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Fishing, shooting, canoe trips and camping Canadian Pacific Railway Company 1909

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Canadian $acttfc ftaitoap  ea - V^c^i
So-
TWENTT-NINTH EDITION
ISSUED BY THE
CANADIAN PACIFIC RAILWAY
E OS ■ CONTENTS
PAGE
What Canada has to Offer the Sportsman  4
The Hunting Regions of Canada  5
Big Game Shooting  11
Moose  11
Deer  13
Caribou  15
Wapiti or Elk  16
Bighorn or Mountain Sheep  16
Rocky Mountain Goat.  20
Musk Ox, Black Bear  21
Grizzly Bear  22
Wolves  24
Pumar or Cougar  25
Canada Lynx  25
Antelope  26
Small Game Shooting  27
Bird Shooting  27
Fishing  35
Salmon  36
Ouananiche or Land-Locked Salmon  37
Trout  37
Canadian Lake Trout  40
Bass  42
Maskinonge •  43
Canadian Pike.   45
Canoe Trips and Camping  46
Upper St. John River, N.B  47
Tobique River  48
Ottawa River  49
Kawartha Lakes and Moon River  50
Timiskaming and Kipawa  51
Mississaga and North Shore  52
Nipigon River Trip  52
Hudson and James Bay  55
Lake of the Woods  55
A British Columbia Canoe Trip  56
The Game of British Columbia  57
Vancouver Island ■.  63
Camping in Canada  65
Tents, Canoes, Guides and Supplies  67
Open Seasons and Game Laws  71
Campers' and Sportsmen's Outfits  75
Canadian Pacific Railway Hotel System  77
Pacific and Atlantic Ocean Steamship Service  78
Canadian Pacific Railway Company's Publications. ... 79
Agencies Canadian Pacific Railway  80 \
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J What Canada has to
Offer the Sportsman
J HE Big Game  of   Canada   comprises   Moose,   Deer,   Caribou,
Wapiti or Llky Bighorn or Mountain Sheep, Musk   Ox,  Grizzly
Bear,     Black     Bear,     Wolves,
Puma     or     Cougar,     Canada
Lynx and Antelope.
The   Small   Game  ranges   through   practically
the whole gamut of fur-bearing animals, and includes
also a great variety of Waterfowl, the latter unsurpassed in abundance anywhere in the world.
The Fishing comprises Salmon and Trout in
greater profusion than in any other country, as
well as those splendid game fish, Bass, Maskinonge, Ouananiche or Land-locked Salmon, in addition
to many other varieties.
With vast regions dotted over with myriads of
lakes, clear, fast-flowing rivers and streams, and
primeval forests, Canada offers to sportsmen and
to the lovers of the wild one of the freest and most
fascinating playgrounds in existence.
Do you want to plan a hunting or fishing
trip into one of these regions ? Would you like
a camping or canoeing expedition into the wilds ?
You will be surprised to find how inexpensively
such a trip may be accomplished ; how easily you
may get right away into the heart of Nature. The
Canadian Pacific Railway has a special department
for supplying information to tourists and sportsmen.
Freely and promptly you may obtain from that
department the best expert advice regarding
special districts for particular varieties of Game
and Fish, the most attractive Camping Grounds
and Canoe Trips, the engagement of Guides, the
purchase or hire of Outfit and Supplies, the Game
Laws, etc.    Write to
L. O. ARMSTRONG,   Tourist Agent,
Canadian  Pacific  Railway,  Montreal, Que. "O WAD AYS Canada is
chiefly famous as one
of the great grain
and fruit producing countries of the
world, and as one of its richest mining
countries. But it must be remembered that
vast as are her fertile prairies, prosperous
as are her farming regions, fabulously rich as are her
mining districts, she has still vaster areas of forest and
mountain, thickly populated not by man but by all the
numerous creatures of the wild, indigenous to North
America. Most of the species now found in Canada were
formerly common to the whole of the Continent. Many of them.,
however, have been altogether driven out of the United States
by the steady march of civilization, and have retreated beyond
the international boundary to take up their abode in the great
wilderness of the north. Here big game and small are still to
be found in great numbers, as is partially demonstrated by
the fact that Canada is one of the chief fur-producing countries
. in the world.
Fortunately both the Federal and Provincial Governments in
Canada have long recognized the value of the wild life of the
country, and by wise laws have protected big and small game
from indiscriminate slaughter. Educated sportsmen throughout
the Dominion are co-operating in this protection by the
formation of game protection associations. Already as a
consequence big game has been on the increase in Canada
during recent years, while at the same time the utmost freedom
has been, and is, allowed for the enjoyment of legitimate sport.
It is, therefore, to Canada that American sportsmen must
come if they would get hunting at its best; and to Canada also
must come European sportsmen who would enjoy the best big
game hunting that America has to offer. The sportsman need
have no fear but that he will find in Canada big game worthy
of his mettle. There are few greater tests of skill and nerve
than to hunt down the Canadian bull moose—a creature with
the weight and strength of a horse, the speed of an antelope,
and the heart of a lion.    If the   securing of the magnificent The hunting regions Of Canada
trophy which the bull moose has to offer is not sufficient to
convince the sportsman of Canada's superiority as a big game
country, let him match his skill against the Canadian wolf, most
cunning of all wild animals; or his courage against the fierce
grizzly bear; or his agility and endurance against the mountain
goat and the bighorn sheep in the Rockies.
The Canadian climate is healthy and enjoyable. It is a
veritable physical tonic, and for the sportsman it has the added
advantage that there are no fevers or malaria such as are so
A   SURPRISE   PARTY
common in the big game countries of Europe, Africa, India, and
South America. Venomous reptiles are unknown, as are
poisonous or noxious plants, the only possible chance of danger
being from the pursuit of game, or the smaller risk of attack by
wounded animals. Camping and hunting in Canada have a
fascination peculiarly their own, the grandeur and romantic
character of the environments forming not  the least  portion of THE   HUNTING   REGIONS   OF   CANADA
that fascination. Wholesome pleasure and physical gain both
await the sportsman in the forests of Canada, and here too he
will find that which will satisfy the eternal longing of the
human heart for the wild and the untameable.
A good general idea of the resources of the hunting regions
of Canada may be gained by a brief consideration of the regions
through which the Canadian Pacific Railway passes in its long
stretch from the Atlantic to the Pacific Oceans.
On the Atlantic seaboard, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick,
with their great forests and fine waterways, are famous as the
home of the giant moose and the various other species of the deer
family.
The province of Quebec, with the vast breeding grounds of
the Laurentians to the north of the narrow fringe of civilization
in the St. Lawrence valley, has an abundance of big game, from
WHO   IS   COMING.'
the timid red deer to the fleet-footed caribou and noble moose.
In its woods may also be found in large numbers, black bear,
wolverine, hares, foxes, and almost every variety of small game
in Canada.
New Ontario, which has become world-famous for the silver
mines of Cobalt and the copper and nickel mines of Sudbury,
comprises within its borders a vast unsettled region that offers
some of the best hunting in Canada. Through the centre of this
unsettled region runs the Canadian Pacific Railway, giving the
best of transportation to the prolific game haunts east, north,
and west of Lake Superior. THE   HUNTING   REGIONS   OF   CANADA
The first important station for the sportsman that is met
with along the transcontinental line of the Canadian Pacific
after passing beyond the borders of Quebec province is the
town of Mattawa, situated at the junction of the Mattawa River
with the Ottawa. Mattawa, a name borrowed from the Indian
and signifying "the meeting of the waters" in the Ojibway
tongue, is one of the best points on that portion of the line to fit
out for an extended shooting excursion. The hotel accommodation there is good and prices are low for board, or guides and
boats. It is a supply depot for a vast, rugged and wild
country, where extensive lumbering operations are carried on.
For many years the Hudson's Bay Company maintained a post
at this place; in fact, the post was there a hundred years
before the town. Within easy reach of civilization there are
many moose; bear are quite abundant, while caribou and
deer are by no means scarce.
North from Mattawa, a branch line of the Canadian
Pacific Railway may be followed to Temiskaming station,
where the steamers of the Lumsden Line make close connections
and will convey the traveller to Haileybury, the headquarters
for the splendid hunting districts within the watershed of
Lake Temiskaming and also for the Cobalt silver mines.
Sudbury, from which the Soo branch of the C.P.R. runs to
Sault Ste. Marie, is well situated as a sporting headquarters and
outfitting point. Deer hunting on the Vermillion River is excellent, and there are some wolves in the district. Caribou
and moose exist in fair numbers thirty miles west of the town
near Onaping Lake, and all that country is good for deer.
Twenty-five miles east of Bisco there is a good deer country.
This is one of the best centres between the Ottawa River and
Heron Bay. From Bisco a canoe route down the Mississaga
leads to Dayton or Blind River on the Soo branch. North from
Bisco is one of the best routes to Gowganda silver fields.
Going south from Bisco the first twenty miles is through
burnt land, but after that the route lies through a splendid
forest country, where moose abound. Fifteen days is the
necessary time for the trip to Dayton, but one can spend even
more time pleasantly on the trip. There are moose, deer,
caribou, and bear, rabbit, partridge and duck in the neighborhood.    From 100 to 150 bears are killed annually about Bisco.
As shooting grounds, the broad tracts of forest, lake and
rocky barren between Sudbury and Fort William are worth
attention. Black bear, moose, caribou and ruffed grouse are
generously distributed. The best points are upon the north
shore of Lake Superior proper, Schreiber, Ont., being, perhaps, as
good a centre of operations as any, where hunting camps have THE   HUNTING   REGIONS   OF   CANADA
been built by F. C. Armstrong, who also supplies guides, canoes,
provisions, and all outfits.
Good moose hunting is also found west of Schreiber at
Gravel River and Pearl River. The accommodations for hunters
are limited, but a small party could be provided for by the
settlers.
Westward from Fort William, the terminal of the Canadian
Pacific Upper Lakes Steamship route, is a wild, broken country
extending to the boundary line that divides the Province of
Ontario from that of Manitoba. Like the region just referred
to,   it   has  many lakes   and   streams;   but   most   worthy of
AN   EARLY   MORNING   SWIM
special notice is Wabigoon Lake, lying half-way between Fort
William and Winnipeg. This Wabigoon (Ojibway for flower)
Lake is a pretty sheet of water extending west and south about
twenty miles in each direction by about three or four wide,
with rough, rocky shores in places, and a few small islands.
The best hunting ground in this district is *up the Long
Lake River, which flows into Wabigoon Lake about 12 miles
east of Wabigoon.
Supplies, outfits and guides for this territory can be
secured at Dinorwic, from the Hudson Bay Agent, or at
Wabigoon from the Wabigoon and Gold Rock Trading Co.
9 THE   HUNTING   REGIONS   OF   CANADA
The task of describing adequately any particular route
is difficult. A glance at a map of Canada will reveal the
extent of the great chain of waters referred to, and the sportsman can select from about a hundred long or short canoe trips
the one that best suits his convenience. Upon any of these
countless streams and lakes can be spent a delightful holiday,
covering a few days, or weeks. Those who have the time
could have few more enjoyable experiences than to spend
an entire season in tracing out the old-time routes of the
voyageurs famous in the history of the fur trade; many
million dollars' worth of furs and pelts have been brought
down these glistening highways, and hundreds of feet have
trodden the portages encountered.
Manitoba has many excellent places where big game may
be found. Pembina Mountains, reached by the Canadian Pacific Railway, offer gratifying sport among elk and deer, while the
great lakes and splendid railway facilities of this Province make
other well known resorts easy of access. Out on the high prairies
of Saskatchewan and Alberta there is an abundance of big
game. It is always a surprise to travellers to find how many
are the lakes, and how teeming is the bird life, of the
prairies.
■ The Rocky Mountains, despite the heavy toll levied each
year by the Stoney Indians, continue to attract sportsmen
from all parts of the world. If the rare and unusual in
sporting experience is desired, the seeker after novelty will
not be disappointed in these regions. British Columbia
each year is adding additional laurels to its already great
reputation for big game, and a visit by the sportsman to the
well known game districts means a hunting trip that will
live long in the memory of the most blas6 sportsman. This
Province is beyond comparison the best big game country
in North America, and it would not be an exaggeration to say
in the world.
It is impossible within the limits of this booklet to give a
list of all the different localities where game can be encountered,
but under the different headings will be found much information which will be useful to the hunter and angler.
10 Ms-
. /
T
^HIS monarch of the Canadian
forest is found in every Province
in the Dominion, from the
Atlantic Ocean to the Rocky Mountains, and from the Yukon
to the International Boundary Line. The moose is indeed noble
game, for when fully grown it weighs much over one thousand
pounds, and has a spread of antlers from five to six feet or more
in width. The best hunting grounds of this giant quadruped
are Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Quebec and Ontario, the .
Northern part of the State of Maine and the Yukon.
So well does the animal thrive in New Brunswick that it
may be found in at least twelve of the fifteen counties, a third
of the whole area of the Province being good hunting ground.
The best moose grounds are to the east and north of the river
St. John, north of King's county, and extending to the northeastern seaboard. This portion of the Province has been
described as a vast game preserve, running one hundred and
fifty miles to the northward, and having in some places a
width of more than one hundred miles east and west.
In the Province of Quebec the chief haunts of the Moose are
about Lake Edward, Riviere-a-Pierre and La Belle Riviere
in the Lake St. John country, in the counties of Ottawa
and Pontiac, in the north-west of the Province. In Gaspe
and Temiscouata in  the east and in Kipawa in  the west.
In September and October the animals are often surprised
and killed while wading in the cool waters of inland lakes, where
they feed on the roots and stems of aquatic plants. Like the red
deer, they "yard" in winter, the "yard" consisting of hardwood ridges between cedar or spruce swamps round or
through which they make beaten tracks like lanes in their rambling. A'' yard'' sometimes contains from twenty to forty animals.
In Ontario, moose are quite abundant in the Temagami and
Kipawa districts, and also around Maniwaki, Desbarats,
Missanabie.
All the ground from Fort William to the Wabigoon Lake
is stocked with moose, caribou, red deer and black bear, while
11 BIG   GAME   SHOOTING
small game, as timber wolves, lynx, and panther, are all too
plentiful. This district is hunted comparatively little, few have
ever been in it, and hunting is confined largely to local sportsmen. As the country is unsuitable for agriculture there will be
game for generations to come. Guides and outfits can be
secured at Fort William.
In addition to big game there is fine duck shooting on nearly
all of the almost countless small lakes, and of late years the
sharp tailed grouse or prairie chicken have become very plentiful
all along the line of the railways, as they follow the wheat scattered on the track. They are wonderfully tame; in fact,
never having been hunted by dogs, they are rather too
easy shooting. If they are not killed except for the needs of the
camp, in a short time these fine birds will be very numerous.
THE   MOOSE
12 BIG   GAME   SHOOTING
Manitoba has also furnished splendid moose hunting, but
the present high license in this Province prevents many sportsmen from hunting within its borders.
British Columbia and Yukon moose are famous as being
the largest in   the   world.      They are    said to   be   numerous
FUN   WITH   A   MOOSE
all through the northern interior of British Columbia, especially
so on the Findlay and Liard Rivers. Near Atlin there is good
hunting, and also at Cassiar, north-east of Quesnel Lake, the
moose are increasing rapidly in numbers.
DEER
Deer are found in
great numbers
throughout Canada,
and thrive wonderfully owing to the
invigorating climate
and abundance of
suitable food. South
as far as Florida the
buck will not often
attain more than
eighty pounds in
weight, while those
in Ontario frequently
scale over three
hundred and twenty-
five pounds. Northern Ontario and Quebec are ideal deer
ranges, and despite the toll levied each season by hunters,
this splendid game continues to increase in numbers. We
have not, however, as many hunters to the square mile as
some countries because our ranges are so large.
ONE MOOSE HEAD IS A HEAVY LOAD
13 BIG   GAME   SHOOTING
THE    MOOSE    AT    HOME
Some of the famous deer hunting resorts in Ontario are:
Mattawa, Sturgeon Falls, Desbarats, French River, Parry
Sound, and Nipigon. In Quebec: Kipawa, Waltham, Mani-
waki, Chaudiere, Lake Megantic, and the Laurentians. In
British Columbia:   Lillooet, Chilcoten, East Kootenay.
Black tail deer are found all along tne coast of British
Columbia as far east as the Cascade Range, and all through the
Crow's Nest Pass. The best heads are obtained on the Fraser
River and at the end of the Jervis Inlet.
MOOSE    NEAR    BANFF,    ALBERTA
14 BIG   GAME   SHOOTING
o
CARIBOU
Wild and difficult to approach, the woodland caribou adds
to its marvellous endurance unequalled speed. It can bound
a prodigious distance, and can walk, trot or gallop with equal
grace and celerity.
In winter it makes its home in barren, frozen swamps, where
it finds the lichens which form its daily food. Its coat is brown,
and whitish in some parts. The full grown animal is from
four and a half feet to five and a half feet high and frequently
weighs over six hundred pounds. There are two varieties,
known as the woodland
caribou and the barren
ground caribou. The former
is larger and of darker
color than the latter, but
its antlers are lighter, and
it is generally found in herds
of five or six. The barren
ground caribou travels in
herds of from twenty to
many thousands, its coat is
lighter, its muzzle more
covered, but its weight is
about the same. It is
noted for its migratory
habits and display of great
vigor and activity. The
home of this splendid animal is in Newfoundland,
Labrador, Nova Scotia, New
Brunswick, Northern Quebec and Ontario, Manitoba,
Saskatchewan, Alberta and
British Columbia.
The most popular caribou
grounds in Quebec are
doubtless those known as
Les Jardins, the name being
derived from the luxuriant
growth of coarse grass, sprinkled with occasional clumps of
bashes and trees, forming admirable screens for the hunter.
These grounds are some fifty miles north-east of Baie St. Paul,
near the headwaters of the Murray Bay River, and are now
included in the limits of the Laurentides National Park. Enormous herds of these animals are seen every winter in this
locality.
In Ontario, north of Lake Superior, along the line of the
Canadian Pacific Railway, is a good hunting territory for
this game.    The deer begin moving south about November 1st,
HEAD   OF   CARIBOU
15 BIG   GAME   SHOOTING
and become widely distributed all along the line between
Dinorwic and Finmark, a station about 30 miles west of Fort
William.
The mountain resorts in :he Canadian Rockies, Banff, Lag-
gan, Field and Glacier, are excellent points from which to start
in quest of this game. So also are Golden, Revelstoke, the
Cassiar or Chilcoten country in British Columbia, or the
Kootenay district from Fernie and Michel.
WAPITI OR ELK
This splendid quarry is next to the moose in size, and is
possessed of a stately grace and power which makes it a very
attractive animal when seen in its native haunts. The antlers
grow to a great size, and form one of the most prized trophies
which the sportsman can procure in America.
WILD   ELK   IN   CANADIAN   ROCKIES
Vancouver Island possesses many of these animals. On
the west district coast, Alberni is the best locality to hunt, and
with a slight snowfall it is not difficult to secure a good
head. There are also a number in East Kootenay, B.C., but
these are protected for the time being. Wapiti may also be
found among the foot-hills of the Rockies, in Alberta, and in
Saskatchewan, and the Mackenzie and Keewatin territories.
BIGHORN OR MOUNTAIN SHEEP
The Bighorn or Rocky Mountain sheep is to-day considered
the most valued prize obtainable by the sportsman. Its home
is among the fastnesses of the Canadian Rockies. This animal
is of a suspicious, timid nature, but is sure-footed and self-
reliant in its mountain home, and will escape over rocks
which the hunter finds impossible to traverse. Its flesh is
pronounced by epicures to be the most delicious of the
world's game, and its massive, wide-spreading horns make a
beautiful ornament. Of all Canadian game the bighorn
is most wary and difficult to bag. Its wariness is admirable,
and once it has regained the higher ground after feeding
during   the   early   morning,   only   the   combination   of   luck
16 BIG   GAME   SHOOTING
ON   THE   TRAIL   FOR   MOUNTAIN   SHEEP
and skill will secure
a successful shot.
Every head brought
down will represent
honest, hard work and
straight shooting. A
bighorn can go further over the rocks in
five minutes than the
best mountaineer can
travel in two hours,
and once the vigilant,
far-sighted eyes of the
ram have detected the
hunter there is absolutely no chance of
approaching within
shooting distance.
It is a glorious country which the bighorn inhabits, and a few
weeks in the saddle among the mountains, in the clear air
under the blue sky, not only makes the sportsman forget the
world of brick and mortar and the attendant cares of
commercial life, but infuses him with vitality.
The country par
excellence for bighorn
is the Lillooet district
from the eastern shore
of Chilco Lake, Chilco,
and Chilcoten River,
easterly and southerly
over a range of 100
miles. The hunting
grounds are reached
by wagon from Ashcroft or Lytton over
first-rate roads to
Hanceville, thence on
horseback. Guides
can be picked up at
Lillooet and Hanceville who will not fail
to show the sheep.
This country is easily
hunted, the mountains being easy of ascent, and one can ride
within two or three miles of where the quarry is found. It must
be remembered that hunting sheep is no child's play, but with
the assistance of a good guide, the patient hunter can scarcely
fail to secure a trophy in this country.
Splendid hunting places for this game are easily reached
from the following resorts in the  Canadian Rockies:    Banff,
17
GETTING   DINNER BIG   GAME   SHOOTING
THE   RESULT   OF   A   HARD   DAY's   WORK
Laggan, Field and Glacier, Revelstoke and Golden, where some
of the great sights of Nature may be viewed in magnificent
mountain peaks, rushing rivers, glaciers and canyons. Bridge
River, Chilcoten, Michel, are also good points from which to
hunt these animals.
BRINGING   A   MOUNTAIN   SHEEP   INTO   CAMP
The bighorn is almost strictly a grazing animal. His natural
feeding grounds are the high mountain meadows, which lie from
a thousand feet below timber line up to the snow line. He is
not equal to the mountain goat as a climber, but greatly surpasses the goat in speed and shyness.
18 BIG   GAME   SHOOTING
OUR BIVOUACS ON THE  YOHO TRAIL
THE HOME OF THE   BIGHORN
There are sportsmen's and tourists' associations at
Fernie, Nelson, Revelstoke, Vancouver and Victoria, B.C.
They are all well equipped with information and have permanent offices and secretaries who will take pleasure in extending
any assistance to the visiting sportsman.
See "Camp Fires in Canadian Rockies," published by Scrib-
ner's, of New York.
THE   BIGHORN'S   MOST   RELENTLESS   ENEMY	
INDIANS   IN   THE   CANADIAN   ROCKIES
19 BIG   GAME   SHOOTING
HUNTING   MOUNTAIN   GOAT   IN   THE
CANADIAN   ROCKIES
20
ROCKY MOUNTAIN GOAT
This singular animal,
whose uncanny beard gives
him almost a human-like
appearance, has his home
among the giant peaks of
the Canadian Rockies. He
is a brave and fearless
fighter, and is more than a
match for any dog that
dares to attack him. His
sharp and needle-like horns
and strong, pointed hoofs
are excellent weapons of
defence against his enemies.
He is the most daring of all
mountain climbers, fearless,
sure-footed, and delights
in scaling great heights and
taking perilous leaps across
chasms. His coat is white,
soft and fluffy, and the
color has the effect of
magnifying his size, which
is usually about 35 to 40
inches at the shoulder.
When full grown he weighs
from 200 to 250 pounds.
He has practically no
enemies save men and
eagles. The grizzly bear,
the mountain lion and the
wolf do their hunting far
below him, so when danger
threatens he climbs up or
down the steepest precipice
he can find, and there is no
wild creature without wings
that can follow him.
No sport can excel hunting the mountain goat, for
the quest brings the sportsman to a high altitude,
where the tonic air always creates vigour and
appetite. Everywhere in
the mountains the sportsman finds himself in strange
surroundings and amid giant BIG   GAME   SHOOTING
snow-capped peaks, cliffs and gorges, picturesque mountain
lakes and tarns, spacious valleys and enchanting streams;
the whole more or less clothed with an infinite variety of
fragrant pine woods, shrubs and flowers. Truly, hunting
amid such surroundings is a delight, and when the reward is
a magnificent trophy, together with renewed vitality, the
sportsman feels amply repaid for his time and expense.
Mountain goats are found in British Columbia from the
United States boundary to the Skeena River. Some of the best
places to start from are Nelson, Michel, Golden, Revelstoke,
Fernie, and the Canadian Rocky Mountain resorts of Banff,
Laggan, Field and Glacier.
THE MUSK OX. ^
Possibly the hardest game in North America to secure is the
musk ox, as it is only found in a district situated almost or
quite within the Arctic circle, and about the headwaters of the
Great Fish River, also north-east of the Great Slave Lake, and in
Greenland and Labrador.
Tradition says the musk ox receives its name from the fact
that it emits a strong musk odor, but the Indians and trappers
who bring these valuable skins to the Hudson's Bay Company
allege this to be myth. The horns grow directly down and then
outward. The color of the fur varies from a jet black to a deep
seal brown according to the age and season of capture. The
hair is very fine and silky, growing thickly about the face, back
and shoulders.
In size the musk ox is about 3>£ to 4^ feet at the shoulder,
and from 5 to 8 feet from the tip of the nose to the end of the
tail, and weighs about 800 pounds. The animal looks diminutive when standing, owing to its very short legs, but the bones
are massive and indicate great strength.
Hunting these creatures is a serious and expensive business
under the most favorable circumstances, and the only safe way
would be to communicate with the Hudson's Bay Company at
Winnipeg, Manitoba, who can furnish letters to their traders to
supply the guides, dog sleds and equipment.
BLACK BEAR
ffiy            The black bear is found
c^^^^^^'^^S^P^^^ra|g
fwa        throughout the length and
m3S       breadth of Canada.     He is
J^wFff l&wJja&^0lE^%fM. '^3^JBRk»
||8fc      a harmless creature with a
^ ^t     g°°d    coat   in    the    early
gSpV    spring, and lives upon fruit,
jtf. vffi^^fc!sB£(5r%U3k   Tfrf*T&*i^r^T?*Fr
Bra   berries,   fish,   meat,   bugs,
w^flill^   Kl^Klfl
W]j\       lizards   and   mice.      It   is
Sr          impossible  to  tell how he
4 *?■<                wiJMY^SC
ffl           secured   his    notoriety    as
bear' s  ^I^MS^^L^^S^
J             a dangerous animal, for in
HEAD           V(gppr           ^JW??^
reality   he    is    an   arrant
21 BIG   GAME   SHOOTING
A   BLACK   BEAR
coward, and unless goaded by pain, or in defence of cubs,
will not attack mankind. The best specimens are secured northward, and in the Yukon robes of over eight feet in length are not
uncommon. In New Brunswick, Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba,
Saskatchewan, Alberta and British Columbia, many have been
killed weighing over four hundred pounds, and in sections of
eastern Canada they are so numerous as to be a positive nuisance
to the settlers. There is no difficulty in securing a good specimen, the places where black bear may be killed being numerous.
THE GRIZZLY BEAR
This well-known species of the bear family has always had
the respect and admiration of all sportsmen. The Indian considered a necklace of the claws of the animal proof that the brave
was worthy of the name, and was not a squaw man. The
white hunter has always dealt with the grizzly bear with the
utmost precaution, knowing him to be one of the most
ferocious animals in the world when wounded. Exceedingly
powerful, quick and cunning to a degree of almost human
intelligence, the grizzly bear is a royal quarry for any sportsman.
22 BIG   GAME   SHOOTING
One of the best known sporting writers, who has hunted in
the United States for the past fifteen years, recently announced
that he has given up all hope of killing a grizzly bear in his
own country, and has been compelled to turn to British
Columbia and the Canadian Rockies, where they are still
plentiful.
A   GRIZZLY   BEAR
Like the wolves, the grizzly bears of to-day are alive to the
fact that man is an enemy to be feared. Nine grizzlies out of ten
will run the moment a man is encountered, no matter what the
distance may be between man and bear. The tenth will charge
him furiously, especially if the attack is made from below or
from the only line of escape. It is said that a wounded grizzly
always runs down hill, and this may account for some attacks
upon hunters which might not have taken place had the hunter
been located above or on a level with the wounded animal.
At most seasons of the year the grizzly is a solitary creature.
In the berry season frequently two or three have been seen
together in the same berry patch, but this is a rare exception.
It is said to take seven years for a grizzly to attain maturity,
when he usually reaches a weight of from five to seven hundred
pounds. One died in Lincoln Park, Chicago, that weighed
eleven hundred and fifty-three pounds. As a rule the claws
are long and curved and possessed of great strength. The fur
in  season  is  a  splendid  trophy.
The best hunting places can be reached from the well known
resorts of the Canadian Rockies: Banff, Laggan, Field, Glacier,
Golden and Revelstoke.
A. Bryan Williams, Provincial Game Warden of British
Columbia, says: "The Ishut River, which runs into the Stikine
River not far from the mouth, is the best place I know of for
bear, both black and grizzly. You will have to hire a canoe and
go up the river as far as you can.    The snow should be off the
23 BIG   GAME   SHOOTING
slides in the mountains from the middle to the end of April, and
at this time, while there is still snow in the timber, the bears
come out of their winter quarters and are in prime condition.
They are hungry after their long winter's fast, and spend a good
deal of time hunting for food in the mountain slides, digging
for roots, grubs and insects. Be up early in the morning and
out again in the evening, and with a good pair of field glasses
examine all the slides from a distance, and if you do not get a
number of fine skins it will be your fault."
Grizzlies are fairly plentiful in the East Kootenay and also
Lillooet and some parts of Okanagan. They are also found at
the head of some of the long inlets, such as Knight and Bute
Inlets. The headwaters of the Naas River is very good, as is also
the Skeena River in places. The best time to hunt bear is in
the spring. On the Stikine River the bears come out of their
dens about the middle of April. In the Kootenay and Lillooet
districts they do not often appear until May.
WOLVES
Wolves are increasing in number, but the systematic
hunting of them has now begun, and they will be kept down.
The winter camping and the hunting of this marvellously
cunning animal on snow-shoes has proven such enjoyable and
exhilarating sport that a permanent Wolf Hunter's Club has
been formed. The occasional low temperature only adds to
the pleasure of the sport.
A    WINTER   HUNT   IS   ENJOYABLE
24 BIG   GAME   SHOOTING
The grey wolf is a large-boned, long-headed, powerful animal, whose weight frequently reaches eighty pounds. He
usually hunts for big game in packs of from three to twenty.
So great is the damage done to big game and to farmers' and
ranchmen's stock that every province in Canada offers a bounty
for their scalps. Yet the wolves continue their destruction of
game and stock each winter in increasing numbers. Wolves
are found in all the provinces of Canada.
WOLF   HUNTERS   AND   THEIR   WOLF   SKINS
r    PUMA OR COUGAR, COMMONLY CALLED PANTHER
The puma, panther, cougar, or mountain lion, is found in
the Canadian Rockies and British Columbia. It is the largest
and most powerful of the cat family found in America, and of a
sneaking disposition, but capable, because of its size and great
strength, of putting up a terrific fight. Deer and all small
game are its natural prey. With a good dog it is easy to get a
cougar in many parts of Vancouver Island. They are also
found in the Okanagan and Boundary Creek Districts. They
seem to be increasing in numbers everywhere in British
Columbia. Nelson, Golden, Revelstoke, Michel and the Canadian mountain resorts of Banff, Laggan, Field and Glacier are
good points to start from when in search of this animal.
CANADA LYNX, BOBCAT, OR WILDCAT
This is an animal perhaps better known to the fur trade than
to the sportsman. The Canada lynx has the lank form of all the
cat family, but its thick, soft fur makes it appear larger than it
really is. Its feet are large and tufted, so that it can get about well
in the deep snows of the country. Its coat is ashy gray. The
Canada lynx has always a tuft of black hair on the ears, and may
25 BIG   GAME   SHOOTING
be distinguished in this way from the wild cat, or bobcat. It is
found in the Maritime Provinces and Maine, also in Ontario,
Quebec, and in the Canadian West.
CANADA   LYNX
ANTELOPE
The Canadian antelope is a graceful creature, and roams the
prairies and foothills of Western Canada and the mountain
ranges of British Columbia.
The best way to take the antelope is to start them on the run
and then cut off their flight at an angle. They rarely change
their course when they have once set out upon it; hence the
sportsman is oftentimes able to get within range. The meat is
good, but the hide is of little use. A young antelope is a lovable
creature and a prize desired by all sportsmen.
HUNTING   IN   THE   FOOTHILLS   OF   THE   CANADIAN   ROCKIES
26 F
SMALL   GAME
iOXES, rabbits, hares,
mink, fisher, marten, sable,
otter, beaver, muskrat and
wolverine, and all other small game,**are plentiful throughout
Canada, but must be hunted in accordance with the game
laws in force in each province. Most of the small fur-bearing
animals are trapped by the professional hunter, and are not
usually sought for by the sportsman. The large amount of
fur exported from the Dominion of Canada is sufficient
evidence of the abundance of game of all kinds, both small
and large.
BIRD SHOOTING
The Canadian Pacific Railway has opened up a new world to
the sportsman, for the prairies of Manitoba, Saskatchewan and
Alberta are the home of myriads of water fowl and feathered
game of all kinds.
The sharp-tailed grouse of the Canadian prairies is a splendid
representative of the large grouse family;  he is a big, thick-set,
RABBITS
27 SMALL   GAME   SHOOTING
heavy bird, lighter in color than the ruffed grouse; his back
is a pretty chocolate with black feather-bars, the under parts
are pure white, each feather with an arrow-head of black.
He goes in covies the earlier part of the season, but later on packs
in large flocks till the spring-time, when the birds separate again
for mating and nesting. Many parts of the Manitoba, Assini-
boia, Saskatchewan and Alberta prairies are rolling and studded
with bluffs; this makes a prettier landscape than a monotonous
level prairie, and a much better shooting country. A bluff is a
patch of small, light bush composed of poplar and low scrub,
and may be anything in size from a few yards to several acres in
extent. The birds, when flushed on the open prairies, or the
stubble, fly straight to a bluff; then one gun, with dog going
inside, and the other two (if there be three guns, which are not
too many), covering the circumference of the bluff, the birds are
caught as they fly out of cover. The inside gun often bags his
bird before it leaves the bluff. This habit of taking to cover
gives a pleasant variety to the shooting, which no other grouse
gives.
The shooting wagon is an important adjunct to the outfit of
the prairie sportsman. This should be a team and a roomy
democrat wagon, with plenty of loose hay in the bottom for the
comfort of the dogs and for warmth for your own feet in the
early morning cool drives out and evenings home. Next to the
rig is your driver. There are good shooting-wagon drivers, and
there are shooting-wagon drivers who are of little use. If you can
light upon a boy who would rather follow a man with a gun all
day than do anything else, he is the one you should employ.
He knows the whole country, can drive you anywhere, and
is never lost; you leave the rig, and give him instructions as
to which way you intend working, and you may rest assured
that when your bag gets heavy, and you want the wagon to
unload your birds into it, you will find it just where you expected
it. At each trip you make to your wagon he has some news
to tell you;  some one has been along and told him where there
SOME TYPES OF WATERFOWL FOUND IN CANADA
28 SMALL GAME SHOOTING
GROUSE
are lots of birds; or he has noticed birds alighting, and directs
you to the identical spot. He makes friends with the dogs, and
those left in the wagon for spells of rest are as safe as though you
were there yourself. When the day's shoot is over and everything packed away, and you are in the wagon, shooters and dogs,
and start for home, you do not know exactly the size of your
bag; but the boy can tell you; he is not quick at school, maybe,
DUCK   SHOOTING
29 SMALL   GAME   SHOOTING
but he can and does keep accurate account of the game bag, and
tells you correctly what it is.
The pinnated grouse has been making his way up north into
the Canadian Northwest, and in a day's shoot several may
help to fill the bag. This bird does not take to the bluffs as does
the sharp-tail, but remains in the open; you lose the variety
which you get with the sharp-tail in the bluffs; but, like all the
family, the pinnated is a fine bird. The bracing September
atmosphere is most invigorating and health-giving, and after
three or four weeks' sport one feels years younger and as lithe
as an Indian.    A trip to the prairies in September is an exper-
A   GOOD   DAYS   SPORT   IN   MANITOBA
ience that sportsmen should not miss. The birds in Manitoba
and in Saskatchewan and Alberta are being very well protected. Twenty-five is the limit per diem for one gun, and sale
and exportation are prohibited.
It is but a few years since the Canadian West was settled,
and wheat was grown there. The grouse knew nothing of
cereals, and had to depend entirely upon the seeds and berries
which were indigenous to the prairie. The change of surroundings soon brought about a change in the habits of these birds.
They were not long in cultivating a taste for the grain, wheat in
preference, which was being grown; and mornings and evenings
the stubbles are the most likely places to find them. If the
season for wheat has been good, and the straw be long, and
stubble left long enough to afford a good cover, a brace of well-
trained dogs get fine opportunities for doing work which gladdens the heart of the sportsman who knows what good dog-work
is. It is not altogether the size of the bag by which the sportsman's pleasure is measured; there are many other things which
contribute.
30 SMALL   GAME   SHOOTING
But the reader unacquainted with the country or the habits
of Canadian game may ask: Wherein lies the special superiority
of the Canadian prairies, and why is it better than any other
region?
The answer is easily found. In the first place, those rolling
grassy seas of rich prairie land, intersected with an endless succession of Jakes and sloughs and swales, are now, as they have
been for ages in the past, the spring and autumn haunts of the
migratory water-fowl, that every spring leave the drowned
lands, lagoons, and rice-fields of the south, and wing their long
way over states and provinces league after league, until they
have gained the lonely haunts in the north, where they breed.
These lakes, streams and marshes are favorite feeding places of
wild-fowl, and diversify the vast expanse of grass lands.
There is a practically inexhaustible supply of food, and consequently the birds   return year after year to the same districts.
Several species of grouse may be killed, including the prairie
chicken, pinnated grouse, ruffed grouse, Canada grouse, ptarmigan, and willow grouse, in the northern part of Western
Canada, and the blue grouse (cock of the mountains), and
Franklin's grouse in British Columbia
Among the waterfowl are the trumpeter and whistling swans,
the Canada goose, Ross goose, lesser snow goose, and Hutchins'
goose; the Canada goose and the snow goose being the most
numerous. The mallard, black duck, canvas-back, redhead,
pintail, gadwall, wood-duck, widgeon, green-winged, blue-
winged, and cinnamon teal, spoon-bill, shoveller, golden eye,
bufne-head, blue-bill, snipe, golden plover, and fifteen varieties
of the same family, great flocks of curlew, and many waders of
ONE   DAY'S   DUCK   SHOOTING   ON   THE   PRAIRIES
31 SMALL   GAME   SHOOTING
THE   CANADIAN   GOOSE
lesser importance are found. About every marshy pool the
bittern and heron will be seen, and in addition to these, hundreds
of cormorants, pelican, sand-hill cranes, coot, rail, etc.
And now to point out a few of the many places where the
game can be easily found.
Winnipeg is an excellent centre from which to start.    A good
point is Whitewater Lake, in Southern Manitoba, reached irom
32 SMALL   GAME   SHOOTING
Winnipeg by a short trip over the Napinka section of the Canadian Pacific. Here "chickens," snipe and plover are found in
fair numbers, and there are thousands of geese, duck, crane, and
other waterfowl. The east end of the lake is reached from
Boissevain, but at Whitewater station, on the south shore of the
lake, canoes and skiffs may be hired, and the facilities there
provided enable the sportsman to obtain capital flight-shooting
when geese are going out to feed, and also to get to the favorite
haunts of the canvas-back. Some great bags have been taken
on the Whitewater. Killarney Lake, as well as Pelican Lake,
a little northeast thereof, are excellent spots, while on Rock
Lake, near Clearwater, and Swan Lake, adjacent to Pilot Mound,
good bags are the rule and not the exception. North of Rock
Lake are the Tiger Hills in the Pembina mountains, haunted by
elk, mule deer and black bear, it being also a good locality for
grouse, as well as for geese and ducks. Jackfish and mullet are
plentiful in all the lakes, the former ranging from half-a-pound
to 22 pounds. Camp outfit must be taken, but the sport will
well repay all trouble, as ample employment can be found for
both rifle and shotgun, chicken and ruffed grouse being especially
plentiful throughout the whole southwest of the province.
Lake Winnipeg offers still stronger inducements. The route
is from Winnipeg via Canadian Pacific Railway to Winnipeg
Beach, a distance of fifty miles. The great marshes about the
mouth of Red River extend for miles, and form one of the most
extensive duck grounds in the Northwest, and they actually
swarm with all kinds of waterfowl in the season. Here the
sportsman can shoot till his gun gets too hot to hold, and providing he hold straight, kill enormous bags of choice duck.
One of the best shooting points in the Province of Manitoba
is  Whitewater   Lake   reached  by  Canadian  Pacific   Railway.
This Lake is the fall feeding and fall stopping place for the
myriads of waterfowl that come down from their breeding
grounds in the far north, and stay here long enough to get fat
on celery, wild rice and Manitoba No. 1 hard wheat.
Oak Lake is another place where geese, duck and plover may
be secured in numbers. The lake is within an easy drive of the
station, and a party equipped with tent, etc., can pitch camp, and
have time to dispose themselves for the evening flight shooting.
At the east side of the lake there is good camping ground in the
very line of flight, and on the north side the geese leave the
lake in large numbers to feed in the neighboring wheat-fields.
In Saskatchewan and Alberta, on the "Soo" branch line
from Pasqua, ground which has seldom been shot over, ducks,
geese and plover are in myriads.
In the Dirt Hills, about 20 miles south of Regina, wild fowl
are fairly plentiful, and in the district about Regina there are
33 SMALL   GAME   SHOOTING
innumerable opportunities for bags of duck and chicken, and
nearly all the species of plover.
The "Mecca" of goose shooting is reached on the south side
of Buffalo Lake, about twenty miles north of Moose Jaw; wild
geese in countless thousands come down from their feeding
grounds in the Arctic circle in the months of September and
October, and remain there until they take their departure for
the south when ice begins to form on the lake. The country
to the south of the lake is well settled, and the wheat stubble
field affords excellent feeding grounds. Ambushed in pits dug
in the stubble-fields in the line of the flight of the geese, with
decoys set out, the finest goose shooting imagined by the
keenest sportsman can be obtained.
Rush Lake, Reed Lake, and Chaplin Lake, a few miles from
the main line of the Canadian Pacific Railway, are ideal points
for geese, duck and other waterfowl.
At Calgary, in sight of the Rockies, superb sport may be
enjoyed with the grouse among the brushy foothills of the
Rockies. Good shooting will be found within easy driving distance of that city. Near Golden, B.C., the lagoons on each side
of the steamboat channel swarm with duck, geese and swan—
in fact they are the favorite breeding grounds of waterfowl, and
excellent sport may be had.
Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia, and British Columbia each
have hundreds of good places where excellent bird shooting may
be enjoyed.
JUST   LOOKING   FOR   TROUBLE
34 O
NE   of   the   strongest  character"
istics   of  an   ardent   angler   is
his   love   of   the   beautiful   in
nature,   whether   it   be   found   in   the
smiling   meadows  of   peaceful  valleys,
or amid the rugged grandeur of mountain
and forest scenery.   When reflecting on
some past fishing trip, it  is  not  only  the  keen  delight  of a
tightened line, or the bright flash of silver as the quarry rises,
or even the remembrance of a bulging creel, that is responsible
for  his   pleasurable memories.     His  mind   conjures   up vivid
pictures of   the   scene   itself—the   placid, forest-girt  lake,   the
rushing torrent with   its  tempting   eddies  and  pools,   or  the
broad   expanse  of the  lonely river.    The ever-varying scene,
and "all the things by the way" that go to make up so much
of   the  pleasures  of   a fishing expedition, afford the true angler
ample  recompense,   even   if  the  day's   sport   should   fail   to
justify his expectations.
But what shall be said when the sport does justify his
expectations, or surpass them—when, to preserve his very
self-respect, he has to desist whipping for trout, or casting the
bait for coarser fish, because the string of fish he has caught
is already bigger than he knows what to do with? Then
indeed is the cup of his joy full to over-flowing.
In Canada, as often as not, if he will take the trouble to
go just a little way off the beaten track, it is the latter
experience which awaits him. Never was there a country with
such a wealth and such a variety of good fishing as she has to
offer. So vast is the field for sport that there are thousands
of good fishing waters in which no line has ever been wetted,
and there are many  other  thousands   of  good  fishing  waters
TROUT   FISHING   IN   THE   GATINEAU
35 —
FISHING
which year after year continue to bring joy to the angler by
providing him with full creels. Even in the better-known
and more frequented regions, new lakes, rivers and streams
are constantly being discovered by exploring sportsmen, and
it is a remarkable fact that almost every keen angler in Canada
has some pool or stream which he looks upon as his own by
right of discovery, and the secret of which he keeps locked in
his bosom because he believes that is the one place in all
Canada where he can always count upon sport. The enforcement of good fishing laws, and the restocking of all the more
frequented waters by the provincial governments, keeps the
fishing almost everywhere up to a high standard. Only a very
small portion of the fishing resources of Canada have yet been
exploited, yet the value of the fish taken in the waters of the
Dominion exceeds $23,000,000 per annum.
It is, indeed, a hopeless task to attempt to select the best
fishing places from the thousands of particularly good localities
in the great Dominion of Canada. All that can be done is to
mention briefly some few places, leaving the angler to decide
for himself into which waters he will cast his line. Of course,
for the best fishing it is necessary in some instances to go a considerable distance from the larger cities, nevertheless excellent
sport   may be   obtained   by   the   angler  while    in   constant
A   BRITISH   COLUMBIA   SPRING   SALMON
communication with the commercial world by rail, telephone
and telegraph. It is, however, by visiting scenes of primeval
simplicity, where Nature abounds in all her wild and rugged
grandeur, that the angler and sportsman gets all the profit,
pleasure and excitement from his vacation, and it is in splendid
sport, combined with picturesque surroundings, that Canada
excels all other countries in the world.
SALMON
This magnificent fish is deserving of its splendid reputation
because of its fine proportions, unsurpassed vigor and the spirit
that it puts into its fight for liberty. Salmon angling has been
called the rich man's sport because of the large amounts paid
by sportsmen for fishing rights in well-known rivers. The prices
paid for some of these rivers range from $5,000 to $35,000, and
every year they are increasing in value. In such well-known
rivers   in   New   Brunswick   as   the   Miramichi,    Restigouche,
36 FISHING
Metapedia, Cascapedia, and the Nepisquit, the fishing rights are
wrorth a fortune. $8,500,per year rental is paid by the Cascapedia
Salmon Club for the fishing rights. There are, however, many
rivers where salmon fishing may be enjoyed by the visiting
sportsmen. Information in regard to these may be obtained
from the tourist department of the Canadian Pacific Railway.
Newfoundland and Labrador are also greatly renowned for
their salmon fishing, while in Quebec every tributary of the
St. Lawrence, both on the north and south shores below
Quebec City, and all the rivers emptying into the Bay of
Chaleurs, unless impeded at or near their mouths by impassable falls, are resorted to by salmon. Many of these rivers
possess an international reputation for the magnificent sport they
yield, and many noted clubs own and lease rivers in this Province.
British Columbia is famous throughout the world for its
salmon fishing, and anglers from India, England and the United
States are attracted yearly by the magnificent sport this
province affords.
There are several species of salmon in British Columbia
waters. The Cohoe, though only running up to ten pounds in
weight, is a most lively fish, and if a light rod and tackle are used,
he will give plenty of sport before he is gaffed.
Tyee salmon, ranging from thirty to sixty pounds, can be
taken at the mouth of the Campbell river. A plain sea trolling
rod with a Nottingham reel capable of holding 200 yards of line,
is used. This fish makes tremendous rushes when first hooked,
and if it happens to be in a strong tide, is apt to break away,
however careful a fisherman one may be.
The season for salmon fishing in British Columbia is a long
one, but the best fishing is obtained from July to October; the
spring salmon is then in the pink of condition, and furnishes
superior sport.
Victoria and Vancouver are excellent places for salmon fishing, while the Fraser River above New Westminster, Berkeley
Sound, Pender Harbour and Schelt are also good points.
OUANANICHE, OR LAND-LOCKED SALMON
There are a number of lakes within easy distance of St.
Andrew's, New Brunswick, where this splendid fighting fish
may be hooked. Among them are the Chamcook, Limeburner,
Bartlett,. Steins, Snowshoe, Welsh, Cram, Turner, McCullough
and Creasy. Most of these lakes have also good trout fishing.
At St. Andrew's the angler will find no lack of places where
excellent fishing may be enjoyed. Another good place is Skiff
Lake, about three miles from Canterbury, N.B. One of the
best places for sport with the Ouananiche is Lake St. John,
with its tributary waters, and the Grand Discharge.
TROUT
Every known variety of trout may be found in Canada,
the swift flowing streams and the innumerable lakes, with their
37 FISHING
clear cool waters forming ideal breeding places for this most
popular of all game fishes. Those who have never fished in
Canada can form no conception of the vast wealth of trout
streams which the country possesses and the exceeding abundance of this lovely fish, varying from the dainty brook trout
of half-a-pound and upwards to the giant grey trout of the
lakes, which attains as much as 30 or 40 pounds in weight.
Turn in whatever direction he will in the forest or mountain
regions of Canada, the sportsman is hardly ever out of sight of
fine trout waters, and all the fish he cares to catch can usually
be obtained quite easily.
BROOK   TROUT
Now, more than ever, women are taking up this delicate,
picturesque and fascinating sport. Tours among the fishing
resorts of Canada reveal every year an increasing number of
women who are testing the pleasures of fly fishing for trout.
There are many arguments in favor of the sport as an ideal
one for women. It is graceful, requires little effort, demands
neither grotesque nor undignified costume or action, and brings
rewards of health, knowledge of nature and wholesome physical
energy   comparable   with few other outdoor  pastimes.
It is a hopeless task to attempt to give even a partial list
of the myriads of brooks, streams and lakes where brook and
lake trout may be caught. New Brunswick, Nova Scotia,
Newfoundland, Labrador, Quebec, Ontario, Alberta and British
Columbia have each innumerable trout streams and rivers
where the angler may be sure of finding good sport.
From almost every station on the Canadian Pacific Railway
in Maine and New Brunswick good trout streams and rivers
are within easy walking distance. Quebec City is a good
starting point for trout fishing, for within a few miles
are Lake St. Charles, Beauport, Calvaire, Cache and other good
fishing waters. The Laurentides National Park boundary is
within twenty-five miles of that ancient and historical city. On
the Nomining branch of the Canadian Pacific Railway, reached
from Montreal, splendid trout fishing may be had in a charming
district of lake and mountain. On the Ottawa and Maniwaki
branch there are many good fishing  waters for trout, as well
38 FISHING
bass may be reached without difficulty. Smith's Falls, Sharbot
Lake and the waters of trie Trent, reached at Havelock, Ontario,
offer bass fishing. The streams and lakes in the vicinity of
Carleton Junction, have many excellent pools, pebbly ledges,
and eddies in which lurk plenty of bass, both black and rock.
Lake Nipissing and the French River and the islands of the
Georgian Bay are noted for their big fish of this species. All
along the transcontinental line of the Canadian Pacific from
Pembroke to Sault Ste. Marie is abundance of good bass fishing.
The new Toronto to Sudbury branch of the Canadian
Pacific Railway, running through the famous Muskoka Lakes
District, and giving access to the 30,000 Islands of Georgian
Bay, has opened up a splendid new region for the fisherman.
Black bass abound in the waters of this region, as well as trout
and many other fish. Two of the best getting-off points for a
camping and fishing trip are French and Pickerel stations.
Guides, canoes, outfits and provisions can be secured at
Pickerel.
MASKINONGE
The maskinonge is by far the largest game fish in fresh waters
and is well called "the water tiger," or "the monarch of the inland
seas." It is popularly known in the United States as the
"musky" and in Canada as the "lunge." Many of these fish
have exceeded one hundred pounds in weight, and often a
length of over fLve feet. The head of the maskinonge is large and
fiat, and its mouth wrill open wide enough to swallow prey of its
own girth. The under jaw protrudes beyond the upper, giving the
savage, lowering expression of the bull-dog. It has a formidable
array of keen teeth, sometimes half an inch in length. These
teeth will dent a metal spoon and play havoc with an artificial
minnow.
Maskinonge are invariably savage fighters, and wall never
surrender as long as life lasts. They are as full of tricks as
a fox, and will resort to endless expedients to relieve themselves
of the hook. No two maskinonges will act alike when hooked,
and in this diversity of tactics lies the great charm of the sport.
Catching a maskinonge is to an angler what shooting a grizzly
is to a hunter. He wrho is a true sportsman and keen for a
contest that demands the highest degree of skill and adroitness,
takes his canoe to the beautiful crystal lakes of Canada and
there meets his lordship, the maskinonge, in mortal combat.
There is never any doubt in the fisherman's mind when he
has a bite. He can always see as well as feel it. There is no
hesitation about the matter, the fish simply grabs the bait and
goes off with it, and when he is once hooked the battle has
begun with chances almost even. Be on your guard every
moment, and never relax your vigilance or you will surely lose
in the struggle. Make him fight for every inch of the line he
takes, and keep him in the deep water away from the weeds;
watch when he turns for the canoe and leaps clear out of the
43 FISHING
water. Now he will go down and sulk at the bottom and your
steady reeling brings him sullenly towards the canoe, shaking his
head from side to side like an unwilling colt. Still he comes,
and an abortive at tempt to leap delays his progress, but he is now
in plain sight, almost within reach; you must act quickly, for
he regains his strength with surprising rapidity. Be careful
or a sudden dive may upset your canoe. At no time is he
so dangerous as just before landing. Don't try a landing
net ; he is much too heavy a fish to land with a net and is
also   most   difficult   to   gaff.       The   Indians   always   hit this
A    28-LB.    MASKINONGE,  CAUGHT IN THE KAWARTHA    LAKES,
NEAR    BOBCAYGEON,    ONTARIO
44 FISHING
fish with a club ; other fishermen use a revolver and shoot him
just behind the eyes. As soon as you get him in the boat take
a sharp knife and insert the blade between the base of the brain
and the spinal vertebras, severing the spinal cord, or else put
him in a sack, otherwise there will be trouble to keep him in the
canoe. Fie is too big a fish to take any chances with, and he
can create more trouble for the fisherman in one minute than
any other fresh water fish in existence. There is a very unsportsmanlike method used in catching this game fish which
should be censured, and that is the use of a troll with a heavy
hand line. The spoon or minnow bait should be on a fine line
used with reel and rod, and the angler who cannot master the fish
caught in that way deserves to lose it. When the sportsman
has tried this more skilful method and has abandoned the crude
practice of yanking this fish in hand over hand with a line big
enough for a clothes line he will regret the sport he has missed
and the good fish he has maltreated by his old method of dealing with maskinonge.
In Quebec this fish is found in the rivers and lakes in the
western portion of the province and also in some of the large
lakes in the eastern part of the province, also in Lake St. Louis
and Lake of Two Mountains, near Montreal, the St. Lawrence
River at Ste. Anne de Bellevue, and Lake St. Francis. Among
the Thousand Islands of the St. Lawrence River, many mammoth
maskinonge have been caught. In Ontario, Lake Nipissing,
the French River, and the Kawartha Lakes, reached from
Bobcaygeon, have excellent maskinonge fishing.
THE GREAT CANADIAN PIKE
The great Canadian pike is the fish commonly called pickerel
in the West, though, correctly speaking, it is the true pike. In
the Lake of The Woods district, and around Wakami, specimens of this fish have been taken weighing fifty and sixty
pounds. A good sized pike attains a weight of about fifty
pounds and shows splendid sporting qualities. It makes long
and powerful rushes, and is very apt to break the tackle of any
but the expert angler. The ordinary lure is that of the trolling
spoon, though it also takes large bait like maskinonge, and is
sometimes caught by still fishing. In shape the pike much
resembles the maskinonge, but whereas the body color of the
maskinonge is sometimes marked with dark blotches, the markings of the great Canadian pike are in the form of oblong white
spots regularly arranged upon the pale green body color. It
is not difficult to distinguish this fish from the maskinonge.
The fish is well distributed all over the provinces of Ontario
and Quebec. The St. Charles River, near Quebec, is famous
for its large pike.
OTHER FISH
Sturgeon,  white fish,   dore,  perch,  suckers,   carp  and eels.
These and many other varieties of fish are found in the waters
in Canada, and there is no difficulty in finding numerous places
where each of these species of fish may be obtained.
45 THE canoe, which is peculiarly the water-craft /
of Canada, is the one great masterpiece
which the Indian has handed down to civilization.
There is no other form of boat so graceful, so responsive
to the lightest touch, so easy of propulsion, or so
universally adaptable. It may be said to be essentially a
product of its environment. The shallowness of its draught
makes it the ideal craft for the swift-flowing Canadian streams,
with their numerous shallows and rapids. It is in itself so light
that it can easily be carried on the back from one stream to
another; it is so noiseless that in it the hunter can approach his
quarry without the slightest sound; yet withal it has enormous
carrying capacity.
Centuries before the white man came to this favored land
the canoe was the principal means of travel; in it the dusky
red man threaded the many intricate waterways of the country;
with its assistance he procured his supply of fish and game;
in it he went forth to spread death and destruction to his enemies,
and when the tribal warfare ceased, he employed his canoe as
the carrier of his furs to the trading post. It was the necessary
equipment of every explorer, of every trader and of every settler.
What need of roads in a country with waterways so numerous? Their lightness, durability and simplicity of structure fit
them peculiarly for traversing unknown waters. The occupants
by facing the direction in which they are travelling, are able to
avoid danger the more easily, while the scenery is better enjoyed
when viewed from a canoe with its easy rhythmical motion,
as compared with the receding view obtained from the more
jerky row-boat. By the uninitiated a canoe is dreaded and
banned, but this feeling rapidly disappears with acquaintance
for in reality it is the safest craft of its size that floats upon
water. The risks from canoeing are due generally to carelessness, timidity and unfamiliarity.
Canoeing as a pastime is general in Canada from the Atlantic
to the Pacific, and a more fascinating or delightful aid to an
outdoor vacation could not be imagined.
James Edmund Jones, in his charming little work, "Camping
and Canoeing," says: "Stronger, heartier and more hopeful we
go about our daily work by reason of the bright, brief experiences of a very pleasant canoe  trip.    Hard work in plenty,
46 CANOE   TRIPS   AND   CAMPING
frequent opportunity for self-forgetfulness and self-denial, spurs
for the lazy and curbs for the over eager, the hot sun and chilling
rain, straining paddle and wearying portage, like all such outings, will undoubtedly be supplied. But it gave us other things
than these. Manlier heart and tougher muscle, the glory of the
sunset and the freshness of the dawn, and moon-lit stillness of
the lake and the sweep of the river as it flashed and gurgled
. among the stones; the solitude of the forest fastness and the
comradeship of friends, whom here we learn to know as nowhere
else—these are our rewTards, a brief return to the crudeness of
Nature; a brief renunciation of the artificiality of business and
social life; a brief enjoyment of skies and lakes and rocks and
pine trees at their freshest and best. Then with firmer grip and
steadier purpose back to the work or the waiting, back to the
rush and bustle of the city, to brush shoulders again with our
fellows, in whom we approve the good and censure the selfishness with the greater charity because we have been ourselves
brought nearer to the trust and truthfulness of our childhood.
That is what a canoe trip in Canada will do for men and women."
Every province presents a great choice of canoe routes to
the explorer—New Brunswick from north to south; Quebec
from east to west from Montreal to James Bay; Ontario, with
her chains of inland lakes, the Muskokas and Kawarthas; and
the islands of Georgian Bay with their thousands of miles of
waterway between rocky islands of all sizes and varieties. The
prairie provinces and British Columbia have also many delightful trips to offer, but the great rivers of Canada need to be dealt
with in detail in order to show what they have to present in this
delightful form of vacation and recreation.
In the endeavor to be of assistance in the selection of a new
route where Nature may be seen in all her primeval loveliness
and excellent sport may be enjoyed without hardship, the
following celebrated regions are suggested:
THE UPPER ST. JOHN RIVER,  NEW BRUNSWICK
The St. John River was described by the late Rev. T. De Witt
Talmage as "the Rhine and the Hudson commingled in one
scene of beauty and grandeur." The length of this river is 450
miles. The Grand Falls divide this river in halves, and the
journey down to the City of Fredericton is an ideal canoe trip,
with just enough excitement in the rarpid water to please all but
the fool-hardy. Grand Falls are reached by the Canadian
Pacific Railway. This enormous volume of water falling
with a seventy-five foot plunge forms a fine sight, and one
worth travelling many miles to see. It is a mile from the
smooth water of the lower basin, which is the starting point for
canoeists, to the Falls. It is only a few minutes' paddle across
the basin and the canoe is in fast water, with rapids in quick
succession, but none of them dangerous. Salmon River, Little
River and. the great Aroostook join the St. John, and charming
47 CANOE   TRIPS   AND   CAMPING
IN THE   LAURENTIAN MOUNTAINS,   EASILY REACHED
FROM   MONTREAL
scenery delights the canoeist at every bend of the river, while
new scenes of beauty are disclosed. At the heavy rapids of the
Meductic, it is well to skirt the right hand shore, for the
descent there is easy and there are no dangerous rocks. At
Hawkshaw the canoeists get a view of the Pokiok Falls, as wild
and pretty as one could wish to see. From here the journey
is full of interest, and delightful bits of scenery, which should
be preserved by the camera as reminders of this trip are on every
side. All too soon the tall spires of Fredericton loom up on
the horizon and the trip is ended. It is possible to do this trip
in four days, but it will be far more satisfactory to take one
week.
TOBIQUE RIVER, NEW BRUNSWICK
Tourists have described the Tobique as the most picturesque
river in America.     It is also one of the finest salmon rivers, but
unfortunately for the would-be fisherman, the rights are con-
48 CANOE   TRIPS   AND   CAMPING
trolled by the Tobique Salmon Club. It is, however, permitted
to fish for trout, and for these the Tobique is as justly famous as
for its salmon. The Tobique is a branch of the St. John, and the
starting-point for the trip up it is Perth or Andover, twin towns,
on the Canadian Pacific Railway, and only two miles from the
river's mouth. The river can be ascended about sixty miles to
the Forks, and then the canoeist has choice of three rivers, the
Nictau, or left branch, which is the best for trout, and leads
to the Tobique Lakes, wThere large fish can be taken; the
Mamozekel, or middle branch, not a very good fishing stream,
and the right hand branch, or the Campbell River, famous for its
salmon. The Tobique has numerous lakes and streams tributary to it, and in all excellent fishing will be found. In fact,
the Tobique is the heart of a fishing country that is unexcelled
anywhere. The glide down stream with the current will be
particularly enjoyed.
THE OTTAWA RIVER
The Ottawa River, from its source at Lake Capemechigama,
only 32 miles south of the height of land between the St. Lawrence waters and those flowing into Hudson Bay, is 780 miles
long to its mouth at the lower end of the Island of Montreal.
From Lake Exhwaham, from which one of its branches takes
its origin, the river is over 800 miles to its mouth. This river
and its tributary waters drain an area of no less than 60,180
square miles, of which 40,324 are in the Province of Quebec. The
Ottawa is almost  as long as the  Rhine but has three  times
CAMPING     IN     KIPAWA     WATERS
49 CANOE   TRIPS   AND   CAMPING
its volume of water. From its head waters it is possible to
pass by comparatively short portages into almost any of the
great northern rivers of the Province of Quebec. Thus the
head   waters   of   the   Ashuapmouchouan,   the   great   feeder   of
Lake St. John, are not more
than 50 miles from those of the
Ottawa. It is only 35 miles from
the head waters of the Ottawa
to those of the Gatineau, one
of its principal tributaries, and
from the latter to the source
of the St. Maurice the distance is
only 16 miles. Generally speaking, there are intervening lakes
which enable the crossings to
be made almost entirely by
water. The entire country
north of the Ottawa is one of
lakes. In a tract 60 miles broad
and 250 miles long, stretching
through the interior of the
country, from Lake Timiskaming
to Lake Spain, in Berthier
County, are the following amongst
other great bodies of water:
Lake Kipawa, Grand Lac, Lake
Victoria and Lake Kekabonga.
A glance at the map will show
the Canadian Pacific Railway as
following this river for hundreds
of miles, so that the length of
a cruise in a canoe can only be
measured by the length of
time     at     the     canoeist's     dis-
ON   THE   MISSISSAGA   RIVER      pOSal.
KAWARTHA   LAKES
Take the Canadian Pacific Railway to Lindsay, Bobcay-
geon or Peterborough, from which places a variety of trips may
be arranged through Sturgeon Lake, Pigeon Lake, Buckhorn
Lake, Deer Lake and Clear Lake, Stony Lake, and many other
lakes' with charming scenery and good fishing. Easily reached
from Toronto, Buffalo, Pittsburg and Rochester.
MOON RIVER TRIP
The Moon River starts at Bala, in the Muskoka Lakes, and
flows into Georgian Bay.    From Bala, where supplies and guides
50 CANOE   TRIPS   AND   CAMPING
may be secured, many excellent canoe trips may be enjoyed
through the famous Muskoka Lakes and also into Georgian Bay,
which is noted for its islands, scenery and splendid bass fishing—
associated joys which always appeal to canoeists.
TIMISKAMING AND KIPAWA
Haileybury, on Lake Timiskaming, is in truth situated at
one of the most favored spots in the Dominion from the canoeist's
point of view. It is reached by the Canadian Pacific Railway
to Timiskaming station and thence across the lake by steamer.
It is only necessary to decide the direction and length of time to
be expended to plan paddling excursions of the utmost variety
and charm. A delightful one is that which begins with a short
portage from Haileybury to a chain of lakes that leads into the
Montreal River and then through Lakes Evelyn, Temagami and
a thousand others back to the starting point. It traverses the
district famed among the Algonquins as the true Happy LIunting
Grounds and still known to the sportsman of to-day as one of
the most delightful of holiday resorts. Its forests are virgin,
its scenery is lovely, and its fishing superb, and the tourist may
wander among its islands and explore its reaches for days,
always finding something fresh to admire and ever enjoying the
best of sport. Canoe trips of every sort may be undertaken and
it would occupy a lifetime to exhaust the wonders of this land.
From Haileybury one can go south on the Temiskaming and
Northern Ontario Railway to Lake Temagami and the Canadian
Pacific at North Bay, making a delightful round trip.
The tourist may go beyond Haileybury by steamer to
North Timiskaming, at the mouth of the Quinze River. This
river is the gateway of the far North and in four weeks a canoe
may traverse Lake Abitibi and be afloat on James Bay. By
Lakes Grand Lac and Victoria the Ottawa River may be entered
by such streams as the Gatineau or the Lievre; or from this
starting point, still more extensive tours may be taken, ending in
the St. Lawrence itself after the St. Maurice or the Saguenay have
been descended. This region, with its netwTork of water communication, its labyrinth of streams, and unreckoned islets lies before
the adventurous tourist and in his trusty canoe, with a couple of
good guides, he may explore lake after lake and stream after
stream for just so long as it pleases him. Moreover, he will
be travelling through a magnificent sporting region, where the
trout, bass and maskinonge are as plentiful as ever and the
big game are actually more common than in the days when
the Indian thinned out the herds.
Close to Lake Timiskaming is Kipawa, another lake region of
infinite charm. There are 25 square miles of water, so diversified
with bays and islets that its coast line measures 600 miles. To
render it accessible the C.P.R. has built a short branch from the
Timiskaming branch from Mattawa. The same quiet beauty
reigns amid its solitudes as over the waters of Timagami, but
as it is 300 feet above Timiskaming it pours its waters down in
51 CANOE   TRIPS   AND   CAMPING
splendid rapids. It is particularly famous for its moose-shoot-
ing and enjoys special advantages for the sport. It is in the
Province of Quebec and consequently its open season begins on
Oct. 1, a fortnight or three weeks earlier than in Ontario north of
the C.P.R. Moreover, the fatigue of the hunt is reduced to the
minimum. Good guides may be obtained at the hotel at
Kipawa and the ramifications of the lake allow the sportsman
to proceed into the heart of the woods without leaving his canoe.
MISSISSAGA AND THE NORTH SHORE
The Mississaga River has over 250 miles of virgin forest, lake
and stream, the home of the caribou, moose, deer, bear, trout
and bass. A beautiful river, with plenty of quick water
to make the trip interesting. Aubrey Falls, 165 feet high, on
this river, is a charming spot, and once seen can never be forgotten. The scenery along this river is rugged and grand, and
it is not saying too much to state that this is undoubtedly the
best canoe trip in Canada. Starts at Bisco Station and ends
at Dayton or Desbarats Station. Time, two to three weeks.
A few rapids need cautious management, but excellent and
skilful guides may be obtained at Bisco. From Bisco station
starts also the famous Bisco-Gowganda route. The silver finds
start in Bisco and extend to Cobalt, i.e., this year, how far they
may extend next year is another matter. This year you may
combine canoeing, fishing, shooting, prospecting and investing.
The tourist may have his canoes towed by launches along the
big lakes without any danger of being storm-stayed. The
silver hunters have cut wagon trails between the lakes, but the
sportsman in his canoe will follow the old Hudson Bay Canoe
Route (now almost deserted) to Gowganda and Cobalt. There
will be separate tables for the tourists and sportsmen (if they
desire them), at the miners' camps.
The north shore of Lake Superior is one of the finest holiday
regions in the Dominion for those who love nature and seek
sport. From Heron Bay to Fort William the main line of the
Canadian Pacific Railway skirts its shores and sometimes follows
even its tortuous windings. From the scenic and engineering
points of view this is one of the finest parts of the line. Great
physical obstacles have been overcome, and the train speeds
past beautiful bays and crag-lined inlets. Forest-crowned
bluffs rise steeply from the lake, lovely islands stud its placid
surface, and far away sky and water blend in the indefinable
distance. Fishing villages nestle in rockbound coves, and from
all the country around streams pour down, beautiful with
foaming rapids and turbulent falls renowned for the number,
size and fighting quality of their trout.
NIPIGON RIVER TRIP
Nipigon is a name well-known to anglers. From the bay
of that name a canoe may be paddled up the river thirty-one
52 CANOE   TRIPS   AND   CAMPING
miles to the lake, where the joys of camping and fishing will
be keener from the certainty of good catches. But if Nipigon
is the best, it is only one of numberless lakes and rivers that
every year attract to this district the best anglers of the
world. The Nipigon River trip may be summarized as
follows:—
Starting point.. Nipigon Station, 65 miles east of Port Arthur.
Duration Seven to ten days.
Portages Nine (the longest being 3 miles).
Outfitters Wm.  McKirdy, Nipigon.
Revillon Bros., Nipigon.
Hudson's Bay Co., Nipigon.
Fishing The best trout fly-fishing on the Continent.
Open season May 1st to Sept. 14th.
Shooting Caribou   Moose,  Red  Deer,   Geese,  and  Duck
abound.
The start from Nipigon Station, on the Canadian Pacific Railway, is followed by an exhilarating paddle up the river and across
Lake Helen to Camp Alexander. Here is the longest portage,
three miles to the head of Cameron's Falls. Thence the route
is across Lakes Jessie and Maria, each being about a mile and a
half long, the head of the latter lake being about half way to
Lake Nipigon. The next five miles contain three short intervening portages, to Hamilton's Pool and Camp. The succeeding
five miles are easy travel until the Falls at Camp Portage are
reached. Ten miles further the journey ends at Virgin Falls
(the head of the river) and Lake Nipigon. The lake is studded
with islands and the scenery is magnificent. Innumerable
excursions can be taken on this lake and the streams flowing
into it, so that this trip is limited only by the resources of the
traveller and explorer.
Two persons can go in one canoe, with their camp outfit,
provisions, and guides, for a two weeks' trip, the cost of which
may be estimated as follows:—•
1 Head Guide $3 .00 per day.
1 Assistant Guide    2. 50    "    "
1 Canoe 50    "    "
2 Tents, blankets, and all necessary out
fit, including camp cots, tables, etc.   1.50    "    "
$7.50 per day.
To this must be added cost of provisions, depending entirely
on individual tastes. Guides' provisions are flour, pork, tea,
and sugar.
53 CANOE   TRIPS   AND   CAMPING
Cooks can be engaged for $2.50 a day.
Licenses for fishing (obtainable at Nipigon), $5.00 for two
weeks for Canadians; $15.00 for two weeks and $5.00 per week
thereafter to others whose homes are outside the Dominion of
Canada. Canoes, guides, provisions, and outfit, can be obtained
from any of the outfitters mentioned.
Guides should be engaged well in advance, to avoid disappointment or delay.
Lake Nipigon. This grand sheet of water measures fully
70 miles in length by about 50 wide. It is studded with beautiful
islands, and its coast line is so broken and indented with coves
and bays that it measures quite 580 miles. To give an idea of
the attractions of this lake, it may be mentioned that the islands,
& ^
I  i
::.;:«:
jR~""1
■
A   FEW   NIPIGON   TROUT
54 CANOE   TRIPS   AND   CAMPING
great and small, number nearly one thousand, varying in
size from eight miles in breadth down to mere picturesque
rocks. Uncounted streams, many of them navigable by canoes
for a considerable distance, empty into this great reservoir,
and make it a most delightful lake for explorations. Months
may be spent upon its waters before one becomes familiar
with it.
HUDSON AND JAMES BAY
This great inland ocean is reached via three routes:
From Missanabie via Missanabie River.    Time, four to five
weeks for round trip.
CANOEING   IN   CANADA
From Mattawa through Lakes Timiskaming and Abitibi and
Abitibi River. Time, from five to six weeks for trip from Mattawa to James Bay and return.
The third route, from Winnipeg to York Factory, on Hudson
Bay. Take steamboat across Lake Winnipeg, from thence by
canoe.    Time required, from six to seven weeks.
LAKE OF THE WOODS
Kenora is a splendid point for a canoe trip, and offers a large
number of excellent cruises through a territory but little known
generally to lovers of that kind of summer enjoyment. A
canoe trip from Kenora to Lake Winnipeg will satisfy all but
incurable grumblers.
The Lake of the Woods immediately to the South of Kenora,
has long been famed for its beauty, but as its broad southwestern reaches are open to the play of the wTind, the Indian
always scans the sky before he ventures out in his canoe. It is
so filled with islands that to the canoeist it appears a wondrously
beautiful river rather than the magnificent lake it really is. Land
and forest are near the tourist all the time. Gliding over these
waters the eye gets fairly cloyed with picture after picture of
supreme beauty, and weeks might profitably be spent in cruising
in these charming waters.
55 CANOE   TRIPS   AND   CAMPING
A BRITISH COLUMBIA CANOE TRIP
Described by One Who Has Been Over the Route
Starting at Field, B.C., from the Mount Stephen Hotel, go
west to Leanchoil, a siding on the Canadian Pacific Railway,
some fourteen miles distant; then take canoes down the Kicking Horse River about two miles to the mouth of the Beaver
Foot, then up it for about twenty miles. This is all the up
stream on the whole route. Then portage over to the Kootenay
River, some two miles, then for ten miles there is a fine chance
to photograph beaver in their houses, as there are a number of
them on this route, which should be a great attraction to canoeists, for where in the West can you find another such place?
Also moose in those small lakes and lots of good trout fishing
on this route, and plenty of good hunting in season for mountain
sheep, goat, deer, grizzly bear, black and brown bear, moose and
elk. Then down the Kootenay River for say 100 miles to Canal
■Flats, then portage over one mile to the Upper Columbia Lake,
which is about 18 miles long, a fine body of water. Then enter
the Columbia River for eight miles, to Lake Windermere, which
is about 16 miles long, then 100 miles to Golden on the Canadian
Pacific Railway. This trip would take about ten days, or you
could put in a month enjoyably in admiring the magnificent
scenery en route. Another great attraction on this route
is that there are but very few flies at any time of the season
This trip is only 20 miles up stream and 225 miles down stream,
which is a very attractive proposition for canoeists. This route
can be used from the 15th May to 1st November. Guides,
supplies and canoes can be procured at Field or Golden, B.C., by
writing in advance.
(Signed)  M.  Dainard.
56 I
VARIETY OF GAME
N all the district west of Crow's Nest Pass more or less big
game will be found, and the following list is perhaps as
accurate as could be desired.
Mountain sheep (Oris Montana), elk (Wapiti) mule deer,
mountain goats, white tailed or Virginia deer, are allplentiful in
their respective ranges. The elk have been in the past the
greatest sufferers from the organized hunts of the Stoney Indian
from Alberta, but are again on the increase owing to the stringent
laws passed recently for their protection.
TWO   WISE   MEN   IN   THE   CANADIAN   WEST
It may be permitted to rectify a mistake made by Pr<>
lessor Hornaday, of New York, who quite unwittingly, it would
seem made the assertion that the elk of this part of the Province
we"'p"actically extinct. While it is true that Mr. Hornaday
saw but one bull elk during his three weeks stay in the mountains, he was scarcely justified in stating that the elk were
practically all killed off, the real reason of the scarcity of that
particular kind of game being because these animals were still
57 THE   GAME   OF   BRITISH   COLUMBIA
on their summer range at the time of his visit, elk being migratory in their habits.
Bears are fairly plentiful, quite enough so to furnish good
hunting, and as their range is identical with that of the sheep
and goats, they can be hunted at the same time as the latter.
There are three varieties, viz., black, brown and grizzly. I use
the term brown bear advisedly, as there is a great variety of
shade in the coats of this particular kind of bear, ranging from
a deep chocolate to a reddish yellow.
Cougars, or mountain lions, are scarce; a few have been
killed, and tracks are often seen, but the shooting of the cougar
is more or less of an uncertainty.
The smaller carnivora, such as the lynx, coyote, wolverine,
marten, mink, and other fur bearers, have been thinned out by
the trappers, but there are still enough left to restock the country
if protection is accorded them in time.
In passing I may mention that beavers have founded several
of their colonies on Elk River and are increasing at an astonishing rate, they having been protected for several years.
WHERE TO HUNT
The best portion of South East Kootenay for incoming
sportsmen to visit is that part of the district surrounding
the new game reserve. i\ll the game enumerated above can
be found there, with the exception of the white-tailed deer,
which are more easily found in the country bordering the B. C.
Southern Railway, from Elko westward.
A good plan for sportsmen wishing to secure a specimen of
each variety of game would be to visit this section early in
the season, and come out with the first snow to try for
white tail, say at Jaffray, or in fact almost any point along the
railway, for the deer are very numerous during the early
winter months, going south only when the deeper snows drive
them.
HOW TO REACH THE HUNTING GROUNDS
Michel, B.C., is perhaps the best starting point for a hunting expedition in the wilds. A good wagon road parallels Elk
River for nearly forty miles, but thereafter pack horses are
needed to continue the work and they must be sound in wind
and limb.
However, this being a requirement that is easily met, the
necessarily slow journey offers  many opportunities during the
frequent stops to adjust  packs, and  to   bag grouse   that are
numerous beyond belief.
58 THE   GAME   OF   BRITISH   COLUMBIA
There are three varieties of these birds, the Franklin grouse,
or fool run; the ruffed or willow grouse; and that king of birds,
the giant blue grouse. The latter is usually found in high altitudes in early fall, for, like the ptarmigan, he is generally found
near the summits.
Shotguns are unnecessary impediments. The Canadian
sportsman prefers the rifle to the shot gun for every sort of
game, fur or feathered; but in addition a light rifle, 22 calibre,
or better still, a pistol of the same bore, is the correct
thing.
At Michel all the outfits for a prolonged trip can be secured,
and first class accommodation can be had at the hotel there,
noted, as it justly is, for its splendid table and well furnished
rooms.
The chief difficulty, perhaps, lies in the scarcity of horses,
as there has not been sufficient business to encourage guides
to purchase them. It would be well, in view of this fact,
for prospective visitors to give their guides plenty of time to
secure the needed animals, by hiring them, a transaction that
might take up some time, as advertising might have to be
resorted to in case of a large party coming in.
FISHING
Nearly all the streams in South East Kootenay are well
stocked with trout, of which there are two varieties, viz., the
cut-throat or black spotted trout, and the Dolly Varden.
The former takes the fly greedily, and can always be relied
upon to furnish good sport where the more strenuous work of
mountain climbing has forced the sportsman to take a long-
needed rest. The upper Elk especially is perhaps the best
trout stream on the continent, at least it is safe to assume
that it has no superior.
SCENERY
From a scenic point of view, Nature has been prodigal in
her efforts to beautify with a rugged  richness this country.
Although few of the peaks attain an altitude of over ten
thousand feet, they lose none of their attractiveness by reason
of their lack of height, and even the most enthusiastic mountaineer would hesitate before attempting many of the cliffs.
Standing on the summit between Bull and Elk rivers, a veritable
sea of mountains lies before the eyes of the lover of natural
beauty. Here and there a gray, gaunt shape overcaps all its
fellows, rising with an abruptness that is almost startling,
rearing its snow-capped head high into the blue, the fleecy
clouds encircling its hoary head with a gauze-like halo.
59 THE   GAME   OF   BRITISH   COLUMBIA
CAMPING   IN   THE   CANADIAN   ROCKIES^
CLIMATIC CONDITIONS
Like all mountain countries, there is a delightful uncertainty
as regards the weather. One may start out in the morning
with a clear sky, giving promise of a perfect day, and before
noon find himself in the midst of a driving snowstorm, but on the
whole the climate is as a rule better than many parts of
Ontario or Quebec. October is the ideal month, clear frosty
mornings, and warm sunshiny days characterizing the month
throughout its length. Sometimes this Indian Summer weather
extends into November, but it is wiser to be safely out of the
retired corners of the mountains before the first of that month,
as snow is a great hindrance to rapid travel on the uncertain
mountain trails.
HUNTING GROUNDS OF THE COAST AND INTERIOR
Proceeding from Vancouver by boat up the mainland coast,
very few facilities for reaching the hunting grounds in the
interior are found.
There is a waggon road from Squamish, at the head of Howe
Sound, to Pemberton Meadows, about 50 miles, but it has been
little used and is overgrown with brush, and does not traverse
any game country of note.
Texada Island, about 75 miles from Vancouver, in the
Straits of Georgia, is fairly well stocked with deer,   but   they
60 THE   GAME   OF   BRITISH   COLUMBIA
are a small species. On the mainland across from Marble Bay or
Van Anda, which is pretty well up to the head of Texada Island,
black-tail deer are very plentiful on Powell Lake, distant about
20 miles from Van Anda. No regular guides can be procured,
but usually a small party could arrange with Percy Booth, care
Marble Bay Hotel, or T. Taylor, Queen's Hotel, Van Anda P.O.,
B.C., who will gladly provide row-boats at a cost of two to three
dollars a day, or a launch at the price of eight dollars. There
is a sail of three or four miles to the mainland and then a
short carry to Powell Lake, where canoes can be obtained.
Tenting outfits should be brought from Vancouver.
A   BRITISH  COLUMBIA   RIVER
There is an old trail from the head of Butte Inlet to Chilco
Lake, which is adjacent to the sheep country, but is not available for horses, being very difficult for packing, and cannot be
recommended as the route to the sheep ranges in the Lillooet
district. A reference to the proper route is made in another
paragraph. Deer are quite plentiful on Gilford Island and on
the mainland about Wakeman Sound and Kingford Inlet, but
as far as I could learn the facilities for guides and equipment
are practically nil. The boats calling at these points are those
of the Union S.S. Co.
From Harrison Springs there is a good road to Port Douglas,
about 30 miles, through a settled farming country, and thence
about 10 miles up Lillooet Lake to Ten Mile House. This is a
good game country, deer, bear and goat being plentiful, the
hunting being in easy, open country.
61 THE   GAME   OF   BRITISH   COLUMBIA
Accommodation and guides may be obtained in the homes
of settlers, most of whom are hospitable and willing to oblige
the stranger who needs help. The remuneration is always a
matter of small consequence, and quite unequal to the services
rendered.
To reach the sheep country on the upper waters of the
Fraser River and Chilco Lake, the only available route is from
Lillooet, an outlying post on the Cayoose River and Seton Lake.
This place is reached by stage from Lytton or Ashcroft,
about 30 miles over a good road. Complete outfits can be
obtained at Lillooet—guides, pack horses, riding horses, etc.,
tents not being required, shelter being in cabins scattered over
the hunting country at regular intervals. From Lillooet the
road is on the west side of the Fraser, continuing up to Big
Creek, a tributary of the Chilcotin River, which enters the
Fraser River a few miles south and east of Hanceville. The
distance from Ashcroft to the hunting grounds is about 150
miles;   an alternate route is by wagon road from Ashcroft to
EASY  TO   CATCH   SALMON   IN   BRITISH   COLUMBIA
Mundorf on the Bonaparte River, to Doherty's, on the east side
of the Fraser, crossing that river at China Gulch, and so up to
Hanceville. There is a store at Hanceville, where supplies can
be obtained, but probably at greater cost than at Ashcroft.
The big horn country extends from the headwaters of Big
Creek, Fletcher Lake, to White Water River and Chilco Lake.
This is the best sheep country north of the Kootenays, the animals being very abundant. The country is open and very easily
travelled, the hills being low and timber light, enabling one to
ride right up to within a short distance of the hunting grounds,
where the prospect of obtaining heads is almost a certainty.
Bear are also very plentiful all through the country described
in this route, and perhaps no better game country can be
found in British Columbia.
62 THE   GAME   OF   BRITISH   COLUMBIA
Caribou, bear and deer are plentiful in the east country
bounded by Clearwater River, North Thompson, Mahood Lake,
Cunim Lake, Horse Lake and Lac des Roches.
This ground is reached by the Barkerville wagon road,
branching from Doherty's up to Hundred-Mile House, thence
saddle and pack horses are employed over a country which is
rough and difficult, but where game can always be obtained.
Further north in the Caribou country, caribou and bear are
very plentiful, the country being practically an unknown wilderness except to prospectors and miners, who are the only
hunters of this district.
VANCOUVER ISLAND
As Described  by a reliable Correspondent
Guides are not easily procured, but hunting or fishing
parties are recommended to correspond with the Secretary
of the Tourist Association, Victoria, B.C. This Association
is always ready to give all possible help to visitors.
Black tail deer are very plentiful in Englishman's
River district, twenty-five miles from Nanaimo. Black bear are
numerous in this district, as are cougar and panther. This
country is reached by
the E. & N. Ry. Victoria
to Nanaimo and thence
by good wagon or auto
road to the grounds, the
roads being exceptionally good, and the
country presents no
great difficulties in
hunting. The elk
country is on the West
Coast, and extends from
Elk River, a tributary
of Kennedy Lake (fresh
water), about 50 miles
overland from Nanaimo
—a good road, or by
steamer from Victoria
to the upper end of
Barclay Sound, 10 miles
from Elk River. Hunting from the interior,
the elk country continues to Quatsino Sound, an approximate
distance of  100 miles.
The country to be hunted—Elk River, Bear River, tributary
to Bedwell Sound, an extension of Clayoquot Sound, Gold River,
tributary to Guaquina Arm, extension of Nootka Sound, Tushisk
Arm, extension of Kyuquot Sound, and then to south east arm
of Quatsino Sound. At Quatsino, a post about 10 miles in on
Sound, guides and outfit can be obtained, charge $5 per day
BAKING   BREAD
63 THE   GAME   OF   BRITISH   COLUMBIA
and $3 for packers. This country can be hunted from- either
south or north, but guides can be more readily gotten at Quatsino, and probably the better way would be to take steamer to
Quatsino and outfit there and hunt south, leaving outfit at
Alberni. The country abounds in elk, and one cannot fail to
get all the legal allowance. The best season for deer is
October 1st to November 15th; and for elk, be on ground at
opening of season.
Englishman's River, 25 miles from Nanaimo by a good
road, is a good fishing point. Fishing in early spring, March
and April, is a good time for rainbow and cut-throat trout.
Little Quallicum River, 35 miles from Nanaimo, runs out
of Cameron Lake into Straits of Georgia, and is good
fishing for cut-throat and rainbow. Big Quallicum out of
Home Lake into the Straits, good—from August 1st to
October 1st. Cameron and Home Lakes are also good.
Cowichan River, 22 miles from Victoria to Lakeside Hotel by
wagon or auto, is a splendid drive—from hotel fish from boat
five miles to Gillespie's Pool. In spring, April 1st to June 15th,
salmon fishing is very good and they will take fly. Four miles
further to Siwash, "rips" can be waded but are very rapid and
require great care—'then 1% rniles easy wading. August to
October rainbow trout are good sport, and run from 1 to 4
pounds. There is also good deer hunting on Cowichan Lake
and River. At Saanich Inlet, 20 miles from Victoria by a
fine road, there is good spring trolling for salmon. Boats
can be obtained at Saanich, $1 to $2 per day.
Cowichan Bay, 3 miles from Duncan's, 25 miles from Victoria,
on E & N. Ry., salmon trolling from August 1st to Sept. 1st,
is good. The stream par excellence for salmon is Campbell
River, 90 miles from Nanaimo, road good to Alberni, but from
there up not particularly good, though quite negotiable. Better
route is by steamer from Vancouver to Comox, good road from
there to river. The salmon will occasionally rise to fly, but are
taken generally on troll, Tyee (big) salmon August 1st to
September 10th, Cohoes July 1st to September. Some remarkably fine specimens have been taken this season, the average
weight being40lbs., average number per day 3,largest fish 62lbs.,
quite a number running 50 to 60 lbs. Cohoes run 5 to 12 lbs.
Comfortable quarters can be found at the Willow's Inn.
There is also good hunting in this country, elk, black tails
and black bear being very plentiful. The island is altogether
a particularly good fish and game country, the features being
its good roads and easy accessibility. The fishing is absolutely
free, which is true of no other salmon waters on the continent.
A game license of $100 is required from non-residents for
big game, a weekly license of $5.00 can be obtained for bird
shooting. As a game country, none on the globe presents the
absolute freedom from malaria, which is unknown, or any
diseases so often contracted by hunters. No venomous reptile
or insect of any description have ever been known, and the only
64 THE   GAME   OF   BRITISH   COLUMBIA
irritating plant is the Devil's Club, which is a sort of overgrown
nettle, and causes about the same annoyance, but can be easily
avoided and as easily overcome.
CAMPING IN CANADA
Canada above all the countries of the world is pre-eminently
fitted for camping. Its genial summers and beautiful lakes,
rivers and forests teeming with fish and game, make it an ideal
country in which to enjoy the free life of the woods. It is impossible to recommend or enumerate particular places or provinces, for practically all the vast Dominion of Canada, each and
every province, has many hundreds of beauty spots, and
delightful waters where the camper will find everything that is
required to make his vacation enjoyable.
There are a number of good reasons why people in increasing
numbers go camping each year. It is the most economical of
all outings; Nature supplies most of the essentials of life free,
wood, water, food, with no rent to pay, while the fresh air,
change of scenery and a beautiful rest, frequently make the doctor
lose a customer. To go camping was considered a hardship a
few years ago; now, with modern conveniences, women and
children may enjoy this form of vacation without experiencing
any'discomforts, and be greatly benefited thereby.
The Canadian Rockies excel all other places
for a camping trip, and
are rapidly growing in
the favor of all classes,
because there is so much
to see that is interesting,
novel and exhilarating.
Blest, indeed, are those
who can get away from
the turmoil of the city
and spend some time
among these matchless
mountains and see Nature in all her grandeur
of towering peaks and
glittering glacier, wild
and weird canyons, picturesque mountain lakes
and tarns, spacious valleys and enchanting
streams.
These  mountains
are
CAMPING   IN   THE   CANADIAN   ROCKIES
clothed with an infinite variety of
odorous pine woods, shrubs and flowers. The atmosphere is so
clear and the temperature so even and moderate, because of the
altitude, without any excessive heat during the summer months,
65 THE   GAME   OF   BRITISH   COLUMBIA
that the weary, the nervous and depressed are revived in a truly
wonderful manner. The tired brain worker finds in this region
that calm and sweet repose that his system requires in order to
rebuild his strength. Such a climate is conducive to appetite
and health, especially when the visitors are in daily enjoyment
of riding, mountain climbing, bathing and boating The amateur or professional photographer, the painter or the sketch
artist find the Canadian Rockies a new world of sunshine and
shadow, ever changing and always beautiful with every variety
of scenery available, from peak to valley.    Banff, Laggan, Field,
■
BANFF   SPRINGS   HOTEL
CANADIAN   PACIFIC   RAILWAY   HOTEL   SYSTEM
Glacier, Golden, Revelstoke, Sicamous, Kamloops and Ashcroft
are points from which camping trips may be made to many
charming points in the mountains.
When your holiday is done, and you are speeding homeward
with your muscles strong from glorious work, and your skin
tanned by the mountain air, you will think over every moment
of your outing; of the splendor of the sunrise, the magnificence
of the scenery, the glaciers, the torrents, and the thousand and
one marvels of the wonderland you have left, and, as you take
your last backward glance, and your straining eyes catch the
last glint of the snow-clad peaks, you will promise yourself many
another camp among them.
Decide early where you want to go and secure reliable information from the railway officials regarding the character of the
country, and where best to obtain tents, canoes, etc.
66 Tents, Canoes, Guides & Supplies
i ii ii —r
OUTFIT. The comfort and enjoyment of your trip depends
upon a suitable outfit. Tastes differ; make up your list carefully, dispensing with everything not absolutely necessary for
comfort.
GUIDES. Good, reliable guides can be procured in all
parts of Canada at reasonable wages, but this must be done well
in advance of the trip.
SUPPLIES. You must be guided by the nature of the
country in which you are to camp. When these can be obtained from adjacent villages or farmers on your trip, the amount
carried may be small. On longer trips to the wilds, consult
authorities of the Canadian Pacific Railway.
CANOES. These can be rented or purchased at many places
in Canada. Where portages have to be made, the light canvas
covered or birch bark canoes are best, for ordinary work cedar
or basswood are generally used.
TENTS. A good tent is a luxury, a poor tent is an abomination. In the selection of a tent, the requirements of the party
must be considered, the nature of the country where used, and
the season of the year. The weight of the canvas or duck used
in tents is designated by the number of ounces in a yard. Drab
or tan color have proven to be superior to white because they
are cooler, not so glaring, and do not soil so readily; mosquitoes and flies do not like them as well as white tents. As to
size, for four persons, 9x9, or if possible 10 x 12, unless you
are compelled to travel light, when 8 x 10 is a good size.
CAMP SITE. Put up your tent where water cannot lie,
avoid hollow spots, secure a shaded spot if possible, but near the
open. Don't camp in damp places, and keep not too far away
from dead timber to have it for fuel.
CLOTHING. Sacrifice appearances for comfort. Serviceable old clothing is preferable to new; it gives freedom of action.
Two complete changes are ample for an ordinary outing. A
sweater is always handy. Avoid white and fawn colors, white
because it soils easily, and fawn because it is a dangerous
color in the woods, being apt to be mistaken by your companions
for deer. Dark green or red are safe colors. A waterproof coat
should always be included, or rain cape, also a soft hat or peak cap.
Take underclothing to suit the climate, always soft shirts. Take
light wool clothing in preference to cotton. Moccasins are
good footwear when in a canoe; never take new boots camping;
a pair or two of worn but serviceable shoes are always handy to
have with you.
BED AND BEDDING. Good grey wool blankets are best
for camping. A down comforter in a sateen bag is good in the
far north.    Another good bed is made as follows:  Use a piece of
67 TENTS,   CANOES,   GUIDES   AND   SUPPLIES
canvas 40 inches wide and seven feet long, on each side turn a
hem nine inches deep, sewing it securely, leaving the two ends of
the hem open. Through each of these thrust a pole heavy
enough to carry your weight. A spreader made of a crotched
stick under each end of the poles makes a good bed. To make a
bed of boughs or branches, cut off the ends of branches and lay
them with the ends down, make it about six inches deep, and
put a log or stick at the ends to hold in place. This makes a
very comfortable bed. A number of special camp beds are
offered to the public, each of which have merit. The camper
must be guided by his individual taste and purse in buying.
COOKING UTENSILS. Do not take light, cheap tinware
that will almost fall to pieces on a camping trip. Some good,
solid, serviceable tin or aluminum in chest sets especially manufactured for camping.
PROVISIONS. Each party have ideas of their own on this
subject, and the supply needed depends upon the nature of the
country to be visited. Have everything put up in cotton,
nothing in paper bags. Avoid glass that is likely to be broken
in transit.
A FEW NEEDFULS. Axe, candles, compass, matches, salt,
frying pan, pail, a good strong knife, rope and cord, map of your
route showing nearest telegraph office, railroad, settlement, post
office, etc., package of post cards, lead pencils, sticking plaster
and medicine case.
THE CAMP FIRE. Best of friends—worst of enemies—
around which, at the close of day, hearts unite in friendship, with
CAMP COMFORT  IN CANADA
68 TENTS,   CANOES,   GUIDES   AND   SUPPLIES
 —	
i
4t          ■#                   ^
t^^'^
1
....r^^^MKSSM&
 vllll:^
..
A   HUDSON   BAY   CANOE
song and story, while ruddy faces smile and eyes sparkle as the
flames leap and the wood crackles. The camp fire is the
most social spot on earth, while outside of that magic circle of
light all is darkness and gloom, silence except for the cry of night
bird and the music of the breeze among the trees.
Clear away a spot so that the sparks and smoke may not go
near the tent. Dig a little trench, lay two green logs at either
side, light your fire, let the wood burn up, and with your bed of
coals do your cooking. The common error of amateur campers
is to build too big a fire. Experienced cooks take out the un-
burnt wood before starting cooking, the greenhorn puts on more
and suffers from smoke accordingly for his ignorance. When
you leave the camp always be sure the fire is out. Terrible
forest fires have been the result of the carelessness of campers.
This is most important, and it is also the law.
A FEW CAMP SUGGESTIONS. Do not sit or lie on bare
ground;   it is harmful and likely to cause sickness.
Take along a few yards of mosquito netting. It is easy to
carry and means comfort at times.
Make this a rule: No loaded firearms in the tent. A simple
fall of a gun may have serious or fatal results.
Keep your fish hooks and tackle in a tin box.
Don't have a dirty camp—dispose of or burn refuse from the
table. Do not throw it near the tent, or allow it to be around,
as it attracts flies and insects.
Plan your work. Let each person have a certain amount of
work allotted to him and everyone do his share.
Keep the matches dry, in a bottle corked up, or air-tight can.
Signal of distress—Three shots in succession is understood
to be a signal of distress in the woods.
Carry matches. If you are a smoker this injunction is unnecessary. There are times when wet and away from camp,
that a fire is absolutely needful.
69 TENTS,   CANOES,   GUIDES   AND   SUPPLIES
COAL OIL. If you carry it see that it is in a tight can. It
makes a bad mixture with provisions. Candles and candle lanterns are best for use in camp.
FOR THE HUNTER AND FISHERMAN. Do not kill more
game or catch more fish than you need or can use. No true
sportsman will kill game or catch fish out of season.
TAKE A CAMERA. Every trip furnishes some scenes you
wish to remember.    Have the means to perpetuate these events.
Scour cans and kettles immediately on emptying contents,
before they cool off.    They clean easier and better when hot.
BATHING. Do not go in bathing after a hearty meal. Be
careful when bathing in strange places, especially if you are
unable to swim. If you are a swimmer do not take risks in
seeing how far you can swim or dive, especially when you do not
know the bottom—there may be sharp sticks or rocks.
REMARKS. Have a congenial party with agreeable tastes.
Do not have too large a party; four and six persons usually
have the best time.
A   CANOE   RACE   IN   NORTHERN   ONTARIO
70 OPEN   SEASONS
AND
GAME   LAWS
«s   w
REGULATIONS APPLICABLE GENERALLY IN
CANADA AND THE UNITED STATES
The Provincial and State laws generally prohibit possession
or sale or transportation in the close season for game or fish
except that after the open season closes a short time is allowed
in some states and provinces, but in many export is illegal at
any time.
Netting game fish or catching or killing them by drugs,
explosives, etc., or by any other means than hook and line is
forbidden.
Insectivorous and song birds, and nests and eggs of all birds,
except birds of prey, are protected at all times.
Netting or snaring game birds, or killing by any other mode
than shooting is illegal.
Night shooting is generally prohibited.
Streams or lakes leased to individuals or clubs cannot be
fished by the public, though in many cases persons properly
introduced may obtain fishing.
Licenses should be kept in personal possession of the sportsman at all times, as they are subject to production on demand
of game wardens.
GAME LAWS OF QUEBEC
Big Game
Moose and Deer, September 1st to December 31st, inclusive,
excepting Ottawa and Pontiac Counties.
Moose and Deer in Ottawa and Pontiac Counties, October 1st
to November 30th, inclusive.
Caribou, September 1st to January 31st, inclusive.
Bear, August 20th to June 30th, inclusive.
No more than one moose, two deer, and twro caribou may
be killed in one season by any one person.
The young of deer, moose or caribou, if only one year old or
less, must not be killed.
Cow Moose must not be killed at any time.
Non-residents license, non-transferable, $25.00 per season;
from any Agent of the Canadian Pacific Railway Co., or the
General Passenger Agent, C.P.R., Montreal.
Fishing
Non-residents license, $10; non-resident member of incorporated club, $5; Salmon fishing, $25; from any agent of the
Canadian Pacific Railway Co. or the General Passenger Agent,
C.P.R., Montreal.
Salmon, February 2nd to August 14th.
Ouananiche, Deecmber 1st to September 30th.
Speckled Trout, May 1st to September 30th.
Large Grey Trout, December 20th to October 14th.
Pickerel and Pike Perch, (Dore), May 16th to April 14th.
Bass, June 16th to April 1st.
Maskinonge, June 15th to April 15th.
Whitefish  December 1st to November 31st.
71 OPEN SEASONS AND GAME LAWS
ONTARIO  GAME  LAWS
Hunting
Licenses: Non-residents, $50; residents, $2 for deer, $5 for
moose or caribou; applications to District Passenger Agent,
Canadian Pacific Ry. Co., Toronto, Ontario.
Deer, November 1st to November 15th. Allowance two
male deer per person.
Moose and Caribou, South of main line Canadian Pacific
Railway, November 1st to November 15th, north, October 16th
to November 15th.    One male moose and caribou.
Duck, September 1st to December 31st.
Geese and Swans, September 15th to April 30th.
Partridge, Grouse, Pheasants, Woodcock, September 15th
to December 15th.
Hares, October 1st to December 31st.
Snipe and Plover—September 1st to December 15th.
Squirrels, November 1st to December 1st.
Fishing
Non-residents  license,   $2 for  individuals,   $5  for families,
from   District  Passenger  Agent,   Canadian   Pacific  Ry.   Co.,
Toronto, Ontario.
Bass, June 16th to April 14th.    Limit eight per day.
Salmon Trout, December 1st to October 31st. Limit four,
per day.
Maskinonge, June 16th to April 14th.    Limit four per day.
Pickerel, May 16th to April 14th.    Limit twelve per day.
Speckled and Brook Trout, May 1st to September 14th.
Limit thirty per day.
Whitefish, December 1st to October 31st.
NOVA SCOTIA GAME LAWS
Non residents license, hunting $30 ; fishing, $10 (for three
months, $5); from J. D. Chipman, C.P.Ry. Agent, Halifax, N.S.
Open Season
Moose, October 1st to January   1st.    Bag limit: two males.
Caribou, Deer, Beaver—Protected, also Moose in Cape Breton.
Hare, Rabbit, Mink, November 1st to February 28th.
Otter, Fox, all year.
Duck, Teal, Woodcock, Snipe, August 20th to February 28th.
Grouse, Partridge, October 1st to November 30th.
Cape Breton, for all birds, August 20th to February 28th.
Pheasant, Spruce, Partridge, protected.
NEW BRUNSWICK GAME LAWS
Non-residents license, Hunting $50, Fishing, free; from
District Passenger Agent, C.P.R., St. John, N.B.
Moose and Caribou, Deer, Sept. 15th to November 30th.
Limit: one bull Moose; one bull Caribou; two Deer.
Mink, Fisher or Sable, November 15th to March 31st.
Beaver, protected until July 1st, 1910.
Bass, can be caught at all times by hook and line.
Lake Trout, Land-locked Salmon and Speckled Trout, April
1st to September 30th.
Salmon, February 1st to August 15th.
Owing to the fact that the Game Laws are frequently changed,
absolute accuracy is not guaranteed.
72 OPEN   SEASONS   AND   GAME   LAWS
GAME  LAWS,  STATE  OF  MAINE
Big Game
Moose, October 15th to December 1st. (No person shall
kill more than one bull Moose in one season.) Cow and Calf
Moose, protected.
Deer, October 1st to December 15th. (No person shall kill
more than two Deer in one season.)
Androscoggin County, October is open season.
Cumberland, Kennebec, Knox, Lincoln, Waldo, Sagadahock
and York Counties, November is open season. No female Deer
can be killed in York or Cumberland counties, and only one bull
in season.
Isle au Haut, closed until 1913.
Swans Island, closed until 1909.
Caribou, protected until October, 1911.
Non-residents must pay a license fee of $15.00 to hunt Moose
and Deer, and it also gives right to kill game birds.
Non-residents holding license may offer for transportation
one bull Moose and two Deer, ten Duck, and ten Partridge,
lawfully killed under rules prescribed.
Other Game
Mink, Sable or Fisher, October 15th to May 1st; Muskrat,
December 1st to May 1st.
Wild Hare, or Rabbit, September 1st to April 1st.
Beaver, protected at all times.
Whoever carelessly or negligently shoots, wounds or kills a
person while hunting shall be subject to a penalty of not exceeding ten years' imprisonment, or a fine not exceeding $1,000.00.
MANITOBA  GAME  LAWS
Licenses: Residents, $2; non-residents (British) $25; nonresidents (alien), $100; from General Passenger Agent,
C.P.R., Winnipeg, Man.
Open Season
Antelope, Elk, Moose, Caribou, Reindeer, December 1st to
15th.    Bag limit: one male of each.
Fisher, Sable, November 1st to March 31st.
Marten, November 1st to April 15th.
Muskrat, November 1st to April 30th.
Grouse, Chicken, Partridge, October 1st to October 20th.
Plover, Woodcock, Snipe, etc., August 1st to December 31st.
Duck, Geese, Swan, September 1st to December 31st. Bag
limit: 20 birds a day or 100 for season.
SASKATCHEWAN  GAME  LAWS
Open Season
Antelope, October 1st to November 14th.
Deer, Caribou, Moose, Elk, December 1st to December 14th;
two males only allowed each person.
Ducks, Geese, Swans, Rails, Coots, Snipe, Plover, Curlew,
September 1st to December 31st.
Chicken, Partridge, Grouse, September 15th to November
30th; ten a day, or total of 100 only allowed.
Cranes, August 1st to December 31st.
Mink, Fisher, Marten, November 1st to March 31st.
Otter, November 1st to April 30th.
Muskrat, November 1st to May 14th.
Game License, $100.
Bird License, $50; from C.P.R. Agent, Regina, Sask.
73 OPEN   SEASONS   AND   GAME   LAWS
ALBERTA  GAME  LAWS
Licenses: Residents, $2.50; non-residents, $25; (for birds)
$15; guests of resident, $2; from C.P.R. agent, Calgary, Alberta.
Open Season
Goat and Sheep (2 males of each) Sept. 1st to Oct. 15th.
Antelope, October 1st to November 1st. Bag limit (male
only) 2.
Moose, Caribou, Red Deer, November 1st to December 1st.
Bag limit (male only) 1.
Mink, Fisher, Marten, November 1st to March 31st.
Otter, Muskrat, November 1st to April 30th.
Duck, Geese, Swan, August 24th to December 31st.
Crane, Snipe, Plover, Curlew, September 1st to December
31st.
Grouse, Partridge, Pheasant, Chicken, October 1st to November 1st.    Bag limit: 20 birds a day or 200 for season.
BRITISH COLUMBIA GAME LAWS
Big Game
Moose (bull), September 1st to December 31st. Females and
calves under one year protected.
Deer, September 1st to December 14th. Fawn under one
year protected.
Caribou, September 1st to December 31st. Females and
calves, protected at all times.
Elk (wapiti), September 1st to December 31st. Females and
calves under two years, protected.
Mountain Goat and Sheep, September 1st to November 14th.
Mountain Sheep, Ewes and Lambs, protected.
Not more than three Caribou may be killed by one person
in any season, nor more than five Deer, two (bull) Elk, two (bull)
Moose, two (bull) Wapiti, three Mountain Goat or two Mountain
Sheep (rams), or one in Kootenay District.
The buying and selling of heads of Mountain Sheep, Elk,
Moose or Caribou is prohibited.
Small Game
Beaver, November 1st to March 30th.
Hare, September 1st to December 31st.
Land Otter and Marten, November 1st to March 31st.
Hunting License
Non-residents, other than military men of the British Army
and Canadian Militia in actual service in the Province, are
required to secure shooting license—fee $100—which may be
procured from any Provincial Government Agent or C.P.R.
Agent, Vancouver, B.C.
Fishing
Salmon Trout, November 14th to September 30th.
Salmon Angling, no close season.
Trout, other than Salmon, January 1st to September 30th.
Sturgeon, July 16th to May 31st.
Whitefish, November 14th to September 30th.
Owing to the fact that the Game Laws are frequently changed,
absolutely accuracy is not guaranteed.
74 Campers' and Sportsmen's Outfits.
CANADIAN CUSTOMS REGULATIONS,
The articles which may be brought into Canada (in addition
to wearing apparel, on which no duty is levied), as tourists' outfits, comprise guns, fishing rods, canoes, tents, camp equipment,
cooking utensils, musical instruments, cameras, etc., etc.
A deposit of duty on the appraised value of the articles imported must be made with the nearest Collector on arrival in
Canada, which deposit will be returned in full, provided the
articles are exported from Canada within six months.
REPORT FOR DEPOSIT ON TOURIST'S OUTFIT.
(In Duplicate.)
Entry No Report No	
Port of	
,190.
Tourist's Outfit imported by.
of	
from	
.per.
Marks
and Nos.
Descriptions
of Articles
Value
Rate
Duty
Remarks re
Exportation
The   said   deposit   of dollars
has been received by me on the conditions stated by the importer.
(Stamp.) Customs Officer.
I,    (owner or agent). . .
do solemnly declare that the above is a full and true statement
of the description and values of the articles imported by me as
Tourist's Outfit, with the amount of duty deposited thereon,
the said deposit to be entered for duty if the articles are not
duly exported within six months.
(Signature)   	
(Address)   	
If the tourist is unable to have his outfit exported and identified at the Customs Port where the deposit of duty is made,
so as to receive back his deposit before leaving Canada, he can
have the articles inspected and certified as below. The Tourist's
Report of the articles exported and certified as aforesaid may
then be mailed to the Customs Officer at the port of entry, who
will forward a remittance, by mail, for the money deposited
(less expense of remittance).
75 CAMPERS     AND   SPORTSMEN S   OUTFITS
The articles which may be brought in as Tourists' Outfit
comprise:   Guns,  Fishing Rods,  Canoes,  Tents,  Camp Equipment, Cooking Utensils, Musical Instruments, Kodaks, etc.
Declaration as to return of Outfit, attested before a Customs
Officer in Canada or at a place out of Canada.
Articles described herein inspected by me at	
this day of 190   ,   and
exported or landed as declared.
Sworn to before me,
(Stamp.) Customs Officer.
I,       (owner   or   agent)
do solemnly declare that the identical goods hereinbefore
described are now presented for inspection,  the same having
been delivered for exportation from the port of	
 per or landed at
 from per	
(Signature)
File 37827. No. 1006 B.
PROTECTION OF FORESTS FROM FIRE.
1 'The greatest care should be exercised between April  1st
"and October 31st, and if a fire is made in the forest, or a
"distance of less than half a mile therefrom, or upon any
"island, for cooking or obtaining warmth, the maker should—
1st. Select a locality in the neighborhood of which there is
the smallest quantity of vegetable matter, dead wood,
branches, brush wood, dry leaves or resinous trees;
2nd.  Clear the place in which he is about to light the fire by
removing  all vegetable  matter,   dead  trees,  branches,
brush wood,   and  dry  leaves,   from  the  soil within  a
radius of ten feet from the fire;
3rd.  Exercise and observe every reasonable care and precaution to prevent such fires from spreading, and carefully extinguish the same before quitting the place.
"Great care should be exercised to see that burning matches,
"ashes of pipes and lighted cigars or burning gun-wadding,
"or  any   other  burning   substance,   should  be   completely
"extinguished before the sportsman leaves the spot.
"Too much care cannot be exercised  in these important
"matters."
NOTE.
On sufficient notice to General Passenger Agent C.P. Ry.
Montreal, direct, or through any C. P  Ry. agent, a passenger
representative will meet any party of sportsmen and assist them
in making necessary Customs arrangements, etc.    This service
will be rendered gratuitously.
76 CANADIAN PACIFIC RAILWAY
HOTEL  SYSTEM
THE CHATEAU FRONTENAC—QUEBEC
in the quaintest and historically the most interesting city in America, is one
of the finest hotels on the continent. It occupies a commanding position
overlooking the St. Lawrence, its site being unrivalled.
Rates, $4.00 per day and upward with special arrangements for large
parties and those making prolonged visits.
THE PLACE VIGER—MONTREAL,
is a handsome structure immediately opposite the Viger Square, most tastefully furnished, the style and elegance characterizing the Chateau Frontenac
at Quebec, being also found here.
Rates, $3.50 per day and upward, with special arrangements for large
parties and those making prolonged visits.
THE ALGONQUIN—ST. ANDREWS, N.B.
(Open from June to September)
has recently been thoroughly renovated and much enlarged. Best natural
golf links in Canada.
Rates, $3.50 per day and upward, with special inducements for those
making prolonged stays.    Also The Inn, at $2.00 per day and upward.
McADAM STATION HOTEL—Mc A DAM JUNC, N.B.
is especially convenient for commercial and other travellers, owing to its
location at the junction with the main line of the Company's branch lines
intersecting New Brunswick.    Rates, $2.50 per day and upward.
CALEDONIA SPRINGS HOTEL—CALEDONIA SPRINGS, ONT.,
is situated at the famous Caledonia Springs, so well known all over the
American continent.    Low weekly rates upon application.
THE ROYAL ALEXANDRA—WINNIPEG, MAN.,
a newly completed 300 room house situated at the Railway station, furnished
with every modern convenience, including Cafe and Grill Room. European
plan.
BANFF SPRINGS HOTEL—BANFF, ALTA.
(Open from May 15 to October)
in the Canadian National Park, on the eastern slope of the Rocky Mountains,
is 4,500 feet above sea level, at the junction of the Bow and Spray Rivers.
A large and handsome structure, which cost about half a million dollars.
Rates, $3.50 per day and upward.    Special rates by the week or month
will be given.
LAKE LOUISE CHALET—LAGGAN, ALTA.
(Open from June 15 to October)
is a quiet renting place in the mountains, situated by Lake Louise, two and a
half miles from the station at Laggan, from which there is a good carriage
drive.    A convenient base from which to explore the Lakes in the Clouds.
Rates, $3.50 per day and upward.
MOUNT STEPHEN HOUSE—FIELD,  B.C.,
a chalet hotel fifty miles west of Banff, at the base of Mount Stephen, which
towers 8,000 feet above. This is a favorite place for tourists, mountain
climbers and artists. The wonderful Yoho Valley is reached by way of Field,
Rates, $3. 50 per day and upward, with special arrangements for parties
staying a week or longer.
EMERALD LAKE  CHALET—NEAR FIELD, B.C.,
(Open from June 15 to October)
a most romantically situated Swiss chalet hotel with accommodation for
forty guests.    The gateway to Yoho Valley.
Rates, $3.50 per day and upward.
GLACIER HOUSE—GLACIER,  B.C.,
In the heart of the Selkirks, within forty-five minutes walk of the Great
Glacier, which covers an area of about thirty-eight square miles. The hotel
has recently been enlarged to accommodate the ever-increasing travel.
Rates, $3.50 per day and upward, with special arrangements for parties
staying a week or longer.
HOTEL REVELSTOKE—REVELSTOKE, B.C.,
situated between the Selkirk and Gold Ranges, at the portal of the West
Kootenay gold fields and the Arrow Lakes. Rates, $3.00 per day and
upward.    A. J. MacDonell, Lessee.
HOTEL SICAMOUS—SICAMOUS,  B.C.,
built on the shores of the Shuswap Lakes where the Okanagan branch of
the C.P.R. begins.
Rates, $3.00 per day and upward, with special arrangements for those
staying a week or. longer.    Mrs. H. Moore, Lessee.
HOTEL VANCOUVER—VANCOUVER, B.C.,
at the Pacific Coast terminus of the Railway, is a hotel designed to serve the
large commercial business of the city, as well as the tourists who find it
profitable and interesting to remain a day or longer.
Rates, $4.00 per day and upward, with special terms for prolonged, visits.
EMPRESS HOTEL—VICTORIA, B.C.
Newly completed; at short distance from boat landing. One of the most
beautiful Hotels on the American continent. European and American
plans.
77 Canadian Pacific
Railway
THE BEST EQUIPPED   RAILROAD   IN  AMERICA
The route through Canada from the Atlantic to the Pacific is unap-
proached for magnificence and variety of scenery by any other line of
travel. The rugged wildness of the North Shore of Lake Superior,
the picturesque Lake of the Woods gold region, the billowy Prairies of
the Canadian Northwest, the stately grandeur of the Rockies, the
marvels of the Selkirks and Gold Range, and the wondrous beauty of
the Pacific Coast are traversed by this Railway. Being entirely controlled and managed by one Company, the CANADIAN PACIFIC
RAILWAY offers special advantages to transcontinental travellers. It
is the Best, Safest and Fastest Route from Ocean to Ocean.
CANADIAN PACIFIC RY. CO.'S
PACIFIC  STEAMSHIP  SERVICE
"EMPRESS OF INDIA"
"EMPRESS OF CHINA"
"EMPRESS OF JAPAN"
"MONTEAGLE"
placed on the Pacific by the Canadian Pacific Railway Company, bring
that Wonderland, Japan, within the reach of all. Sixty days from New-
York will admit of one month's holiday in Japan.
THE CANADIAN-AUSTRALIAN ROYAL MAIL LINE
R. M.  S-S.   "MAKURA,"    "MARAMA,"    " MOAN A,"
"AORANGI"   and "MANUKA"
Between Vancouver and Victoria, B.C., and Sydney, New South Wales,
via Honolulu, Hawaiian Islands, Suva, Fiji, and Brisbane, Queensland,
is the shortest and most attractive route to the Tropics and Antipodes.
CANADIAN PACIFIC RY. CO.'S
Atlantic Steamship Service
The magnificent " EMPRESSES "
" EMPRESS OF BRITAIN,"
"EMPRESS OF IRELAND"
"LAKE  MANITOBA" "LAKE  ERIE"
and "LAKE CHAM PLAIN"
Between Montreal, Quebec and Liverpool
via the delightful St. Lawrence Route.
Through Tickets from Halifax, St. John, N.B., Quebec,
Montreal, Ottawa, Prescott, Brockville, Toronto, Hamilton,
London, and all points in Canada; also from New York, Boston,
and all points in the East to Vancouver, Victoria, Skagway,
Dawson, Atlin, and other points in British Columbia and Alaska,
and to Spokane, Wash., Portland, Ore., Puget Sound Ports, San
Francisco, Japan, China, Philippines, Corea, Straits Settlement,
India, Hawaiian and Fijian Islands, New Zealand, Australia, and
Around the  World.
INSIST ON GETTING YOUR TICKETS VIA
THE CANADIAN PACIFIC RY,
' RATES AR& THE LOWEST,	
78 p
ublications
Issued by the
Canadian Pacific
Dailway Co.
THE  HIGHWAY TO THE ORIENT"
11 FISHING AND SHOOTING "
11 SPORTSMEN'S  MAP OF CANADA"
11 WESTWARD TO THE  FAR  EAST"
"ANNOTATED    TIME-TABLES"
"AROUND THE WORLD"
11 QUEBEC " " MONTREAL"
11 ST.  ANDREWS-BY-THE-SEA"
"THE CHALLENGE OF  THE MOUNTAINS"
11 WESTERN CANADA" "BRITISH  COLUMBIA"
"HOME  FROM   CALIFORNIA"
"CALEDONIA SPRINGS  HOTEL"
"MUSKOKA LAKES AND GEORGIAN  BAY"
" EMPRESSES OF THE ATLANTIC "
"RESORTS IN THE   CANADIAN  ROCKIES"
"HOTELS AND   BOARDING  HOUSES"
These publications are handsomely illustrated and contain much useful
information in interesting shape. Annotated Time-Tables with Notes will
be found a valuable companion for all Transcontinental travellers.
Copies may be obtained FREE from Agents of the Company, or will
be mailed to any address on application to undersigned.
M.
R. L. THOMPSON
District Passenger Agent
67 Yonge Street, Toronto.
F. R. PERRY
District Passenger Agent
362 Washington Street,
Boston.
W. R. OALLAWAY
General Passenger Agent
Soo Line, Minneapolis
ADSON
General Passenger Agent
Duluth, South Shore & Atlantic Ry.
Duluth, Minn.
A. C. 8HAW
General Agent, Passenger Dept.
232 South Clark St., Chicago, 111.
E. J. HEBERT
General Agent, Passenger Dept.
Montreal.
A. J. BLAISDELL
General Agent, Passenger Dept.
Sinton Hotel Block,
Cincinnati, Ohio.
C. B. FOSTER
Asst. General Passen?er Agent
Vancouver, B.C.
W. B. HOWARD
District Passenger Agent
St. John, N.B
ALLAN CAMERON
General Traffic Agent
458 Broadway, New York.
A. E. EDMOND8
District Passenger Asrent
7 Fort Street West, Detroit, Mich.
E. E.  PENN
General Agent, Passenger Dept.
Jas. Flood Bldg., San Francisco.
D. W. CRADDOCK
General Traffic Agent, China, etc.
Hong Kong.
W.  T.   PAYNE
Manager Trans-Pacific Line
Yokohama, Japan#
UNION 8.S. CO. of N.Z., Ltd.
Managing Agents
Auckland, N.Z.
UNION S.S. CO. of N.Z., Ltd.
Sydney, Australia
GEO.  McL.  BROWN
General Traffic Agent
67 and 63 King William St., E.C. \ London,
62-65 Charing Cross,     -     S.W. J Eng.
67 St. Vincent Street, Glasgow.
24 James Street, Liverpool.
41 Victoria Street, Belfast.
92 Cross Street, Manchester.
18 St. Augustine's Parade, Bristol.
C. E. McPHERSON, General Passenger Agent, Western Lines, Winnipeg.
WILLIAM STITT, General Passenger Agent, Eastern Lines, Montreal.
C. E. E. USSHER,
Assistant Passenger Traffic Manager, Western Lines, Winnipeg.
ROBERT KERR,
Passenger Traffic Manager, Montreal.
79 OFFICERS   OF  THE  TRAFFIC   DEPARTMENT
G. M. BOSWORTH, 4th. Vice-President, Montreal
ROBERT Kerr   Passenger Traffic Manager Montreal
W. R. MacInnes Freight Traffic Manager	
C. E. E. Ussher   Assistant Passenger Traffic Manager, Western Lines Winnipeg
William Stitt General Passenger Agent, Eastern Lines Montreal
C. E. McPherson General Passenger Agent, Western Lines Winnipeg
W. G. Annable General Passenger Agent, Atlantic Service Montreal
W. B. Bulling- Asst. Freight Traffic Manager, Eastern Lines        "
W. B. Lanigan Asst. Freight Traffic Manager, Western Lines Winnipeg
Allan Cameron General Traffic Agent New York
Geo. McL. Brown General Traffic Agent London, Eng.
H. S. Carmichael Gene-al Passenger Agent , = = ,, L'pool, Eng.
Geo. C. Wells Ass siant General Passenger Agent, Eastern Lines... Montreal
C. B. Foster Assistant General Passenger A.'ent Vancouver
H.W. Brodie        " " " %«       Winnipeg
John Corbett General Foreign Freight Agent Monlreal
W. M. KiRKTATRiCiv General Freight Ag<mt (Through Traffi ) Toronto
S.P.Howard       " " "       Montreal
M.H.Brown        " •' "      (Local Traffic) Toronto
H. E. MACDONELL        " " "        St.John.N.B.
W. R. Haldane        " " "       Vancouver
W. C, Bowles       " " "       Winnipeg
J. Halstead        " " "       Calgary
R. E. Larmour        " " "        Nelson, B.C.
H. D. Annable        " " ««        London, Eng.
G. H. Smith Assistant General Freight Agent Winnipeg
W.H.Robertson         " •« " "      Vancouver
J. 0. Apps Gene- al Baggage Agent Mont-eal
W. T. Robson Advert.sing Agent	
L. 0. Armstrong Colonization and Tourist Agent        "
AGENCIES
Adelaide Aus. .Australasian United S. Nav. Co. (Ltd.)	
Amoy China. . Jaidine, Matheson & Co	
Antwerp, Belgium. .Sidney Edward Cruse, A ent 33 Quai Jordaens
Auckland N.Z..Union S.S. Co. of New Zealand (Ltd.)	
Baltimore Md. .Arthur W. Robson, Passenger and Ticket Agent. .127 East Baltimore St.
ISatavia Java. .MacLaine, Watson & Co	
ISatlleCreek.Mich. .E. C. Oviatt, Travelling Passenger Agent 303 Lake Ave.
Belfast Ireland. .Wm. McCalla, Agent 41 Victoria St.
BellillJSjliam.W ASH..W. H. Gordon, Passenger Agent 1233 Elk St.
Bombay India. .Ewart Latham & Co.   Thomas Cook & Son 13 Esplanade Road
Boston MASS. .F. R. Perry, D.P.A.; G. A. Titcomb, C.P.A 3li2 Washington St.
Brandon Man. .George A. Walton, District Passenger Agent	
Brisbane QD. .The British India and Queensland Agency Co. (Ltd.)	
Bristol Eng..F. W. Forster, Agent ^8 St. Augustine's Parade
Brockvillc.... Ont. .Geo. E. McGlade, City Ticket Agent. .Cor. KingSt. and Court House Av.
Buffalo N.Y..G. H. Griffin, C.P.A.; G. C. Wilsoi, C.F.A 233 Main St.
Calcutta India. .Thos. Cook & Son, 9 Old Court House St.    Gillanders, Arbuthnot & Co.
Calgary Al a. . J. E. Proctor, District Passenger Agent.	
Canton China. . Jardine, Matheson & Co	
4 i.i,..,„„. ttt J A.C.Shaw,Gen. Agt., Passr.Dept.; C.L.Williams, C.P.A., 232 So. Clark St.
t/niuitoo ill. 10 E Benjamill) Gen. Agt#>, assl% ])ept.,Atlantic Service,232 So. Clark St.
r!,,«2»„«+3      nnmjA. J. Blaisdell, Gen. Agt.. Passr. Dept. .Sinton Hotel Block, 15E. 4th fct.
* mciiinaxi .. uhio j B R WMte (Freigllt) 710 Mercantile Library Building
Cleveland Ohio. .Geo. A. Clifford, City Passenger Agent . Cor. Superior and West 3rd St.
Detroit Mich. .A. E. Edmonds, D.P.A.; E. Olson, D.F.A 7 Fort St. W.
Duluth Minn. .M. Adson, Gen. Passr. Agent, D.S.S. & A, Ry Manhattan Building
Everett    Wash. .A. B. Winter, Ticket Agent 1515 Hewitt Av.
Glasgow. Scotland. .Thos. Russell, Agent 67 St. Vincent St.
Halifax N. S.. J. D. Chipman, City Passenger and Freight Agent 37 George St.
Hamburg, Germany.Thos. Cook & Son, Tourist Agents 39 Alsterdamm
Hamilton ONT..W. J. Grant, Commercial Agent Cor. King and James Sts.
Hobart . .Tasmania. .Union S.S. Co. of New Zealand (Ltd.)	
Hong Kong D. W. Craddock, General Traffic Agent, China, etc	
Honolulu H. I. .Theo. H. Davies & Co ~	
Kansas City Mo.. Ed ward Merchant, T. P. A.; L. C. Jack, Freight Agent, 442 Sheidley Bldg.
Kingston, J amaica .. George & Branday	
Kobe Japan.. J. Rankin, Agent 14 A.May e-uiachi
Liverpool Eng. .H. S. Carmichael, General Passenger Agent 24 James St.
r <KRft<ii**ini vxm /Geo. McL. Brown, Gen. Traffic Agent \ 62-65 Charing Cross, S.W.,and
JLOUUOn , .lng. | IL B AnnaDl6| Gen. Freight Agent J 67-68 King Wilbam St. E.C.
London Ont. .. W. Fulton, City Passenger Agent 161 Dundas St.
Los Angeles . .CAL.. A. A. Polhamus, Travelling 1 assenger Agent 609 South Spring St.
MauchcsU'r . Eng. .E. J. Armstrong, Agent 92 Cross St.
Melbourne... .Aus. .Union S.S. Co. of New Zealand (Ltd.)   Thos. Cook& Son
Milwaukee .. .Wis. .A. G. G. Lauder, Freight Agent Railway Exchange Bldg.
Minneapolis, Minn.W. B. Chandler, Agent Soo-Line 119 South Third St.
iiAnh.noi riTTT? _f E- J- Hebert, General Agent, Passenger Dept Windsor St. Station
luouiiuii ^ue. | A E Laiande, City Passenger Agent 129 St. James St.
Nagasaki ... Japan. .Holme, Ringer & Co	
Nelson B.C..W. H. Deacon, C.P.A	
i*r**™- v^^Lr        ¥v/ Allan Cameron, General Traffic Agent 458 Broadway
j^ew m ont ... .in. i. j international Sleeping Car Co 281 I ifth Ave.
Niagara Falls, N.Y.D. Isaacs, City Passenger Agent Prospect House
Ottawa Ont. .George Duncan, City Passenger Agent 42 Sparks St.
n».,.,: . t?p aatpt?/International Sleeping Car Co 3 Boulevard des Capicunes
* tlll!* l '^^ \ Hernu, Peron & Co. (Ltd.), Ticket A ens 61 Boulevard Haussmii.ii
Philadelphia. PA..F. W. Huntington, General Agent, Passenger Dept.. 1>29-631 Chestnut St.
Pittsburg PA. .T. G. Orr, T. P.A 317 Fifth Ave.
Portland Me. .R. D. Jones, Ticket Agent, Maine Cent. Rd Union Depot
Portland Ore. .F. R. Johnson, General Agent, Passenger Dept 142 Third Sr.
Ouebec Que. .Jules Hone, City Passenger Agent 30 St.   ohn St., cor. Palace Hill
Sault Ste. Marie, Mich. W.J. Atchison, C.P.A.,224AshmunSt.; W.C. Sutherland, DepotT.A.
St. John N.B...W. B.Howard, D strict Passenger Agent 8 King St.
St. Louis Mo.. .T. J. Barnes, C.P.A.; T. J. Wall, T.P.A 725 Olive St.
St. Paul Minn. .L. M. Harmsen, City Ticket A ent, Soo-Line 379 Robert St.
SailLrancisco, CAL.E. E. Penn, G.A.P.D.;Fred L. Nason, C.T.A.; J. II. Criffln, D.F.A., James
Flood Building, 77 Ellis St.
Seattle WASH..A.B.Calder,G.A.P.D.; J. W. Draper, G.A.F.D.,Mut. Life Bldg., 609 1st Av.
Shanghai ... China. .A. R. Owen, Agent	
Sherbrooke . .Que. .E. H. Sewell, City Passenger Agent 6 Strathcona Sq.
Spokane Wash.. J. S. Carter, Gen. Agent Pass'r Dept.. Cor. Stevens St. and Riverside Ave.
Sydney Aus.. Union S.S. Co, of New Zealand (Ltd.)	
'I'acoma WASH.. C. H. Reade, C.P.A.; O. H. Becker, Frt. Agt., 1113 Pacific Av., Arcade Bldg.
rw,..,,...,.^ n,T_  f R. L. Thompson, District Passenger Agent 67 Yonge St.
10101110 UNT \ W. Maughan, City Ticket Agent 1 King St. East, cor. Yonge
Vancouver ... .B.C   J. Moe, C.T.A., 428 Hastings St.; Chas. Millard, Depot T.A.
"Victoria B.C. .L. D. Chetham, City Passenger Auent 1102 Government St.
Washington .. D.C.. E. P. Allen, City Passr. and Fgt, Agent, Bond Bldg., 14th St. and N.Y. Av.
Winnipeg Man. .A. C. Smith, City Ticket Agent ..Cor. Main St. and Portage A v.
Yokohama . Japan. .W. T. Payne, Manager Trans-Pa3ific Line 14 Bund
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