albert
snowfield and near Mile 109 its tip may be seen on the east slope  \
of Albert Peak 10,008 feet high. To the north, bounded on the
east by Woolsey Creek, lies Mount Revelstoke in the National
Park of the same name and, southward, as the valley
widens out, at Mile 115, is Twin Butte.
• Ahead  lies the Columbia  River, back from  its
northern journey of 151 miles around the Big Be
and the mouth of the lllecillewaet, whicfv in it
final rush to reach the broader stream, poyr
through rocky Box Canyon (Mile 123.2),
turns the turbines that light up Revelstoke,
the snow line and travellers carrying binoculars
should look on the slides and burns for grizzly bear
in this district.
•    The level drops nearly twenty-three hundred
feet in the forty-mile run to Revelstoke, a fact
well-illustrated by the speedy, foaming waters of
the lllecillewaet River whose head-long rush parallels
the Canadian Pacific most of the way.   North and
south of Mile 88 are Cougar Mountain and Ross
Peak.  Southward Mount Green (8870') marks the
western boundary of the Valley of Flat Creek which
opens a vista to the south at Mile 93.2. A mile
farther on snow sheds and tunnels testify to the
engineering difficulties overcome when the line was
put through.  Ten crossings of the lllecillewaet
River are made between Glacier and Revelstoke.
The track is hemmed in by wooded slopes as the
canyons narrow and the river often becomes a
hissing cauldron between the rock walls.
'   ON
and makes its way more
peacefully to its junction with the
You have twenty minutes to stretch
/<v    your legs and enjoy the view at
y&v/Revelstoke while the maintenance staff
'thoroughly checks your train.  Don't miss the
^/iiaiion gardens, a bank of lovely flowers, and an
'P> /^exhibition Kiosk which is a key to the area.
k\ the eastern end of the station-building a miniature
Dutch windmill decorates a prosaic water hydrant.
Every season this windmill serves as a background for
personal photographs.
12 Deer are frequently seen from the train as you
travel the Canadian Pacific way through the mountains. The buffalo or, to be more exact, North
America Bison, is protected by the Government in
the animal paddock at Banff. Rocky mountain sheep
occasionally stray near the right of way, but sight
of them from a moving train is a somewhat rare
prize—guests of Banff Springs Hotel and Chateau
Lake Louise seek them at Lake Minnewanka and on
the moraine of Victoria Glacier. Large antlered
Elk are quite common beside the track between
Banff and Lake Louise and if is in this same area,
too, that black bear can be spotted. Natural
comedians, and always hungry for sweet things,
bears often beg on the motor road between Banff
and Lake Louise. For safety reasons National Park
regulations prohibit the feeding of wild animals. Beauty knows
no season in
the Canadian
every day of
the year has its
own appeal.
a tremendous
south from
Banff (not
visible from
the train), is a
challenge to
a beacon for
Autumn colours are riotous
around the lakes, valleys
and woods at the lower
altitudes. Here, the South
Thompson River, B.C., poses
for the colour camera.
'■■'■if:: ''*ir-y^...
'■-   ■■'■^B^:
A I    .   1 *
'■■■■■/■,■■■'■*;■■•■    -;>f~ D
(Shuswap Subdivision)
t44,7       )
• The Selkirks are behind us but we have still to traverse the Monashee System.
A mile west of Revelstoke the track crosses the Columbia River and to the south, visible
for the next mile, are Mount Begbie and Mount Macpherson.  Mount Revelstoke still
commands the northern view.  The Canadian Pacific follows the Tonkawatla River
through Eagle Pass to Three Valley Lake, then the Eagle River.  North of the track
the western slopes of the Gold Range rise to seven thousand feet.  At mile 8.5 you
skirt Summit Lake using three short tunnels through the mountain spurs.   The downward
slope now is gradual — only three hundred and forty feet in forty-five miles — but the
incidence of rivers and canyons is still apparent.   From Three Valley Lake (Mile 14.6)
the railway skirts the slopes, first one side, then the other.  To the south is Mount Griffin
(7075'), of the Hunter Range, and, near Mile 22, beautiful Kay Falls.
• The line, still following the Eagle River, now heads southwestward between the
Shuswap and Hunters Ranges to reach, at Craigellachie (Mile 28.3), the historic spot
where the last spike was driven November 7, 1885, when eastern and western portions
of the line met and Canada's first transcontinental railway became a fact.  A simple
cairn north of the track marks the spot.
• Now the character of the land changes, the valley widens out and small farms
prove that we are on the Pacific slope where the gentler breezes and temperate
climate stimulate a more lush growth. The Eagle River empties into Shuswap Lake at
Sicamous, a favourite starting point for trout fishermen and junction for the fruit growing
Okanagan Valley.
To Vernon/
and Penticton.
Every sunlit moment of the trip
through the Canadian Rockies
is a challenge to the camera
fan. If you shoot colour, follow
the film manufacturer's recommendation, or your exposure-
meter reading—but remember
the prevalence of dark evergreens when you shoot from the
15 Subdivision)
• At Mileage 84 the western tip of Shuswap Lake narrows to enter Little Shuswa
Lake a mile west of Squilax (87.5). The high land to the south, Ptarmigan Hills,
is much gentler in appearance than were the mountains of the rockies, the
Selkirks and the Monashee Ranges.   Now, the track dips less than three
hundred feet in the forty-five miles covered in this map as it parallels the
South Thompson River, born in the Shuswap Lake System. The Shuswap
Lake area, more densely populated than any territory we have
passed through so far, is a prosperous fruit and mixed farming belt.
• Between mileage 126 and Kamloops sites of semi-subterranean ^T^
istoric Indian houses have been discovered between the
transcontinental line and the South Thompson
ion pointJaGLt ends the map on
h Thompson and
hpi:^^^^^^^N^fed7To^(€tl^|2^tt^jwest through
e out^^j^M\erpi#^fl^^§m^iorj~R!yer.
station gardens on the
North Thompson.  Many lakes and streams in this district^
with game trout.  You will see many irrigated farms and broac
cattle ranches and this countryside also contains gold, copper and base metal mines.
(Shuswap Subdivision)
^^m***±?Z£     <N
• In the summer months evening and early morning bring you to the level track that skirts the south
shore of Salmon Arm in the section from Sicamous to Tappen (Mile 70.6). This long arm of Shuswap Lake,
reservoir of the Thompson River, first met at Sicamous, reflects low hills and green rolling countryside in
its still waters. Averaging half a mile in width, Salmon Arm is a feeding ground for wild duck and a
favourite holiday spot for residents of Pacific Coast cities.
• From Tappen the line runs north, paralleling White Creek for four miles and then turns west at the
foot of Mount Hilliam, Black Mountain and Squilax Mountain.   To the north, gently rolling lands
slope gradually down to the main body of Shuswap Lake which is said to contain more varieties of trout
and other fish — including steel-head salmon trout and salmon from the Pacific returning to spawn — than
any other fresh water in British Columbia.
; -     *
° °" .-
Orchard and farm lands replace the rugged beauty of the
Canadian Rockies as you follow the South Thompson River
Westward to Kamloops. D
(Thompson Subdivision)
021.5  )
• In the hundred and twenty-five miles between Kamloops and North Bend further evidence of the
journey down the long slope to the Pacific lies in the gentle down grade which lowers the track level from
1159 feet above sea levei at Kamloops to 493 feet at North Bend.  As may be expected, industry,
changing from the occasional saw-mills which have been seen from time to time, now takes on a sterner
appearance.  At Mile 11, north of the track across the narrow lake, Battle Bluff, marked with a red-pa.nted
reminder, calls locally to mind fierce Indian tribal struggles of the past.
• A series of 6 tunnels between Mile 8.5 and Mile 14 testifies to the engineering difficulties encountered
in building the line. At Ashcroft, Mile 47.3, sidings and loading platforms handle cattle and sheep,. trait
and vegetables - particularly potatoes, where once prospectors and miners of the Cariboo gold;fields
passed    From Ashcroft the line turns almost due south and at Mile 52.5 passes through Black Canyon
where the Thompson, squeezed by rock formations, turns into roaring white waters.  Best view ot
the canyon is backwards from the mountain observation car.
• Joined by the Nicola River at Spence's Bridge (Mile 72.8), railway and river seek the lowest possible
levels through Thompson Canyon, the river piling higher and higher at its centre as the banks close m until
at Mile 87.5 the gorge graphically called the "Jaws of Death" forces it to its greatest speed.  North
of the track near Mile 91, lies the Painted Canyon and at 93.5 a green granite crest which overhangs
the gorge is known as Botanie Crag.  Now the canyon widens out and on the narrow plateau at Lytton
(Mile 95) you get your first sight of the Fraser River which the Thompson now joins and the Fraser
Canyon begins.  Near Cisco the track, now heading due south, crosses the Fraser.
• Down through the canyon a modern highway on the site of the old Cariboo road climbs high above
the river.  Near Mile 113, where the track crosses the Salmon River, there is a quick glimpse of the gorge
through which it forced its way to join the Fraser.   Indian reservations and, here and there tiny
gardens and orchards struggle for existence on narrow benches above the river bends.
o    North Bend/last divisional point before Vancouver, is noted for the railway gardens. The foliage
of the surrounding country loses its mountain character and takes on the rich growth characteristic
of the Pacific slope. lower Fraser Canyon
(Cascade Subdivision)
(       41.6]
• Still hemmed between mountains, but keeping as close as possible to water level, the track from North
Bend to Vancouver has a gradient of a little less than 4 feet in a mile.  Its last 80 miles are through the
almost level valley of the Fraser by now a wide navigable river.
• West of North Bend, the stark beauty of the Fraser Canyon, coupled with the equally stark history
of its early development, makes it well worth your while to be called early.   5Vi miles from North Bend,
the Scuzzy River, flowing from north of the track, enters the Fraser.   Under the railway bridge is a
series of basins, up which salmon leap during the spawning season.  These mitigate the fierce
Scuzzy Rapids, before conservation a death trap for many fine salmon.  Not far beyond this, the gorge
narrows into a rock formation aptly christened "Hell's Gate".  Below it is "The Devil's Wash Basin", a
spinning whirlpool.  Once again, you will find the rear platform of the observation car is your best
vantage point.
• As the track winds its way beside the rushing river between the Canyon walls, there are many
outstanding views and, at Spuzzum (15.5), once a Hudson's Bay trading post, a steel and concrete bridge
spans the Fraser on the site of the first bridge ever to cross it. The first bridge, built by Joseph Trutch,
was the first suspension bridge west of the Rockies, built on wooden towers and wire cables woven
at the site.
• Simon Fraser, discoverer of the river, who had literally clawed his way down river on a series of ladders
built by the Indians, rested on the narrow bench at Spuzzum, which was used as an Indian burial ground.
• Well worth seeing — and let Mile board 22 be your warning — is a giant rock (22.5) in the middle
of the river against which the Fraser rages vainly and torments itself into twisting eddies and backwaters.
5 miles ahead is Yale, formerly head of navigation on the Fraser and the start of the Cariboo wagon
road.  Built in 1862-5 under the orders of Governor James Douglas, this 400-mile road was used
by thousands of miners to carry millions of treasure from the famous Cariboo gold field. There are 20
more miles of canyon country, the last of it at Odium (41.6).  The mouth of the Fraser Canyon coincides
to the south with the mouth of the Coquihalla Canyon and is the junction of the Banff-Lake Louise
transcontinental line with the Coquihalla Canyon-Crows Nest Pass route of the Canadian Pacific, through
the Southern Rockies, which is described on Pages 20-23.
©    See Page 24 for references to the track between Odium and Vancouver, over which pass trains of
the Banff-Lake Louise main line and the Coquihalla Canyon-Crow's Nest Pass route through
the Southern Rockies.
(Crowsnest Subdivision)
e    "Oldman" not "Old Man" River, rushing
eastward from the Rockies greets you at
Lethbridge, nears the Canadian Pacific southern
route again at Fort Macleod, and drains the
narrowing valley that climbs towards the
western peaks.  At Hillcrest the track is 1140
feet higher than Lethbridge and the
Livingstone and Flathead Ranges tower 3000
feet more to North and South. The Crow's Nest
River, south of the track runs ever faster, as
it nears Crow's Nest Lake and, at Sentinel the
Alberta-British Columbia boundary marks
the high point of the Crow's Nest Pass,
4452 feet.
JpT) (Cranbrook Subdivision)(  99.2    "")
Grazing land near Cranbrook
e    Between Crow's Nest and Michel, at Mile
5.5 westbound and Mile 8 eastbound the line
jogs sharply southward to McGillivray where
it crosses Michel Creek and retraces its way
northward. A slight downgrade leads to the Elk
River, (between Miles 15 and 16), thence
through the Elk Valley past Fernie, a typical
western town (36.1), to Elko (54.3) and the broad Kootenay Valley.  Colvalli (71.5) is the junction point for
Lake Windermere and Golden.  The Kootenay River is crossed between Mile 75 and Wardner (77.3), and
the track now climbing again, turns south near Mile 94.5 for five miles to reach Cranbrook where a
15 minute stop gives you a chance to enjoy the mountain air.
(Nelson Subdivision)
{137.8     )
e    A climb of 217 feet to Mile 9 takes the track over a crest to join the Moyie River and a pleasant
downhill run beside Moyie Lake.  Eastward, the McGillivray Range emphasizes the valley. Yahk, junction
with the Spokane International Railway, points the way to a pleasant valley and the Goat River leads us
through Moyie Range to Creston, start of a northward traverse of the broad, fertile valley through wr'
the Kootenay, back from a southward loop into Montana and Idaho, flows north to Kootenay Lake. / rp
Almost imperceptibly the track slopes, 15 feet in a mile, down to water level at Sirdar, turns sh^ply westy]
and crosses the mouth of the river.   From Kootenay Landing (Mile 83.1) to Procter (117^)JfeoterVayffoke^ J
is the foreground of a landscape that features, to the East, the Selkirk R
the track follows the West Arm of the lake and the Kootenay River to Nels
hour stay allows leisurely inspection of the lovely station
^1 afcNBpoai (Boundary Subdivision)
Now the Kootenay, crossed by the train at Mile 4.0, runs faster. From
Nelson to Brilliant (23.5) where the Kootenay empties into the
Columbia the elevation lowers by 317 feet. Signs of this
appear at Bonnington Falls where power plants
turn the churning water into electricity
for the great smelters at Trail.
The line between Nelson
and Castlegar (25.7)
where the Columbia
is crossed,
passes through country tidily farmed by Doukhobor settlers.   From Robson West (27.4) one of the last stern-wheel
steamers, berthed alongside the railway, plies the Arrow Lakes to connect, via Arrowhead and Revelstoke, with the Banff-
Lake Louise main line. Midway, next subdivisional point, is reached after dark, as are the lesser elevations of the
Carmi subdivision.
(Carmi Subdivision)
t    133.71
But daylight, for travellers in both directions, is available for the spectacular canyons that mark the height
of land east of Okanagan Lake. Westbound travellers will find an early call rewarding.  Between Myra
(84) and Penticton (133.7) spectacular engineering feats and breathtaking views are the rule.  In this
50 miles the elevation ranges from 4160 at Myra to 11 20 feet at Penticton. The map calls the tiny rivulet
hundreds of feet below Klo Creek but the local name of Five Fingers Canyon is more apt. At Mile 86.5 you
cross the east fork of the canyon on a 12 degree curve 365 feet long, 158 feet above the stream. The
west fork bridge (87.9) also a steel trestle, is 720 feet long, has a 12 degree curve and is 182 feet above
the creek bed.   From Ruth (Mile 91.2) look Northwest from your 4090 level down across 10 miles of
mountain-slope and benchland
to Kelowna and Okanagan Lake.
At 96.5 another curved steel
trestle, 765 feet long, takes you
across well-named Bellevue Creek,
120 feet below. At Chute Lake
(106.5) Okanagan Mountain to the
north, obscures your view of
the big lake but from Mile 108
to Penticton it is
always in view from one side
of the train or the other
as the spectacular "switchback"
lowers the track
level from Adra, 3220 feet,
to Glenfir, 2585 feet, to Arawana,
1856 feet in three 4V2 mile
"bites".   At Penticton, 8 miles
and 736 feet lower, heart of
famous apple country, you
have 25 minutes for
outdoor exercise.
Typical Kootenay scenery
mmsmx i Okanagan Lake
(Princeton Subdivision)
(38.0      )
• Westward, the Coast Range is the only barrier to be
passed.  From Penticton the climb begins along the
shore of Okanagan Lake, home — according to local
story — of Ogopogo, mysterious freshwater sea serpent.
The track climbs through fertile benchlands, paralleling
irrigation flumes and follows Trout Creek.  Near Mile
36 the creek wanders north.  At Mile 39 Osprey Lake,
north of the track, is the summit, 3592 feet, of the
subdivision. Siwash Creek is crossed near Mile 48, and
a gradual descent is made with the Belfort
loops helping to lower the track to 2126 feet above
sea level at Princeton.
• Between Princeton and Brookmere a 1000 foot climb
in 33 miles is divided between the valleys made by the
Tulameen River and Otter Creek, a tributary that enters
at the foot of Otter Mountain (85.5).  Here after a
sharp turn northward your train skirts Otter Lake (Mile
86.5 to Mile 89.6) on the left and several smaller lakes
on either side. At Thalia (Mile 103) a westward run
beside Spearing Creek brings you to Brookmere, start of
the Coquihalla Subdivision, and a brief walk on
the platform.
22 (Coquihalla Subdivision)   [   5 6.6      ]
A climb of 501 feet
in the 18 miles that
separate Brookmere and
Coquihalla follows
Spearing Creek to its
junction with Coldwater
River (near Mile 3) and up
that river to the summit at
Mile 18. Now, for 38 miles
the deep canyon of the
Coquihalla River dips
steadily from 3658 feet at
the summit to 144 feet at
Hope where it debouches
into the mighty Fraser.
Ledged firmly on the
canyon wall the track
records the spectacular
engineering feats of its
builders.  Near Mile 32 the
track swings north
around Boston Bar Creek
Canyon and crosses
it on a combination
steel and timber trestle
34414 feet long. The
bridge has a 12° curve
and a 1.7% grade.  Almost as spectacular is the 558 foot steel trestle that bridges Ladner Creek.   It, too,
has a gradient, and is 225 feet above the stream. The canyon walls climb higher, the river runs faster
as we near its level, tunnels cut through the solid rock and, suddenly, flat meadows presage the coastal
plain.   At Hope (54.3) a steel truss bridge carries the railway, with the highway above it, 955 feet across
the Fraser River and at Odium (41.6 on the Cascade Subdivision) is the junction with the main
transcontinental line.
i the Coquihalla Sub-Division
23 (        41.6)
(Cascade Subdivision)
[129.0     )
•    Wild roses climb on
any convenient hold and
in every way the scenery
recedes from the stark,
bare grandeur of the
mountains into a gentler
domesticated pattern.
At Mile 48.0 is Ruby
Creek, which owes its
name to the garnets found
in the neighbourhood.
Now you're in the heart
of the fruit and dairy
lands.   Close to stations
along the way early
morning activities are
divided between sawmills
and packing plants to
which strings of trucks
bring fresh gathered crops.
Agassiz (58.9) is the
station for Harrison Hot
Springs and site of a
government experimental
farm.   Ferries serve the
Chilliwack Valley, noted
for its fine dairy herds.
• From Mission City
(87.3) a busy centre for
fruit growing and dairy
country, you can see
snow-topped Mount Baker
forty miles south in the
State of Washington.
• In a few miles now,
on-shore breezes reaching
inland bear the tang of
^^^^^^^ the great Pacific Ocean
and at Port Hammond (Mile 105.1) the track leaves the Fraser and heads northwest to cross, by a long
bridge, the Pitt River, tide-water, nineteen miles before reaching Vancouver. Mile 115 is your warning
to look north for the eastern end of Burrard Inlet and the old Station of Port Moody which was the
original terminus of the Canadian Pacific, Canada's first trans-continental railway.  Now the many activities
of a busy harbour — fishing shacks, deep-sea fishing craft, drying nets, piers, docks and factories lead
you into Vancouver, terminus of the Canadian Pacific Railway, gateway to Alaska and the limitless
Pacific Ocean.
Nearing sea level in Coquihalla Canyon
24 Vancouver Harbour From Stanley Park
•    Vancouver, end of steel for
Canada's first transcontinental railway,
is Canada's gateway to the Orient
and the South Pacific. Canadian Pacific
"Empresses of the Air" fly passengers
north to the Orient, south to Hawaii,
Fiji, Australia, New Zealand.
Vancouver's golf courses, parks, fine
buildings, sea beaches and pleasant
climate attract visitors from many
countries. Fast Canadian Pacific
"Princess" liners, from piers a stone's
throw from the station, give fast day
and night service to Seattle,
Nanaimo and Victoria on pleasant
Vancouver Island, the Gulf Islands,
British Columbia ports and Alaska.
Princess liner between Vancouver and Victoria
•    Victoria, temperate capital of
British Columbia, is the entrance
to the year-round playground of
Vancouver Island. Here The Empress,
westernmost of the Canadian Pacific
chain of hotels from sea to sea,
vine-clad, set in its own 1OV2 acre
garden facing the harbour, close to
business and shopping centres, is the
focal point of local society, headquarters
for visitors. Golf, motoring, tennis,
sailing, swimming, riding, picturesque
parks and scenic drives are the
background of a holiday life that
includes shopping for woollens,
diamonds, silverware, linens and
many other imports.
The Empress
THE GxauJXqm(faajjfc
Montreal- Vancouver, No. 1 & No. 7
Toronto-Vancouver, No. 3
St. Paul-Vancouver, The Soo Dominion,
The Mountaineer (July & August)
Montreal-Vancouver, No. 7-11
Toronto-Vancouver, No.  3-11
Vancouver-Montreal, No. 2 & No. 8
Vancouver-Toronto, No. 4
Vancouver-St. Paul, The Soo Dominion,
The Mountaineer (July & August)
Vancouver-Monfrea/, No. 12-8
Vancouver-Toronto, No. 12-4


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