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Yoho Valley in the Canadian Rockies and the glaciers of the Selkirks Canadian Pacific Railway Company 1903

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-IN   THE-
Glaciers  of the Selkirks
TaKaKKaw Falls—Yoho Valley, B.C.
1903 A Region of Mountain Splendor
NATURE in her grandest forms
is to be found in the Canadian
Rockies where the Government of
the country has reserved for public uses
a vast tract of mountain splendor and
magnificence. This wonderful domain
includes the Yoho Park Reserve and the
Canadian National Park, the dividing
line between which is the summit of the
Rockies. The Canadian National Park,
in which are the famed Bow Valley,
3anff, the well-known popular health
and pleasure resort, the Lakes in the
* Clouds and the Valley of the Ten Peaks,
lies on the eastern slope of the mountains. On the western slope is the Yoho
Park Reserve in which are embraced
the famous Yoho Valley, Field, the. charming resort at the base of
Mount Stephen, the Ice River Valley, the marvellous canons of the
Kicking Horse, part of the Van Home Range, the Ottertail group and
a vast stretch of territory in which are lofty, but often unmeasured peaks,
undiscovered crags and valleys, dark canons whose depths have yet to
be ascertained, magnificent waterfalls far outrivalling Niagara in height,
and huge glaciers and snow fields that are still untrodden by man. The
Canadian Pacific Railway traverses the parks from the eastern to the
western limits—a distance of seventy-five miles by this route. This is
the region in which Edward Whymper, the noted mountaineer who
first scaled the Matterhorn, made his explorations recently and of which
he wrote: " From any of the heights of the Rockies the outlook is a
magnificent one. The vast ranges are appalling in their immensity and
grandeur, for here are fifty or sixty Switzerlands rolled into one. The
opportunities for mountain climbing are in plenty, and while many
individual peaks are doubtless inaccessible, there are lots of mountains
yet to be ascended which will bring credit to their conquerors." One
of the English journalists who visited British Columbia last year, writes:
"The Englishman who visits the distant part of the Empire soon
becomes painfully aware of the meagre knowledge we at home possess
of a country which sooner or later will be hailed as the most enchanting
of all the lands which own and maintain Britain's sway. No other
portion of the Empire can match its scenery, and its delicious climate,
none excels it in fertility, and none can boast of greater or more varied
mineral riches. It is like Switzerland and the Tyrol on a vast scale—or
like a score of Switzerlands with loftier mountains, larger lakes, mightier
glaciers and rivers, and with a magnificent seaboard in addition, all
joined in one. Had it no other attractions, its face alone should prove
its fortune; and when its wonderful lake-lands—some of which are
now accessible by railway and steamboat—are more generally known,
tourists who can afford the time and the money will flock in ever-
increasing numbers to these far-western fairylands above the clouds in
the Rocky, the Selkirk, and the Cascade Mountains. Already the
Canadian Pacific Railway Company has built several tourist hotels in
these romantic solitudes, and wealthy Americans have discovered that
there are no holiday resorts in the world to surpass, if even to compare
with them."
Through the Mountains
The way from the east lies through the entire breadth of the Canadian National Park, the railway line entering the foothills by the Bow
River Pass and following up the Bow Valley past Banff, to Laggan,
the station for the Lakes in the Clouds. On leaving Laggan the railroad also leaves the Bow River, which now runs nearly north for about
25 miles to its source at" the Bow Pass, and follows up Bath Creek.
To the southward the scenery is magnificent, with a changing panorama of snow-clad monarchs replacing Mount Temple which for so
Kicking- Horse River, B.C.
long has held undisputed sway in that direa
summit of the Rocky Mountains is crossed, ma
whence a stream, separating into two rills, fio1
Bay and the other into the Pacific Ocean.    F
bar Stephen the
he Great Divide,
half into Hudson
* the descent of
the  Kicking  Horse Pass begins.     At first on the right side of the stream, the road soon crosses to the left, and clings to the precipitous
sides of Cathedral Crags and Mount Stephen. Far below the Kicking
Horse River rushes in a series of beautiful cascades, hemmed in closely
by rocky walls and well-wooded slopes. A great valley opens to the
northward, its eastern side formed by the steeps of Mount Ogden, its
western by Mount Field and Wapta Peak, whilst beyond the latter may
be seen the Emerald Range, and nearly due north the snowy crests of
Mount Coliie and Mount Habel, hemming in the valley's head. This
is the famed Yoho Valley, which is becoming one of the most popular
pleasure grounds of the whole mountains. Ere long the great mass of
Mount Field shuts the valley in, and Field Station is reached, nestling
at the foot of the great, almost perpendicular crags culminating in the
summit of Mount Stephen. Close to the station is the Mount Stephen
In traversing the Bow Valley and descending the Kicking Horse
Pass from Stephen to Field, the traveller is carried along as if he were
walking down an aisle in a gallery a hundred miles long, gazing up at
colossal statuary and gigantic pictures ; but this gallery of Nature's art
is only one of many mountain-corridors that succeed one another as
the tourist proceeds westward. The geological character here, causing
the mountains to break and wear under the tooth of time into abrupt
cliffs or long escarpments of piled-up ledges, surmounted sometimes by
splintered crests, sometimes by massive square-faced summits, gives an
architectural character to their outlines far more picturesque, varied,
and sublime than is within human imagination.
Field and its Surroundings
Field is so delightfully and conveniently located that it will be the
headquarters for many excursions into the mountain wilds. " No
intimation was given me," says Mr. Whymper, the noted mountaineer
already quoted, '' that I should find Field a charming place, and it has
been a pleasant surprise to discover in the heart of the Rockies as
delightful a nook as any reasonable person may desire in the midst of
attractive scenery. Whether looking north, south, east, or west, the
views from Field are fine, and the excursions that can be made in the
neighborhood are numerous. I am surprised that the reputation of
Field as a winter resort is not more widely known. Thousands now
visit the Engadine and other parts of Switzerland each winter, many
of them being persons afflicted with pulmonary complaints, on account
of the crisp, dry air and the abundance of sunshine, which make outdoor
sports a delight.    Now in all these respects Field is undoubtedly the
peer of any of the Swiss resorts, and I have no doubt
whatever,   that, when it shall be be m
it will attract many from the Un
and Europe."
The most conspicuous point visible
from the Mount Stephen House
Kicking Horse Canon, B.C
is Mount Stephen itself, towering 6,500 feet above the railroad. Its
ascent is a fine climb, affording magnificent views all the way, culminating in a superb panorama from the summit, whence hundreds of
peaks, glaciers and snow fields are visible in every direction. An
experienced climber may make the round trip in eight hours from the
hotel. Most; however, will prefer to be less hurried, and under the
care of one of the sturdy Swiss guides stationed here, make a more
leisurely excursion, with ample time to drink in the beauty and the
grandeur. The lower portion of the route by a good trail, leading
over ancient glacial moraines . and terminating at the very interesting
geological formation known as the Fossil Bed. This is a rock slide,
300 or 400 feet in vertical height, where every piece of shale or flat slab
of rock contains fossil remains of trilobites. From this point a very fine
view is obtained of the Van Horne Range, across the Kicking Horse
Valley to the westward, whilst to the north are the Emerald Group,
studded with glaciers, and beyond them and a little further eastward
the great snow peaks of the Continental Divide, Mts. Habel, Collie,
Gordon, Balfour and others, tower above the Yoho Valley, one of
whose great waterfalls is plainly in sight. Far away to the southeast
may be descried Mount Assiniboine, whilst nearer at hand are Mount
Victoria and the other big peaks of the Lake Louise region, and to the
southwest the splendid masses of Mount Goodsir, the Chancellor and
Mount Vaux.
Of less ambitious trips, Field can offer its full share. The best
known attraction is perhaps the Natural Bridge, about 2l/2 miles distant down the Kicking Horse River. A trail leads to it from the
Emerald Lake Road.    Here a series of ledges of rock, standing nearly
JtHf, £¥■; vertical, has been undermined and cut through by the action of the
water, which dashes and foams in its narrow channel, whilst an overhanging mass of rock forms the bridge itself.
Arnold Hague, Chief of the United States Geological Survey,
Washington, writes of this phenomenon: ii The Natural Bridge over the
Kicking Horse is one of the most attractive objects near Field, and to
all lovers of scenery will well repay a visit. It should not be overlooked by anyone interested in physical geography or in the wear and
tear of torrents. Formerly this stone bridge formed a barrier
across the river, the stream pouring over the top, in what must have
been a picturesque waterfall. Now the water has forced a passage
through the limestone rock, lowering the level of the river, and pours
with great force through a narrow gorge not more than twenty inches
wide. A short distance above the bridge, the Kicking Horse is more
than ioo feet in width, and is now slowly but steadily widening its
passage through the nearly vertical walls of the limestone barrier. It
is one of the most interesting of all natural bridges. The walk there is
most charming and the view from the bridge over the torrent grand and
panoramic." One mile below this point, although rarely visited, is an
attractive canon.
Immediately facing the traveller as he stands on the porches of the
Mount Stephen House is Burgess Pass, the divide between Mount
Field and Mount Burgess. A good trail makes this pass easily accessible, and the fine views afforded well repay the climb of a couple of
thousand feet. The Kicking Horse Valley, the Ottertail Group, and
Mounts Stephen and Cathedral are the most prominent objects on the
one hand, whilst on the other it seems as if by a step one would reach
Emerald Lake and the magnificent snowy peaks surrounding it.
Another short trip is to follow up the river bank above Field to
Monarch Cabins where the Yoho Valley joins the Kicking Horse Pass.
The views of Mount Stephen, with its hanging glacier, and Cathedral
Crags are very fine from this point. A short walk through the woods
brings one to the canons through which flow the Kicking Horse and
Yoho rivers.
No one, however, having a few hours to spare, should miss the
walk along the railroad, if possible as far as Hector Station, a distance
of about seven miles. Though the trains are run with great caution
and move but slowly over this part of the road, there is not time to see
Mount Stephen House, Field B.C.
Emerald Lake
all that this wondrous pass has in store for the lover of Nature.   To
saunter slowly and study the ever-changing panoramas is the more
satisfactory way.
A silver mine on Mount Stephen, at an elevation of 2,500 feet above
the railway track, is an interesting spot for visitors, and can be reached
without any difficulty.
More ambitious mountaineers, who wish to climb, will not pass by
the Ottertail Range just west of Field. Here has been done some of
the most difficult climbing work so far accomplished in America, and
as yet the most important peak of the group, Mount Goodsir, remains
unconquered. The other big peaks of this range, Mount Vaux and
the Chancellor, afford some splendid climbing, both rock and snow.
Mount Stephen House
The increasing popularity of Field, as its attractions have become
better known, necessitated greater accommodation than the old Mt.
Stephen House afforded. The result has been the erection of anew
chalet hotel of the same name with much greater accommodation, suites
of rooms with private baths, billiard room and the same admirable service which is characteristic of the Canadian Pacific Mountain hotels.
It has a livery in connection where carriages, pack and saddle horses
can be secured at moderate rates, and outfits of cooks and porters are
also available. There is also a dark room at the disposal of guests for
development of photographs. The rates range from $3.00 to $5.50 per
day, with special arrangements for those making prolonged visits. Hints to Photographers
Emerald LaKe
So many persons have made inquiry for hints with respect to photographing among the Canadian Rockies that a few suggestions to the
ever-growing number of devotees of the camera may not be amiss in
this publication. Comfortable dark rooms, freely open to the use of
guests, are provided at the hotels at Banff, Lake Louise, Field and the
Great Glacier, those at the two latter points having an ample supply of
running water.
By far the larger number of tourists who use a camera are equipped
with some form of Kodak. To these and other users of hand cameras
the only caution necessary is to bear in mind that in high altitudes the
actinic effect of the light is very much increased. It is probably safe,
generally speaking, to employ the diaphragm and speed of shutter
which are recommended in the printed instructions accompanying such
cameras, as suitable for exposures at the seashore.
This advice also applies to those using tripod cameras. It will be
found that some one of the makes of color sensitive plates noiv on the
Of all mountain waters, there are few that rival Emerald Lake in
all that makes perfect scenic loveliness. The Lake is reached by an
excellent wagon road down the bank of the Kicking Horse River and
thence around the base of Mount Burgess. A spacious chalet erected last
year at the lake affords comfortable accommodation. It is elegantly furnished, and has spacious bedrooms, pleasant sitting and smoking rooms,
etc., and is under the same management as the Mount Stephen House.
The glimpses of the snowy peaks of the Emerald Range, of Mount
Field, Mount Burgess, the Ottertail Range and other great mountains*
as seen across this charming sheet of water and through the magnificent
forests, are not to be excelled. At one point, "Snow Peak Avenue,"
the road is cut through the deep forest, in an absolutely straight line,
for a distance of upwards of a mile. From the vista thus formed a
fine snow peak is visible at each end—Mount Vaux to the westward,
and one of the Emerald Range to the eastward. There is capital fishing in Emerald Lake, and boats are to be obtained.
Takakkaw Falls and Yoho Valley, B.C.
market will be far more satisfactory in rendering ice, and snow, and
clouds than the ordinary plates. Some workers have obtained excellent
results by the use of the ray filter. As a rule the best effect of light
and shade can be secured before n a.m. or after 4 p.m.
Swiss Guides
Here, as at other points in the mountains, the C.P;R. has stationed
a competent corps of experienced Swiss Guides, who during the tourist
season can be secured to accompany parties on any of the many delightful excursions of the vicinity. Unless specially engaged to make difficult ascents or extended explorations—when the fee is $5 per day for
each guide—no charge is made for their services.
The Yoho Valley
Field is the portal of the Yoho Valley which lies to the north—a
region which is described by an eminent explorer as "resembling the
Yosemite, but whose environing mountains are more elevated and
The trip to the Yoho Valley is one that is most attractive to every
lover of Nature, exhibiting as it does a greater variety of beauty and
grandeur than any other in the vicinity. The usual route is to follow
the wagon road to Emerald Lake, seven miles distant from Field. At
the lake the tourist leaves the wagon and takes a saddle pony, or walks,
as his fancy dictates, and follows the excellent trail around the head of
the lake and up the steep mountain side beyond.     On his left the hang- ing glaciers light up marvellously in the brilliant sunshine, the streams
from them falling in a series of beautiful threadlike cascades some 800
to 1,000 feet. The summit of the pass is-in thick timber, and about
1,800 feet above Emerald Lake. Here is an exquisite little tarn, Yoho
Lake, on whose grassy shores are the most tempting camping grounds.
In every direction game trails thread the forest, while bear and deer
are not infrequently gotten by hunters at some distance and small game
is plentiful.
From Yoho  Lake it is but a half-hour's walk to the Look-out
point, whence a superb view of the splendid Takakkaw Fall is had.
This mighty cataract is about 1,200 feet high,
and as seen is nearly a mile distant.   From
time to time high above its thunderous
roar a mighty booming is heard, caused perhaps by the crashing of great
rocks, which are carried down by the stream. The river which forms
the fall flows but a short distance above from the forefoot of the glacier
which extends from Mount Balfour to Mount Niles. Hence there is
always a good volume of water, though on the afternoon of a warm day
the size of the stream is very much increased. The light then is also
better. The Takakkaw Fall has justly been compared with some other
of the world's famous cataracts. In impressiveness and beauty, it is
equal to those in the Yosemite Valley, but it has the advantage over
them in that the stream never runs dry, and, being glacier fed, the
warmer the season, the larger is the volume of water.
With this grand fall ever in view, the descent to the floor of the
valley, 1,000 feet below, is made by an excellent zigzag trail, shaded by
magnificent white spruce trees, oftentimes several feet in diameter at
the butt, the ground carpeted with many flowers. Soon the visitor is
led to the foot of the Takakkaw Fall, which, from below, presents new
grandeurs and beauties. Hours can be spent on a charming grassy
flower-bedecked meadow watching the everchanging cataract, upon
which the wind has a very marked effect. At this point a shelter is
Continuing up the valley numerous cascades are seen or heard, for
every stream from the glacier-studded mountains above has to make a
leap before it can reach the valley floor. One of these, the Laughing
Fall, is most attractive.    Its height is not great, perhaps only a couple
of hundred feet, but the setting of dark evergreens makes a delightful
contrast with the dancing waters. The stream flows from the upper
Yoho Valley.
Among the most striking attractions are a series of deep canons
through which the river rushes.    Some of them are of great depth, and
Observation Tower, Glacier, B.C.
present a most wild appearance as viewed from the vantage point of
some jutting ledge, with the stream madly rushing and torn to foam a
hundred feet or more below.
Several miles above the Takakkaw Fall the trail forks, and here
again a shelter is provided for the convenience of tourists. Following
the right hand branch, before long one is led to the brink of a steep
rocky wall, which hems in on its western side the great Wapta Glacier,
greater than the famous lllecillewaet Glacier of the Selkirks. Above
rise the mighty peaks of Mount Gordon and Mount Balfour, the latter
flanked by the serrated summit of Trolltinderne—"The Witch's
Crown." Like most of the other glaciers of the district, the Wapta
is receding. This characteristic is here shown, however, by the ice
becoming thinner, instead of so marked a retreat up the valley as is evident elsewhere. The reason for this is, that this glacier is hemmed in
by nearly perpendicular precipices, so that with the diminished supply
of ice, the stream is becoming shallower ; shortening will ultimately
ensue. Notwithstanding its rough appearance this glacier is readily
ascended by an expert, or under the care of a Swiss guide. Two or
three hours' climbing will disclose the magnificent snow-peaks of Mount
Habel and Mount Collie, from which it flow:. The crevasses on the
Wapta Glacier appear to be the result of the forcing of the ice stream
between its narrow walls, as is explained in the little pamphlet entitled
" Glaciers," published by the Canadian Pacific Railway Co.
Looking back from the foot of the glacier, a splendid mountain
prospect is seen, including from right to left Wapta Peak, Mount
Stephen, Mount Odaray, Mount Cathedral and the high peaks adjacent
to Lake Louise.
From the fork in the trail mentioned, the left-hand path winds
past the foot, of one of the fine canons which abound in the Yoho
Valley. After an ascent of about 400 feet through the trees, are caught
the first satisfactory glimpses of theTwin Falls, which, as their name
indicates, are two falls descending side by side.    Their height is pro-
11 bably 600 to 700 feet, which is inferior to that of the Takakkaw Fall,
but in volume of water, beauty and grandeur of setting, they are fully
its equal, and make up by their uniqueness what they may lack in height.
No other similar waterfalls are known, and there is a fascination in
studying them as the shadows thrown by the shooting rockets of water
chase one another.
The return to Field may be made by the high trail which, leaving
Yoho Lake, skirts the cliffs of Wapta Peak and Mount Field, and
crosses the Burgess Pass, separating the latter peak from Mount
Burgess. From this pass splendid views are had across Emerald
Lake thousands of feet below to the Emerald Range, on the one hand,
and of Mount Cathedral, Mount Stephen, Mount Dennis and the
Ottertail Range on the other. The descent to the Mount
Stephen House, now plainly in view, is speedily made by an
excellent zigzag trail.
In this new wonderland there are admirable opportunities
for mountain climbing, pretty park lands which form splendid
camping grounds, and the sportsman has chances for rare
sport, the botanist finds a virgin field of wild flowers and
plants, and the sight-seer an incomparable wealth of scenic
grandeur to delight his eyes. The round trip from Yoho Lake
can be made in a day, but so entrancing are the surroundings
that it is probable two or more days will be willingly given
up to this outing by the average individual, for in the Yoho
Valley is found all that is attractive to the lover of the grand
and the beautiful.
The Great Glacier
In the heart of the Selkirks, the second great range of
mountains, is the Great Glacier, one of the grandest marvels
of Nature, eighty-six miles beyond Mount Stephen. Within
thirty minutes' walk of this wonderful sea of ice is the Glacier
House, the popularity of which is such that the railway company has found it necessary to enlarge the original hotel, erect
new buildings and increase the capacity of the annex, until
now nearly two hundred guests can be comfortably accommodated.
The many attractions of the Great Glacier will doubtless
puzzle the traveller who for the first time visits this most
charming of spots. Visitors come year after year, so delighted
are they with the splendor of the scenery, and one of them,
Mr. George Vaux, Jr., of Philadelphia, furnishes a description which is of such general interest and usefulness, that
the following excerpts are made from it :—
" The Great Glacier naturally claims attention first. The
distance to the forefoot of this frozen river is one and one-half
miles, there being a good trail crossing the Asulkan River, and
following the lllecillewaet River, to which birth is given by
the glacier, till the moraine is reached. One can here see how
slowly but surely the ice field has receded in the last ten
years. A trip over the ice itself, under the protecting care of one of the
Swiss guides, is not only novel, but reveals much that is interesting
and beautiful.
"Another trail leads to Marion Lake, where a shelter is erected,
and thence to Mount Abbott. The lake is about 1,750 feet above the
hotel, and the distance by trail, which is good, though steep in places,
is less than two miles. On the way up, exquisite views of Eagle Peak
and Sir Donald are had through the trees, while a path skirting the
north end of the lake leads to Observation Point, whence superb views
of Rogers' Pass and the Loop Valley are obtained, with the silver
thread of the lllecillewaet, flanked by the railroad, winding through the
latter.    The ascent from the lake to the summit of Mt. Abbott should
Canadian Pacific Railway TOPOGRAPHICAL * MAP
OF     THE
Railway Line. shewn thm.
—>i -"j- — be made by everyone at all equal to the exertion of a day's climb. With
the improved condition of the trail and an early start, the ascent may be
made in a few hours with ease by persons unaccustomed to mountaineering. A branch trail leads from Marion Lake, and skirting
Mount Abbott terminates above Asulkan Valley, affording very fine
The AsulKan Valley and Glacier
other places would be considered worthy of special attention. The rich
meadows would prove tempting pastures for herds of cattle or flocks of
goats. At the distance of two and one-half or three miles the river is
contracted between narrow and rocky walls, and the canon sides here
show no striking signs of glacial action. Emerging from the gorge,
the path leads over an old moraine, across the stream flowing in from
" Possibly the most charming of any of the excursions is that up
the Asulkan Valley, a gem of Alpine beauty which was first explored
in 1888. The name "Asulkan" given to this valley with the glacier
and pass at its southern end, is Ind:an for the mountain goat, which is
at times found here in large numbers. The Asulkan Valley is hemmed
in on its eastern side by Glacier Crest and the ridges running from it to
the southward, which form the western side of the great lllecillewaet
neve, or snowfield. On its western side the valley is bounded by the
long range which is comprised in order, beginning at the north, of
Mounts Abbott, Afton, the Rampart, the Dome, Castor and Pollux.
A series of glaciers sweeps down from all of these except Abbott, and
the streams flowing from them form a number of most graceful and
beautiful waterfalls.    The Seven Falls,  so far unnamed in detail, at
Mount Sir Donald, Selkirk Range, B.C.
The Asulkan Valley, B.C.
the east, and thence up a very steep, grassy slope to the shelter erected
for the accommodation of tourists. This point is about 2,000 feet above
Glacier House, and about five miles distant from it. From about this
level superb views of the Asulkan Glacier are had, while the glaciers
covering the sides of the Dome, Castor and Pollux are exceedingly
striking. The ice-towers, pinnacles, obelisks, minarets and turrets are
of surpassing grandeur and beauty, and the sight of them is an ample
recompense to any one who takes this trip, which, in fact, includes
more variety than any of the others now easily accessible. Looking
from near the shelter to the north, the Hermit Range is most beautifully
set out, while nearer at hand and passing eastward come in order the
summits of Mount Avalanche, Eagle Peak and Sir Donald, the latter
manifesting quite a different aspect from that seen from other positions.
From the shelter the ridge may be followed upward for a mile or more,
till sufficient elevation is obtained to observe the peaks of the Dawson
Range. The total distance of the round trip is some twelve or fourteen
miles, and the time occupied about the same number of hours for an
ordinary walker who does not wish to hurry. A variation of this trip
is to follow upward along the crest of the great moraine just east of the
Glacier, instead of climbing the grassy slopes to the shack.
i l The trip to Glacier Crest is not so often taken, but the view from
19 the summit is well worth the exertion. This excursion should only be
taken by ascending the face of the Glacier, and turning off on the rocks
at a high elevation, though the descent may be made by a faintly marked
trail through the woods.
Mount Avalanche
■ ' Another excellent trail is that to the top of the Cascade, and
thence to the grassy slopes which culminate in the fine twin peak of
Mount Avalanche. The view is a superb one when the points outlined
against the sky just above the snowsheds are reached, and in many
respects rivals that from Mount Abbott. The most striking object is,
perhaps, Mount Sir Donald, which rises as a square pyramid. Two
sides are visible, and it thus presents an entirely different aspect from
that seen from any other point.    From an elbow about half-way up,
■'-:|^P^i:-' ■ $FT-.
Lakes in the Clouds
where the trail reaches its most southern point, a fine view of the Great
Glacier and its rough ice fall is had, and throughout, where it can be
seen through the trees, the Asulkan Valley is most exquisitely beautiful.
This trip should have a day devoted to it, if possible, and the visitor is
strongly urged on this, as on the other more extended trips, to make an
early start. The morning light discloses beauties not dreamed of, and
should the weather be warm, as it sometimes is at mid-day, one gets
the advantage of doing the hardest part of the work in the cool of the
day. An early breakfast and a substantial lunch are always obtainable
without difficulty. The ascent of Mount Avalanche itself affords all the
delights of a true Alpine climb, and whilst not difficult from the standpoint of the mountaineer, should not be attempted without a guide
except by experts.     From the summit literally hundreds of snowy
Banff Hotel, Canadian National Park
peaks are visible, all sinking into insignificance below the towering
height of Sir Donald. The trip is an exhilarating one, is varied with
rock and ice work, and on the descent a glissade may be enjoyed over
the steep neve of the Mount Avalanche glacier.
The Monarch of the SelKirKs
"But no real lover of mountains will rest satisfied till he has
climbed Sir Donald, the Monarch of the Selkirks, which so long defied
the attempts of climbers to reach its summit, but whose ascent may
now be made without undue risk or exertion under the skilled leadership of the Swiss guides. The climb to the summit will occupy several
hours, and whilst they are hours of labor, they are filled to overflowing
with beauty and grandeur. The real summit, which is not seen from
Glacier House, commands a superb and unbroken panorama in every
direction. From here alone the great extent of the vast snowfields
which feed the numerous glaciers, and the mighty peaks of the unknown
surrounding wilderness—many of them a hundred or more miles distant
can be appreciated.*
21 Other Places of Interest
Banff, the Beautiful
" In contrast to these expeditions to higher levels is the always
beautiful and attractive walk to Rogers' Pass along the trail above the
snowsheds. This affords the opportunity to enjoy with more leisure the
views which the westbound traveller has only just caught while scurrying through on the ' Imperial Limited.' Climbers also will appreciate
this trail with its continuation taking them high up on the flanks of the
Swiss Peaks. These mountains rival Sir Donald in he:ght, and their
ascent is not the least attractive point the mountaineer will aim for.
* ' Another pleasant walk is that along the railroad to the Loop,
whence the changing panoramas of peaks are ever new and attractive.
The view of Mt. Bonney, which lies to the south of Ross Peak, as seen
from the top of the Loop, is very beautiful.
" There are yet other trails to follow, and in such a sea of mountains, most of them yet awaiting their conquerors, the variety of view
and diversity of experience is infinite.
The Fraser Canon, B.C.
*' These notes are only intended to start the visitor with a few suggestions as to the attractions of the surroundings of Glacier House. If
he has spent a week or more the foregoing outline will have kept his
time fully occupied, and the familiarity he will have gained with the
vicinity will enable him to outline numerous other trips equally delightful but taking more time".
During the tourist season a corps of Swiss guides is stationed here,
who, as at Field, and the Lakes in the Clouds, will personally conduct
mountain climbers who desire to make expeditions to places difficult of
access. Ponies, which are generally used here as pack animals, are
obtainable at reasonable rates, the charge to the Glacier being $1.00,
or for a full day's trip $2.00 per pony. There is fairly good trout fishing
at the Loop, and much better a few miles further west, and excellent
grouse shooting in the fall. At the hotel are many sources of amusement for guests—billiard hall, bowling alley, and swings for the children. An observatory has been erected, and a large telescope been
placed at the hotel. There is a dark room here for photographers. The
rates are $3.00 per day and upwards, special arrangements being made
with those making prolonged visits.
At Banff, in the Canadian National Park, on the eastern slope of
the Rockies, are the marvellous Banff Hot Springs, near which the
Canadian Pacific Railway Company has erected a large and excellently appointed hotel, where the River Spray rushes furiously over a
series of rapids into the Bow River, The hotel, perched on a promontory overlooking the valley which carries the mingled waters of the two
rivers through the great natural park, commands uninterrupted and
glorious views of the peaks and stretches of the Rockies in all directions, and its delightful situation and magnificent environments make it
the favorite rendezvous, during the summer months, of tourists from all
parts of the globe. Pleasant drives lead to high altitudes, and Lake
Minnewanka and the Bow River afford capital boating and fishing.
Banff has not only unusual attractions in its surroundings, but there are
many points of interest—the Cave and Basin, the Bow Falls, the observatory on Sulphur Mountain, Sun Dance Canon, the Hoodoos, National
Museum, herd of buffalo, etc.—that delight visitors. The hotel has
accommodation for 300 guests and the rates are $3.50 and upwards per
day with special rates for those making prolonged visits. A motor car
will be run during summer months between Banff and Laggan, which
will afford excellent facilities for parties wishing to make expeditions
through the Bow Valley. The car is upholstered in leather, has seating
capacity for 14, and the motive power is supplied by an electro-gasoline
The LaKes in the Clouds
Between Field and Banff are the Lakes in the Clouds, a magnificent trinity of mountain waters of rare beauty. They are reached from
Laggan by a short drive along the mountain side to Lake Louise where
a chalet with accommodation for 70 guests is erected. Lakes Mirror
(altitude 6,550 feet) and Agnes (altitude 6820 feet) are reached by good
trails, and other trails branch off to Paradise Valley and the Valley of
the Ten Peaks, both of which rival the Lakes in the Clouds region in
their beauty.
For detailed description of Banff and the Lakes in the Clouds see
folder devoted specially to those places.
Up the Columbia
One of the most pleasant trips that can be made in British Columbia is that by steamer from Golden — nearly half-way between Field and
Glacier—to Lake Windermere, one of the Mother Lakes of the great
Columbia River, passing through the foothills of the Rockies on the one
hand and the Selkirks on the other. Leaving Golden, the Columbia is
divided into several narrow channels, the banks of which, for the first
fifty miles, are heavily wooded, tall cottonwoods, willows, and the wild
rose being predominant, but at Spillamachene the valley broadens, and
a park-like bunch grass country is entered, in which is a string of fine
fishing lakes lying from four to eight^miles west of the river. These
lakes are easy of access by good pack trails, and, never having been
23 fished except by miners and prospectors, offer magnificent sport to the
fisherman. They lie at an elevation of three thousand feet above the
sea, overshadowed by Mount Ethelbert, the highest peak in sight of
the Columbia. Passing through the perpendicular banks of the river,
which rise to a height of from one to two hundred feet, and have been
carved by the action of the streams from melting snow into the most
fantastic shapes, Lake Windermere is approached. The placid lake,
ten miles long and a couple broad, at the base of the rolling green foothills, with its background of the grim Rockies and the Selkirks, presents
a view which can never be forgotten. At Windermere, half-way up
the lake, there is good hotel and boating accommodation. No meadow
or swamp land is in the vicinity, and there is a consequent freedom from
mosquitoes. A large steamer of the sternwheel pattern leaves Golden on
Tuesdays and Fridays during June, July and August, returning from
Windermere on Wednesdays and Sundays.
Down the Arrow LaKes
Another delightful trip is that down the Columbia River and Arrow
Lakes to the Kootenay Country, which can be made from Revelstoke,
44 miles west of the Great Glacier. The Columbia, which was seen at
Golden running north makes a great detour—while the railway has cut
across the mountains—and at Revelstoke it flows south. Branching
away from the main line at Revelstoke, the head of the lakes is reached
in a little over an hour, and then, for a distance of a hundred and twenty
miles, the steamer threads a lake never more than three miles wide,
frequently much narrower, banked on either side with high hills, whose
massive frames are hidden under a belt of soft green mountain foliage.
At Halcyon Hot Springs is an excellently appointed hotel, with a complete system of baths. The waters have admirable medicinal qualities,
and the pleasant surroundings make this a favorite resort for health and
pleasure seekers.
The tour of the mining regions can be made by this route—there
being rail connection from Nakusp with Sandon in the Slocan silver-
lead district, and with the Rossland and Boundary mining districts from
West Robson. An English writer says of the latter trip : " It is
impossible to give an adequate description of the beauty of the scene,
which becomes more amazing if, after reaching Robson, the traveller
will take a train into the Boundary district. At the outset the trains
run back along Arrow Lake, but ever mounting, crawling round narrow curves, over high bridges, until at last it rests on the brink of a
precipice, at the bottom of which, a thousand feet below, lies the lake.
It is a picture painted in the softest shades of green. The waters of the
lake reflect on their placid surface the shadows and contours of the
wooded heights, and for miles on either side the lake winds in and out,
now bending one way, now the other, ever forming a charming perspective, on which the eye lingers in perpetual delight. " From Robson,
Nelson, on an arm of Kootenay Lake is reached by rail which parallels
the bank of the turbulent Lower Kootenay River, an exceptionally good
fishing water, and at Nelson he will find a number of pleasant tours
open to him, and he can, if he will, charter a house-boat and enjoy an
outing on the lake amidst the most delightful surroundings, and with a
certainty of good sport with both the rod and gun in season.
Hotel Sicamous
On an arm of Shuswap Lake, in the valley on the western side of
the Gold Range, is the Hotel Sicamous, a handsome, well-appointed
and elegantly furnished structure. In the lake, whose arms stretch out
like the tentacles of an octopus, is capital fishing—rainbow trout, the
the gamest of fish, being plentiful ; and the shooting in the vicinity is
Hotel Sicamous, B*C.
unexcelled. There is a houseboat on Shuswap Lake, and it can be
chartered by fishing and shooting parties, it being towed from point to
point by a small tug. Row-boats and other craft are also procurable.
Sicamous is the gateway to the famed Okanagan Valley, a noted hunting ground, which is reached by branch railway. One of the Company's fine steamers plies on Lake Okanagan, and outings on it are
pleasant and enjoyable.
The Fraser Canon House
At North Bend, on the Fraser River, is the last of these mountain
hotels—the Fraser Canon House—and it is in all respects similar to the
others. Here the incomparable wild flowers for which British Columbia
is famed reach the highest perfection, and grow in wonderful profusion,
making the spot one of unparallelled loveliness. The gardens and lawns
of the hotel are perhaps the finest in Canada, and are a great attraction
to the tourist. The hotel is in the immediate neighborhood of some of
the most remarkable and furious reaches of the Fraser River, which for
over 50 miles rushes through narrow and picturesque canons, before
reaching the fertile country of its delta below Yale, and makes a convenient base from which these wonders can be explored. There is a
pretty series of cascades a short fifteen minutes' walk back of the hotel,
and one mile west is a favorite spot for salmon spearing, it being an
interesting sight to witness the Indians engaged in this occupation, and
even more interesting for the tourist to participate in it himself, as he is,
in the season, easily enabled to do. At Scuzzie, four and one-half miles
west, and Salmon River, four miles east, there is capital trout fishing,
and a trip to Hope by rail for a day's fishing is a popular outing.
Hotel Vancouver
At Vancouver, a short distance from the harbor, and commanding
a series of views of the bay and the surrounding country, is the Canadian
Pacific Company's Hotel Vancouver, the principal hotel of the city, and
one unsurpassed in its appointments and general comfort by any on the
Pacific Coast.    It has recently been rebuilt.    It is at all times well
25 patronized, summer and winter, but on the arrival and departure of the
Japan and China, or Australian steamers, is more than usually bright
and busy. Adjoining it is the Opera House, one of the most charming
theatres outside of New York, and this, with other attractions has
served to make the hotel so popular that is has been found absolutely
necessary* to largely increase the size of the building.
This series of hotels, with the Chateau Frontenac on the famed
Dufferin Terrace at Quebec, and the Place Viger, facing Viger Square
the daily overland express between the Atlantic and the Pacific, the
Imperial Limited trains, commencing early in June next, and continuing
throughout the summer months, will leave Montreal and Toronto every
Sunday, Wednesday and Friday, and Vancouver on Tuesdays, Thursdays and Saturdays. The continent is crossed in 97 hours. The
Imperial Limited consists of wide-vestibuled palace sleeping and dining
cars, in whose construction no feature that is needed to give the greatest
luxury and comfort to the traveller is lacking. Sleeping and dining
cars are attached to the daily transcontinental expresses, and also
observation cars through the mountains during the tourist season.
at Montreal, two of the finest hotels in America, enables the tourist to
cross from the Atlantic to the Pacific through Canada, and to spend
whatever leisure time he chooses in fishing, shooting or wandering
amidst the magnificent scenery of the Rocky Mountains, with all the
comfort that capital and enterprise have provided for the traveller by
this route. The rates at the Vancouver are $3.00 per day and upwards,
with special terms for prolonged visits, on application to the manager.
Further information as to accommodation, rates, etc., can be secured
by writing the managers of the different hotels, or Geo. McL. Brown,
Superintendent of the Company's Hotels, Montreal.
Canadian Pacific Train Service
The transcontinental train service of the Canadian Pacific Railway
more than meets all the requirements of modern travel.    In addition to
Transcontinental train
lllecillewaet Valley, B.C. Swiss Guides
The Route through the Rockies
The beauties of the region through which the Canadian Pacific runs
add to the delights of travelling over this great highway. The interesting Ottawa Valley, the picturesque north shore of Lake Superior, the
charms of New Ontario, in which lies the famous Lake of the Woods
with its thousands of clustering islets, and the great stretches of wheat
lands and ranges of Western Canada are a fitting prelude to the delights
of the run through the mountains. Of this trip, Mr. Whymper, the
famed mountaineer, already quoted, says in a letter to the London
Times : "It was at Calgary that the interest of the trip commenced for
me ; though in saying so I an not insensible to the charms of the other
parts of the Dominion. There are, in particular, two long pieces of
country through which the Canadian Pacific passes—the run for 200
miles through Ontario from Ottawa to Mattawa alongside the River
Three Sisters
Ottawa, and the 60 miles that skirt the northern shores of Lake Superior—which cannot fail to impress every one, and will remain in the
recollection of all those who have any appreciation of natural beauty.
At Calgary one approaches the mountains, and the panorama of
the chain, stretching over nearly half an horizon, is a thing to be seen,
and may be compared with that of the Alps from the plains of Italy.
No one should miss it. Forty miles further on the line enters the mountains, and thence to Vancouver, 588 miles, there is not a dull spot.
Views and vistas of valleys and ravines, of torrents, rivers, lakes and
waterfalls, peaks and precipices, succeed one another continuously.
The mountain section of the line is picturesque all the way over; but its
beauties cannot be grasped upon a single journey, for it is impossible to
see to the right and left, in front, and behind all at the same moment."
How to Reach the Rockies
Banff, Field, the Great Glacier, and the other resorts in the mountains, and the Pacific Coast, are reached from New York, Boston, and
other Atlantic Coast points by way of Montreal, and thence by the
Canadian Pacific Railway, or by Niagara Falls, Hamilton and Toronto, .
and thence to North Bay on Lake Nipissing, where connection is made
with transcontinental trains, an alternate route being offered during the
season of navigation by the company's magnificent steamships through
low River Valley, Banff, Alba.
connecting with the Canadian Pacific at Fort William, at the head of
Lake Superior. From the middle-western states the route is by the
Soo-Pacific Route, from St. Paul and Minneapolis, connecting with
the Canadian Pacific trains at Moose Jaw, in the Canadian Northwest.
The return trip can be made through the Kootenay gold region and
by the Crow's Nest Pass line to the plains of the Canadian Northwest,
and by the main line of the Canadian Pacific, the Soo-Pacific Road and
the Great Lakes. This alternate route is by the Canadian Pacific main
ine from Vancouver to Revelstoke, and thence by a combination of rail
and steamer down the Arrow and Kootenay Lakes to Kootenay Landing
and Crow's Nest Pass branch, etc. Returning by this route, the tourist
is enabled to compare the mountains of British Columbia from different
29 For further particulars or information^ apply to any agent of the
Canadian Pacific Railway or to
E. V. SKinner .
H. J. Colvin . .
C B. Foster . .
A. E. Edmonds
A. J. Shulman.
A. C. Shaw. . .
M. ML Stern. . .
W. R. Callaway
W. S. Thorn . .
G. W. Hibbard
J. H. Thompson
H. McMurtrie .
W. W.MerKle.
C 0'D. Pascault
A. H. Notman .
E. J. Coyle . . .
Wm. T.Payne. DaviesQCo,
Wm. Stitt. ......
D. E. Brown	
Archer BaKer . . .
General Eastern Agent, 353 Broadway, New
District Passenger Agent, 362 Washinton Street,
District Passenger Agent, St. John, N. B.
City Passenger Agent, 7 Fort St. W., Detroit.
City Passenger Agent, 233 Main St.,   Buffalo.
General Agent Passenger Department, 228 South
Clark Street, Chicago.
District Passenger Agent, 627 Market Street,
San Francisco.
General Passenger Agent, Soo Line, Minneapolis, Minn.
Assistant General Passenger Agent, Soo Line,
St. Paul.
General Passenger Agent, D. S. S. & A. Line,
Marquette, Mich.
129 E. Baltimore Street, Baltimore.
629-631 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia.
1229 Pennsylvania Ave., Washington.
City Passenger Agent, 500 Smithfield Street,
Pittsburg, Pa.
Assistant General Passenger Agent, 1 Xing
Street East, Toronto, Ont.
Assistant General Passenger Agent, Vancouver,
General Traffic Agent for Japan, 14 Bund,
Yokohama, Japan.
, Honolulu, H, I.
General Passenger Agent, C.-A.S.S. Line,
Sydney, Australia.
General Ag$&t for China and Japan, Hong Kong.
European Traffic Manager, 67 and 68 King
William Street, E.C., and 30 Cockspur St.,
S.W., London, Eng.; 9 James St., Liverpool,
Eng.; 67 St. Vincent St., Glasgow, Scotland.
General Passenger Agent,
Eastern Lines,
c. e. Mcpherson,
General Passenger Agent,
Western Liijes,
Passenger Traffic Manager,
-IN   THE-
Glaciers of the Selkirks
Mount Sir Donald, Selkirk Range


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