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Your journey through the Canadian Rockies : westbound Canadian Pacific Railway Company 1945

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CAN AD IA
% ROCKTE
CANADIAN PAGli«l YOUR HOST ACROSS CANADA
CANADIAN PACIFIC HOTELS OF BEAUTY AND EFFICIENCY
NOTED  FOR  COMFORT,   SERVICE AND  CUISINE
AT MODERATE RATES
Banff Springs Hotel
Banff, Alta.
Altitude, 4,625 feet
Chateau Lake Louise
Lake Louise, Alta.
Altitude, 5,680 feet
Emerald Lake Chalet
near Field, B.C.
Altitude, 4,272 feet
Hotel Sicamous
Sicamous, B.C.
Altitude, 1,153 feet
(Operated by lessee)
Hotel Vancouver
Vancouver, B.C.
Empress Hotel
Victoria, B.C.
Canada's Evergreen
Playground
Hotel Palliser
Calgary, Alta.
Hotel Saskatchewan
Regina, Sask.
Royal Alexandra Hotel
Winnipeg, Man.
The Royal York Hotel
Toronto, Ont.
Chateau Frontenac
Quebec, Que.
McAdam Hotel
McAdam, N.B.
The Algonquin Hotel
St. Andrews-by-the-Sea,
N.B.
Digby Pines
Digby, N.S.
Cornwallis Inn
Kentville, N.S.
Lakeside Inn
Yarmouth, N.S.
Lord Nelson Hotel
Halifax, N.S.
THE ROCKIES
A magnificent hotel in the heart of the Banff National Park,
backed by three splendid mountain ranges. Alpine climbing'
bathing, hot sulphur springs, mile-high golf, tennis, fishing^
boating, riding, hiking. (Open summer months). European
plan. 1 Y% miles from station.
Facing an exquisite Alpine lake in Banff National Park.
Mountain climbing with Swiss guides, pony trips or hikes to
Lakes in the Clouds, Saddleback, etc., motor road to
Columbia Icefield, boating, fishing. (Open summer months).
European plan. 3 miles from station by bus.
A chalet hotel situated at the foot of Mount Burgess, amidst
the picturesque Alpine scenery of the Yoho National Park.
Roads or trails to the Burgess Pass, Yoho Valley, etc.
Boating, fishing, hiking. (Open summer months). American
plan.   7 miles from station.
Junction for the orchard districts of the Okanagan Valley,
and stop-over point for those who wish to see the Thompson
and Fraser Canyons by daylight. Shuswap Lake district
offers good boating and excellent trout fishing and hunting
in season.   (Open all year).   American plan.   At station.
THE PACIFIC COAST
This hotel is operated by the Vancouver Hotel Company on
behalf of the Canadian Pacific and Canadian National Railways. (Open all year). European plan.
In the Garden City of the Pacific Coast. An equable climate
has made Victoria a favorite summer and winter resort.
Yachting, sea and stream fishing, shooting and all-year golf.
Crystal Garden for swimming and music. (Open all year).
European plan.   Facing Inner Harbor.
THE PRAIRIES
Suited equally to the business man and the tourist en route to or from
the Canadian Rockies.    Good golfing.    (Open all year).   European plan.
At station.
In the capital of the Province of Saskatchewan.    Golf, tennis.    (Open
all year).   European plan.
A popular hotel in the capital of the Province of Manitoba, appealing to
those who wish to break their transcontinental journey.   The centre of
Winnipeg's social life.    Good golfing.     (Open all year).     European plan.
Subway connection with station.
EASTERN CANADA
The largest hotel in the British Empire.   Ideal convention headquarters.
(Open all year). European plan. Subway connection with Union Station.
A  metropolitan  hotel—in  the most  historic city  of  North  America,
and site of two Allied Conferences of World Leaders.
Thrilling skiing at Lac Beauport.   (Open ail year).   European plan.
A commercial and sportsman's hotel    (Open all year).   American plan.
At station.
The social centre of Canada's most popular Atlantic Coast holiday colony.
Unsurpassed golf, swimming.   (Open summer months). American plan.
Nova Scotia's leading summer resort. Like an English country estate.
Golf. Swimming in glass-enclosed sea-water pool. (Open summer
months).   American plan.
In the Annapolis Valley near Evangeline's Grand Pr'e.    (Open all year).
American plan.
Delightful summer resort—all outdoor recreations.   Tuna fishing.   (Open
summer months).   American plan.
In the capital of the Province of Nova Scotia.    (Open all year). European
plan.   Operated by Lord Nelson Hotel Co.
For further information, reservations, etc., apply to hotel management or
nearest Canadian Pacific agent. Your Journey
THROUGH THE
CANADIAN ROCKIES
From Calgary, Alberta, to Vancouver and
Victoria in British Columbia
v5he Canadian Rockies, which by
their giant bulk divide the Prairies and the
Pacific Coast, form one of the most remarkable
mountain regions of the world. The Canadian
Pacific main line runs through magnificent
mountain systems . . . the Rocky, Selkirk,
Monashee, Coast, Cascade and Purcell ranges.
These offer 600 miles of spectacular scenery
. . . snowy peaks, glaciers, vast icefields,
rugged precipices, waterfalls, foaming torrents,
canyons, and lakes like vast sapphires and
amethysts set in the spruce-clad mountains.
Five National Parks are located in this Alpine
wonderland, and the Canadian Pacific is the
only rail route serving them; they are the
Banff, Kootenay, Yoho, Glacier and Mount
Revelstoke National Parks.
T5he Canadian Rockies attract every
year thousands of eager visitors, for whom
attractive hotels and rustic mountain lodges
provide comfortable headquarters.
A Canadian Pacific Publication
Published by the News Department
Canadian Pacific Railway Company
PRICE 25 CENTS
ALL FACILITIES OFFERED SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE.
Printed in Canada 1945 CANADIAN
PACIFIC
HOW TO READ THIS BOOK
This book is written for the reader travelling westward;
a companion booklet is written for readers travelling eastward.
At the head of almost every page is a list of stations
identified by mileage from the previous divisional point.
Underneath, those places are described.
Mileage.   Mileage boards are attached to telegraph  poles alongside
the track.
Calculate westward from the divisional point.    Thus,  Banff is 81.9
miles west of Calgary—Glacier is 85.4 miles west of Field.
North and South of Tracks.    If you ride facing the locomotive,  the
north is:
On your right—t ravel ling westward
The mileage boards are calculated from the previous divisional
point.   These divisional points are, going westward:
Calgary, Field, Revelstoke, Kamloops, North Bend, Vancouver.
Contents Text Map
Calgary to Banff.  3 5
Banff to Lake Louise  16 18
Lake Louise to Field  23 27
Field to Revelstoke.  34 35,   38,   42
Lake Windermere Branch  35
Arrow Lakes Steamer Service  43
Revelstoke to Kamloops  44,   47 45,   47
Okanagan Valley Branch  45
Kamloops to Vancouver  48 47,   49,   54
Vancouver to Victoria and Seattle  60 Calgary
Hotel Palliser, Calgary
Hotel At the west end of the
Palliser station block is the imposing Canadian Pacific
hotel, the Palliser. This handsome
structure comprises fourteen floors
in an "E" shape, which makes
every room an outside room. From
the roof garden one can obtain
a beautiful view of the Canadian
Rockies.
CALGARY (population 84,000)
the most important city on this
route between Winnipeg and Vancouver, is the business centre of
southern Alberta. Founded over
sixty years ago, it is a flourishing industrial, agricultural and
educational centre, with fine buildings and many manufacturing
establishments.
Natural Resources    At the east end of the station platform is the building of the Natural Resources Department of the
Canadian  Pacific  Railway,   which  administers  the Company's   land,
mineral and timber interests in the west.
A Beautiful City Calgary has municipally owned water works, electric light and power system and street railway and
asphalt paving plants. Natural gas is piped at very cheap prices,
principally from the Turner Valley. The city has some beautiful parks
and many golf courses, including a municipal course.
The city is well supplied with clay and building deposits, and is
close to immense developed coal areas, large developed water powers
and large gas and oil deposits. A 2,500,000-bushel Dominion Government terminal elevator is located here. Amongst the important industries of the city are meat packing, flour milling and oil refining.
Immediately to the east of Calgary, and extending close to the
railway, and on both sides, for about 140 miles, is a large irrigated land
project developed by the Canadian Pacific Railway. Drawing its
water supplies from the Bow River, this block consists of over 3,000,000
acres, of which a great portion will later be brought under irrigation.
The Stampede     Alberta, still a country of considerable stock-raising
interests, was until recent years one of the principal
ranching sections of Canada; and in the "Stampede" held every summer at Calgary—a famous frontier-day celebration that draws com- The  Foothills
Calgary
South Side of Track
Mileage
west of
Calgary
Altitude
above
sea-level
North Side of Track
Bow River.
0.0
9.4
In the foothill country.    22.8
Many stock ranches may
be seen.
33.8
In    the    heart    of    the    41.6
Stoney  Indian  Reserve.
(See page 5).
52.1
Cross   the    Bow   River
after leaving Seebe.
CALGARY
Keith
Cochrane
Radnor
Morley
Seebe
3438 The railway follows the
valley of the Bow River,
crossing to the north
side of the river 7 Ml
miles west of Calgary.
3564 The motor road from
Calgary to Banff may
be seen now and again.
3760
3913 The valley of the Ghost
River enters the Bow
River at this point and
is dammed to form a
lake—Ghost Lake—for
power development.
4078    Bow River.
4218    Site     of     hydro-electric
plants.
Calgary (continued)
petitors from all parts of the continent—the glories of the Old West are
revived annually in a week's carnival of cowboy sports and contests.
Tributary to Calgary is a most prosperous agricultural, beef-raising
and ranching district, in area some thousands of square miles, and by
virtue of the nutritious and abundant grasses growing throughout this
territory, cattle raised are of excellent quality. Grain and vegetables
produced in this district are also very fine.
Calgary is" an important railway centre. Branch Canadian Pacific lines run (a)
north to Edmonton, the capital of Alberta, through a prosperous mixed farming
country; (b) south to Lethbridge and Macleod. The main line continues eastward
from Calgary to Regina, Winnipeg, Toronto, Ottawa and Montreal.
Nearing the Rockies Westward from Calgary we enter the Canadian
Rockies, which interpose their giant bulk
between the provinces of Alberta and British Columbia. The Rockies
can actually first be seen about sixty miles east of Calgary, but the finest
distant view is that obtained from the roof garden of the Hotel Palliser.
Now we leave the city and the hotel behind.   From Calgary to Banff A  Ranching  Country
The Three Sister£/'HCr%/',',"}       S ''"'''
^u..^H.^l<///'.   »*u>       '*" fPigeonVltrif. ?   ,   ,    ,    ,   ^
^KapariasYis N#\l/&
xshaw ^v' V.. v§ '///>
Scale of Miles
10
The Route from Calgary to Banff
the  railway   climbs   1,100   feet   in NATURE   has   thrown   up   the
eighty miles. The great stretches of Canadian  Rockies  on  so  vast  a
level prairie cease, and the rolling, scale that the human  mind can
grassy foothills succeed, rising tier hardly   grasp  their  greatness,
upon tier to the base of the great except   by   some   comparison,
ranges to which they are the out- The "Dominion," fastest Canadian
posts. There, hung among the clouds Pacific   train,    takes   twenty-
and quivering in the warm summer three hours to  pass from  Coch-
air, sharp as a knife blade, they are rane,   at   the    entrance    to    the
a dramatic sight never to be for- Rockies,    to   Mission,   where   it
gotten. enters the coastal plain.   Two of
the   best   known   railway   routes
The In the lower valleys can across   the   Swiss   Alps   are   the
Foothills     be seen many ranches, St. Gothard and the Simplon.   It
for this is a great stock takes an express train five hours
raising country, and on the higher to travel from Lucerne to Como,
terraces are often to be witnessed or from Lausanne to Arona.
When  Edward  Whymper,  the
the   Canadian   Rockies   as   fifty
Switzerlands in one, this certainly
large   herds  of  cattle  and   sheep.
Jwe 'ong ,transTse valltys °J herorfIhe MTtrerhomfdescribed
this  foothill   country  are  the   old
grooves down which came the
spent glaciers from the higher
mountains. Here, and through was no exaggeration. The
nearly the whole eastern slope of Canadian Rockies stretch from
the Canadian Rockies to the Great the Gap practically to Vancouver
Divide, the railway follows the —virtually six hundred miles of
tumultuous course of the glacial- Alpine scenery,
green  Bow  River—part of one of
the greatest river systems of America, subsequently becoming a tributary of the South Saskatchewan River, which eventually, as the
Saskatchewan River, drains into Lake Winnipeg.
Cochrane      is one of the principal points in the ranching country.
Ascending the  Bow  River from  here,  and  gaining the
top of the first terrace, a full view of the Rockies is at last obtained.
Morley is the modern home of the Stoney Indians, once a very warlike race but now the most industrious of red men. The
foothills are full of Indian lore. The whole district was conceived as
a great giant; thence there are the Knee Hills, the Hand Hills, the
Elbow and the Ghost Rivers, and other names equally picturesque.
Kananaskis Falls, on the Bow River, were named after a mythical
Cree chief, the word meaning "a tall, straight pine with branches near
the top."
Seebe     is the site of two hydro-electric power plants which supply
Calgary with its electrical power.   The lower plant was completed in 1911, the upper one in 1915.    The latter can be seen from Entering  the  Rockies
South Side of Track
Mileage
west of
Calgary
Altitude
above           North Side of Track
sea-level
57.3
Exshaw
4260
Cement mills.
The railway  enters the
mountains  through  a
62.3
Gap
4248
Grotto Mountain (8880
feet).
narrow opening.
A coal mining town.
The Three Sisters (9744
feet).
67.1
Canmore
4296
Fairholme Range. The
railway crosses Cascade
River just before reaching Bankhead.
Mount     Rundle     (9838
feet).
79.6
Bankhead
4583
Coal mining town—now
abandoned.
Headquarters   of   Banff
National Park.
81.9
BANFF
4537
Cascade Mountain (9840
feet).
Sulphur Mountain (8040
feet).
Banff Springs Hotel
the railway. These two plants, with the sub-stations and transmission
lines, represent an investment of about five million dollars. Generators
with a capacity of 31,000 horse power in these power houses, supply a
current of 55,000 volts which is transmitted over two high tension transmission lines to the city of Calgary. A supply of 4,000 horse power at
12,000 volts is also transmitted to the cement mill at Exshaw.
The upper dam consists of a solid concrete structure 600 feet in
length, capable of discharging 40,000 cubic feet of water per second.
A third transmission line to the city of Calgary has been completed
to meet the growing demand for power.
Kananaskis     The district surrounding Kananaskis is rich in  Indian
lore.
Exshaw   has a large Portland cement mill, with an average output
of 4,000 barrels a day.    It draws its supplies of limestone
and shale from the excellent deposits close
to the mill.
The Gap
The Gap Two almost
vertical
walls of dizzy height,
streaked and capped
with snow and ice,
where the mountains
look almost impenetrable, form what is
known as The Gap, by
which the Canadian
Pacific enters the first
real range of the
Rockies. On the north
is the Fairholme
Range, the prominent
peak being Grotto
Mountain, while on
the south is Pigeon
Mountain, Wind
Mountain and the
Three Sisters. The
peaks in the Fairholme mUHMB
Mount Rundle, Vermilion Lake Banff   National   Park
Mount Edith
Range are fantastically broken; the   BANFF NATIONAL PARK, in
ones   onnositp   arp   massi'vp   cnnnr.   ^xrVii^v.    ot-«    oi^-T.^^-^^    i>—or    j
which   are   situated   Banff   and
Lake Louise,  is bounded on the
ones  opposite   are   massive   snow-
laden   promontories,    rising   thou-   -
sands of feet and penetrated by west by the interprovincial
enormous alcoves imprisoning all boundary between Alberta and
the hues of the prism
A Colossal Upheaval
British Columbia, and on the east
by, approximately, the first big
Hundreds of ranges of the Rockies. It has an
thousands area of 2,585 square miles, its
of years ago, in some huge up- greatest length being about one
heaval toward the end of the hundred miles. No part of the
Cretaceous Age, these mountains Rockies exhibits a greater variety
were lifted up; some sections were of sublime and romantic scenery,
thrust high in the air, others and nowhere are good points of
remained almost as level as before, view and features of special in-
Others were tilted more or less terest so accessible, with so many
toward the west, and still others good roads and trails,
bent and crumbled under the tremendous pressure from the sides. We see to-day only the colossal fragments of the original thrusts.
\nrThe PrinciPal mountain ranges of Banff National Park are the
Waputik, Vermilion, Bourgeau, Bow, and Sawback; its principal river
is the Bow. Of the many beautiful lakes within the Park, the principal
ones are Louise, Moraine, Minnewanka, Hector, and Bow.
The Three Sisters    A profile so striking that it is easily distinguishable is formed in the southern range near Canmore
by three companion peaks known as the Three Sisters, the highest
peak reaching a height of 9,744 feet.
In the same neighborhood is a curious group of pillars known as
Hoodoos," some of them ten times as tall as a man and of-sufficiently
hard material to withstand the weatherings that have played havoc
with the surrounding bank.
Cascade Mountain    As we pass Bankhead, the great bulk of Cascade
•■ Mountain  blocks  the  view.     The  pass  narrows
suddenly. On the left, the sharp peak is Mount Rundle, so called in
honor of an early missionary to the Indians. Here we leave the Bow
River for a time and strike up the valley of the Cascade River, directly
in the face of Cascade Mountain, which, apparently but a stone's
throw distant, is really miles away.
(Railway Journey resumed on page 14) Banff
Banff Springs Hotel and Bow Valley
BANFF is the administrative
headquarters of Banff National
Park. The town lies embowered
in fine forests and lawns, in a
pocket of a wide circle of pearly-
grey limestone peaks. Warmed by
clear sunshine and kissed by clear
air, exhilarated by the glacial-
green Bow River that flows
through its centre, Banff is the
summer social centre of the
Canadian Rockies.
The Panorama    From  the station
of Banff a magnificent pan
orama is to be
witnessed. To the north is the
grey bulk of Cascade Mountain,
towering above the town like a
grim old idol. To the east are
Mount Inglismaldie and the heights
of the Fairholme sub-range. Still
farther to the east the sharp cone of
Mount Peechee closes the view in
that direction. To the left of Cascade rises the wooded ridge of Stoney
Squaw. To the west and up the valley are the distant snowy peaks
of the main range above Simpson Pass. To the left is Sulphur Mountain;
to the south-east the isolated wooded bluff of Tunnel Mountain and the
long serrated spine of Mount Rundle.
From the Bow Bridge the view is even more magnificent, for the
river runs through the centre of the picture, and one who has caught
his first glimpse of this picture close to sunset will never forget its breathtaking beauty. From the high elevation of Banff Springs Hotel a
somewhat different view is obtained, looking across the junction of the
Bow with the smaller and darker Spray River to the distant snow-clad
barrier of the Fairholme Range.
Banff Springs Hotel Banff is one of the most popular mountain resorts
on the continent—due not only to its environment but also to the beautifully situated and splendidly appointed
Banff Springs Hotel. It has been characterized as probably the finest
mountain hotel in the world. The entire first floor is given over to
public rooms, artistically decorated and furnished, in which the architect
has provided a Scottish baronial atmosphere. Among the features
are the period suites— the Royal, Georgian, Jacobean, Tudor, Swiss,
Italian and others; the period influence also dominates the lounges, of
which the finest is the Mount Stephen Hall.
At the hotel there is entertainment all the time. One could be perfectly happy just looking out towards the enclosing mountains, watching the swimmers in the warm sulphur-water pool, swimming oneself,
playing tennis, or studying the cosmopolitan types which one meets at
this great caravanserai. 10
Banff
Sightseeing from an open observation car
Hot Springs    Had Banff not become famous for its beauty, it must
have become famous for its hot springs, which are
amongst the most important of this continent. The five chief springs
have a total flow of about a million gallons a day, and issue from the
ground the year round at a temperature of over 90 degrees Fahrenheit.
Excellent swimming in warm sulphur-water is afforded at the Upper
Hot Springs (on Sulphur Mountain), the Cave and Basin Bathhouse,
and at the Banff Springs Hotel. At the Upper Hot Springs, and the
Cave and Basin, the Government has erected handsome swimming pools
and bath houses. Banff Springs Hotel has its own large and beautiful
open-air pool. Here, where the temperatures of the summer air and
the water are delightfully blended, and spring diving-boards offer
opportunity for sport to expert swimmers, the sloping depth of the
bath gives confidence to beginners at the shallow end; while the enclosed
cold fresh-water pool adjacent to the warm bath provides an invigorating
plunge. Expert masseurs are in attendance at the Turkish baths
attached.
The Animal Corral The tourist will find plenty of interest in the
little town of Banff itself, with its churches,
cinemas and shops. On the south side of the fine bridge over the Bow
River are the Administration Offices of the Banff National Park, the
Post Office and Customs Office; also the beautiful Cascade Gardens,
while on the north side are the Museum, Central Park and the Royal
Canadian Mounted Police Headquarters.
The animal corral is 1J^ miles from the town, an immense fenced-in
area where a herd of buffalo, Rocky Mountain sheep, moose, elk and
other kindred of the wild roam at will through the vast forested
pasturage. You can drive into this corral quite close up to the buffalo
and enjoy studying them in these surroundings.
Golf and Tennis An eighteen-hole golf course, superbly located on
the banks of the Bow River and guarded by huge
bastions of rock, turreted and pinnacled like the fortified castle of old,
is open to all visitors to Banff for a small fee. The course has been
constructed by the Canadian Pacific, under the supervision of Stanley
Thompson, and offers one of the finest, most perfectly balanced and
most scenically beautiful courses in the world. An attractive clubhouse, at the first tee, with a "Pro." in attendance, has a supply of
balls, clubs, etc.
For tennis players the hotel has several admirable hard courts, and
because the exquisite summer climate of Banff is very conducive to
both golf and tennis, a large number of people may always be seen
enjoying the games. rmiiiml 12
Banff
ROADS
L
- TRAILS
Scale of Miles
t   T   ?  t   i   t
CANADIAN PACIFIC RY,
Banff and its Vicinity
Recreation Grounds This section of the park, by the Bow River, is
not far from the bridge and can be reached by
a delightful road by the river, or from the Cave and Basin motor road.
There are marquees and picnic facilities, also spaces for baseball,
tennis, football and cricket. The clubhouse of the Banff Gun Club
is not far distant, and here trap shooting competitions are held.
Boating and A few minutes from the bridge is the Bow River
Launch Trips Boathouse. From here motor launches set out on
a 12-mile trip in which the surrounding mountains
are seen from a unique and advantageous point of view. Here, also,
canoes and row boats are obtainable. At Lake Minnewanka also there
are boating and launch facilities.
"Indian Days" "Indian Days" at Banff is one of the most colorful
spectacles on the North American continent. Between
three and four hundred Stoney Indians come from the Morley Reserve,
40 miles east of Banff, for their tribal sports. Each morning they have
a parade in which the majority of the Indians take part, the tribe
all mounted, while many splendid horses are used, resplendent in
gorgeous trappings and headpieces. The costumes of both men and
women are creations of white buckskin, beadwork and ermine, their
color schemes being very attractive.   They ride with dignity and poise. HftlllllEK
auittVfc
Ski-tow at Mount Norquay, near Banff
Photo by L. Harmon 14 Banff
Riding         ■ There are a large num- IN THE various mountain ranges
and Hiking   ber of beautiful trails that    make    up    the    Canadian
and roads leading from Rockies—the Rockies proper, the
Banff, offering delightful rides, drives Selkirks, and the Monashee, Coast,
and   hikes   of   almost   any   desired Cascade   and   Purcell   Ranges—
length. Just three minutes from the there  are,  according  to  Govern-
Banff Springs Hotel is one of the ment measurements, not including
most beautiful spots in Banff, the innumerable mountains that have
Bow Falls; and from here on may not yet been named or measured,
keep on going down a lovely pine- 630 peaks over 6,000 feet above
canopied avenue which leads from sea-level; 308 between 7,000 feet
the Bow Bridge to the foot of the and   10,000   feet;      161   between
falls below the hotel. 10,000 feet and 12,000 feet; 4 over
On the east side of the Bow Falls 12,000 feet,
is the road which runs up to Tunnel Many  of the  principal  moun-
Mountain.    It  affords  splendid tains seen by the traveller from
views of the Bow Valley and the the train or at the most popular
surrounding   mountains.     Another mountain resorts—at and around
beautiful hike is past the Cave and Banff, Lake Louise, Moraine Lake,
Basin to Sundance  Canyon.    Sul- Lake    O'Hara,    Field,    Emerald
phur   Mountain,   a   long   wooded Lake,    and    the    Yoho    Valley,
ridge, at the summit of which is an etc.—average    a    height    above
observatory,   and  on  the  slopes of the floor of the valleys at their
which is the clubhouse of the Alpine base of almost a mile.
Club  of  Canada;   Cascade  Mountain, a massive   giant   facing the station; Mount Rundle, the sharp
pointed edge of which forms one of the most striking features of the
landscape—Mount Norquay and Stoney Squaw—are all within easy
hiking distance, and afford climbs not exceeding one day.
Motoring      Many of the hiking trips mentioned may be taken by
saddle-pony  or  automobile,   and  in  addition  there  are
scores of other trips too lengthy for the ordinary hiker.
A short motor run of eight miles brings you to the shores of Lake
Minnewanka, a beautiful sheet of steel-blue sheen where you can catch
huge lake trout. A well-graded road leads out from Banff westward
for sixteen miles up the Bow Valley to Johnston Canyon, where a series
of waterfalls, ending in a final foaming cascade, is most attractive. This
road continues to Lake Louise, Yoho, Field, Emerald Lake and Golden.
A short motor trip can be taken from Banff up Stoney Squaw Mountain to the Mount Norquay Ski Area,where the Dominion and Provincial
Ski Championships have been held.
(See also Banff-Winder mere Road, page 15)
Trail Trips Numerous as are the motor drives about Banff, beautiful
as are the spots reached by car, there are many places
which can only be approached by trail that rank amongst the most
attractive playgrounds of the Rockies. There are over 960 miles of
good trails in Banff National Park, many of which radiate from Banff.
With guides and ponies the visitor may find his way to Shadow Lake at
the foot of majestic Mount Ball, in the heart of the Sawback Range, to
Ghost River, and through the Indian Reservation to the town of
Morley, and other magic places.
Mount Assiniboine A particularly fine pony trip from Banff, and
one on which a week can be profitably spent,
is that to Mount Assiniboine—the "Matterhorn of the Rockies." This
can be reached over the spectacular trail by way of Brewster Creek,
and the return made by traversing the beautiful summit country in the
vicinity of the mountain, through the heather and flowers of Simpson
Pass and down Healy Creek. The route has been well established, with
overnight accommodation at convenient points en route, while camp
facilities are available at Mount Assiniboine Lodge, at the foot of the
mountain.
Winter Sports      Banff is an important centre for winter sports.    The
Annual Winter Sports Carnival in February attracts
large  crowds.     Skiing,   tobogganing,   skating,   and   bob-sledding  are
amongst the attractions. B an f f - Wi n d er m e r e   Road
15
Seen from The Banff-Windermere Road
Banff-Windermere Of great interest
Road to   automobile
enthusiasts is the
Banff-Windermere automobile road
across the Canadian Rockies. This
spectacular journey through a hundred miles of the most magnificent mountain scenery in America,
can be commenced at either Banff or
KOOTENAY National Park
(area 587 square miles) lies
between the southern portions
of Banff and Yoho Parks, and
comprises the Vermilion, Mitchell
and Briscoe Ranges. The Kootenay River flows through its
southern part, with a large tributary in the Vermilion.    At the
the eastern bank of the Columbia
River a little below Lake Windermere. The Banff-Windermere
Road traverses the centre of this
park.
Lake Louise, the road being at first   southwest end it almost touches
that    which   connects   those   two
points.     At   Castle   Mountain   it
crosses the Bow River, turns south
past where it crosses the Vermilion
Pass (altitude 5,416 feet).    Here it
enters  Kootenay   Park.    From
Marble   Canyon   (about  9  miles  from  the  summit  of  the  pass),  a
remarkable fissure three hundred feet deep, there is a trail to the curious
Ochre beds.
The road then follows the Vermilion River to its junction with the
Kootenay River. Crossing the Kootenay, it leads through a beautiful
avenue of virgin forest, and, ascending the Sinclair Pass between the
Briscoe and Stanford Ranges, reaches Radium Hot Springs, long
famous for their therapeutic qualities; where the Canadian Government
operates a fine swimming pool. Emerging through the gap of Sinclair
Canyon it meets the Columbia River and—nine miles beyond—the
beautiful Lake Windermere.
Radium This drive has been rendered even more delightful
Hot Springs by the construction of a rustic lodge at Radium
Lodge Hot Springs, perched above the road so as to com
mand a wonderful view of the Purcell Range
through the Canyon Gap. Lake Windermere can be reached also by
railway from Golden. (See page 35). The journey can be continued
along the east side of Lake Windermere and the Kootenay River,
through Canal Flats to Cranbrook. There the road connects with
other highways leading south across the international boundary, thus
forming the last link in the "Grand Circle Tour" to California.
Excursions are available from both Banff and Lake Louise during
the summer months for this trip to Lake Windermere—including the
3-day "Lariat Trail" to Radium Hot Springs and thence back over
the Columbia River Highway to Golden and the Kicking Horse Trail. 16
Castle   Mountain
South Side of Track
Mileage
west of
Calgary
Altitude
above North Side of Track
sea-level
Following along the Bow
River. 81.9
Bourgeau   Range   (9520
feet).
BANFF
4537
Sawback
Massive
4549
99.0   Castle Mountain   4676
Mount   Bourgeau   (9615    88.0
feet).
Mount Massive (7990
feet).
Mount Brett (9790 feet).
Pilot Mountain (9690 92.9
feet). Rustic bridge leading to Redearth Creek.
Mount Ball (10865 feet)
at some distance.
Copper Mountain (9170
feet).
Storm Mountain (10372
feet) and Vermilion Pass.
Motor Road to Lake
Windermere.
A glimpse of Mount Bi- 1Q6.5 Eldon 4828
dent (10119 feet) through
gap in the peaks.
A fine view of the great 110.6 Temple 4924
peaks in the Valley of
the Ten Peaks. Delta-
form (11235 feet) being
conspicuous.
Mount Temple (11636
eet).
Chateau Lake Louise is 116.6      LAKE LOUISE     5050
3    miles   from   station.
Moraine Lake Lodge is 9 Chateau Lake Louise 5680
miles from the Chateau.
Mount Edith (8380 feet)
is the  pointed spire-like
peak.
Mount Cory (9194 feet).
Mount Ishbel (9440 feet).
Sawback   Range   (10000
feet).
4592 Castle Mountain (9390
feet). The line follows
the base of this mountain for several miles.
Slate Mountains.
Trail to the Ptarmigan
country, with its magnificent Alpine flower-
gardens.
Leaving Banff Between Banff and Lake Louise, some magnificent
views of the surrounding mountains are to be obtained, and for quite a considerable way the railway follows the course
of the Bow River, first skirting the Vermilion Lakes. Visible also for
part of the way is the motor road from Banff to Lake Louise and
Golden. Of the many mountains on the north side of the track, Hole-
in-the-Wall Mountain is interesting in that it has a cavern which has
been used as a meeting place for the Masonic Lodge at Banff. Johnston
Canyon, on the north, is a beautiful spot that one visits from Banff.
To the north, also, is the bare, rugged and sharply serrated subrange known as the Sawback. The Slate Mountains, which appear in
the foreground at Lake Louise, are a spur from this range. Far to
the south are the snowy peaks that enclose Simpson Pass; one of them
is Pilot Mountain, whose easily identified head makes it a landmark
visible from either end of the Bow Valley.
Castle Mountain Castle Mountain is a sheer precipice of over 4,000
feet above the valley floor, named for its resemblance to a giant mediaeval keep. Turrets, bastions and battlements
can easily be distinguished. The mountain is eight miles long, and its
highest point is 9,390 feet above sea-level. Back in the eighties there
was a mining camp at its base, brought thither by a brief boom; and
during the Great War a large internment camp was here.
Just beyond Castle Mountain station the Banff-Windermere Road
turns south, crosses the river, and heads away over Vermilion Pass to
Lake Windermere. (See page 15). Facing it is the magnificent peak
of Storm Mountain; farther east is the snowy dome of Mount Ball. Z=Kr##v£
The winding Bow River 18
Lake   Louise
The Route from Banff to Lake Louise
Mount Temple From Eldon a wonderful array of peaks is presented.
There is a brief but fine view of the Valley of the Ten
Peaks, with the triangular-shaped Mount Deltaform standing out conspicuously. (See page 21). Loftiest and grandest of all towers is Temple
Mountain. This great snowbound mountain, whose crest exhibits
precipitous walls of ice, flashing blue in the sunlight, is the most conspicuous and admirable feature of the wonderful valley.
Lake Louise     Lake Louise, formerly called Laggan, has a charming
rustic   station   building.     The   famous   lake   and   the
equally famous Chateau are invisible from the station, as they are some
3 miles distant.    To reach them we must ascend another 630 feet,
which we do by motor bus or private automobile.   This trip is through
a deep forest, with the sky a narrow strip above the tall tree-tops;
and turning a shoulder of the mountain, across a rushing mountain
torrent, we come suddenly into full view of the lake.
(Railway Journey
resumed on page 23)
The Chateau On t h e
margi n
of this most perfect lake,
in a wonderful Alpine
flower garden where
poppies, violets, columbines and anemones
slope through terraced
lawns to the water's edge
—the Canadian Pacific
has placed its great
Chateau Lake Louise
(altitude 5,680 feet).
This has been repeatedly
enlarged to meet the demands of an ever-in-
creasing stream of
tourists, until today a
fireproof modern and
luxurious hotel with accommodation for seven
hundred guests now
stands there (open summer months).
Johnston Canyon, near Banff Lake   Louise
19
Chateau Lake Louise
Across the front of the hotel extends a vast lounge that commands
an uninterrupted view of the Lake
through beautiful single-pane
windows of enormous size. The
dining room, in the right wing, has
the same wonderful windows and
view. From the ballroom in the
left wing the lake may be seen
through the arches of the cloistered
terrace.
The Chateau has many attractions. Two fine hard tennis courts
are attached to the hotel, and a
boathouse supplies rowing boats
to the many who cannot resist the
magnetism of the clear blue water.
Below the dining room and overlooking the lake is an attractively
terraced concrete swimming pool
filled with heated glacial water and
with an instructor in attendance.
LAKE LOUISE—probably the
most perfect gem of scenery in the
known world—bears the liquid
music, the soft color notes of its
name, almost into the realm of the
visible. It is a dramatic palette
upon which the Great Artist has
splashed His most gorgeous hues, a
wonderful spectrum of color.
Deepest and most exquisitely colored is the lake itself, sweeping
from rosy dawn to sunset through
green, blue, amethyst and violet,
undershot by gold; dazzling white
is the sun-glorified Victoria Glacier
at the farther end; sombre are the
enclosing spruce-clad peaks that
dip perpendicularly into the lake;
and magnificent are the stark immensities of the snow-covered peaks
that enclose the picture except
for the fleecy blue sky overhead.
A Circle of Peaks The peaks that surround Lake Louise form such a
magnificent background that many visitors ask
nothing better than to sit on the hotel verandah watching the marvellous kaleidoscope of beauty and color that they present. From left
to right they are:—Saddle, Fairview, Lefroy, Victoria, Popes Peak,
Whyte, the Devil's Thumb, Big Beehive, Niblock, St. Piran, and Little
Beehive. At the far end of the lake, catching for the greater part of
the day the full glory of the sun, their snowfields standing out in dazzling
whiteness, are the glaciers that drop down from Mount Victoria and the
lofty ice-crowned head of Mount Lefroy.
Along the westerly shores of Lake Louise a delightful mile-and-a-half
hike by a level trail affords splendid views of further peaks—Mount
Haddo, Aberdeen and The Mitre. 20 Lake   Louise
Moraine Another pearl of the IT IS difficult to imagine anything
Lake Rockies is Moraine more fascinating than to start out
Lake, 9 miles from Lake hi the early morning, stepping in
Louise at the end of one of the half an hour from the perfect civil-
finest short motor rides in the moun- Nation of a luxurious hotel into
tains. This lovely mountain lake, the Primitive glory of cliff and
exquisitely blue-green in color, lies crag winding waterway and frozen
in the Vallev of the Ten Peaks— grandeur, to spend the day among
in the Valley ot the  len reaks.      the mountains>    with a blue sky
a  tremendous  and  majestic  semi- overhead)  the  air  soft with  the
circle that with jagged profile en- sweet resinous spiCe of the forest,
circles the eastern and southern end and an cares ieft far behind, one
of   the   lake.     Not   one   of   these sees only beautiful  sights,  hears
peaks  is  less  than   10,000  feet   in only wonderful sounds, and for a
height—the   highest,   Mount   Del- whole long day lives close to the
taform, is 11,235 feet.   Standing off very heart of Nature in her most
a little, as a sort of outpost, is the splendid mood.
Tower of Babel, an interesting peak The Canadian Rockies present
formation of unusual shape. to  the mountain climber one of
Beside the lake is Moraine Lake the most extensive and interesting
Lodge an admirable centre for trail fields  of anyeasily accessible
. , s          11-1             i          • i ranges of the  world.     Noted
riders   and   hikers^  who   wish   to climbers make their way thither
explore the valleys surroundings, from all parts of the world. There
and for mountaineers who aspire to are easy climbs, too, for the novice
the peaks. The lodge has central to graduate from—on some, in-
community building and cottages deed, he or she can ride or hike
with accommodation for fourteen good trails almost to the summit,
guests.    An attractive excursion is
to the Consolation Lakes, within easy reach of the Lodge and a good
place for trout fishing.
Lakes in the Clouds      One of the finest and most popular excursions,
either by hiking or on a sure-footed mountain
pony, is to the Lakes in the Clouds, nestling a thousand feet and more
higher up in the mountain ranges.
The trail, leaving the west end of Chateau Lake Louise, rises through
spruce and fir forests to Mirror Lake, thence upward to Lake Agnes.
These lakes are good examples of "cirque" lakes—deep, steep-walled
recesses caused by glacial erosion. The view from the edge of Lake
Agnes—where a charming little rest and tea house has been established—
is magnificent.
Plain of the Besides the mighty tongue of the Victoria Glacier,
Six Glaciers many smaller glaciers descend into the cirque, and on
the right side of the cirque is the Plain of the Six Glaciers,
where a spacious tea-house with broad verandahs has been placed at the
head as an excellent resting place. The Plain can be reached by trail
from the Lake Agnes tea-house or directly from the Chateau.
Saddleback Another excellent hiking or pony excursion is to Saddleback. Crossing the bridge over Lake Louise creek, the
trail rises rapidly on the slopes of Mount Fairview, between that mountain and Saddleback. The view of Paradise Valley and Mount Temple
from this point is one of the finest in the Rockies.
Paradise Valley Between Moraine Lake and Lake Louise lies Paradise Valley, carpeted with Alpine flowers. Great
peaks rise around it like citadel walls. The valley can be reached
from the Saddleback down a steep zig-zag trail to Lake Annette and
continued across the valley to the "Giant Steps". From the Giant
Steps a trail leads across the valley to Sentinel Pass, whence descent
can be made through Larch Valley to Moraine Lake.
Easy Climbs Lake Louise is one of the recognized mountain climbing centres of the Rockies, and has many good climbs
both for the novice and the experienced Alpinist. Some short and
easy climbs will be found in the Beehive, Mount St. Piran, Saddle
Mountain and Mount Fairview.  22
Lake   Louise
Lake Louise and its Vicinity
For the expert Alpinist there are plenty of climbs around Lake
Louise that will provide him with sufficient opportunity to use his
skill. Swiss guides are attached to the Chateau Lake Louise for those
who wish to visit the glaciers, climb mountains, or make some of the
more strenuous trips through the passes.
Abbot Pass       From the Victoria Glacier there is a fine climb over
Abbot   Pass,   between   Mounts  Victoria   and   Lefroy,
descending to Lake O'Hara (see page 24).    This should not, however,
be attempted by the novice, unless accompanied by skilled guides.
Trail Trips Lake Louise is a good starting point for riding and
camping trips over the trails maintained by the National
Parks Department through the magnificent Alpine country of this
region of the Great Divide. The Ptarmigan Valley, Hector Lake, Bow
Lake, the Molar Pass, the Skoki Valley, Baker Creek are but a few
suggestions. The Pipestone Valley, some nineteen miles from the
Chateau, is a splendid camping trip ending at an Alpine meadow amid
high glacial surroundings of spectacular grandeur and beauty. It
affords some good trout fishing.
Motoring      Visitors to Lake Louise will find a number of very attractive   motor   excursions   available.   Besides   the   one   to
Moraine Lake mentioned above, there is the drive to Banff.   The road The   Kicking   Horse   Pass
23
South Side of Track
Mileage
west of
Calgary
Altitude
above
sea-level
North Side of Track
Mount  St.   Piran   (8691 116.6     LAKE LOUISE     5050
feet).
This is the highesteleva- 122.2 The Great Divide 5338
tion reached by the railway, the boundary between Alberta and British
Columbia and the watershed.     (See page 24).
We are now in Yoho Na- 122.2 Stephen
tional Park.
Mount    Niblock    (9764
feet).
Cataract Creek and trail 125.0 Hector
to  Lake  O'Hara  Lodge
8 miles.
5337
5219
Cathedral Crags (10081
feet).
Wapta Lodge
Ptarmigan   Peak   (10070
feet) and Mount Hector
(11135 feet).    Cross Bow
River  and   follow   Bath
Creek.
Waputik     Peak     (8977
feet).
Mount Bosworth (9093
feet), Mount Daly (10342
feet).
Lake Wapta Lodge on
north side of the Lake.
Paget Peak (8417 feet).
Kicking Horse River
rises in Lake Wapta.
We enter Kicking Horse
Pass.
Lake Louise (concluded)
from Banff to Lake Louise has been continued to Field, Emerald Lake
and Golden. This leads west on a high line to the Great Divide and,
crossing the tracks near Lake Wapta Lodge at Hector, follows the
Kicking Horse River. It is a spectacular ride and links up with established roads in Yoho National Park. A new motor road has been constructed running north from Lake Louise by way of Bow Lake to the
Columbia Icefield, the largest body of ice south of the Arctic Circle,
estimated at 150 square miles. This Columbia Icefield Highway is
spectacularly scenic. There's variety at every turn—winding around
mountains, skirting lakes and rivers, and over high passes on the crest
of the world.
Kicking Horse Pass The twenty-mile rail journey between Lake
Louise and Field, with its vivid and startling
realization of the elevations reached, of the grades necessitated, and of
the engineering difficulties encountered and overcome, leaves one
breathless and amazed, full of admiration for the master minds which
conceived and carried through the construction of this transcontinental
railway.
Between the Great Divide and Field, a distance of fourteen miles,
the railway descends nearly a quarter-mile through the Kicking Horse
Pass.    The gradient through the pass is a particularly difficult one.
;|g|ff||lllls
Lake Wapta Lodge 24
Wapta   and   O'Hara
Lake O'Hara Lodge
Lodges are located at several
points in the Canadian Rockies,
both to supplement the capacity
of the hotels and also to provide
accommodation of a somewhat
different kind. These lodges
make a special appeal to the
climber, the trail rider or the hiker;
they are, on the whole less formal
than the hotels. The accommodation provided consists of a large
central building, serving as the
dining and community house, and
of   separate   sleeping   bungalows
established at Lake Wapta, Lake
O'Hara, Yoho Valley, Moraine
Lake, and Radium Hot Springs.
The Great    Six miles west of Lake
Divide Louise    and    fourteen
miles east of Field is
at once the highest elevation of
the Canadian Pacific Railway, the
boundary between Alberta and
British Columbia, and the backbone of the continent. It is
marked by an arch spanning a
stream under which the water
divides. The waters that flow to
the east eventually reach Hudson's
Bay and the Atlantic Ocean; the
rivulet that runs to the west joins
the Kicking Horse River and adds its of various sizes,
mite to the volume of the Pacific by These lodges are now
way of the great Columbia River.
On the left is the granite shaft
erected to the memory of Sir James
Hector, the discoverer of the Kicking Horse Pass, which permits the Canadian Pacific Railway to cross
the Rockies. The pass owes its name to an incident of exploration
days, in which a "kicking horse" which lashed out with its legs at one
of the explorers figured literally.
Lake Wapta     Just west of the Great Divide is Lake Wapta.    Like
Lodge most of the lakes in the Canadian Rockies its color is an
indescribable green. On its shore, across from Hector
station and on the motor road, is Lake Wapta Lodge, with its community
house and log cabins, which can accommodate 50 guests. From the
Lodge you can see stem Mount Stephen, Victoria with her gleaming
opalescent scarf of snow and ice, Narao and Cathedral crags. There is
good trout fishing in the lake. Seven miles farther will take you to Sherbrooke Lake, where there is also fishing. The trail continues on to
Niles Pass and Daly Glacier. In another direction is Ross Lake hidden
between Niblock and Narao.
Lake O'Hara Lake O'Hara lies seven miles south of Wapta, and can
be reached by a splendid trail. Lake O'Hara Lodge
stands on the edge of the Lake. The Lodge consists of a central building,
on the Swiss Chalet style, and a group of log cabins, which together
accommodate 36. The Lake is well stocked with trout. This is a
good centre from which to visit Lake McArthur, Lake Oesa, and the
Opabin Pass. X3ifffff/£
Mount Stephen, from tunnel 26
The   Spiral   Tunnels
South Side of Track
Mileage
west of
Calgary
Altitude
above
sea-level
North Side of Track
Enter first of the famous
Spiral Tunnels (See below). Cathedral Mountain (10464 feel).
Lake Wapta Lodge
129
8
Yoho
4758
Between the two  Spiral
Tunnels   a   view   is   obtained of the celebrated
Yoho Valley.
Enter    Second    Tunnel.
Mount      Ogden      (8805
feet).
132
Mount   Stephen   (10495
feet).
Monarch   Silver   Mines
on slopes.
136
4
.6
Cathedral
FIELD
4495
4501
Mount Field (8655 feet).
Mount Burgess (8473
feet).
Emerald Lake Chalet
Yoho Valley Lodge
The Spiral Tunnels Formerly the section between the Great Divide
and Field was a difficult one, the gradient being
4.5 per cent; but by two wonderful tunnels—one of the most notable
engineering feats in existence—this difficulty has now been eliminated,
and the grade reduced to 2.2 per cent. These tunnels are the famous
"Spiral Tunnels." From the east, the track enters the first tunnel
under Cathedral Mountain, 3,255 feet in length; and after turning
almost a circle and passing under itself emerges into daylight 48 feet
lower.
The track then turns easterly, and crossing the river enters the
second tunnel, 2,922 feet long, under Mount Ogden. Again turning
part of another circle and passing under itself, it comes out 45 feet
lower and continues westward to Field. The whole thing is a perfect
maze, the railway doubling back upon itself twice and forming a rough
figure "8" in
shape. If the
train is run in
two sections,
passengers are
able to see the
other section at
a hieher or lower
level (according
to which one
they happen to
be in) making its
way down the
big grade.
The Yoho    The
Valley        Yoho
Valley,
one of the most
beautiful in the
entire Rockies,
runs into the
Kicking Horse
Valley from the
north at roughly
right angles. A
distant view
can be obtained
Field—The Spiral Tunnels E m e r a 1 d   Lake
27
Yoho Pk.§%
Isolated Pk.
"*#   -.
Whaleback $,£-. iTi?
Mt^Pollinger   »Fa//'
PRESIDENT^
The     jpH f|
President>./'   f',NThe Vice
**»*, ^      President
V    RANGE  ,.
Mt. Marpole *e
Mt. Gordon^
<f u *'Mt. Collie
<,% Mt. Gordon*^ \
M  * 2f ^Mt. Olive    M   w
*#"•
Molar Mtn.
TEA HOUSE
* rttrguotse L«z|
Mt. Balfour
^TrolltinderV
Mt. ^
B   A
\ N   A   T
jaughxng Falls
Mt. Daly#j%
Mt. Niles,        \
«v, Takakkaw'Falls\
®\ Yoho Valley V
.MtJ  Lodge V
ichVkiP"'
Mt. Hector^! ■
n\\f f
i q))n a l
P   A^
Emerald^Rk.
EV£SpkD A\P¥^ 'Mt- WaPta
N A T I 0\N A L<   rM,#
Mt.^   J        oVSs
Burgess  f      J£^%,^
TUNNELS
Mt.Stephen
TIELD
A R
Cathedral I
L'\Agnesi
"*=K Whyte
TEA HOUSE •^"'
pMt.Victqria ^ Mt.
Mt.Odaray.—   ' lLM!     3^lp,«-    Th>^erdee^
J%    f \\.Huberft *hut„     The Mitre
Mt.Duc'hesnayv ^S^8*/*   /       Mt.TempleC?
Yukpe^s/ Mt.
**   wHungabee^Eiffe|
*3^v         y          ^t       //          Mf r;hhi»W       ^Wenkchemna Pk.
fottertail       ^ X *""*       |f Mt.Biddle ^	
^NATU^gAt   BRIDGE^?
Mt.Dennis_
^e.
*w</
»ROADS
= TRAILS
Scale of Miles
2       3       4
■ CANADIAN PACIFIC RY.
JL
Yoho National Park
from the high elevation of the track between the two tunnels. The
valley can be reached from Lake Wapta Lodge by road; or also from
Field.   A popular Lodge is situated at Takakkaw Falls.    (See page 31).
Field Towering six thousand feet higher than the little town of Field
is lofty Mount Stephen (10,495 feet), at the base of which
roars the turbulent Kicking Horse River on its way to join the mighty
Columbia. Field is a railway divisional point between the Alberta and
British Columbia districts of the Canadian Pacific; and here time
changes from Mountain Time to Pacific Time, the latter being an hour
slower.
(Railway Journey resumed on page 34)
To Emerald Lake All the points in Yoho National Park at which
accommodation is provided for visitors are linked
up, either by road or good trail; and therefore Emerald Lake is not
only of itself one of the most popular centres, but also the axis for
excursions to other places. From Field it is seven miles out by motor
to Emerald Lake, by a fine road through the hush of a scented pine-
forest. Soon you reach Natural Bridge—an ineffective effort on the
part of nature to curb the foaming passage of the Kicking Horse by
choking the river bed with huge boulders. The road becomes Snowpeak Avenue—because at either end of its straight cathedral-stiff
avenue can be seen a towering snow-capped mountain. 28
Emerald   Lake
Emerald Lake Chalet
The superb green of Emerald YOHO PARK (area 507 square
Lake is almost beyond Nature's miles) immediately adjoins Banff
achievement in any other lake in
the Rockies. Tall pines crowd to
the water's edge to see their perfect reflection, and to see inverted
in the emerald mirror the snowy
giants that surround it. Burgess
looms at one end of the lake,
while more distant are Wapta,
Michael, President, Carnarvon and
Emerald.
The Chalet
National Park on the west, and
lies, broadly speaking, on the descending slopes of the Rockies,
with the President and Van Home
ranges as its western boundary.
It is a region of charm and winsome beauty, of giant mountains
and deep forests, of rushing rivers
and sapphire-like lakes. Its principal river is the Kicking Horse,
with the Ottertail and Yoho as
main tributaries; its chief lakes are
Emerald, Wapta, McArthur,
O'Hara    and    Sherbrooke.    The
Emerald Lake Chalet
is   built   of   great
squared timbers fortress-like in their   Canadian Pacific runs through the
solidity, surrounded by rustic design   middle of Yoho Park, following the
bungalows.     The  settlement  now   Kicking Horse River,
consists of three units—the original
Chalet, the clubhouse, and the bungalows. The Chalet, recently
enlarged, is along Swiss Chalet lines, with deep overhanging balconies.
The clubhouse is what its name implies; it is an especial favorite at
nights, either the verandah, with its magnificent sunset and moonlight
views, or indoors, where a good floor for dancing, comfortable chairs
for lounging, card-tables, a library and a great log fire provide entertainment for all.
The bungalows are of various sizes, most daintily and comfortably
furnished, with hot and cold running water, bathrooms, stoves and
good sized cupboards. All of them have their individual verandahs, and
the larger ones are "en suite" with connecting doors.
Many Excursions Emerald Lake has a fair supply of trout, and its
vicinity affords many charming excursions on
foot or by trail. There is a good trail all around the Lake, which is the
shortest four-and-a-half miles you've ever walked, and perhaps the
loveliest, and another to Hamilton Falls and Hamilton Lake. A boat-
house provides skiffs for water excursions. ifiiiifiiiiiiiifiiiiiriiiMfrfffsiriHiiiiifiiifiriiiiiiiiiiiafiiiiiiiiif
fnniRlninQinni Cascade
Mountain,
the
Bow River,
and Banff
§  -
Etm^iiiLUaULliiililUg The   Yoho   Valley
31
Yoho Valley Lodge
Yoho Fass One of the finest trail trips from Emerald Lake, on
the back of a sturdy sure-footed mountain pony, is
to the Summit—the pass leading into the Yoho Valley. The return
journey can be made in four hours afoot or by pony, but many people
prefer to make it an all-day affair. Following the road to the end of
the Lake, you begin to climb up an eighteen-hundred-foot treeless cliff,
while more and more of the world spreads out beneath you, and Emerald
Lake far below grows smaller and greener.
A last stiff pull and you are over the top, cantering gaily through
a cool moist forest, and then Yoho Lake, green like Emerald, but not
so large, flashes in the clearing.
From Yoho Pass there is a good trail leading down to the Yoho
Valley, coming out near the Lodge. The view from the top is a magnificent one of wide vistas, with Takakkaw Falls on the far side of the
valley.
Yoho Valley The Yoho Valley can be reached also direct from
Field, by a good motor road (11 miles) that follows
the Kicking Horse River and then turns at the Yoho River, near the
entrance of the valley at Mount Field, round which it swings, and up
the valley until some precipitous, cliffs are reached. The pine forest
gives a welcome shade and fragrance, and, as the way winds up the
cliffs to a higher level, the Yoho torrent foaming below shrinks with
distance. Up these it zigzags to a still higher level, ending a short
distance past the Takakkaw Falls. Takakkaw, the stream that comes
down from the Daly Glacier, is 1,200 feet high.
Yoho Valley Lodge The Lodge, with accommodation for 35 people,
is situated in a meadow within sight and sound
of Takakkaw Falls. It is an ideal place for hikers and riders; and
like the other lodges of the region, consists of a central clubhouse
with separate sleeping bungalows, with or without bath, toilet, etc.
Upper Valley The Yoho Valley is one of the most beautiful in the
entire Rockies. From the Lodge a fine trail winds
into the upper part of the valley, past Laughing Falls and the Twin
Falls (two vast columns of water that drop almost perpendicularly),
to the Yoho and President Glaciers and the Waputik Icefield. The
Yoho Glacier is one of the most interesting in the Canadian Rockies,
and is highly picturesque.
(Continued on page 34) Banff Springs Hotel and Golf Course
© A.S.N 34
The   Yoho   Valley
South Side of Track
Mileage
west of
Field
Altitude
above
sea-level
0.0
FIELD
4075
4.1
Emerald
3899
8.2
Ottertail
3703
17.0
Leanchoil
3674
North Side of Track
Mount Stephen (10495
feet) and Mount Dennis
(8336 feet).
Ottertail River is crossed.
Mount Hurd (9275 feet).
The railway, which runs
almost north and south
between here and Field,
turns west. Note valley
of the Beaverfoot.
Beaverfoot Range.
The Kicking Horse River
enters the Columbia, the
wide valley of which is
seen to the south.
Branch to Lake Windermere and Cranbrook.
(See Page 35).
22.5
27.8
35.0
Palliser
Glenogle
GOLDEN
From Field to Golden
we follow the canyon of
the Kicking Horse River.
Fine view of President
Range looking back
north.
Van Home Range—
Mount King (9466 feet).
Two miles west of Leanchoil we pass western
boundary of Yoho Park.
Looking eastward, there
is a very striking view
of Mount Chancellor
(10761 feet).
3288 Slopes of Mount Hunter
(8662 feet).
3009 From the train we have
a very fine view of the
"Kicking Horse Trail"
—a spectacular motor
road from Emerald
Lake to Golden.
2583    Western end of Rockies.
The Yoho Valley (Continued)
The High Trail You can return by the "High Trail," mounting
through Alpine meadows, carpeted with purple and
white bryanthus, till you come out of the scent of wild flowers and
balsam high over Yoho Valley. Across the valley, the great Waputik
Icefield and Takakkaw Falls glisten in the sun and you can pick out
in that clear air the faint black of the Canadian Pacific track going
into the Spiral Tunnels beyond the Kicking Horse River. Soon you
reach Yoho Lake.
Burgess Pass Or from Yoho Lake you can turn in another direction, round on to Burgess Pass, altitude 7,160 feet.
It is a wonderful journey. The great crags of Wapta flaunt up to the
left, and to the right, at every step, there appear higher up new visions
of the President Range. The guide can point out to you the way to
the now well-known Burgess Pass Fossil Quarry, which was discovered
by Dr. Walcott in 1910.   Descent to Field can be made from the Pass.
Main Line Journey Resumed
Kicking Horse Canyon Resuming our journey westward from Field,
the route for some 35 miles is parallel to the
turbulent Kicking Horse River. The railway begins to descend steadily,
until at Golden it is nearly 1,500 feet lower. The narrow valley of the
Kicking Horse divides the Ottertail Range on the south from the
Van Home Range on the north, and a vivid contrast in mountain
formation is evident between the two ranges. One mile west of Emerald,
Mount Goodsir (11,686 feet) can be seen on the south, while on the
north we get a fine glimpse of the President Range. Kicking   Horse   Canyon
35
The Route from Field to Golden
Leaving Yoho Park On the south A TRAIL TRIP into the depths
Mounts Vaux of the mountains forms the most
and Chancellor are seen, the glacier enjoyable way of visiting beautiful
on the former plainly visible, spots that would not otherwise be
Mount Chancellor (10,761 feet) is easily accessible,
one of the giant peaks of the Otter- The mountain pony, mountain-
tail Range. At the base of Mount bred, fool-proof, untiring, can be
Hunter the river turns abruptly ridden by practically anyone,
and plunges into the lower Kicking whether he or she has ever before
Horse Canyon. been on a horse or not. From
The canyon rapidly deepens until, a11 Canadian Pacific hotels and
beyond Palliser, the mountain mountain lodges, there are good
sides become vertical. The roar of
the river as it rushes from side to
roads and trails radiating in all
directions, which are kept up by
the National Parks Department,
side   of    the    narrow    gorge,    the   Some trail trips are of one day>s
thunder of the train as it follows the   duration only; others stretch over
river—pandemonium    increased    a   several days.    Several circle trail
thousandfold by the reverberations  rides are arranged for visitors' con-
of  the  canyon   walls—give  an   in-   venience.
describable sensation until at Golden
we suddenly reach daylight again and the noisy, turbulent Kicking
Horse is received into the calm bosom of the mighty Columbia.
For most of the way, you can see from the train the spectacular
"Kicking Horse Trail" motor road.   At many points it is considerably
above the level of the railway, winding its way around the cliffs.
Golden       is  an  interesting  town  with  large  lumbering  and  mining
interests, commanding the trade of the fertile Windermere
Valley to the south.'
(Transcontinental Journey resumed on page 36)
To Lake Windermere
From Golden this branch line runs south through the fertile Columbia
Valley, touching for a considerable part of the journey the beautiful
Lake Windermere, and joining the Crowsnest Line at Colvalli.
From Golden we travel past many new settlements, from the clearings of which smoke is sometimes still rising, until we reach Spillimacheen, where there is a wonderful view of the Purcell Range. The
Banff-Windermere Highway (see page 15) joins the  Columbia  River 36
Lake   Windermere
Branch Line to Columbia Valley
and Crowsnest Pass
Mileage
south of
Golden
Altitude
above
sea-level
0.0
GOLDEN
2583
Connecting east or west.
41.1
For Radium Hot Springs
Lodge.                                     65.3
Spillimacheen
Radium
2590
2606
73.9
LAKE
WINDERMERE
2615
143.7
Fort Steele
2510
157.7
Bull River
2462
166.7
194.5
Colvalli
CRANBROOK
2653
3013
Connecting east to Calgary or west to Nelson.
Highway near Radium Hot Springs, about 60 miles from Golden. The
scenery of this valley is splendid, and the canyons and creeks on either
side furnish excellent sport. On the left is the slope of the Rockies; on
the right, the panorama of the Purcell Range.
Lake Windermere is a popular centre for excursions into the beautiful
surrounding country. One of the most delightful
warm water lakes in British Columbia, it is the starting point for excursions up Toby Creek and Horse Thief Creek to the great icefields of the
Purcells, notably the Lake of the Hanging Glaciers. There are curative
hot springs at Radium and Fairmont. Bathing, riding, boating, fishing and motoring can be enjoyed on the shores of this lake, and Alpine
climbers can make expeditions into the Purcells. There is good trout
fishing in nearby creeks and some of the smaller lakes.
Lake Windermere was discovered by the famous explorer, David
Thompson, in 1807; and a memorial fort, reproducing his stockaded
post, has been built. A memorial tablet to the first fort built here by
David Thompson has been erected a little north of the bridge across
Toby Creek.
Fort Steele     has grown up to meet the needs of the ranching and
fruit-growing  districts  surrounding  it.     Lead,   copper,
silver, gold and iron are found in the neighbourhood.
Bull River      is a lumbering town, with some important sawmills, and
the source of power supply for the Sullivan Mines at
Kimberley. Good fishing and hunting may be obtained in the vicinity.
Cranbrook is the trading centre for a rich mining and agricultural
region in the Crowsnest Pass country. It is an important
point on the more southerly Crowsnest Pass line of the Canadian
Pacific, from Lethbridge to Kootenay Lake and Nelson, whence there
is an alternative route to Vancouver.
Main Line Journey Resumed
Edelweiss Just west of Golden, north of the track, is the model
Swiss village of ''Edelweiss," erected by the Canadian
Pacific for the Swiss guides whom it employs for the benefit of mountain climbers. Previous to the erection of this village, which lies on
the slopes of a hill and reproduces with remarkable verisimilitude the
characteristic architecture of the Swiss chalet, the guides had always
returned to Switzerland at the end of each season, but now they live
in Canada the entire year.
The Selkirk Range Everything combines to make the scenery
between Golden and Glacier a climax of mountain grandeur. There is first the magnificent eastern thrust of the
Selkirks, with its glorious array of mountain peaks culminating in the
lofty pinnacle of Sir Donald; then there are mountain torrents that Columbia   River
37
South Side of Track
Mileage
west of
Field
Altitude
above          North Side of Track
sea-level
35.0
Golden
2583
Edelweiss, winter home
of the Swiss guides.
Dogtooth  Mountains, a
part of the Purcell Range,
41.5
Moberly
2558
Moberly Peak (7731
feet).
Columbia River.
47.5
Forde
2563
Cross Blaeberry River.
51.5
52.7
Donald
2580
Cross the Columbia
River.
Canyon of the Columbia River.
At  this  point we leave
the   Columbia   which
flows   north   in   a   "Big
63.0
Beavermouth
2433
After leaving Beavermouth we follow the
Beaver River.
Bend" around the Selkirks. We shall see it
again at Revelstoke.
Cross the Beaver River.    66.0
67.8
70.8
Beaver    River    Canyon.
Gateway of the Beaver.
Rogers 2592    The line is rising rapidly
to   the   summit   of   the
Selkirks.
Cross   Mountain   Creek,
150  feet   above  stream.
tumble in splendid cascades, through the narrow gorges cut deeply
into the steep hillsides, the Rocky Mountain trench, flanked by the
two highest mountain systems of the Canadian Rockies; and the
Columbia River itself, which for more than twenty-five miles parallels
the railway line, and at the base of the Selkirks is a raging roaring
flood, forcing its way through precipitous canyons to the high slopes
along which the railway creeps.
Moberly takes its name from Mount Moberly, one of the most
prominent peaks for some miles along the river valley.
About two miles west of Moberly, on the south just before crossing
Blaeberry River, is the site of the oldest cabin in the mountains—the
cabin where a government survey party, under Walter Moberly,
engaged in the preliminary survey for the railway, passed the winter
of 1871-2. They wintered their stock on the shore of what is now
Lake Windermere.
Beavermouth     is the farthest north station of the transcontinental
route, at the base of the Selkirks.
Columbia River The Columbia River, which with but one exception
is the largest river on the west side of America,
rises in Columbia Lake; and then, flowing through Lake Windermere,
runs north-westerly. From Golden to Beavermouth it is paralleled by
the railway; then we take leave of it as it makes its famous "Big Bend"
round the northern spur of the Selkirks, until we meet it at Revelstoke,
southward bound through the Arrow Lakes, for the United States and
its even greater majesty.
The Columbia River is nearly 1,400 miles long, and drains a basin
of nearly 300,000 square miles. It is the route of history, the path
by which some of the earliest explorers reached the Pacific Ocean.
Climbing Again Following the Beaver River, the line now begins its
1,300 feet climb to the summit of the Selkirk Range.
This range is geologically much older than the Rockies, and the tooth
of time was already gnawing at its scarred sides long before the Rockies
were pushed up from the crumpled sea-bottom. A few miles beyond
Rogers we enter Glacier National Park. 38
The   Selkirk   Range
The Route from Golden to Glacier
Rogers Pass Until the year 1916, the railway crossed the Selkirks
through Rogers Pass (altitude 4,342 feet), following
Bear Creek and then bending round to Glacier and back again to the
lllecillewaet River in a series of sharp loops. This was a most spectacular route, affording some magnificent views of Mount Macdonald
Mount Tupper, and other giant peaks; but it had many disadvantages
amongst which were the enormous track curvature and the necessity
of maintaining long stretches of snow sheds. These difficulties were
finally overcome by the construction of the Connaught Tunnel.
Rogers Pass was named in honor of Major Rogers, one of the pioneer
surveyors of this region, who discovered this route.
Stoney Creek Not only is
the scenery
impressive, but the engineering feats are particularly remarkable, especially in the
construction of bridges and
tunnels. West of Cedar Creek
is a very high bridge, spanning a foaming cascade
whence one of the most beautiful prospects of the whole
journey is to be had. So
impressed were the builders
with the charm of this magnificent picture that they
named the spot "The Surprise."
The bridge which crosses
Stoney Creek, 270 feet above
the gorge, is the highest on
the main line of the Canadian
Pacific. Stoney Creek is a
noisy mountain torrent, flowing in the bottom of a narrow
V-shaped channel cut deeply
into the steep slopes along
which the railway creeps.
On the Columbia Icefield Highway
north of Lake Louise $MUtlOE
ninmiiriitiiiKfiuiiumiiifiiiiiiiitninritiiii 40
Connaught   Tunnel
South Side of Track
Mileage
west of
Field
Altitude
above North Side of Track
sea-level
3lA   miles   from   Rogers
we enter Glacier Park.
67.8
74.4
76.2
76.7
We     enter     Connaught    78.9
Tunnel   (5   miles   long)    80.1
under   Mount   Macdonald, piercing the summit
of the Selkirks.
Glacier is stopping place    85.4
for   lllecillewaet   Glacier
and many fine mountain
trips.
Mount Sir Donald (io-
818 feet), the pyramidal-
shaped peak.
Rogers
Stoney Creek
Connaught
GLACIER
2592
Cross    Surprise Creek,
170  feet  above stream.
Cross     Stoney Creek,
270  feet  above stream.
Hermit Range.
3788 We emerge from the
Connaught Tunnel on
the western slopes of
the Selkirks.
Mount Cheops (8516
feet).
The line descends rapidly following the lllecillewaet River, crossing
and recrossing it.
Connaught Tunnel The Connaught Tunnel, which (as before stated)
was constructed to overcome track curvature,
pierces Mount Macdonald, which towers more than a mile in vertical
height above the railway and makes a most impressive picture. It was
named in honor of the Duke of Connaught, Governor-General of Canada
at the time of its opening in 1916. It was until recently the longest
tunnel in America, measuring slightly over five miles from portal to
portal;  and  it  not  only  eliminated  track curvature to  an  amount
corresponding to
seven complete
circles, but also
lowered the summit
attained by the railway by 552 feet, reduced the length of
the line by 4^ miles
and dispensed with
43^ miles of snow-
sheds. The tunnel
is double tracked,
concrete-lined and
measures 29 feet from
side to side and 21J^
feet from the base of
rail to the crown.
Its construction involved the tunnelling
of a pioneer bore
paralleling the centre
line of the main
tunnel-a feature that
was new and aroused
the interest of tunnel
engineers the world
over. The railway
emerges from the
tunnel at Glacier
The lllecillewaet Valley, Glacier Station. Glacier
41
Mount Sir Donald, near Glacier
Glacier Glacier is the station for
Glacier National Park—
the features of which include the
lllecillewaet Glacier, the Asulkan
Valley and some magnificent climbing. At the present time some of
the peaks in the Park have still to
be climbed.
GLACIER PARK, covering an
area of 521 square miles, differs
very noticeably from the other
parks of the Canadian Rockies. It
has an atmosphere of austere majesty and high loveliness. With its
massive peaks and giant glaciers,
The lllecillewaet Glacier This great Glacier Park has somewhat of an
plateau of air of isolation and mystery. Surrounding it, too, are some dense
gleaming   ice,   framed   in   a   dark
forest of giant cedar, hemlock and
spruce  trees,   scarred  by  immense   forests of fine trees, of great age.
crevasses  of  great  depth  and
covering an area of about ten square miles, is about four miles from
the station. It affords some remarkable opportunities of observing
the movements and recession of glaciers. Mount Sir Donald, a magnificent peak named after Sir Donald Smith, later Lord Strathcona, can
be reached by an extension trail from the glacier trail, and furnishes
one of the most attractive climbs of the region. The return trip may
be taken along the alternative trail on the east bank of the river.
Down Hill Again From Glacier, which lies near the summit of the
Selkirk Range, we begin our long journey to the
Pacific Ocean—a journey that except for one or two minor climbs is
uniformly downhill. For several miles the line follows the lllecillewaet
River which, tumbling along precipitous gorges, rushing and foaming
in splendid cascades, pours its flood from its glacier source to the
broad waters of the majestic Columbia River, over 2,000 feet below.
Here we notice how a river taking its source in a glacier differs from
an ordinary upland stream. The latter, as it tumbles from great
heights, may be foamy and tumultuous; but the water does not show
that peculiar milk-green color,  characteristic of a glacier-fed stream 42
Revelstoke
m .
The Route from Glacier to Revelstoke
South Side of Track
Mileage
west of
Field
Altitude
above
sea-level
North Side of Track
Mount   Bonney    (10215
feet).
Ross Peak (7728 feet). 89.7
Mount Green (8870 feet).
Valley of Flat Creek. 93.2
98.2
Revelstoke   National
Park.
Mount Mackenzie (8064 119.5
feet).
Branch line to the Arrow 125. 7
Lakes.
Ross Peak
Flat Creek
lllecillewaet
104.8     Albert Canyon
Greely
REVELSTOKE
3434
3094
2713    At   this   point   we   pass
the    western    boundary
of Glacier Park.
2226    A fine rock gorge about
150 feet deep.
1667
1496    Western end of the Selkirks.
due to its sediment of glacial silt.    This silt is composed of infinites-
imally fine particles ground from the rocks by scraping ice.
Albert Canyon       is a deep fissure in the solid rock, its walls rising
straight up on both sides to wooded crags.    The
railway runs along the very edge of this gorge.   We see the river nearly
150 feet below, boiling angrily in a narrow twenty-foot flume.
Revelstoke a flourishing city, with a population of 3,500, lies in the
beautiful Columbia River Valley, surrounded by lofty
and picturesque mountains, some clothed with trees and verdure to
their very peaks, others crowned with rugged and rocky spires or
glistening glaciers.
It is the gateway to the Kootenay and Arrow Lakes, and is the
centre of large timber and mineral districts. Revelstoke is in the heart
of very fine hunting grounds, and the Alpine climber will find whole
worlds to conquer. Besides the drive up Mount Revelstoke, there is
also the beautiful excursion along the Columbia River. In winter, a
very popular winter-sport carnival is held here, and as a matter of fact
some of the finest ski-jumpers of Canada have graduated on the "Big
Hill" at Revelstoke.
Mount Revelstoke
National Park
100 square miles in extent, is bounded on the
south  by  the  lllecillewaet  River.     It  includes
not only the striking mountain from  which  it
derives its name, but also the Clachnacudainn Range. The   Arrow   Lakes
43
Revelstoke, from Mount Revelstoke
The park, altogether a mountain-top one, provides a wonderful
automobile trip. A road, as hard and smooth as a city boulevard,
has been constructed by the Dominion Government to the summit.
The road ascends by an easy grade through a virgin forest, winding
along rocky ledges and on the verge of deep chasms. The glory of the
ride is the remarkable view that can be obtained all the way up of the
valley below—the Selkirks towering on the one hand, the Monashee
Mountains on the other, and the Columbia and lllecillewaet rivers
twisting like ribbons around the city.
(Main Line Journey resumed on page 44)
Branch Line to Arrow Lakes
By Rail.
Mileage                                  Altitude
south of                                    above
Revelstoke                               sea-level
j    0.0      REVELSTOKE      1496    Connecting east or west.
|  27.5          Arrowhead          1407
By Lake Steamer
Arrowhead
|   40.4            Halcyon
^64.4             Nakusp             1436
]
(l56.4       Robson West        1408
Branch line to Kaslo,
on Kootenay Lake.
By Rail.
/                  Robson West
1183.8           NELSON            1763
Connecting east to Calgary or west to Vancouver.
From Revelstoke this branch runs south to Arrowhead, whence a
delightful trip is made down the Arrow Lakes to Nelson. The service
down this lake is provided by the excellent and comfortable steamer
service of the Canadian Pacific. The Arrow Lakes, lying in a long
deep valley between the western slopes of the Selkirks and the Monashee
Mountains, are formed by the Columbia Valley's broadening out on
its way south. These beautiful lakes, although virtually one, are
classified as two, Upper and Lower, very much the same size and connected by a wide but circuitous channel. The surrounding country has
supplied lumber from the forests that clothe its slopes to many a sawmill,
while of recent years settlers have come in and made clearings for
orchards.   The population, however, is still comparatively sparse.
Halcyon Hot Springs    are well and favorably known owing   to the
curative properties of the waters,  which contain a high percentage of lithium.   There is a comfortable sanatorium
hotel here. 44
C r ai gellachie
Nakusp is the distributing centre of the upper lake, which is here
about three miles wide. There are some excellent hot springs
in the hills, about nine miles from the town. Nakusp is the headquarters of the Arrow Lake lumber industry, the shipping point for
vast quantities of lumber, poles, fence posts, and other timber products.   A branch line runs from here to Rosebery and Kaslo.
Along the lower lake there has been some development in fruitgrowing; very fine cherries, apples and melons being produced. At
Robson West rail connection is made to Nelson or westward to Penticton and Vancouver.
Nelson is charmingly situated on a commanding eminence overlooking the West Arm of Kootenay Lake, and is. the commercial centre of the Kootenay district. At the convergence of lake
and rail systems, it is an attractive city in which life passes very
pleasantly. Nelson is the centre of a very large mining district: immediately behind it is the mountain in which is located the famous "Silver
King" mine. Connection for the Crow's Nest Pass route to Lethbridge
and Calgary is made here.
Main Line Journey Resumed
Revelstoke—See page 42.
Eagle Pass Between Revelstoke and Sicamous is the Monashee
mountain system, the most conspicuous peak being
Mount Begbie. Eagle Pass, through which the railway crosses, appears
to have been cut purposely for it, so deep and direct is it. Several
lakes occur at short intervals, and in turn force the railway into the
mountain sides. Open-top observation cars are attached to the rear
end of Canadian Pacific passenger trains through the mountains during
the summer season. These cars afford superb opportunities for viewing
the magnificent scenery.
Craigellachie From Revelstoke our course is now downhill practically
all the way to the Pacific ocean, for with the exception
of one or two occasional rises, the altitude gets lower and lower. Entering the Monashee Mountains, we reach in about 28 miles the historic
spot named Craigellachie.
Here an obelisk alongside the track commemorates the completion
of the Canadian Pacific Railway from coast to coast. It was here, on
November 7th, 1885, that the rails from the East met the rails from
the West, and the long-
cherished vision of a
Canadian transcontinental railway became
a reality.
The first through
train from East to West
left Montreal on June
28th, 1886, and reached
Port Moody—then the
Pacific terminal of the
road—on July 4th.
Sicamous on Shuswap
Lake, is not
only the junction of
the main line with the
Okanagan Valley branch;
it is also a favorite
stop-over point for trav-
ellers who, having
traversed the mountains, wish also to see by
daylight the wonderful
canyon scenery that lies
Hotel Sicamous Sicamous
45
The Route from Revelstoke to Sicamous
South Side of Track
Mileage
west of
Revelstoke
Altitude
above
sea-level
North Side of Track
Mount
feet).
Begbie     (8956      0.0     REVELSTOKE
The railway follows the
narrow   valley    of   the
Tonkawatla River.
Mount   MacPherson
(7962 feet).
Three Valley Lake.
Griffin  Mountain  (7075
feet).
Follow    the    valley    of
Eagle River to Sicamous.
Hunters Range.
Branch line to Okanagan
Valley.
8.5
24.2
28.3
44.7
Clanwilliam
14.6       Three Valley
Taft
Craigellachie
SICAMOUS
Hotel Sicamous
1496 Shortly after leaving
Revelstoke, we cross the
Columbia River. (See
Page 39).
1820
1636
1280
1226
1154
The railway climbs up
to the Eagle Pass which
is reached here.
Eagle   Pass   Mountains.
Monument to commemorate completion of the
Canadian Pacific Railway
at this point. (See page
44) >
Shuswap Mountain.
Shuswap Lake.
between here and Vancouver. To accommodate this traffic, the
Canadian Pacific owns a comfortable hotel on the shore of the lake—
Hotel Sicamous, and it is operated by a lessee. Shuswap Lake is a large
body of water which affords some wonderful trout fishing.
(Main Line Journey resumed on page 47)
Branch Line to Okanagan Valley
Enderby        is a progressive town in a fertile fruit-growing and mixed-
farming country, with considerable dairying and also an
enormous lumber output.   Fishing is good and the big game plentiful.
Armstrong    is another flourishing town with a large central creamery
and several industries, and a prosperous tributary agricultural country; it is particularly noted for the production of celery.
Vernon    is the largest town, the judicial centre, and the central distributing  point  of  the  northern   Okanagan  Valley.     Near
here is the famous Coldstream Ranch, with about 13,000 acres of fruit
lands. 46
The   Okanagan   Valley
Mileage
Altitude
south of
above
Sicamous
sea-leve
I
f      0.0
SICAMOUS
1154
Connecting east or west.
23.0
Enderby
1160
By Rail
31.8
Armstrong
1179
46.2
Vernon
1252
I    79.6
Kelowna
Kelowna
Peachland
1133
1133
By Stage
Summerland
Naramata
1133
1133
PENTICTON
1133
Connecting west to Vancouver or east to Nelson
and Calgary.
Okanagan Lake This is one of the most famous fruit-growing regions
of Canada. Journeying by rail and stage, one sees
striking examples of "bench-land" formation—orchards rising tier by
tier in what look like gigantic steps. On these bench-lands, on the
occasional bottom lands, and even on the hilly slopes that descend into
the water, grow all kinds of sub-tropical fruit, peaches, apricots, cherries,
apples, plums, walnuts, almonds and grapes of superfine quality. Irrigation is practised, the flume that carries the life-giving water being a
conspicuous feature of the orchard country. At Killiney on the west
shore at the north end of the Okanagan Lake and at other points,
attractive arrangements can usually be made for summer guests. It
is reached by stage from Vernon.
Kelowna      is an important city, with some fifty thousand acres of first-
class   fruit   lands,   much   of   which   is   under   cultivation,
tributary to it.   The city has several packing plants and canneries.    It
is a pretty point and has an attractive park with a lake frontage.
Peachland, Summerland and Naramata are fertile fruit-raising districts, with a certain amount of cattle-raising a few miles back.
Penticton at the southern end of the lake, is a very prosperous city,
centre of a rich fruit-growing district, and very attractive to
the tourist. It has a good hotel in the Incola. The Canadian Pacific
Railway line from Vancouver to Nelson passes through Penticton, and
affords an alternative to the more popular route through the Rockies.
Okanagan Lake Lake   Shuswap
47
The Route from Sicamous to Ashcroft
South Side of Track
Mileage
west of
Revelstoke
Altitude
above
sea-level
North Side of Track
44.7
Sicamous
1154
A fine fruit district adjacent to railway.
63.4
Salmon  Arm
1159
70.6
Tappen
1158
From   this   summit   the
line descends to Shuswap
Lake.
79.8
87.5
Notch Hill
Squilax
1691
1288
93.7
Chase
1183
95.6
Shuswap
1154
128.8
KAMLOOPS
1160
The railway follows the
Salmon Arm of Shuswap Lake.
The railway leaves the
lake to climb over
Notch Hill.
Pass along the shores of
Little Shuswap Lake.
Follow the shore of the
South Thompson River
to Kamloops.
The North Thompson
joins the South Thompson at this point, the
two rivers forming the
Thompson River.
Main Line Journey Resumed
Sicamous—See page 44.
Salmon    Salmon Arm and the beautiful South Thompson River, which
Arm flows from the western arm of Shuswap Lake, provide inter
esting and varied scenery between Sicamous and Kamloops.
Shuswap Lake is a large body of water of irregular shape which, with
its bordering slopes, reminds one strongly of Scottish scenery and
affords wonderful fishing. It has the reputation of containing more
varieties of trout and other fish—including steel-head and land-locked
salmon—than any other water in British Columbia. Salmon Arm
(population 800) is a very prosperous fruit and mixed farming community, situated on a long arm of Shuswap Lake.
Notch Hill      is  the only elevation of any considerable height along
the line.    Here the railway leaves the open and takes
a circuitous course through the forested slopes which surround its base,
but soon joins the South Thompson River.
Chase       (Population 600) is the.gateway to an extensive territory for
big-game hunting, bird shooting and fishing.    The various
waters in the vicinity are plentifully stocked with trout.
About two miles east of Kamloops, between the railway and the
South Thompson River, are sites of semi-subterranean prehistoric
Indian houses, which can be seen from the passing train. 48
Kamloops
..'=..
If
'.,'-,.,-■."••>: \~- •
ivamloops
South Side of Track
Mileage
west of
Kamloops
Altitude
above
sea-level
North Side of Track
Valley of the Nicola.
0.0
8.7
19.7
25.2
47.3
KAMLOOPS
Tranquille
Munro
Savona
Ashcroft
1160
1142
The Thompson River
widens and is known as
Kamloops Lake.
The Painted Bluffs,
brilliantly colored rocks,
are seen across the Lake.
Leave the Lake a short
distance west of Savona
and follow the Thompson River.
1004    The    gateway    to    the
Cariboo country.
1143
1163
55.9
Basque
The   Black   Canyon   of
the   Thompson   seen   at
mile 52.5.
892
72.7
Spence's Bridge
774
Kamloops (Population 6,100), bearing an Indian name which means
"the meeting place of the waters," traces its history
back more than one hundred years to the time when the old Hudson's
Bay Company fort was the scene of thriving fur-trading and centre of
the then meagre white population of the interior. Here the South
Thompson joins the North Thompson to form the main Thompson
River which will bear the traveller company on the journey to the
Pacific.
Looking north from the station, with its gardens which are the summer
glory of the community, the great valley of the North Thompson
can be seen, guarded on the right by Peter Peak, which hides behind
its arid shoulders the beautiful wooded valley of Paul Lake and half
a dozen other lakes known to anglers who prize the gameness of
Kamloops trout.
Back from the main valley of the Thompson, north and south, the
country holds rich surprises for the traveller who investigates. There
are many lakes and streams, most of them well stocked with game
trout; irrigated farms and vast grazing reaches for cattle and sheep
are the locale for some of the largest ranches in British Columbia—
a country surprisingly different from that seen in the Thompson valley. The   Thompson   Canyon
49
Gold, copper and iron come
from mines in the Kamloops
area, and the city is a distribution centre for a big district. It
has well-paved streets, a fine
water supply, and electric power
from a hydro plant on a tributary of the North Thompson.
Thompson River As the train
slips out of
Kamloops on its journey to the
Pacific, the Thompson River
begins to widen into Kamloops
Lake, the last placid piece of
water on this river before it ends
its course in the turbulent Fraser. Early morning and evening
scenes on this lake equal anything seen in the course of the
mountain journey for vividness
of color and splendid perspective.
At mile 5 the train passes
the loading station for the Iron
Mask mine, a big copper producer from which the concentrates come down a thousand
feet to the track through a pipe
line. Looking north across the
lake one sees the Tranquille
Sanatorium of the British Columbia government At mile 11,
frowning Battle Bluff rises
abruptly from the water across
the lake. On the bluff, close to
the high water line, a careful
observer can see a spot of red—
a painted reminder, often renewed by the present day Indians,
of the fierce tribal struggle from
which the height takes its name.
The Route from Ashcroft to Odium
Difficulties of railway construction are realized as the train passes
through tunnel after tunnel, constantly curving in and out along the
lake shore line to Savona, where the Thompson begins its mad race to
the level of the Fraser.
Ashcroft      once a busy gateway to the Cariboo gold fields, now exports
many  carloads  of fruit, vegetables, cattle and sheep.    It
is famous for its potatoes—being one of the chief centres from which
the delightful British Columbia "spud" is marketed.
The Black Canyon where the roaring "white water" of the Thompson
battles around hairpin turns in funereal cliffs, is
seen at mile 52.5. A splendid view of this canyon is obtained by looking
back as the train passes the gloomy gorge. The Nicola River, joining
the Thompson from the southeast, is crossed and the train arrives at
Spence's Bridge. Since leaving Ashcroft the line has run almost due
south.
Spence's Bridge     where the Nicola River joins the Thompson, is the
business centre  for the  Nicola  Valley,  a  country
with varied industries, such as ranching, lumbering and mining.
From Spence's Bridge there is  a branch line to Brookmere. 50
The   Old   Cariboo   Road
South Side of Track
Mileage
west of
Kamloops
Altitude
above
sea-level
North Side of Track
85.6
90.1
94.9
At miles 101 we cross the
Fraser   140   feet   above
the River.
Canyon  scenery    fine 103.9
from   mile   100  to   mile
102.
Note   the   old   Cariboo 116.5
Road   on   the  opposite
side of the valley.
121.5
Thompson
Gladwin
Lytton
Kanaka
Chaumox
NORTH BEND
673
758
693
613
Thompson Canyon,
very fine, east and west
of this point.
At mile 93.5 note the
striking pinnacle (Botanie Crag) on the opposite side of the river.
The Fraser River comes
in from the North and
joins the Thompson.
568
Salmon River is crossed
at mile 113.8; note fine
gorge up stream.
The general direction of river and railway is here southwest, but a
few miles farther it turns again almost due south. River, rail and
highway seem to fight for space in the Thompson Canyon as the mountains close in and the river boils through succeeding gorges. At low
water jagged teeth of rock, the terror of the first river-travellers can
be seen vainly trying to stem the torrent which foams through narrower openings until The Jaws of Death gorge is seen at mile 87.5
Here the river is confined to a span which seems ridiculously narrow as
one peers down from the tracks. The rocks take on blazing hues, and
the scene is one of wild grandeur as Botanie Crag looms up across the
river at mile 93.5, with its green granite crest hanging over a many-
colored gorge.
Lytton The railway suddenly emerges on a
narrow plateau and
the garden s of
Lytton make a
foreground for the
traveller's first
glimpse of the
mighty Fraser.
Below this once
important staging
point on the historic
Cariboo Road, the
Thompson joins the
Fraser and they
there begin their
united course to the
sea through the
magnificent Fraser
Canyon.
The railway line
not only tunnels
through great rock
span s but also
crosses from side to
side in the great
canyon. The Thompson River Canyon The   Fraser   Canyon 51
The Fraser River Canyon—showing the Old Cariboo Road
The Fraser, the chief river of British Columbia, comes down from the
north between great lines of mountain peaks, and its turbid flood soon
absorbs the bright green waters of the Thompson. The Fraser is
navigable for steamers from its mouth to about Yale. The river, 800
miles in length, is an historic one; its name and that of the Thompson
commemorate two of the earliest and most famous explorers who sought
the Pacific Ocean overland from the east.
Fraser Canyon As the train swings out of Lytton and the traveller
looks north and west to catch a last sight of the
mountain-flanked valley of the Fraser above that point, it is but a few
miles to the bridge where the rails swing out over the turbid torrent
and pierce a wall of rock to gain foothold on the north (here west)
bank of the river.   This is the first and only crossing of the Fraser.
As the waters of Kwoiek Creek rush beneath the tracks near mile
106, after the wild glories of the canyon to that point, a fine view is
obtained of Jackass Mountain, a little farther down the canyon. Over
this height the highway which follows the old Cariboo Road is forced
to climb thousands of feet above the river to make progress. As the
train crosses Salmon River near mile 113 a glimpse is obtained of the
gorge this tributary of the Fraser has cut from guardian heights. There
are Indian reservations all along the river; and here and there until
North Bend is reached can be seen a garden or orchard struggling for
existence on tiny benches grudgingly left by the roaring Fraser.
North Bend On the limited bench above the ever-roaring Fraser,
the Company has established divisional point yards,
leaving room for bright gardens which greet the summer visitor. It
is noticeable at this point that the foliage, changing constantly since
Lytton was left behind, is much more luxuriant. The woods begin
to take on that richness of growth which is found on the lower levels.
Once more off on the descent to the Pacific, the mountains crowd in
on the river and seem to offer no way out. Small tributaries join the
Fraser on both sides in increasing numbers. At mile 4 the mountains
across the river loom close and as mile 5 is reached the Fraser is compressed into still narrower gorges. At mile 5.5 the Scuzzy River drops
into the Fraser under the railway bridge in a series of basins up which
the salmon vainly struggle during the running season. 52
Hell   Gate
South Side of Track
Mileage
west of
North Bend
Altitude
above
sea-level
North Side of Track
From North Bend West
the Canyon becomes
more and more impressive, reaching a climax
at   Hell   Gate,   8   miles
0.0     NORTH BEND
Railway bridges span
the rock gorges at
Scuzzy River (mile 5.5)
and White's Creek (mile
9.7).        Between mile 9
from North Bend.
The site is an old trading   post    of    Hudson's
Bay Company.
15.5
27.1
Spuzzum
Yale
399
220
and 10 we pass through
a series of tunnels.
Jet. with southern route
through the Rockies.
41.7
Odium
183
The   line   westward    is
double-tracked  to   Van
48.0
Ruby Creek
103
couver.
The   Harrison   River   is
crossed at this point.
58.9
68.1
Agassiz
Harrison Mills
60
47
Government Experimental Farm.
Mount Baker.
76.7
Nicomen
31
Hell Gate At mile 7.8 is the culmination of a series of gorges.
In this narrow neck the water boils through on a wicked
crest and the rock markings plainly show to what almost unbelievable
heights the river rises during flood periods. Past Hell Gate the traveller
looks back to see the Devil's Washbasin—a swirling pool below the
giant portals.
Around Hell Gate and below that point there can be seen parts of
the old Cariboo Road and as the train glides down the next few miles,
passing Williams' Creek and White's Creek, the backward glance
reveals a number of superb views of the canyon. Between the numerous
tunnels the traveller sees signs of that age-old fight of water against
rock as the Fraser batters its way seaward.
Spuzzum once a Hudson's Bay Company trading post, and a place
of some importance when the Cariboo Road crossed the
Fraser on the old suspension bridge, crowds another bench above the
river. The floods have taken out the old bridge and the other historic
landmarks have disappeared in the luxuriant vegetation. The modern
highway crosses the river here on a new suspension bridge.
■:r.<i----.:;:™W
■■•■    ' -: - 	
Hell Gate, Fraser Canyon nniiiiiiiiiritiuitiimuiMBiiiiit
Beavermouth Canyon 54
Harrison   Hot   Springs
The Route from Odium to Vancouver
The canyon closes in again at mile 19 and great barriers of rock curb
the river in its drop. Stages where the Indians net salmon can be
seen and on the high rocks are the racks where they smoke the fish.
At mile 22.5 a great rock rises in the middle of the river and stands like
an island fortress against the rush of the current. Another five miles
of rugged grandeur takes us to Yale. The Fraser has shown us its last
wild scenes. Man and his steamboats navigated the stream as far as
Yale in the days before the railway supplanted the stage coach.
Yale Yale lives in  memories of its historic greatness.    Once the
head of navigation on the Fraser and the "kicking off"
place for the Cariboo Road, it was one of the first incorporated communities on the mainland and boasted of a population estimated
variously from seven to ten thousand.
Behind the station the Historic States and Monuments Branch of the Dominion
Government has marked the spot where British army engineers started the famous gold
trail to the Cariboo.   A rough stone bears a tablet which sets out:
"Here began the Cariboo wagon road which extended four hundred miles to northward to the gold mines of Cariboo. Built in 1862-5. In the olden days of Cariboo, over
this great highway, passed thousands of miners and millions of treasure."
As we leave Yale slumbering in its peaceful vale of apples, plums,
cherries and memories, the tangents lengthen; the railway no longer
has to burrow into the rock for foothold; an occasional glance at the
Fraser shows a more placid surface and the railway begins its last big
swing toward the west.   We prepare to say farewell to the mountains.
Odium     is the junction   of  the  more  southerly  route  through  the
Rockies with the northerly.    Looking across the Fraser one
sees the canyon from which the turbulent Coquihalla pours into the
larger river and joins the majestic roll of the Fraser to the sea.
The southerly line furnishes an alternative route from the prairies to Vancouver.
It has some spectacular scenery, especially along the Canyon of the Coquihalla River.
This southern route is linked to the main line by branches at Sicamous, Revelstoke
and Golden.
Ruby Creek       obtains   its  name   from   the   garnets   found   in   the
neighborhood.    From here on to Vancouver there is
double track right-of-way.
Agassiz has a Government Experimental Farm and is also the
station for Harrison Hot Springs. From Agassiz there is a
ferry service to Chilliwack. The Chilliwack Valley comprises over
55,000 acres of rich agricultural land and is well known for its dairying.
As one races along the wide reaches of the lazy Fraser, it is hard to
picture it as the roaring terror of Hell Gate. Rich orchards appear,
beautiful pastures and hay meadows border the track, fat dairy cattle
give the train a passing glance and Harrison River is reached and
crossed. New   Westminster
55
Mileage
Altitud
e
South Side of Track
west of
above
North Side of Track
North Bend
sea-level
Branch to Huntingdon.
87.3             Mission
27
96.3           Whonock
23
Cross Stave Creek.
Fraser River.
105.1         Hammond
28
107.3      Pitt Meadows
23
At mile 109.7 the Pitt
River is crossed.
Branch to New West
112.5          Coquitlam
38
The  Coquitlam  River is
minister.
crossed before reaching
this point.
116.5        Port Moody
14
Reach the head of Burrard Inlet.
129.0       VANCOUVER
14
Hotel Vancouver
Harrison Some seventy miles before  reaching Vancouver, about
Hot Springs five miles from Agassiz Station, is the delightful resort
of Harrison Hot Springs. Situated on Harrison Lake,
a large and picturesque body of water that flows into the Fraser River
from the north, this resort has sulphur and potash hot springs of great
curative and medicinal values. An attractive hotel, with which are
combined a covered swimming pool and private Turkish baths, serves
as headquarters for the district. Splendid opportunities are available
for fishing, hunting, trap shooting, golfing, boating, tennis and horseback riding.
Mission Fertile Fraser flats extend along the route to salt-water.
At Nicomen on a clear day it is possible to see snow-capped Mount Baker, a solitary peak standing over the U.S. border directly
south. Then comes prosperous Mission, a fruit-growing and dairy
centre. Staye River, waters of which help to supply Vancouver with
electrical power, is crossed; Pitt River is reached and Coquitlam offers
junction facilities for New Westminster.
From Mission, a branch line runs 10 miles south to Huntingdon, on the international
boundary between Canada and U.S. From Coquitlam another branch runs 8 miles
south to New Westminster.
New Westminster so named by Queen Victoria, is known as "The
Royal City", but makes other claims for recognition. It is the third city of the province and its industries are growing constantly. Ocean shipping makes its way to New Westminster
docks up the deep Fraser. It ships much lumber and wheat. It is
connected with Vancouver by several fine highways (12}^ miles).
Burrard Inlet There isja^tang in the air as Coquitlam is passed;
and when Port Moody comes in view the end of the
long journey is nearfior the traveller is looking out across the upper
end of Burrard^mlet—Vancouver's magnificent harbor. Port Moody
was the original terminal of the Canadian  Pacific in   1886.   The first
cargo ever carried
^ across the Pacific
1 Ocean for the Canadian Pacific arrived
in Port Moody from
Yokohama on the
brig "W. B. Flint"
on July 26th, 1886.
Still following the
shore line of beautiful Burrard Inlet we
soon meet the suburbs of Vancouver;
and in a short time
roll quietly into the
handsome station
there. Taking the
escalator to street
level, we find ourselves at the end of
the journey.
Harrison Hot Springs Hotel
Photo A. Curtis 56
Vancouver
Vancouver
(Population
with suburbs
360,000) is situated on Burrard Inlet,
which here is
over two miles
wide. A long
peninsula,
within which
is embraced
beautiful
Stanley Park,
curves round
north-westward from the
city, and almost landlocks
Vancouver
Harbor. On
the north side
of the Inlet is
a magnificent
mountain
range; the
most prominent features
thereof are two
peaks   which,
silhouetted against the sky and remarkably resembling two couchant
lions, are visible from any point in the city or harbor and have earned
it the appropriate name of "The Lions". The narrow entrance to
Vancouver harbor is called the "Lion's Gate" and is now spanned
by one of the world's highest single-span suspension bridges, known as
the "Lion's Gate Bridge". It is 200 feet above maximum high water
and 5,978 feet long including approaches. The suspension span,
between towers, is 1,500 feet long.  The towers are 360 feet high.
i
i
i ii
The Hotel Vancouver
iniuiTlij
nimii
V
Hotel Vancouver The Hotel Vancouver, operated by the Vancouver
Hotel Company on behalf of the Canadian Pacific
and Canadian National Railways, is situated in the heart of the social
and business centre of the city. It is also conveniently located near the
Canadian Pacific station and docks, city parks, beaches and playgrounds. Sightseeing drives, visiting various parts of the city and its
environs, leave from the hotel.
A Summer    Vancouver is a favorite summer city, for its mild climate,
City floral luxuriance and closeness to water make life there
very pleasant. There are many bathing beaches, parks,
boulevards, automobile roads, and short and long steamer trips. All
kinds of water sports are available, and are encouraged by a mild
climate. The roads around the city are famous for their excellence,
and there are many fine drives, varying from an hour to a day in time.
Stanley Park Amongst the shorter drives may be mentioned Stanley
Park—one of the finest natural parks in the world,
a primeval forest right within the city limits and containing thousands
of Douglas firs and giant cedars of a most amazing size and age. The
park in encircled by a perfect road, nine miles in length.
"Marine Drive" which girdles Point Grey, takes one through Vancouver's most interesting residential sections and gives a wonderful
opportunity to enjoy the run through luxuriant woods which crowd down
to the very tide mark. Vancouver
57
Vancouver Harbor
Grouse Mountain, rising nearly
four thousand feet above North
Vancouver, is a unique trip. A
fine motor road climbs the mountain
to a comfortable chalet, where guests
can be accommodated for short or
long visits. From this height one
looks directly down on Vancouver
and the view extends, in clear
weather, to Vancouver Island, forty
miles distant.
Still another fine drive is to New
Westminster. (See page 55.) The
Pacific Highway, including Kings-
way, runs through Vancouver, connecting up with the main American
roads of the Northwest. This road
runs from Vancouver to Mexico.
VANCOUVER, terminal of Canadian Pacific transcontinental rail
and trans-Pacific steamship routes,
is the largest commercial centre in
British Columbia. In and around
Vancouver are immense lumber
and shingle mills. Mining, lumbering, farming, shipbuilding, and
shipping, are the reason of the
city's remarkable growth and
prosperity. From a forest clearing
fifty years ago it has become one
of the most important seaports of
the Pacific Ocean.
Vancouver is also one of the
great vacation objectives of the
Pacific Coast, and because of its
beauty and hospitality has become
very popular in this regard.
Capilano, etc. The north shore of the harbor offers the visitor
the awesome Capilano Canyon, where suspension
bridges hang hundreds of feet over a torrent which has carved its way
down through perpendicular walls of granite. West Vancouver, with
its cosy little rock-clinging gardens and its impressive sea cliff drive,
offers the visitor another tempting trip.
Bathing There are numerous fine bathing beaches around Vancouver. The most easily reached are English Bay and
Kitsilano—both on the street-car line. The scene on a sunny afternoon
at English Bay, which lies at one entrance to Stanley Park, is one of
great animation.
Burrard Inlet, English Bay, and the North Arm are excellent places
also for boating. Vancouver boasts of one of the finest yacht clubs
on the Pacific Coast.
Golf Vancouver has good golf courses, nearly all of them 18-hole
courses and all open to visitors. Included in these is a public
course, "Langara," owned by the Canadian Pacific. There are also a
number of good tennis clubs. 58
Vancouver
English Bay, Vancouver
Steamer Trips Some fine steamer trips can be made from Vancouver.
Chief amongst them, perhaps, is the 43^-hour trip
across the Gulf of Georgia to Victoria. Then there are a particularly
interesting trip to Nanaimo, a cruise amongst the Gulf Islands, and
others to Comox, Powell River, etc. An excellent circle tour may be
made by taking a "Princess" steamer to Victoria, the E. & N. train
from Victoria to Nanaimo, thence back to Vancouver by steamer.
Many delightful short excursions are made by Canadian Pacific
Coast steamers during June, July and August, including one-day
cruises to Jervis Inlet, afternoon cruises to the Gulf Islands, Newcastle
Island, etc.   These are advertised in the Vancouver newspapers.
The West Coast of Vancouver Island may be called the Canadian
Norway, with its rugged coast line, and heavy-timbered slopes that
drop sheer into the water. Little villages and Indian settlements are
found along the coast. The Canadian Pacific steamships "Princess
Norah" and "Princess Maquinna", built especially for this service, sail
regularly from Victoria during June, July and August. They visit
numerous ports en route, on their five-hundred mile journey to Port
Alice in Quatsino Sound.
Sporting A great variety of fishing can be obtained around Vancouver. In season, salmon, spring, cohoe and tyee, steel-
heads, Dolly Varden, rainbow, cut-throat, and sea trout are plentiful.
Within easy reach there is also wonderful shooting. Grouse, duck, teal,
mallard, snipe, pheasants and partridges are plentiful in season. <|3
A Busy Port Vancouver is a highly important port. From here the
well-known Canadian Pacific "Princess" steamers provide local services to Victoria, Seattle, and Northern British Columbia.
Another very popular trip is by "Princess" steamer to Alaska—a nine-
day two-thousand mile journey there and back through the fjord-like
scenery of the Northland.
Grain and Lumber  from  the  forests  of  British   Columbia  is a
Lumber great   item  in  her exports;   but  the  giant  elevators
around the harbor indicate the growth of grain export,
for much Western grain finds its way to Vancouver elevators. Pulp,
paper, canned goods, fruit and hundreds of manufactured lines are
handled. gunnc
MMitW^
Big Trees,
Stanley Park, Vancouver 60
Victoria
A Canadian Pacific "Princess'' Steamer from Vancouver to Victoria
The Triangle Route
British Columbia Coast Steamship Service
In connection with its transcontinental rail service, the Canadian
Pacific operates an extensive steamship service on the British Columbia
Coast as far north as Alaska. On Puget Sound several comfortable
steamships provide daily sailings on the "Triangle Route" between
Vancouver, Victoria and Seattle.
Nautical
Miles
0.0
VANCOUVER
72.0
VICTORIA
142.0
SEATTLE
Full particulars of this
service may be found in
the Company's time
tables or by consulting
any Canadian Pacific
agent.
Victoria Victoria (Population 62,000) stands on a promontory overlooking the Straits of Juan de Fuca across to the snowcapped Olympic Mountains on the mainland. Owing to the characteristic beauty of its residential district, it has often been called "a bit
of England on the shores of the Pacific". Victoria's beauty lies in its
residential districts, its boulevards, parks, public buildings, numerous
bathing beaches and semi-tropical foliage.
Empress Hotel The Empress Hotel, most western of the chain of
Canadian Pacific hotels, overlooks the inner harbor,
within a stone's throw of the Parliament Buildings. It is a hotel of
stately architecture, hospitable spirit, spacious atmosphere, and social
warmth. Its beautiful gardens are a fitting accompaniment of its own
ivy-grown walls.
Crystal Garden     Adjoining the Empress Hotel an amusement casino,
the   Crystal   Garden,   contains  one  of   the  largest
glass-enclosed salt-water swimming pools in the world, together with
dance floor, promenades, etc.
Parliament Buildings Victoria is the capital of British Columbia.
The Parliament Buildings, which rank among
the handsomest in America, overlook the inner harbor. Adjoining
them is the Provincial Museum, very complete and interesting, and
containing a large assortment of specimens of natural  history, native Victoria
61
The Empress Hotel, Victoria
woods, Indian curios and prehistoric instruments. The Provincial
Library contains a large collection
of historical prints, documents, and
other works of great value and
interest.
Beacon Hill Park One of the city's
public parks,
Beacon Hill Park, contains 154 acres
laid out as recreation grounds and
pleasure gardens, fifteen minutes'
walk from the Empress Hotel and
included in all sightseeing trips
in the city. Magnificent views
can be obtained from Beacon Hill
across the Straits of Juan de Fuca
and of Olympic Mountains on the
mainland.
CHARMINGLY situated at the
southern end of Vancouver Island,
Victoria—the capital city of British Columbia—gives a bright welcome to the arriving traveller.
Although its enterprising business
district speaks of a rich commerce
drawn from the forest, mineral and
agricultural resources of Vancouver Island, Victoria is essentially
a home city, with beautiful houses,
bungalows, gardens, lawns, boulevards and parks; and it has furthermore a distinct charm of its
own that has made it a favorite
residential and vacation city for
both summer and winter alike.
Brentwood Near Brentwood, a charming resort on Saanich Inlet
about fifteen miles from the city by street-car or automobile, are the beautiful and famous gardens of Mr. R. P. Butchart.
In no part of America can any more diversified gardens be found than
these, for besides sunken gardens there are acres of rose gardens,
stretches of velvet lawns bordered with flowers of every description,
and a fairy garden.   Visitors are admitted without charge every day.
Saanich Mountain
Observatory
Reached by automobile or street-car. The telescope, which has a 72-inch reflector, is the third
largest in the world. The observatory, in addition to being of interest itself, commands from its site one of the finest
views on the Pacific Coast.
Golf Victoria can be considered as an approximation to the "golfer's
paradise," for in its equable climate golf can be enjoyed every
day of the year. Three 18-hole and two 9-hole courses are open to
visitors, and are all convenient to the city, well kept and of fine location.
Guests at the Empress Hotel have special privileges at the Royal Col-
wood Golf and Country Club. The Empress Amateur Golf Tournament
is usually scheduled each year early in March, and is climaxed with
a Grand Ball at the Empress Hotel. 62 Seattle
The Crystal Garden, Victoria
Sporting The fishing and shooting on Vancouver Island are of the
best—trout, salmon, pheasant, grouse, cougar, bear, deer
and moose being the prizes. Shawnigan Lake, Cowichan Lake, Sproat
Lake, Great Central Lake and Campbell River are amongst the most
famous fishing waters of this continent. There are also excellent bird
shooting and big game hunting. Sportsmen wishing fuller information
should communicate with the Information Desk, the Empress Hotel,
Victoria.
Motoring There are as many good motor trips radiating from Victoria
as from any other place in America. The roads are
excellent. Among the popular trips is the famous Malahat Drive to
Shawnigan and Duncan; Nanaimo via Parksville to Cameron Lake,
on over Alberni Summit; another is the Grand Island Highway Tour—
Victoria, Duncan, Nanaimo, Cameron Lake, Port Alberni, Qualicum
and Campbell Rivers, and the entire Georgian Circuit International
Tour, the greatest and most complete scenic tour on the continent.
Vancouver Island From Victoria delightful excursions may be made
into the interior of Vancouver Island, either by
the Esquimalt and Nanaimo Railway or by automobile. Excellent
hotels are to be found at Cameron Lake and elsewhere. Splendid
fishing can be enjoyed at numerous places, for salmon and trout. The
immense Douglas fir forests of the interior and the balmy climate
make a trip into the interior wonderfully attractive.
Seattle Seattle is the largest city in the State of Washington, and
one of the most important on the Pacific Coast. It is a
beautiful and progressive city, with a rapidly increasing population.
Situated on the east side of Puget Sound, up the slopes of the hills that
front the latter, it has a fine harbor accessible to the largest vessels
afloat. Lake Washington, a body of fresh water about twenty miles
long and three miles wide, bounds the city on the east, and is connected
with the Sound by the Lake Washington Canal, a very notable feat of engineering that has a great and important bearing upon Seattle's future.
The downtown business section of Seattle has many skyscraper buildings.
Seattle has a very pleasing residential section, especially in the
vicinity of the University of Washington, and many beautiful parks
and summer resorts. A large number of enjoyable trips can be made
from Seattle, by train, steamer, and motor, such as to Bellingham,
Everett, Tacoma, Mount Rainier, the Olympic Peninsula wonderland,
and to many resorts and lakes in the Cascade and Olympic mountain
ranges. I
anmiifiiiiiitiiinitimiiimiiiitiuiiiiiiiiiimtfi
Malahat Drive, Victoria LODGES
IN  THE  CANADIAN  ROCKIES
Lake Wapta
Lodge
Altitude 5,219 feet
Postal Address:
Lake O'Hara
Lodge
Altitude 6,664 feet
Postal Address:
Yoho Valley
Lodge
Altitude 5,000 feet
Postal Address:
Moraine
Lake Lodge
Altitude 6,200 feet
Postal Address:
Radium Hot
Springs Lodge
Altitude 3,456 feet
Postal Address:
Overlooking beautiful Lake Wapta, just west of the
Great Divide. Fishing, boating, centre for Alpine
climbing, drives, pony rides and hikes to Lake
O'Hara, Yoho Valley, Sherbrooke Lake, Kicking
Horse Canyon, etc.
Lake Wapta Lodge, Hector, B.C.
This Alpine lake, of exquisite coloring and charm,
is a splendid climbing, riding, fishing and hiking
centre. Excursions to Lake McArthur, Lake
Oesa and Opabin Meadows, or over Abbot Pass to
Lake Louise. Reached by trail from Lake Louise
and Wapta.
Lake O'Hara Lodge, Hector, B.C.
At the most delightful location in Yoho Valley,
facing  Takakkaw  Falls.   Excursions  to  Summit
Lake, Twin Falls, Point Lace Falls, Yoho Glacier,
Emerald Lake.   Hiking, climbing, riding.
Yoho Valley Lodge, Field, B.C.
At the head of the Valley of the Ten Peaks. Good
trout fishing, climbing, riding and hiking to
Consolation Lake, Larch Valley, Paradise Valley,
Wenkchemna Pass, etc.
Moraine Lake Lodge, c/o Chateau Lake Louise,
Lake Louise, Alta.
Second   stop   on   the   Banff-Windermere   Road,
Swimming in Radium Hot Springs Pool, hiking.
fishing,   and   climbing.    Wonderful   view of the
Selkirks.    (Owned   and   operated   by   Miss   C.
Armstrong.)
Radium Hot Springs Lodge, Radium Hot Springs,
B.C.
Mount Assiniboine
Lodge
Two-days'   trail   ride   from   Banff   (34   miles),
stopping overnight at half-way camp.    Rates
on application.    (Owned and operated by Erling
Strom.)
Mount Assiniboine Lodge, Banff, Alta.
Situated 15 miles southwest of Banff on the Continental  Divide,  at  the edge of Simpson   Pass.
Riding, climbing, hiking, fishing, hunting. (Owned
and operated by the Brewster Transport Co.)
Sunshine Lodge, Banff, Alta.
A motor trip of 84 miles from Lake Louise to the
spectacular Columbia Icefield. Chalet is at the
foot of the Athabaska Glacier, on the Columbia
Icefield Highway. (Owned and operated by the
Brewster Transport Co.)
OTHER LODGES REACHED BY CANADIAN PACIFIC
French River, Ont .French River Chalet-Bungalow Camp
Kenora, Ont : Devil's Gap Lodge.
Altitude 7,205 feet
Postal Address:
Sunshine Lodge
Altitude 7,800 feet
Postal Address:
Columbia Icefield
Chalet
These attractive  lodges  are  open   during  the  summer  months  and
the rates are reasonable. WORLDS GREATEST TRAVEL SYSTEM
• Canada and the United States
THE CANADIAN PACIFIC RAILWAY (comprising 21,235 miles of
operated and controlled lines) stretches from the Atlantic to the Pacific,
across Canada and into the United States. The main line, Montreal to
Vancouver, 2,882 miles, passes through the heart of the lofty Canadian
Rockies, with their crowning jewel of Banff, unsurpassed as a vacation
resort. Modern and comfortable transcontinental and local passenger
train services link the important cities, industrial sections, agricultural
regions and holiday resorts. Fast and efficient freight service. Convenient coastal and inland lake steamship services. Builds and
operates air-conditioned equipment.
GREAT LAKES . . . Canadian Pacific inland steamships sail semi-
weekly during the summer months between Port McNicoll and Fort
William via an attractive lake and river route.
• Steamships
Due to existing conditions sailing schedules for Canadian Pacific and
Canadian Australasian liners between Canada, the United Kingdom, the
Orient, Australia and New Zealand are temporarily suspended. Your
nearest Canadian Pacific agent will supply all available information.
• Hotels, Express, Communications, Air Lines
HOTELS ... A chain of hospitality across Canada from Atlantic to
Pacific . . . Fourteen hotels in leading cities and resorts, including
the Chateau Frontenac, Quebec (twice chosen meeting place of world
leaders); The Algonquin, St. Andrews-by-the-Sea, N.B.; Royal York,
Toronto; Banff Springs; Empress Hotel, Victoria. . . Six rustic lodges in
the Canadian Rockies and at Ontario fishing resorts.
COMMUNICATIONS AND EXPRESS ... owned and operated by the
CANADIAN PACIFIC . . . trans-Canada service . . . world-wide connections . . . travellers' cheques.
COLONIZATION . . . Canadian Pacific land-settlement policies,
together with the large acreage of fertile agricultural land still for sale
in the West, are helping to develop a richer Canada.
AIR LINES . . With a flying mileage exceeding 5,000,000 plane miles
per year, Canadian Pacific Air Lines are expediting the movement of
vital air-borne traffic from one end of Canada to the other. Its combined aerial routes extend from the Dominion's main transcontinental
lines of communication to the Arctic shores.
Unless otherwise shown, photographs used in this booklet are copyrighted by
Associated Screen News Limited or Canadian Pacific Railway Company. tKA&Up/L, tA&
CANADIAN?
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