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Western Canada : Manitoba, Assiniboia, Alberta, Saskatchewan and New Ontario Canadian Pacific Railway Company 1902

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 stern
Canada
MANITOBA ALBERTA
ASSINIBOIA
SASKATCHEWAN and
NEW ONTARIO
1902
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Western Canada
MANITOBA
ASSINIBOIA
ALBERTA
SASKATCHEWAN and
NEW ONTARIO
How to Get There How to Select Lands
How to Make a Home
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.... .... . WESTERN CANADA
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page.
The Country to Settle in      5
Topography and Climate      6
Manitoba  11
Social Advantages ;....■..,-..... ..'..  12
Mixed Farming, Crops in 1901 and Dairying   14
Lands for Settlement, etc  16
Liberal Exemption Laws  18
Settlers' Testimony , • • •  • 19
Delegates' Report  25
Assiniboia :  26
Dairying... —  29
Settlers' Testimony .."..:  30
Land Buyer's Statement • ■.. ■ 33
Delegates' Report 34
Saskatchewan  36
Ranching and Dairying  37
Fisheries and Settlers' Testimony  38
Delegates' Reports  39
Alberta  42
ChiefTowns  46
Stock Raising  48
Minerals  51
Settlers' Testimony   51
Delegates' Reports :  54
System of Land Survey  58
Free Homestead Regulations   59
Mineral Lands Regulations   60
Government Land Offices  61
Railway Land Regulations  63
C. P. R. Freight Regulations  65
Canadian Customs' Regulations ,..'.  67
General Information—Western Canada  68
How to Reach Western Canada  75
New Ontario ...............  — ,, ,  77 2S£	
PLOUGHIKCl—WESTEBN OAJTADA.
4. ypxp oy MAisae—wsstksn oajtapa. Western Canada
consisting of
Manitoba, Assiniboia, Saskatchewan, Alberta
and New Ontario.
THE COUNTRY TO SETTLE IN.
The Dominion of Canada occupies the northern half of the North
American continent. It is divided into the Provinces of Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba and British Columbia, and several Territorial Districts, the
principal of which are Assiniboia, Saskatchewan, Alberta, and the .
Yukon, the latter being a great gold mining region. What is generally-known as Western Canada comprises Manitoba, Assiniboia,
Saskatchewan, and Alberta—the great stretch of fertile prairie lands
lying between the Red River Valley and the Rocky Mountains—and
that part of the Province of Ontario which lies to the north and
west of the old settled districts.
The record of the growth of this portion of Canada is a tale of
marvellous progress and advancement, of vacant lands being peopled,
of thriving towns and villages arising where a few years ago the
red Indian camped, of exports changing in one generation from bales
of fur to thousands of train loads of golden grain.
The extraordinary rapidity with which Canada's wealth is growing is shown by the official figures of Canada's trade with foreign
nations, which for the year ending 30th June, 1901, amounted in value
to $386,903,153 (£79,446,232), being an increase of more than $5,000,000
(£1,026,694) over that of 1900, and of about $80,000,000 (£16,427,105)
over that of the preceding year. The exports of the country,
amounting to $196,487,632 (£40,346,536) were largely made up of the
products of "Western Canada.
These figures tell a sitory of a country fruitful and productive,
with transportation facilities so perfect that the immense surplusage
of products flows naturally to Europe and is there converted into
cash. They tell of a country where poverty is unknown to the industrious; and where every man can gratify what to the European
toiler must ever be an unattainable desire—the possession of his own
farm and home. Western Canada's arms are still open, there are yet
great stretches of virgin soil awaiting the ploughshare of the pioneer;
but every year sees a contracting of the free land open for settle- topography and climate of western cAnajja
longer. The Dominion Government records show that last season
thousands of acres of Government land were taken up. When to
this is added the great number of farms purchased from railway
and land companies, and computation is made on the basis that in
most cases a settler is the head of a family, it will'be seen that
the population of Western Canada is rising with unexampled
rapidity^ The free land is, in many districts, now almost exhausted,
but farms in the very best localities, in immediate proximity to
railways, grain elevators, schools and churches, are obtainable by
purchase on very reasonable terms. No industrious immigrant need
fear inability to secure a location; on the boundless prairies "land
hunger"  is as yet unknown.
Western Canada, as described in this book, embraces New
Ontario, a region about which great expectations of mineral wealth
are entertained; Manitoba, the oldest settled portion of the great
western prairie; Assiniboia, where the physical conditions resemble
those of Manitoba; Saskatchewan, occupying the fertile valley of the
great Saskatchewan River; and Alberta, lying along the foothills of
the Rockies, with varied agricultural, mineral and ranching possibilities. This book is designed to give authentic information about
this great territory to the prospective immigrant seeking a spot
where there is a certain reward for intelligent industry. From it
will be learned what the general features of the several divisions of
Western Canada are, and what kind of farming suits each locality.
Some districts are suitable for ranching, some for wheat growing,
some for dairying, some for mixed farming. The information about
each locality is supplied in part by residents, who, having themselves
been successful, are willing to encourage new settlers by giving them
the benefit of their experience. The story of success told in these
pages by happy and prosperous farmers could be duplicated from no
other part of the world. This book also contains information concerning the best way of getting to the West, full particulars of
Government and railway land regulations, etc. It is a text-book of
the natural advantages of Western Canada; and a guide tfook as
well.
Topography and Climate of Western Canada.
The Director of the Geological Survey of Canada, Dr. G. M. Dawson,  G.M.G.,  speaking of the Great Northwest of Canada,  or  The
\ Interior Continental Plain, says :    "Thus^on the 49th parallel, consti-
> tutmg here the southern boundary of Canada, the plain has a width
I of 800 miles," and narrows gradually to the northward, extending to
the Arctic  Ocean.    "The  southern part of  this  great  plain  is  not
only the most important from an economic point of view, but is also
that   about  which  most  is  known.     It   includes   the  wide  prairie
country of the Canadian West, with a spread of 193,000 square miles
of open grass land, an area more than twice that of Great Britain."
The whole country spreading from the forest region of the east
./to the Rocky Mountains on the west, is very concisely described in
| "Climates  of  Canada,"   by  P.   H.   Bryce,  M.A.,  M.D.,  secretary  of
the Provincial Board of Health, Ontario, who says : TOPOGRAPHY AND CLIMATE   OF   WESTERN   CANADA 7
"The lowest area of the plains is that of Manitoba, the Red
River from the south, the Saskatchewan from the west, and their
tributaries all trending towards Lake Winnipeg and thence to
Hudson's Bay. All this great area extending for some distance
to the height of land in Dakota, U.S., shows evidences of once
having been an immense inland sea, with its several beaches
marking more or less distinctly the successive levels of the waters
of what geologists have chosen to call the great post-glacial Lake
Agassiz. A black alluvium of the richest nature covers practically the whole of this country, and makes the great wheat-fields
of the Canadian Northwest, yielding their 'Manitoba No. 1 hard.'
The lowest area of this region is limited westward by the Pembina
Mountains, Riding Mountains, and the Porcupine Hills, having a
general level of 800 feet. Westward the next area reaches a height
of some 1,500 feet, and runs westward some 250 miles, when the
next elevation of 2,000 feet is reached. This country, the Grand
Coteau, rises till a height of 4,000 feet is reached in the foothills
of the Rockies in the region about Calgary. This upland shows
more evidences of deep erosion of the valleys of its streams, and
has here and there bluffs with high hills and plateaus, notably
the Cypress Hills, north of the American desert, with climatic
peculiarities quite its own. This whole higher region, marked
notably by a greater dryness, is essentially a grazing or ranching country. While cold, owing to the altitude and the exposure
of the plains to the winds from the mountains, its dry plains are,
nevertheless, covered with the peculiar bunch grass of the country,
which has served to make the foothills of the Rockies the greatest
stock-raising areas of the continent. The climate of the whole
great prairie country of the Canadian Northwest is marked by seasonal rather than daily extremes, except in the higher foothills of the
mountains to the west, where the daily range is notable." Referring
in still more definite language to the climate of this splendid agricultural region, the remarks of Mr. R. F. Stupart, Director of the
Meteorological Service of Canada, will be read with much interest
by those familiar with the climate of England and Eastern Canada:
"The salient features of the climate of the Canadian Northwest
Territories are a clear, bracing atmosphere, during the greater part
of the year, cold winters and warm summers and a small rainfall
and snowfall. The mean temperature for July at Winnipeg is
66°, and at Prince Albert 62°. The former temperature is higher
than in any part of England, and the latter is very similar to that
found in many parts of the Southern counties. The diurnal range,
however, is different from any found in England, the average daily
maximum temperature at> Winnipeg being 78°, with a minimum of
53°, and at Prince Albert a maximum of 76°,. with a minimum of
48°; and owing to these high day temperatures, with much sunshine,
the crops come to maturity quickly.
"In April the monthly mean temperature of 40° is found in Alberta and Assiniboia, and passes eastward to Manitoba, indicating
a spring slightly in advance of southwestern Ontario, on the 42nd
parallel of latitude. Spring in April makes rapid strides in Manitoba, with an average day temperature of 48°.
"In considering the climate of the Canadian prairies, the fact
should not be lost sight of that although the total rainfall averages
only 13.35 inches for the  Territories and 17.34 inches in  Manitoba, TOPOGRAPHY AND CLIMATE   OF  WESTERN   CANADA.
the amounts falling between April 1st and October 1st are respectively 9.39 inches,  and 12.87 inches,  or 70.3 and 74.2  per cent,  of the
whole.   The  average  12.87  inches  in Manitoba  is  not  far  short of
the average for Ontario during the same six months."
Again quoting from "Climates of Canada";
" The bright, clear cold of the ordinary winter day of Manitoba
is most enjoyable. With little or no thawing and no sea of un-
congealed great freshwater lake to supply dampness, the air is
crisp and dry, and where in England or on the seacoast, with a
few degrees of frost the air as chill and raw, many more degrees
of cold in the Canadian Northwest is only enjoyable and stimulating.
" The winter goes, as it comes, almost in a day. The crescent
sun pours his powerful rays through the transparent atmosphere,
and, when the thaw has begun, the great atmospheric disturbances,
caused by the heated centres, cause the northwest wind to blow and
lick up the water, which covers the plains, seemingly all in a day.
One has not infrequently seen the water on the low ground a foot
deep in the morning and gone in the evening; while in another
day or two the black alluvium, which like the blackened plate of
glass absorbs heat in seemingly enormous quantities, is dry and
powdery on the fields ploughed in the autumn. Seeding proceeds
when the frost is not more than four inches out of the ground.
Then in a few days the prairie is dotted with the spring flowers.
Seldom is the spring long, damp and cold. Spring comes, growth
is phenomenal, and the harvest of spring wheat is ripened in the
middle of August. With such a soil, marvellous in the amount
of its plant foods, and with the long, bright, even occasionally hot
summer day, the metabolism of the plant cells is so rapid as only
to be likened to the growth of plants under glass. To the plodding, laboring, waiting husbandman of England or Scotland It
seems so unreal as to be incredible that four, or at the most five,
■ short months should yield for an area of 1,500,000 acres some 30,-
| 000,000 bushels of wheat, and as much more of other grains, to
: feed the toiling millions of continental cities."
Men travel with teams everywhere, taking grain to market,
hauling fuel, building and fencing material, etc. Stock will live
out of doors, so far as the cold is concerned, but at times require
to be fed with hay. They should, however,. be housed at night.
Everyone unites in testifying to the healthfulness of the country
as it affects stock. Ploughing is general in the early part of April,
though much of the land is usually ploughed in the preceding autumn. The snow disappears rapidly and the ground dries quickly.
Winter closes promptly and decisively. Sowing is done during almost the whole of April, and is finished in May.
Dr. James Patterson, Dominion health officer in Western Canada, reports:—" That the climate is a good one for the development
of man is shown by the fact, that those who have come here during
the last 20 years have not deteriorated, but stand today the equal of
any other people in mental or physical vigor, independent thought
and action. That the climate is a good one for the propagation of
our race is shown by our school population, which is larger in proportion to our whole population than most others. That our climate
is not the severe one that it is believed by many to be, is shown
by the average attendance at school of all children of school age, .:..:.,.;.....: ..,      ■     ■ ■    ..
■-"/?;!
A GROUP OF  GRAIN ELEVATORS—WESTERN CANADA.
!--£'>::'
*y»i.is<4t'<-.
DKLmEBING  GRAIN—WESTERN  CANADA, 10
TOPOGRAPHY AND CLIMATE  OF  WESTERN  CANADA
being about equal in winter and summer, except in sparsely settled rural districts. We enjoy special immunity from cyclones and
blizzards, and whoever saw a dust or sand storm in Manitoba ?
The number of absolutely clear, sunshiny days in this country is
not exceeded in any other good agricultural country habitable by
white men. We have an average of 200 clear days out of 365. In
Great Britain, on an average, 6-10ths of the sky is obscured by
clouds every day in 'the year. With regard to disease, we have
none whatever peculiar to this country or climate. We are absolutely protected by our climatic conditions from several of the
most dangerous and fatal, whilst several of those which are common to all peoples on the face of the earth are comparatively rare,
owing to our climate. For example, we have never had and never
will have cholera,, yellow fever, malaria or dysentery, so common
and fatal to the inhabitants of warm climates. Inflammatory
rheumatism is extremely rare as compared with its prevalence in
cool, damp climates. Asthma rarely develops here, while many
who suffer from it in the east are free from it in Manitoba. Consumption, which is the scourge of the British Islands and the
United States, is as yet comparatively rare with us. Our pure,
dry air, our sunshiny days, and opportunities for outdoor life are
antagonistic to its existence."
•Mj&$I
■ '.■■■■■
8i\tA
A   BtnTOH   OF   FLAX—WEBTtSRI?   CANADA. MANITOBA—RICHEST SOIL IN THE WORLD . ll
MANITOBA
The Province of Manitoba is situated in the very centre of the
North American continent, being midway between the Atlantic and
Pacific oceans. Its southern frontier, bordering on the United States,
is about the same latitude as Paris and the south of Germany,
and the province itself is further south than the British Isles,
Holland and Belgium.
Manitoba has an area about the same as is contained in England,
Scotland and Ireland put together. Its width is 282 miles, and it extends 264 miles northerly from the 49th parallel. It comprises within
its limits the famed grain-growing valleys of the Assiniboine and
Red Rivers. Although called the Prairie Province of Canada, Manitoba has large areas of forests, numerous rivers, and vast water
expansions. Its forests in the east, along the rivers and' fringing
its great lakes, and on its mountain elevations furnish the settlers
with fuel. Its principal rivers—the Red, Assiniboine and Pembina
—give a great natural drainage system to all parts of the province, and smaller streams form a perfect network throughout the
ountry. Its larger lakes—Winnipeg, Manitoba and Winnipegosis
-abound with fish, which are caught in immense quantities by
organized companies for export to the principal cities of the United
States and to supply the local demand. Aside from the utility
of these natural advantages put to a practical use, all combined,
forests, rivers and lakes, have a mighty influence on the climate
of Manitoba in increasing the rainfall and supplying an abundance
of moisture. The population of Manitoba has steadily and rapidly
increased during the past ten years and now numbers 254,000 people, the greater proportion of whom are engaged in agricultural
pursuits. The majority of the settlers are from Great Britain
and Eastern Canada. Of the remainder there are, besides many
from the United States, large colonies of Mennonites, Icelanders,
Scandinavians, Germans and other nationalities, many of whom had
but small means on arrival in the province, and at present they
have comfortable homes, and are amongst the most prosperous
settlements in Manitoba. An evidence of the growth and prosperity
of the province is given in the value of her farm buildings erected
during 1901, which amounted to $1,434,880.
The soil Is a rich, deep, argillaceous mould, or loam, resting on
a deep and very tenacious clay sub-soil. It is specially adapted
to wheat growing, giving a bountiful yield of the finest quality,
known the world over as Manitoba No. 1 hard wheat. During
the past ten years, about 250,000,000 bushels of wheat have been
exported from the Province.
In alluding to the prosperity of Manitoba, the Northwest Magazine, of October last, published in St. Paul, Minnesota, says:—The
crop of 1901 will be no unimportant factor in the history of Western
Canada's development. "While every year has seen a marked increase in  growth  and  prosperity,  the  seasons  of '87,  '95,  and  1901 12 MANITOBA—SOCIAL ADVANTAGES
represent the flood-mark of the spring tides of the progress of the
West. In the two former of these seasons, the material advance
almost equaled the' luxuriance and strength of the natural growth.
The next result of this year's operations, in farm, ranch, office and
factory, promises to be no whit behind the most favorable of its
predecessors. Every form of enterprise will share in the general
prosperity. Every district will participate in the benefits lavished
by bountiful nature, and reflect in unmistakeable fashion the success that has rewarded the toil of its residents. In common with
every other section of the province, that portion lying to the north
and south of the main line of the C. P. R. for the last forty miles
of its course in Manitoba has every reason to rejoice at the prosperity that will result from the harvest. Here, as elsewhere, all
classes of men, and all branches of business, are beginning ^(to reap
the rewards of the most successful year in the history of the West.
In the towns merchants have increased their stocks, in many cases
by a hundred per cent., in anticipation of the biggest volume of
business yet experienced; and every class of citizen is feeling the
buoyancy and prosperity consequent on the abundance of the wheat
harvest.
Social Advantages.
Manitoba fully enjoys all the advantages of advanced civilization.
It has over 2,000 miles of railway within its boundaries, which have
been built since 1878. The main line of the Canadian Pacific
Railway runs through the province east and west, and it has
branch lines running in all directions, and other railways also
operate in Manitoba. Telegraph lines branch out from Winnipeg to
all parts of the province. Wherever settlers are, may be found villages, schools, churches and postal facilities. There is a uniform
system of non-sectarian schools which are supported partly by
liberal grants from the Provincial Government and partly by a tax
imposed on land for this purpose. Every child of school age is entitled to free tuition, under teachers who must pass a thorough examination and have special training for the work. A thorough
practical education is assured in the public schools, which on January
1-1, 1901, numbered 1,352, there being 1,147 organized sohool districts.
There are also 43 intermediate schools at central points, three Collegiate schools, five colleges (four in Winnipeg and one in Brandon),
and a University.   The school population has  increased from 7,000
■ in  1881   to   62,664  in  1901,   and  1,596   teachers    are     employed.       All
.the religious bodies found in Canada are represented in Manitoba.
iThere is no state  church in  Canada,  every religion  being alike in
I the  eyes  of the  law.   Churches  of  the  leading denominations  are
established in the towns and villages, and even in the newer and
scattered  settlements  arrangements  are  usually made for   holding
union services of   the different denominations.   There are numerous
lodges  of the  different  fraternal  orders—Masons,  Oddfellows,  Foresters, Temperance,  etc.,  etc.—throughout the country,  and numerous Y.M.C.A.'s, Women's Aid Societies and sewing circles.   The farmers have organized a number of societies, which are of incalculable
i value  to  the  agricultural  interests  of  the  province.   There  are  51
i  agricultural  societies,  which  hold  annual  fairs,   besides  a  number ROOT  CROP,  EXPERIMENTAL  FARM,  BRANDON,  MANITOBA.
A MANITOBA BABIJSY XTELD, —
14
MANITOBA—DAIRYING
of Farmers' Institutes for the discussion of practical questions, a
Dairy Association, Cattle and Swine Breeders' Association and a
1 Poultry Association. Municipalities have been organized in the settled portions—there being 85 rural, besides 15 incorporated cities
and towns.
Mixed Farming.
For years the nutritious grasses of the prairies and thousands
of tons of hay in the low lands were allowed to go to waste for
want of cattle to graze, and feed upon them. Settlers are now
availing themselves of this natural wealth, and are giving more
attention to stock-raising and dairying instead of confining their
efforts to wheat growing as formerly. In 1901 the number of horses
in the province was 142,080; cattle, 263,168; sheep, 22,960; pigs, 94,680.
Crops of 1901
The crop area and total yield of grain, roots, etc., of Manitoba
for 1901, were as follows, according to the official returns:—
Wheat     2,011,835
Oats .
Barley...
Flax	
Rye	
Peas	
Potatoes.
Roots	
Acres
Total yield
Average yield
in crop.
bushels.
to acre.
2,011,835
50,502,085
25' 1 bushels
689,951
27,796,588
40.3     "
191,009
6,536,155
24.2     "
20,978
266,420
12.7     "
2,707
62,261
23.
879
16,349
18.6     "
24,429
4,797,433
196.
10,214
2,925,362
286.
2,952,002
85,17:: 858 <gi
*ain)
The average yield of cultivated grasses was two tons to the acre, and
of native grasses If tons.
Dairying.
A short history of the dairying industry of the Province may
be dated back some fourteen years, when only a few farmers made
a limited quantity of dairy butter, and even that was hardly enough
to supply their own demand. The first Creamery was established
in Manitoba in the year 1888, and six years ago there were about
five creameries and nineteen small cheese factories, none of which
made a large quantity.
In 1895 the Provincial Government, seeing the advisability of
promoting this industry, undertook to advance the interest in dairying by a system of granting aid to farmers to establish co-operative
creameries and cheese factories throughout the Province where
companies of this kind were needed, and where there was a sufficient supply of milk.
In 1890 there were 30 Cheese Factories in operation; some of
them later having been changed into Creameries.
In 1895 fourteen new Creameries were established, making in
all 19 at that time in the Province. In 1896 Ave additional creameries were established, and later five more, making a total of 29.
At the present time there are 30 Creameries and 32 Cheese Factories in operation and doing   a very successful business, and dis- MANITOBA—DAIRYING 15
tributed in such a manner as to reach almost every locality in the
Province.
In 1896 the Government established a Dairy School in the City
of Winnipeg, which has proved a great success and a great benefit
to the Province generally. There has been a large attendance of
students at every session. The majority of butter and cheese makers
that are managing factories in Manitoba at the present time are
those who have taken a course in the school. The Manitoba Government Dairy School is a free gift to all residents of the Province
of Manitoba. The school is fully equipped with all modern machinery for giving instructions in both home dairy and creamery
butter making,  and factory cheese making.
The 'estimated value of the dairy produce manufactured in 1S94,
both in the factories and on the farms, was $34,000. In 1895
the actual export, taken from factory statements, was $198,000
worth; while in 1896 another grand advance was experienced, the
value of the export being $247,000 worth. In 1S98 the output was:
Creamery butter, 965,025 lbs., valued at $179,494; dairy butter,
1,151,620 lbs., valued at $160,593; cheese, 800,000 lbs., valued at $69,367.
The output for 1899 was:—Creamery butter, 1,002,809 lbs., valued at
$188,026.68; dairy butter, 1,354,240 lbs., valued at $195,552.25; cheese,
848,557 lbs., valued at $86,980.16. In 1900 it was:—Creamery butter,
1,254,511 lbs., valued at $240,515; dairy butter, 2,083,920 lbs., valued
at $301,145; cheese, 1,021,258 lbs., valued at $102,330. In 1901 it was:—
Creamery butter, 2,460,650 lbs., valued at $442,424 ; dairy butter,
2,748,090 lbs., valued at $395,540 ; cheese, 1,039,392 lbs., valued at
$88,348;  total dairy products, $926,314.
Manitoba is pre-eminently a dairy country, being exceedingly
healthy for cattle and stock of all kinds. The facilities for dairying
in Manitoba are unexcelled by any Province in the Dominion of
Canada. In nearly every district the water supply both for stock
and use in the manufacture of cheese and butter, is bountiful. In
many districts there is a pure running stream of water, which is
a very important factor in carrying on mixed farming. The pasturage is very rich and nutritous, nature providing an abundant
supply of various flavored grasses, so that the dairymen need never
fear a shortage. One great faculty is that the soil of Manitoba
does not have to be tilled in order to get pasturage or hay for
winter fodder. Fodder corn for ensilage can be and has been grown
to good advantage. Early maturing corn will grow abundantly
and mature sufficiently any season for winter feeding purposes.
Excellent corn crops were grown last year, which would produce
twenty tons of good feeding material per acre. It requires very
little labor to produce proper corn, and one great advantage is, the
soil is being tilled when the corn crop is being cultivated, thus preparing the soil for wheat and other grain crops for the ensuing
year. The climate is perfectly healthy. Manitoba being the natural
home of the buffalo, it naturally follows that the dairy cattle cannot fail to thrive well, and be maintained in a perfectly healthy
condition. The cool nights that invariably follow the hot summer
days in this Province are a great advantage to the dairy industry.
The milk can be'kept sweet over night with little trouble; the
cheese holds its flavor on the shelves for a good length of time. In
short, the climate is all that could be desired; it is favorable for
dairying, and where proper care is taken of the dairy cattle, there 16
MANITOBA—HOMESTEADS
is  sure  to  be  a good paying profit to  the  dairy  farmers  of    the
Province.
Lands for Settlement.
The impression that Manitoba is already " filled up " is incorrect.
In the Red River Valley of Manitoba are in round numbers 2,800,000
acres, of which up to the present time only 750,000 have ever been
cultivated. Again, south of the main line of the C. P. R. to the
boundary of North Dakota, west of the Red River Valley are 4,600,000
acres, of which only 1,500,000 acres have been cultivated. To the
north of the main line of the C. P. R., within reach of railroads, are
another 4,600,000 acres, with only 1,250,000 acres cultivated. Here are
millions of acres of the best land in the Northwest for sale on easy
terms at prices ranging frqm $3.00 to $6.00 per acre.
Homesteads, etc.
Homesteads can still be obtained on the outskirts of present settlements to the east of the Red River, and between Lakes Winnipeg and Manitoba, on the west of Lake Manitoba, and in the
Lake Dauphin and Swan River Valley Districts, through which
railway communication with the great transcontinental system is
now completely established, as well as in the extreme western portion of the province tributary to the Pipestone Branch of the Canadian Pacific Railway. These districts are specially adapted for
mixed farming, having abundance of hay and water, and with timber near at hand for building purposes. The province still affords a
vast field for experienced farmers who can bring money with them
to make the first improvements on land, to provide themselves with
stock and implements and to carry their families through the first
year. Manitoba has room for thousands, with a sure road for them
to comfort and prosperity. The early settlers of Manitoba were all
of this class, bringing in carloads of stock and plenty of money to
keep them a year. The cost of transportation today is not one-third
of what it was in the early 80's, when everything had to come by way
of the United States. Lumber for building can be placed on homesteads for not more than half the cost of the early days, while
machinery, feed, grain, groceries, dry goods, etc., can today be
purchased at reasonable figures. In short, a settler with $1,000 can
place himself as well as did the settler with $2,500 ten or twelve
years ago, and in all parts of Manitoba products can be disposed
of within a few miles of any settler, at the nearest railway station.
Rented Farms.
Opportunities occur in the older settled parts of the province to
rent a farm for one year or longer. This enables the newcomer to
make a start, and gives him time to select land of his own. The
rental depends largely upon the kind and value of the improvements.
Rented farms are generally secured during the winter or early
spring. Some of the most successful farmers of Manitoba commenced life in the west by leasing a farm until they were able
to secure one for themselves either by homesteading or purchase. MR.   M'GREGOR'S   FARM   NEAR   CARBERRY,   MANITOBA.
QJf THE FAMOUS PORTAGE PLALNS—MANITOBA, 18 MANITOBA—ITS  CITIES   AND   TOWNS
Cheap Fuel.
Besides the large tracts of forest, both in and adjacent to Manitoba, there are vast coal areas within and contiguous to the province of such extent as to be practically inexhaustible. It has been
discovered that between Red River and the Rocky Mountains there
are some 65,000 square miles of coal-bearing strata.
The Manitoba Legislature has effected an arrangement by which
this coal is to be supplied at a rate not to exceed $2.50 to $5 per
ton, according to locality. With the extraordinary transportation
facilities possessed here, controlled and regulated as far as possible
by the Legislature, and with enormous deposits of excellent coal,
easily and inexpensively available, Manitoba enjoys most exceptional
advantages, assuring an ample and cheap supply to all her inhabitants.
Liberal Exemption Laws.
Manitoba has a liberal exemption law; that is, the law protects
from seizure for debt, where no mortgage exists, a certain number of horses, cattle, swine and poultry, some household effects and
a year's provisions, so that if a settler who has not mortgaged his
property is overtaken by misfortune, through illness or other cause,
he cannot be turned out of his house and home, but obtains time
to pay his indebtedness and retains the means of living while he
recovers himself. If he desires to borrow money, as he may sometimes do with advantage to himself, he can secure loans on his
farm property from loan societies on easy terms of payment.
Cities and Towns in Manitoba.
Winnipeg, the capital of Manitoba, and the largest city in Canada west of Lake Superior, is about midway between the Atlantic
and Pacific oceans. It is sixty miles north of the international
boundary line between Canada and the United States, ,and forty
miles south of Lake Winnipeg, a large body of fresh water teeming with fish, and with shores that are in many places heavily timbered. The city stands at the confluence of the Red and the Assiniboine Rivers, and almost on the eastern verge of the great
prairies and plains that stretch to the Rocky Mountains. To the
east is the rich gold-bearing region of New Ontario, which embraces the country from Lake of the Woods to Lake Superior,
and is largely tributary to Manitoba. Winnipeg is a great railway
centre. Ten main or branch lines radiate in all directions, and
two other lines find entrance over the rails of the Canadian Pacific
Ry. Co. The growth of Winnipeg has been phenomenal. In 1870 its
population Was 215; in 1874 it was 1,869, and the total assessable
property, $2,676,018 ; in 1901, the population had risen to over 43,000
and $26,000,000. assessable property. Winnipeg is naturally a centre
for the wholesale and jobbing trade of the Northwest, and the
merchants carry immense stocks required to supply the varied
wants of the farming, ranching, mining, fishing and'lumbering, as
well as the other industries which flourish throughout the country.
Every branch of business is represented; all the principal chartered MANITOBA—SETTLERS' TESTIMONY 19
..banks of Canada have branches here, and there are a large number of manufacturing establishments, including furniture factories,
flour and oatmeal mills, breweries, meat .curing and packing factories, foundries, boiler and machine shops, cigar factories, coffee
and spice mills, grain bag factory, soap works, tanneries, planing
and sawmills, harness and saddlery factories, biscuit and confectionery factories, tile and brickyards, carriage works, marble works,
oil mills, book binderies, tent and mattress factories, etc, etc. There
ar.e extensive stockyards, and an immense abattoir, arranged for
slaughtering and chilling the meat for direct shipment to Europe,
has recently been erected. There is ample cold storage in the city
for dairy produce, etc.
Winnipeg is the political as well as the commercial centre of
Western Canada. The Legislative and the Departmental buildings
of the Manitoba Government, and the chief immigration, lands and
timber offices of the Dominion Government for the west are located
here. The Canadian Pacific Railway Co. has its chief offices in the
west in Winnipeg, and also the head offices of its land department,
where full information regarding the company's land can be obtained.
The school system in this city is unsurpassed anywhere, besides the
elementary schools, there being a Collegiate Institute, Normal
School, four Colleges, and Provincial University, with several Business Colleges, Deaf and Dumb Institute, etc. Winnipeg has hospitals for the care of the sick and wounded, and no city of its size
has a greater number of churches. AH the national and fraternal
lodges are strongly organized here. Winnipeg is a well built city,
with a number of very fine public buildings and handsome residences, and possesses several public parks. On the east side of Red
River is St. Boniface, where is located the Roman Catholic Cathedral
and College, the Archbishop's palace, hospital, etc)
The largest towns in the province outside of Winnipeg are on
the main line of the Canadian Pacific Ry.:—Portage la Prairie. 56
miles west, and Brandon, 133 miles west. These are progressive
centres for a considerable area of fine farming country, each being
a railroad junction point, and being well suppl/ed with stores, etc.
Throughout the province are other important towns, and at almost every station are grain elevators, stores, etc., giving the
necessary business facilities for the neighboring settlements.
Settlers' Testimony.
The following are a few of the many letters which have been
received from successful settlers, some of whom commenced in
Manitoba with little or no capital:—
Birtle, November 20, 1901.
I came to this district in 1887, from near Boston, Lincolnshire,
England. My earthly possessions at the time I reached this place
were $1.75, a wife and seven children. I rented a farm, 'got work
around where I could for myself and my boys and started in and
ever since we have worked hard and faithfully, and today I am the
owner of 800 acres, and I think as fine a residence as there is in
this district, a large frame house, plastered and painted, well furnished, heated by furnace; and frame and log stabling for 100 animals.   On my farm I have 520 acres under cultivation and nearly MANITOBA—SETTLERS   TESTIMONY
all fenced, and I have just finished threshing, having threshed 8,230
bushels of grain. I own 12 horses, 81 head of cattle, 15 hogs and
all the equipment necessary for a farm. We are now enabled to
live comfortably and easily, and my total liabilities are but small.
We are convenient to railway station, creameries, mills (both lumber and flour), schools, churches and all conveniences as are found
pretty generally in every part of this Province now.
My position is only that of many others and a position that any
man may in a. few years work himself into in this country by
steady work. There is, as you will imagine, not much time for
idling, at least until after one has got himself in a fair position.
The climate here is excellent. The soil is rich and productive and
for garden stuff and vegetables I have never seen its equal in any
part of the world.
My advice to small tenant farmers at home and to the laboring
class, particularly of agricultural districts, is to come to this country
and make it their home if they are willing to work hard for a few
years. A man should have a little capita] with him. which would
make it much easier for him. A man with from £200 to £400,
coming to this country, working hard, and using good judgment in
the expenditure of his money can soon put himself in easy circumstances. W. E. Cooley.
Waskada, Man., October 1, 1901.
I came to this' country in 1892 from South Dakota, arriving at
Deloraine 14th of June. I had at that time two teams and a colt,
two waggons, eight head of cattle, and $100 in cash, but no household effects. I lived west of Deloraine until 1895, when I moved to
Waskada, and have lived here since. I have three-quarters of a
section of land, three hundred acres, in crop this year. I think the
wheat will average 30 bushels, and the oats 50 bushels to the acre.
In 1900 my wheat averaged 15 bushels, and oats 40 bushels to the
acre. In 1899 my wheat averaged 23 bushels and oats 55 bushels. I
have 25 head of horses and 10 head of cattle. I am well pleased
with both Government and people.
Daniel Ramsey.
Neepawa, Manitoba, October 10th, 1901.
I came from England in July, 1875, and worked to pay for my
passage out, which cost me $300 for myself and my family. In
1877 I took up a homestead of 160 acres, and pre-emption 160 acres, for
which I had to pay $160. I kept getting on better as my family
grew up. I have three sons grown up now and farming themselves
and doing well. I have done well myself, far better than I should
have had I stayed in England. A man is bound to succeed here
if he is not afraid of work. I have 320 acres of land, that is worth
$9,000, and horses and implements worth $2,000, and have 4,000
bushels of wheat and 1,000 bushels of oats for this year's crop. The
wheat is worth 50 cents a bushel, and the oats 25 cents a bushel,
giving my crop in all a value of $2,250. My threshing and hired
help will cost me $500, which leaves me $1,750. I am farming 270
acres in all, but I always have 70 acres of summer fallow, which
Jfsayes 200 acres of crop, and I keep 50 acres for hay and pasture MR.   CONNOR'S   FARM,   CABBERRY,   MANITOBA.
OAT FIELD NEAR BRANDON,  MANITOBA. 22
'MANITOBA—SETTLERS* TESTIMONY
for  cattle.    I  had  no   experience  in  farming  before   coming   here,
having been a game warden in Kent and Essex, England.
A. Kilbdrn, Sec. 19, 15, 15.
Swan River, Nov. 19, 1901.
I came to Manitoba In March, 1888, from Durham County, Ontario, and settled at Treherne on a scrub farm of 320 acres. I
leased it for a term of five years, the only charge thereon being the
payment of taxes, as the land had to be improved. I brought up a
car load of effects, consisting of three horses, two cows, seeder,
mower, rake, harrows, wagon, etc., being indebted to my friends in
the East for the use of same until I had made money enough in
this country to repay loan, which I soon did, with interest.
In a few years I leased another 320 acres adjoining, on the same
terms and with the usual success ; and again, later, I leased an additional 320 acres, and success still crowned my efforts. Lastly (the
land in the vicinity of my farm being all taken up and cultivated),
I looked around to increase my operations, and could only get another 80 acres. All the above being uncultivated land, I had to break
it and bring it under cultivation, and now have under lease there
altogether 1,040 acres, of which 800 acres are under crop.
In the summer of 1898 I purchased 2,400 acres of choice land in
the Swan River Valley and have since increased it to 2,880 acres.
Any intending settler coming to this country can get land in free
homesteads, or any railway land. They can also get land to lease
or improved land on shares ; and if the first year or two they meet
with reverses—not having experience—let them not be discouraged,
but continue, with their sleeves rolled up, and soon their efforts will
be rewarded. In a few years they will be independent, and bless the
day they settled in Manitoba.
For grain growing this country cannot be excelled, the soil being
first class, and possessing all the necessary qualities required to produce wheat of the finest grade, sometimes weighing 64 lbs. per bushel,
the highest quality produced in the world, and producing all the way
from 20 to 60 bushels per acre. Oats and barley also grow immense
crops, and,to perfection. Stock also does well, and grows fat through
the summer. Vegetables—such as cabbage, onions, beet, cauliflower,
radish, melons, citrons, squashes, beans, and cucumbers, give an
abundant crop, and tomatoes do well also, but do hot ripen on the
bushes every year. Rhubarb grows to immense proportions ; and turnips, carrots, and mangels do well. Small fruits—such as strawberries, gooseberries, saskatoons, cranberries, and cherries, grow
■v^ild in abundance; and tame fruits, such as red, white, and black
currants, all kinds of raspberries, strawberries, and gooseberries,
grow to perfection in gardens. Potatoes grow a heavy crop and
floury. The climate is healthy and vigorous, and pleasant in summer,
with cool nights.
Labourers and farmers who are industrious will do well here, and
can start with a very small capital, which can be invested to good
advantage in farming, and they will soon be on the road to prosperity.
There is vacant land in plenty, including railroad land sold on
the ten-year instalment principle, which is very easy terms. There
are homesteads and villages in plenty in districts just being opened
up, which have the advantage of schools, churches, stores, and, in Manitoba—settlers' testimony
23
fact, every requisite which the settler requires, including first-class
land growing the. finest crops, free land, and cheap land.
Any intending settler thinking of buying land can get full information from C.P.R. Land Commissioner, or from the Commissioner of
Immigration,  Winnipeg,  Manitoba.
The annexed table, showing acreage of wheat, average yield of all
grain, date of sowing, harvesting and length of season, will give the
actual experience of one who came out to Manitoba with a moderate
capital, and started farming on a small scale. Any man willing and
able to work can do the same.
As will be seen, the lowest average I had of wheat was in 1896,
being 14% bushels per acre; it was a very late spring, and an excessive rainfall was the cause. I grew wheat which averaged as high
as 55 bushels to the acre for 25 acres, but the following table shows
the average for each year.
The first yield of barley was put in on spring breaking, and was
a very good crop considering. The first spring I did not have my
land ready for wheat, but have given the date my neighbour began
to sow his wheat. ,
This is a true record I have kept, and shows how a settler with
limited capital can begin farming on a small scale and increase his
acreage. At the present time I have 27 head of horses—20 of them
working, 29 head of cattle, 15 ploughs, 8 wagons, 7 binders, 7 sets
of harrows, 5 seeders and other implements to the value of $6,000 (all
paid for), as well as 2,880 acres of land in the Swan River Valley,
money out at interest on farm property, town property, etc., and a
trifle in the bank, leaving us quite comfortable, happy, and contented with  the  country.
A. J.  Cotton.
.. -■■■>■'■     	
MR.   BRYDEN'S  FARM,   PORTAGE  LA  PRAIRIE,   MANITOBA, 24
MANITOBA—SETTLERS   TESTIMONY
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OS MANITOBA—DELEGATES' REPORTS
Delegates' Reports.
In the summer of 1901 the Colonization Society of the Province
of Quebec appointed a delegation to go to Manitoba in order to see
the advantages to be derived by the colonization of Manitoba. After
visiting different parts of the country, accompanied by Rev. F. Blais,
the Oblate missionary, the delegates have issued the following report :
We, the undersigned delegates of the Province of Quebec to
Manitoba to study the advantages of the colonization of this Province, are pleased to be able to say to the residents of the Province
of Quebec, that Manitoba offers exceptional advantages for farming,
stock raising and dairying. "We have visited the principal French-
Canadian parishes, and have everywhere found abundant crops and
general prosperity. We believe that the land in Manitoba is better
suited to farming than any other we have yet visited. The climate
is very salubrious, and we have found that frosts no longer occur
late in the spring or 'early in the autumn. Good water is found
everywhere. Land can be procured at reasonable rates, and we
cannot refrain from advising those who for one reason or another
should decide to leave the Province of Quebec to proceed at once
to Manitoba. An intelligent and active farmer could surmount all
obstacles in Manitoba, easier than in Quebec. The hay found on
the prairies is of a far better quality than that found in the Province of Quebec. Wood for heating purposes can be procured in the
woods or purchased at a very low price. Good prices are obtained for all products of the farm. The country is crossed by various
railways, which enable the farmer to easily reach a market. The
butter and cheese industry has made rapid headway during the last
couple of years, and a large number of residents are reaping large
profits.
DR.    C.    J.    COULOMBE,     L.    MlLOT,    B,   ROBKRGB,    IT.    B3ATJDRY,    C.
Peloqttin, J. A. Girard.
ASTER  TEN  YXABS  IN  WESTERN   CANADA. '26 ASSINIBOIA—RANCHING AND  WHEAT   GROWING
The district of Assiniboia lies between the Province of Manitoba'
and the District of Alberta, and south of the District of Saskatchewan. Its breadth from east to west is about 450 miles, and it extends north from the International boundary to the 52nd parallel
of latitude, a distance of 205 miles, comprising an area of thirty-
four million acres. Travelling westward on the line of the Canadian Pacific Railway, the district is entered at a point 212 miles
west of Winnipeg. It is divided into two great areas—Eastern and
Western Assiniboia—each of which has its own peculiar characteristics, the former being essentially a wheat growing and mixed
farming country, and the western part of the la.tter especially
adapted for ranching. The population of Assiniboia is 67,650, of which
49,958 are in the Eastern and 17,692 in the Western Division.
Eastern Assiniboia.
Eastern Assiniboia is known as the Park country of the Canadian
Northwest. The general aspect of the country, largely resembling
Manitoba, is rolling prairie, dotted over with clumps of trees usually
found bordering lakes, streams and meadows; in the hollows grow
the heavy luxuriant grasses where the farmer obtains his supply
of winter hay. The principal grains grown are wheat and oats. The
ordinary yield of wheat is from 20 to 30 bushels to the acre. All
kinds of roots, too, are a sure crop. The soil is so rich that no
fertilizers are necessary, so that in this direction a large amount of
time and money is saved.' Nowhere can farming be done more
easily, and nowhere can the frugal, earnest and industrious man
start on a smaller capital. Coal in abundance is found in the South,
in the district drained by the Souris River, and there is direct rail
connection northwest with the main line of the C. P. R. and east-
wardly to points in Manitoba.
This district is gradually becoming one of the greatest v/heat
producing sections of the American continent, for the following
reasons: 1. It has a soil particularly rich in the food of the wheat
plant. 2. A climate under which the plant comes to maturity with
great rapidity. 3. On account of its northern latitude it receives
more sunshine during the period of growth than the country to the .
south. 4. Absence of rust due to dryness of climate. 5. Absence
of insect foes. 6. Absence of noxious weeds. These conditions are
especially favorable to the growth of the hard flinty wheat of
the Scotch Fyfe variety, that is so highly prized by millers all the
world over, giving it a value of from 10c. to 25c a bushel over the
softer varieties grown in Europe and the older parts of Canada.
For agricultural purposes the districts of Moosomin, Qu'Appelle
and Moose Mountain are wonderfully favored, lying as they do in
the great stretch of the fertile belt.   The Moosomin District is in- ASSINIBOIA—RANCHING AND   WHEAT   GROWING
eluded in the country between the Manitoba boundary on the east,
on the north by the lovely valley of the Qu'Appelle River, on the
south by the Pipestone Creek, a perfect paradise for cattle, and
the 2nd meridian on the west. The Qu'Appelle District is that section
which lies immediately west of the Moosomin to the height of land
at McLean Station on the C. P. R., round to the Beaver Hills and
south almost to the international boundary line. Included in this
area are the famous Indian Head lands, where farms sell as high
as $25.00 per acre, and the Pheasant Plains, no less fertile than
the famous Portage Plains of Manitoba, where crops are phenomenally large. The subsoil is generally sandy clay, covered with about
12'■ to 18 inches of black vegetable mould, which after the second
ploughing makes a fine seed bed, easy to work, and of the most
productive nature. Generally speaking these remarks apply to all
the eastern part of the district. The Beaver Hills and the Touchwood Hills, in the northern part, are especially well adapted for
stock raising. The stretch of country between the C. P. R. main
line and the international boundary and extending from the 2nd
meridian to west of the Soo Pacific Branch of the Canadian Pacific
Railway is attracting a very large number of settlers, as portions
of it offer special inducements to those who wish to engage in grain
farming on an extensive scale. Large tracts of land have been
sold by the Railway Company to settlers of that class during the
past season and there is sure to be great activity in that portion
of Assiniboia during the present year. In the Eastern, portion is
the Moose Mountain, where timber is abundant and a large and.
prosperous settlement was established when the nearest railway
communication was the C. P. R. main line, the railway station at
that time being Moosomin. f Although a very large number of
homestead entries have been made during the past season good
free lands are still obtainable within easy distance of the railway
throughout the territory.
Eastern Assiniboia offers an opening to the poor man if he will
work and exercise economy, for after a year or two of hard work
he finds himself in possession of a home, all his own, free from the
harrassing conditions of a rented or mortgaged farm.
Western Assiniboia.
The eastern part of this section is similar to that of Eastern
Assiniboia, and is favorable for mixed farming. With Regina and
Moose Jaw as their centres, are two large areas, 50 by 90 miles,
admirably suited for grain, stock and dairying. From Swift Current Creek, the region is fully equal to the Bow River District, in
Alberta, as a stock country. It is everywhere thickly covered with
a good growth of nutritious grasses—the grass is usually the short
crisp variety, known as " Buffalo Grass," which 'becomes to all appearances dry about mid-summer, but is still green and growing at
the roots and forms excellent pasture both in winter and summer.
It is amazing the rapidity with which poor emaciated animals
brought from the east get sleek and fat on the Buffalo grass of the
plains. The supply of timber on the hills is considerable. There is
also an abundance of fuel of a different kind in the coal seams that
are exposed in many of the valleys. Settlers in this section of the
Railway Company's lands have thus an abundant supply of timber  assinibxjia-»>JA?:etins
suitable for house logs and fencing, and both coal and wood for
fuel. About Maple Creek irrigation works are being actively prosecuted with most beneficial results.
The Cypress Hills, which may be dimly seen in the south from
the railway, are especially adapted for stock raising, and as general
farming is not extensively followed, the grass land that nature
has so bountifully provided will not likely be disturbed by the
plow, thus giving to the farmer on the plains adjoining never-failing
hay meadows and unlimited pasture ground for his stock. The
snowfall is light, the climate is tempered by the Chinook winds, and
water and shelter are everywhere abundant.
Western Assiniboia is the great sheep raising district of the
Northwest Territories. It would be difficult to conceive of a more
favorable district for this branch of stock raising. The Winters are
mild enough to admit of sheep ranging out all the year round, and
the herbage is the peculiar short, crisp growth so much relished by
those animals. Flocks are usually divided up in lots of 2,000 to
2,500, each in charge of a single shepherd assisted by his dogs.
Experienced men are much sought after on the sheep ranches.
Great herds of range cattle roam at will all over these seemingly
boundless pastures. The profits of the stockmen are large, as can
be readily imagined when it is shown that $35 to $45 per head is paid
for three and four-year-old steers on these ranges, animals that cost
their owners only the interest on the original investment incurred in
stocking the ranch, and their share in the cost of the annual roundups. Parties in search of land for stock-raising are advised to
examine the country southwest of Swift Current Station, along the
Swift Current Creek, south and west of Gull Lake, south of Maple
Creek, the Valley of M'ackay Creek that flows north from the hills
and south of Irvine and Dunmore.
Dairying.
The latest approved system of Government supervision and management, on the co-operative plan, is in vogue in connection with all
.the creameries in the Territories. The Government appoints the
local managers and takes entire charge of manufacturing and marketing the product for the patrons. An advance of ten cents per
pound on the estimated cream equivalent, supplied by each patron,
is made monthly, and the balance is paid them at the end of the
season.
Both Eastern and Western Assiniboia are especially well adaptedy
for dairying, and the industry has been making great strides during
the past few years. Creameries have been established in different
parts of the district, and are now in successful operation at Regina,
Moose Jaw, Maple Creek, Moosomin, Qu'Appel'e, Grenfell, White-
wood, Ohurchbridge, Saltcoats and Yorkton. They are yearly doing
a largely increasing business, and are a profitable source of cash
revenue to the settlers in their vicinity, British Columbia being an
excellent market for the output. The natural inducements for the
establishment of creameries are very great. There are nutritious
grasses, and large ranges for stock, with a plentiful and pure water
supply, and the climate is most favorable. For further information
See article on "Creameries" on another pa^e, 30
ASSINIBOIA—DELEGATES'  REPORTS
Towns in Assiniboia.
The principal town of Assiniboia is Regina, the capital of the
Northwest Territories. This is a railway centre and an active business place. The Legislature meets at Regina, and it is the headquarters of the Mounted Police, and other public offices. It has a
population of 2,645. A branch line runs north through the Qu'Appelle District, and on to Prince Albert, on the north branch of the
Saskatchewan. Moose Jaw, with a population of 2,200, is another
town 42 miles west of Regina, at the junction of the C. P. R. and
the Soo line, running to St. Paul, Minneapolis, and Sault Ste. Marie,
where connection is again made with the Canadian Pacific Railway
system. Medicine Hat, on the south branch of the Saskatchewan,
is the chief town of Western Assiniboia, where there are openings
for enterprising men to utilize the natural gas for manufacturing,
and to develop the pipe and fire clay deposits and native sandstone
quarries. There are many other towns with schools, churches, and
all the business establishments incidental to prosperous farming settlements. Dunmore is the junction of the Crow's Nest Pass Railway, which runs westerly pa«t the extensive coal mines at Lethbridge, to a point in the West Kootenay mining country through
the Crow's Nest Pass and East Kootenay, opening up a vast country
rich in minerals, which furnishes a good cash market for the
products of the farms and ranches of Western Canada. The road
to Lethbridge has been in operation for several years, and the whole
line is completed to Kootenay Lake, where steamer connection is for
the present made with the Canadian Pacific Railway system in
Southern British Columbia. By the use of car ferries, freight for
these mining regions reaches its destination without breaking bulk.
Settlers' Testimony.
Caron, August 19, 1901.
I came into this district in the spring of 1883, and worked for
four years on the C. P. Railway. I took up my homestead in August,
1884. In the spring of 1886 I moved on to my farm, and had $400
to start with. I have now 960 acres of land, 20 horses and 80 head
of cattle. On my homestead I have built a residence valued at
$2,000, and have all necessary implements required to work my
farm. I am well satisfied with this country and would recommend
any young man who wishes to push himself forward to come here.
Richard Wilson.
Pioneer District, Moose Jaw P.O., Aug. 21, 1901.
I came into this country in the spring of 1883, and took up a
homestead. In 1884 I brought my family from Ontario. My outfit
amounted to the value of $500.00. I have worked hard since coming
here, and devoted all my time to agriculture. I have had good
success with my crops. My crop average in summer fallow has
been 35 bushels to the acre ; stubble and breaking, 25 bushels to
the acre. I worked three horses for the first ten years, and now
work 23, and have 35 head all told. My cattle number 60
head;   they   are   fed   two   months   in   the   stable ;   the   balance ASSINIBOIA—SETTLERS' TESTIMONY 31
of the year roam outside. Horses run on the prairie all winter, and
come in fat, ready for spring work. My landed property amounts
to 2,080 acres, of which I cultivate 800 acres, 320 acres is fenced for
pasture. When I came to this country, we lived in a shack 12 x 14.
My stable was built of straw and poles. My present dwelling house
Is a brick building, 22 x 32, and valued at $1,700; barn 36 x 76, stone
basement, 9 feet high, cost $2,000. I have no hesitation in recommending this country as a field for settlement. To the poor man
he can secure a good home and competence by hard work and industry. To the intending settler with some capital, with intelligence
and work, he can reach the fountain head of independence sooner
than in any other country in the world.
S. K.  Rathwell.
Moose Jaw, September 12, 1901.
Ten years ago I reached here with my wife and a family of
nine. My capital amounted to $34. I rented land for a year or two,
and then purchased 480 acres of land. Since that time I have again
bought an additional 320 acres, making SOO acres in all. This season
I have in crop 200 acres wheat and 50 acres oats. The wheat crop
will yield not less than 35 bushels to the acre. This year I have
broken in addition to the land under crop, 350 acres. My stock
consists of 20 horses and 35 head of cattle. I have built this season a brick residence, which cost when finished $2,700. I am well
satisfied with this country, and although we meet with disappointments occasionally I safely say this is the country for men who
Wish to better their condition.
Alexander Zess.
Caron, August 16, 1901.
I came to Moose Jaw March 20th, 1890. I had one small team of
horses, one lot of harness and one waggon, a set of sleighs. I had
not one dollar when I landed here. I moved on my place on April
16th, and have lived there ever since. I have had some backsets
in the way of losing horses, but I have now 235 acres of crop just
about ready to start the binder. My wheat will go 30 bushels to
the acre, right through 195 acres. I have 10 head pf horses, 7 cattle,
. 2 waggons, 2 binders, 1 buggy, 2 plows, 1 cultivator and all other
necessary tools to work my farm. I have now under cultivation
326 acres. I have a good barn that is worth about $600, and also I
have about 125 acres fenced. I have plenty of water in the field,
and also at .the buildings. If a man will work in this country he
can get along and do well, for I started with all the disadvantages
a man could start with, and I am doing well.
A.  W.  Tanner.
Churchbridge, September 21, 1901.
I moved from Winnipeg to this district in the summer of 1891,
where I had stayed for two years and worked ordinary labor.   As
I found it somewhat difficult  to  make both  ends  meet, having a
wife and four young children  to  support,. I,  therefore,  decided  to CATTLE   RANCH   NEAR   MAPLE   CREEK,   ASSINIBOIA.
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''        .       W W AS*-**"1*
PI^XTMS—INDIAN  HEAD,  ASSINIBOIA, ASSINIBOIA—A LAND BUYER'S STATEMENT 33
leave. When I left Winnipeg I owed various small sums of money,
amounting in all to about $100.   I homesteaded the land on which
1 am now residing, about seven miles north of the Village of
Churehbridge. When I settled here I obtained a loan of $400.00 for
the purpose of purchasing three cows, two heifers, one yoke oxen,
$14.00 worth of small tools, etc., and $15.00 worth of lumber. I have
built a good house 24 x 16, with an annex 16 x 28 feet. I have stables
enough for all my cattle and horses, which now number: Cattle
67, horses 10 (6 of which are working horses), and 50 sheep. I have
also the following implements,  which I have purchased for cash—
2 waggons ($150), 2 mowers ($110), 2 rakes ($60) cream separator
($100), cream tester ($5), 1 buggy ($115), besides all necessary articles, etc., in and around the house. My total liabilities do not exceed  $300.00
My farming here consists principally of cattle raising and dairying. During the present summer my revenue from cream delivered
to the Creamery in Churehbridge amounted to from $30.00 to $35.00
per month. My family now consists of wife and nine children, and
I am confident that I would have found it extremely difficult, if not
absolutely impossible, to bring up my large family and get into
the comfortable circumstances in which I am now, in any town or
city, depending on labor for their support. Our cattle here fetch
good prices; 3-year-old steers, $45.00, and the creamery being within
convenient distance, our cream is sent twice a week and paid for
in cash monthly, which is of great assistance to the farmers in this
locality. S.  Loptson.
A Land Buyer's Statement.
Coon Rapids, Iowa, Oct. 30, 1901.
In regard to Western Canada, will say I saw the land from
Estevan to Manitoba, which is, I think, the best of the country,
it is fine good black soil, clay sub-soil, good water ; it was so far
beyond my anticipation that I bought a half-section south of Carn-
duff, all or a little more than I was able to buy, but I learn since
I got home that all land was raised 50 cents per acre in 10 days
after I bought. The country is settling up fast; new buildings of
all descriptions going up when I was there. I will tell you a few
facts that I know for myself, and saw for myself, as I advise every
one to do; wheat goes from 22 to 50 bushels to the acre, one
man's wheat averaged 32 bushels and weighed 65 lb. to the bushel.
He got 60 cents per bushel on $3.50 land. Vegetables grow rank,
I saw hundreds of bushels of potatoes and anything that will grow
on black soil, abundance of grass, the prettiest country I ever saw.
I bought south half-section 3-1-32 $3.50 per acre C.P.R. land, good
settlement; nobody need fear the people, I saw much refinement
and culture, good society. They treated me with the greatest hospitality, I just felt at home up there. Schools and churches which
I visited were satisfactory to me.   It is just the place to get a start.
Mrs. W.' S. Teters. 34 delegates' report
Delegates' Report.
Modale, Iowa, Sept. 23rd, 1901.
After visiting the Experimental Farm, which we found very
prosperous under the management of Mr. Bedford, who kindly
showed us many samples of the farm's products, which was conclusive evidence of the great fertility of the soil and its possibilities,
we started for Regina, and saw much of the magnificent country
before night overtook us. At Regina we stayed two days, driving
out to the north and south; going north some twelve miles, and got
much valuable information which was verified by the very beautiful crops, a large per cent, of which was in stook. We were rather
egotistical, thinking we had seen heavy grain before, but as compared to the immense crops in the vicinity of Regina we had seen
no equal. South-west of Regina the crops were also very good, but
not so much of the land in cultivation.
On the Prince Albert line we passed through a very good country with a few exceptions. At Saskatoon we drove west, where we
saw a very fine country with good crops and harvest well advanced.
We were particularly impressed with this district, the small groves
dotted over the prairie giving it the appearance of an old settled
country. We are told that homesteads here can be got but a few
miles away, and that there is land for sale at reasonable prices.
We believe this to be a district that is well adapted to mixed farnr-
ing, and think one would make no mistake by settling in this
vicinity.
Returning to Regina, we went west to Medicine Hat, a very
thriving little city of some 1,600 population. Here we were surprised
to find several gas wells which will furnish heat and light for the
city. Visiting the brick plant with Mr. Cochran, we were told they
expect to use gas for all purposes where wood and coal have been
used, the machinery now being run by gas, using but a small per
cent, of the flow from their well. We believe this district cannot
be excelled for ranching, and is very extensive, there being many
good openings for those who wish to engage in stock-raising. The
condition of the stock on the range is sufficient evidence to prove
the statement.
We also drove two days in the vicinity of Moose Jaw, where we
consider the land .good for farming, but not so well adapted to
raising stock, but little of the land is in cultivation, comparatively
speaking.   What grain we saw, however, was very good.
We bought land near Pasqua, and we think we can truly say we
own some land in as good a country as there is in the world.
In conclusion, we. wish to say to those who intend making a
change to better their condition, by all means investigate the marvellous opportunities in Western Canada that are standing open to
men of energy and push, Who can here get just what they want,
and on terms more favourable—quality considered—than car. be had
at any other place on the continent. ;       <
A.   B.   Ockerson.
W. H.  Bourn. fltt 36 SASKATCHEWAN—ITS ADVANTAGES
SASKATCHEWAN
\ The district of Saskatchewan, which lies immediately north of
I Assiniboia, is the largest of the four provisional districts that were
! carved out of the territories by the Dominion Parliament in 1882.
jits area is 106,700 square miles. It is nearly twice as large as England and Wales, and almost as large as England, Ireland and
Scotland, and is capable of sustaining^ajmost an equal population.
It extends from Nelson River, Lake Winnipeg and the western
boundary of Manitoba on the east, to the 112th degree of west longitude on the west, and lies between, or rather, slightly overlaps,
the 52nd and 55th parallels of north latitude. The district is almost
centrally divided by the main Saskatchewan River, and its principal branch, the South Saskatchewan, most of whose navigable
length lies within its boundaries. It includes in the south a small
proportion of the great plains, and in its general superficial features
may be described as a mixed prairie and wooded region, abounding
in water and natural hay, and well suited by climate and soil for
the raising of wheat, horned cattle and sheep. The country is peopled with Canadians, 'Americans, Germans, Scotch, English, Russians and Old Country French—the total population being 25,672.
In every settlement there are churches and good schools. In great
measure that which may be said of one district applies equally to
the others. The crops consist of wheat, oats, barley and potatoes..
Turnips and all kinds of vegetables are raised successfully. Normal
yield of wheat (Red Fife), about 30 bushels to the acre in favorable
seasons, one to 1% bushels sown to the acre. Oats, from 50 to 60
bushels, from three sown to the acre. Barley is now being grown
entensively, there being a demand for the cereal in the district and
never been a total failure of crops, and settlers enjoy a steady
home market, at which they realize good prices for their products.
The district is well supplied with good roads, and they are kept
open winter and summer. Wild fruits of nearly every variety-
strawberry, raspberry, gooseberry, blueberry, high bush cranberry,
black currants, etc.,—'grow in profusion, and small game is plentiful.
Towns.
Prince Albert, with a population of 2,275 is the chief town of
the territorial division. It is beautifully situated on the south bank
of the North Saskatchewan, and is in the centre of an extensive
farming district. A branch line runs between it and Regina; it is
also the prospective terminus of the Northwestern Branch of the
Canadian Pacific Railway, running from Portage La Prairie, in
Manitoba, and the Canadian Northern Road, running from the same
place, is also being built towards it. The town was incorporated in
1886, is lighted by electricity, and is well supplied with stores,
churches,   schools,   three   sawmills,   two   large   grist   mills,   with   a SASKATCHEWAN—RANCHING AND DAIRYING
37
capacity of 100 barrels per day each, brick yards, two large breweries, newspapers, etc. It is a divisional centre of the Mounted
Police.
Battleford (population 600) is another well situated town on the
delta of the Battle River, west of Prince Albert, which has,a sawmill, police post, Indian Industrial School, good hotels, etc. It is
in  the centre  of a magnificent cattle  country.
Saskatoon is a thriving place on the line of railway, from which
the Battleford district is reached, and there are a number of other
good business points between there and Prince Albert.
Stock-Raising, Ranching, etc.
The country is remarkably well-adapted for stock-raising, and
large shipments are made annually, in gradually increasing numbers. In fact, the better it becomes known the more its fitness for
that purpose becomes apparent. Immense tracts of hay land are
not onlyv to be found south of the Saskatchewan, capable of sustaining countless herds, but on the north side there '>are areas of
rich pasturage. Fresh water is everywhere abundant, and the country being more or less wooded, protection is afforded to the cattle,
which, however, must be fed, and should be sheltered three months
to four months every winter. For bands of from 100 to 500 it is
i unsurpassed. Horses winter out well, and can therefore be kept in
Uarge bands. Sheep, of which there are large shipments made, require the same care as cattle, and are better in small flocks.
Dairy Farming.
Any portion of this district will answer all the requirements for
dairy farming. In and on the slopes of the Eagle Hills, or south of
the Saskatchewan would be most suitable, owing to the luxuriance
of the grass and prevalence of springs. North of the Saskatchewan
there is abundance of grass in many places, particularly in the
vicinity of Jackfish Lake and Turtle Mountain. In the former district an extensive creamery has been established which makes large
shipments to British Columbia, and other creameries are erected at
Prince Albert and Saskatoon, with skimming stations at from 15 to
20 points. An old resident of Saskatchewan, after many years' experience, says: 'Pure water is in abundance everywhere. Nights
are cool. The home demand has always been very large, so that
dairy products command good prices. The luxuriant feed which the
virgin soil produces, together with the bracing climate, gives vigorous health to domestic animals and renders them free from all
diseases of a serious nature. We have a vast area of the best arable
and pasture land awaiting to be utilized by the farmers, dairymen,
and stockmen. The wild grasses of this country make a first class
quality of beef and butter, which is apparent to anyone who may
come to the country and test them. We have also an abundance of
pure water in our streams, and natural springs. We have also an
ample supply of the best building material 'which can be supplied
cheap, and also a comparatively cool climate in summer, so. that
we have exceptional advantages for making the best butter. The
dairy industry, properly managed, will bring a great deal of money
— 38 SASKATCHEWAN—SETTLERS' TESTIMONY
into the country. With so many natural advantages all that we
require is an earnest effort and skilful men to teach us and there
is no reason why the products of Saskatchewan District could not
compete with any country in the markets of the world."
Fisheries.
The fishing industry is largely carried on in Montreal and Candle
Lakes, north of Prince Albert, and there are any number of smaller
lakes and streams in which fish abound, principally white fish and
pike, and sturgeon is plentiful in the Saskatchewan.
Settlers' Testimony
Eagle Hills, Sept. 25, 1901.
I came from County Armagh, Ireland, and, after living in Ontario until 1884, landed in Battleford, November 30, of 'that year,
a stranger in a strange land, and without a dollar, having, unfortunately, lost my pocket-book while travelling. I found good
friends and plenty of work. The following year my family came
out. The soil and climate exceeded my highest expectations. To-day
I own 2,080 acres of good land with plenty of wood and water. Our
threshing for the past 14 years has averaged per acre 22 bushels of
wheat, 60 bushels of oats, and 35 bushels of barley. We have had
wheat run 42 bushels to the acre; oats, 85 bushels, and barley, 63
bushels. Vegetables grow wonderfully. We have had cabbages
stripped of leaves that weighed 27 pounds. Tomatoes thrive well
and cucumbers reach a foot in length. My farms are well stocked
with cattle and horses, and I have myself been able to retire from
active work with a handsome income.
R.  G.  Speers.
Duck Lake, Oct. 8, 1901.
Coming from France in April, 1893, with my family (wife and
seven boys), I settled immediately as a farmer. Now, after nine
years of experience, T can assert once more, that this country has
given me the highest satisfaction in all respects, and that the yield
' of the cereals is every year higher than the yield I obtained in
France. Therefore, I invite those who look for a quiet and happy
home, to come and settle in this country. They are sure, (with
order, work and a small capital) to find here happy ease and freedom. I am likewise very much satisfied with the breeding of stock.
Since my coming to Saskatchewan, I have had always plenty of
hay, and the boundless prairie covered with luxuriant grass offer
inexhaustible wealth for numerous settlers.
E. Charvet.
Saskatoon, Sept. 26, 1901.
I have had several years'  experience in many of the northern,
western   and   south-western   States   of  America,   and   I  have  been
nineteen years in the Canadian Northwest, seventeen years of which
I have spent as a farmer in the Saskatchewan district,  near the SASKATCHEWAN—DELEGATES   REPORTS
now thriving little town of Saskatoon, and I do say' with pleasure
and pride for the place, that there is no spot now in North America
that presents a brighter prospect for the man who is willing to
work than there is around Saskatoon at the present time. The land
is first class and the water is plentiful, easily obtained and of a
good pure quality. For mixed farming and stock-raising there is
none better. I have raised seventeen crops of wheat and never had
but one fail to any material extent, and that one was in the early
days when we were green in the Northwest, and had poor tools
for cultivating the land properly. I have been able to raise the
common tender sorts of garden vegetables; as for growing trees
I have grown many thousand, and scarcely ever lost a tree.
Do not spend your time on rented farms, making money for
someone else, but come to Saskatoon and be your own landlord. If
circumstances cause you to wish to rent a farm, come where rent
will not eat the life out of the business and bread out of your mouth,
as it does in the east and south of us.
J. J. Caswell.
Duck Lake, Sept. 24, 1901.
The climate and the nature of the soil are such that if farming
is done in a logical and practical way, the best results may be expected. An ample supply of good water, wood and hay are also
factors which plead in favor of this district, and make it worthy of
the earnest attention of prospective farmers and ranchers.
M.  J.  Dubois.
Duck Lake, Sept. 25, 1901.
I am very glad to be in this country. I came in here from
France in April, 1894, with my wife and four young children. I
brought with me $160 only. Now, I have a homestead of 160 acres,
with a good house, 30 head of cattle, 3 horses, pigs, poultry, etc.,
and all the farming implements required for a good cultivation. I
also, this year, bought 160 acres of land. Therefore, I am very
pleased with my new patrie, and I affirm that every good farmer
can obtain quickly some very good results. The business increases
rapidly and there is work well paid for all workmen.
B.  Gentil Perret.
Delegates' Reports.
Winnipeg, Man., 31st August, 1901.
We, the undersigned delegates from Cottonwood County,
Minnesota, beg to give a statement of our observations regarding
the country. At Saskatoon we left the railway track and drove
around considerably. We liked the locality so well that each of
us has purchased land there and intend subsequently to homestead
as well. We found the crops excellent, and we consider that locality cannot be excelled for mixed farming. While on our drive
we met a man who had been located there for about fifteen years,
and in talking his experiences over we asked him for the average
of his crop  for the last three  years,  with  which  to  compare the 40 SASKATCHEWAN—DELEGATES' REPORTS
average crop for the same period on land owned by one of the undersigned. His average crop was 22% bushels per acre on land which
could be purchased for $3 per acre. The average crop of the undersigned for the same period was eleven bushels per acre on land
costing $30 per acre. So that, if this comparison is worth anything
at all, it indicates that with the average crop for the past three
years on the land of this man at Saskatoon, his land is worth from
a producer's standpoint $100 per acre when compared with the
land mentioned in Minnesota. From Saskatoon we went to Ros-
thern and drove for) a couple of days to the North Saskatchewan
River, and met a number of Minnesota Germans who were all
pleased with the country, and stated that they liked the locality,
the climate and its productiveness much better than they did their
old homes in Minnesota. We found the same excellent condition
of affairs at Prince Albert; but for ourselves we believe the district around Saskatoon and Dundurn to be as good as any person
wants. We never saw more people in one locality who were well
pleased with their prosperity and surroundings than we found in
the districts mentioned. We have had abundant opportunity of
noticing the crops wherever we have been, and we found very few
that we could call ordinary crops; we considered them all magnificent.
In conclusion, we beg to say that we like the people; we like
the country; we found all Government officials and private individuals willing to give us all assistance and information possible;
everybody seemed perfectly satisfied, and we have come to the conclusion that a man with money can invest with profit and a poor
man can become fairly well off in a reasonable time with hard work,
and we have no hesitation in saying that if a person can get money
■together, sufficient to take him to the locality mentioned, the sooner
he gets there the better. We expect to return next spring with a
large number of our friends.
M. T. De Wolfe,
W. R.  Jeffers,
Geo. P. Jeffers.
  D.  R.  Kout,
Yorkton, Assa., Sept. 2, 1901.
I was one of two delegates from Sanilac County, in the State
of Michigan, who visited Torkton on the C. P. R.'s Northwestern branch; and, as I am now about to return to report to those
who appointed me as delegate, I think it only fair to state that
wherever I have been, I have found the crops and garden truck
of every kind in a magnificent shape. I spent some time driving
south of Beaver Hills, and around Leach Lake, and that is the
locality I can heartily recommend to those who desire a good mixed
farming country. While out there I met a man named Frank Bull
for whom I worked twenty years ago, who has a section of land
and is doing so well that I am satisfied that I can make more
money at mixed farming in the Torkton district than I can where
I am situated in the State of Michigan. I can confidently recommend that district to any farmer who desires to work hard, and he
will surely succeed. The Canadian West, so far as I have seen it,
is fully equal to the glowing accounts which have appeared from
time to time. Samuel Forbes. SASKATCHEWAN—DELEGATES' EEPORTS 41
Winnipeg, July 15, 1901.
As delegates from Manchester, Washtenaw Co., Michigan, we
have visited the Northwest Territories with a view to ascertaining
whether the reports in circulation as to its being a good field for
settlement were reliable and true, or not. We trust from our report that anyone reading same may find something that will encourage them to come and partake of the good things offering in
this great territory. This is certainly the only term we can apply
to it, after a trip of some three weeks' duration.
We -left home on the 24th of June, and, after visiting several
sections, returned to Regina, and looked around the country north
to Lumsden and Balgonie where the crops looked very promising
and heavy, continuing up the Regina and Long Lake Road we
came to Saskatoon on the crossing of the South Saskatchewan
River. The country there pleased us better than any we have
seen. We drove out eighteen miles in a north-westerly direction
through the Smith settlement. This is a wonderful district, the
growth was splendid, all kinds of grains and roots were perfection.
The older settlers had good buildings of all kinds and looked very
prosperous, in fact, we came to the conclusion that we had found
what we were looking for—a good country. While the nature of the
soil changes and is in some parts light in others stony and again
heavy, generally speaking it leaves nothing to be desired. Hay
and water are also in abundance, and wood can be found along
the river slopes. We have decided to locate there and shall certainly advise our friends to do likewise. We also trust that this
report may have the effect of drawing the attention of land seekers
to this district, and can honestly advise all such to locate there.
They will find a good thing. As farmers ourselves from a good
district in Michigan, we have come to the conclusion that properly
farmed the Canadian Northwest will grow almost anything.
J.   E.   Blum.
J.   Ghumpphr. 42
ALBERTA—THE NORTHERN  GRANARY
ALBERTA
Alberta is the most westerly of the several divisions of the
Northwest Territories, and has an area of 106,100 square miles. It
extends from the western limits of Assiniboia to the eastern limits
of British Columbia, within the range of the Rocky Mountains, and
is divided into Northern Alberta and Southern Alberta. They are
unlike in essential particulars and are, therefore, occupied by different classes of settlers. The Calgary & Edmonton Railway,
operated by the Canadian Pacific Railway Company, passes through
the two divisions from Macleod in the south, where it connects
with the Crow's Nest Pass Railroad running into the Kootenay
gold mining country, to Edmonton in the north, affording market
and shipping facilities at a number of convenient points along the
whole distance.
The population of Alberta is 65,926, the greater number of which
came in during the past few years.
Northern Alberta.
Within the borders of Northern Alberta is a practically illimitable
area of the most fertile land, well timbered and well watered. The
surface of the country is gently undulating, and through the centre
of the district the Saskatchewan River flows in a bed 200 feet below the level. Wood and prairie alternate irregularly. In some
parts there are large plains free from timber and in others great
areas of woods composed of large trees. ' The soil consists of a layer
of from one to three feet of black vegetable mould, with little or
no mixture of sand or gravel, bearing a growth of wild vegetation
of a luxuriance seen in no other part of the Territories, and, indeed,
seldom seen anywhere outside of the tropics. It is peculiar to this
section of the country that the black mould is deeper on its knolls
and ridges than in the hollows. With a soil of such depth and fertility, it is not wonderful that in ordinary good seasons a yield
of oats of 100 to 114 weighed bushels to the acre has not been uncommon, and that less than 60 bushels is considered below the average, 80 to 85 bushels averaging 50 pounds to the bushel, being an
ordinary yield; that barley will yield 60 bushels and wheat over 40,
and potatoes of from two to three pounds weight are not a rarity.
Of course, these yields have not been attained every year, nor in
any year by every farmer, but they have been attained without
extraordinary exertions, and prove that the capacity is in the soil
if the tillage is given to bring it out. Fall wheat has been grown
in several parts of Alberta during the past ten years with uniformly
good results, the yield in some cases being as high as 60 bushels
to the acre. Live stock of all kinds is raised extensively, including
horses of all grades, from heavy draught to Indian ponies, horned
cattle, sheep, pigs and poultry.    Native horses do well without sta- 7:^g.;:f;v:-i&'s.'.::
■      ■:■■.■ .   ■
3
W
p
"fi ■■'■'.
o 44 ALBERTA—THE NORTHERN   GRANARY x
bling all the year round, but good stock of whatever kind requires
good treatment to bring it to its best, when it is most profitable.
There is a varied and nutritive pasture during a long season in
summer; there is an abundant supply of hay procurable for winter
feeding, and an abundant and universally distributed water supply.
The climate is clear, equable and healthful, which make it a pleasant country to live in. There are very few summer or winter storms,
and no severe ones. Blizzards and wind storms are unknown. As
. a consequence, a fine class of cattle can be raised very cheaply
and with less danger of loss in this district than in some other
parts. The advantages which tell so heavily in favor of the district
for cattle-raising tell as heavily in favor of dairying. Native fruits
—wild strawberries, raspberries, gooseberries, saskatoon and cranberries, cherries and black currants—grow in profusion almost everywhere, and tobacco is successfully cultivated. All through the country small game, principally mallard and teal, prairie chicken and
partridge, is very plentiful, and deer may not infrequently be found.
Coal of excellent quality is found throughout the whole district
from east of Medicine Hat to the Rocky Mountains, and from the
international boundary to north of the Saskatchewan, River, being
exposed on the cut banks of the Saskatchewan, Sturgeon, Red
Deer, and other streams in abundance, and is procurable at from
60 cents to 75 cents a load by the settler hauling it from the mine
himself, and is delivered in the towns at from $1.50 to $2.50 per ton.
Settlers can supply themselves by paying a fee ranging from 10c.
to 20c. a ton in some localities. There is plenty of wrood for building
material and fuel in almost every part of the district. Gold is found
in the bars and benches of the Saskatchewan, Macleod, Athabasca,
Smoky and other rivers in small but paying quantities. These are
known as the "poor man's diggings," and some settlers after seeding
when the water is low turn miners and make from $1.50 to $4.00 per
day. . Dredging operations have been carried on with varying success during the past few years, and with new specially designed
machines now in operation, even a greater reward will attend the
work.   Last year the results were very satisfactory.
So high is the reputation that this section of the country enjoys, that settlement was made at a number of points before the
railway was complete and in 1892, when the road was in full operation, a more regular stream of settlement began. There is, however, such ample room for choice of locations that thousands can
find room for selection in the free sections. Partly improved farms
can be purchased near the town's at reasonable figures, and railway
lands, within ten miles of the line, for $3 to $5 per acre.
Southern Alberta.
Southern Alberta, which forms the extreme southwestern corner
of the prairie region of Western Canada, stands unrivalled among
the stock countries of the world, and now that it has direct railway communication with the markets of Eastern Canada and of
British Columbia, is the most desirable one for stockmen. The
country is level, open prairie in the eastern portion, but it is much
broken along the western side by the foothills of the Rockies.
The true Chinook winds prevail during the fall, winter and spring
months.    Under  their magic  influence the  snow fall is licked up ALBERTA—THE NORTHERN   GRANARY ' 45
iWithin a few hours, while the temperature will even more quickly
rise to between 40 and 50 degrees above zero. Under these conditions, the brief spells of wintry weather are alternated with more or
3ess protracted periods of warm, bright, spring-like weather, during
./which the ground is bare of snow, and the water is running in
the streams and pools. It is this climate which has made Southern
Alberta famous as a range stock country, and which enables cattle
and horses to live in the open air the year around without shelter,
and dependent entirely upon the natural grass of the country for
food. The same advantages tell quite as heavily in favor of dairying and mixed farming. Hay is readily available, so that weak
and young stock can be taken up and fed if necessary. The true
Chinook belt extends from the international boundary line to Sheep
Creek, about 150 miles, while its influence is felt eastward as far
as Moosejaw, over 300 miles. North from Sheep Creek, with gradually lessening effect, it extends to the Red Deer River, about 130
miles further, when the clear cold climate of Northern Alberta
takes the place of the more variable climatic" conditions further
south. The live stock industry is the chief one, although the conditions are fast changing from large herds to smaller ones which
. can be more easily handled and cared for. Now that this portion
of the country has direct rail communication with the, eastern and
British Columbia markets, an immense impetus has been given to
the live stock business. Grass fed steers bring from $35 to $40 for
three-year olds, to $42 to $48 for fours, at the shipping point. As
these steers pick up their own living on the ranges, and are never
housed or fed, the profits are very large. Large numbers of young
beef cattle are annually imported from the east to be fattened on
the Southern Alberta ranges, and are again profitably shipped as
matured beef to European and eastern markets. Mixed farming
is now extensively carried on in Southern Alberta, and is very profitable. With a rapidly extending system of irrigation, this and
other farming operations will develop very quickly. The Canadian
Northwest Irrigation Company has recently completed over 100
miles of waterway from the St. Mary's River, near the international
boundary, to the neighborhood of Lethbridge at a cost of over
$400,000, and is offering irrigated lands at from $8.00 to $10.00 per
acre, and have disposed of considerable quantities to settlers during
the past year. Though a large portion of Southern Alberta is bare
of timber for fuel, this lack is amply compensated for by an inexhaustible supply of coal of excellent quality, which crops out at
many points along the steep banks of the streams that, plentifully
water the country. There are also largely operated coal mines at
Lethbridge and at Fernie, in British Columbia, which supply Southern Alberta with cheap fuel, and new mines are being opened in
the mountains of Southwestern Alberta, immediately west of Macleod, on the Crow's Nest Pass Railroad, where thriving towns are
springing up. In the farthest southwestern corner boring for coal
oil is shortly to be commenced, with extremely probable prospects
of success. 46 ALBERTA—ITS CHIEF TOWNS
Chief Towns.
Calgary is a bright and busy city of 4,865 population, which is
rapidly increasing. It is situated at the confluence of the Bow and
Elbow Rivers, about 70 miles east of the Rocky Mountains. It is
the centre of the northern ranching districts of Southern Alberta,
and supplies many of the smaller mining towns in the west. It is
built principally of grey sandstone, and is the junction of the Calgary and Edmonton branches with the main line of the Canadian
Pacific Railway, being a divisional point, with machine shops, etc.
It is an important station of the Mounted Police, and in a variety
of ways does a large and increasing business. It has waterworks,
electric light, hotels, brewery, several churches and public and
private schools, creamery, large abattoir and cold storage, large
flour mill,  cigar factory,  and four chartered banks.
Edmonton on the north bank of the Saskatchewan is the market
town for the farmers, traders, miners, etc., on the north side of the
Saskatchewan, and for the trade of the great Mackenzie Basin, and
like Calgary, is an outfitting place for those taking the inland
route to the Peace River, and other gold-bearing streams rising in
the Rocky Mountains. It is a prosperous town with a population
of 2,626, is lighted by electricity and has all the modern adjuncts
of thriving towns. Edmonton has several chartered banks, two
flour mills, planing factory, pork packing factory, two breweries,
two brick-yards, six churches, two hospitals, newspapers, public
schools and every branch of business, both wholesale and retail, is
represented.    There are five coal mines near the town.
Strathcona (formerly South Edmonton), on the south bank of the
Saskatchewan (population 1,250), and the present northern terminus
of the Calgary & Edmonton Railway, is another rising centre where
good hotel accommodation, stores, creamery, flour and oatmeal
mills, tannery, banks, four grain elevators, carriage, foundry and
machine shops, and pump factory, etc., arc established. It has
several churches and a public school.
Wetaskiwin is the busiest town between Edmonton and Calgary,
and possesses some good stores, creamery, grain elevator, hotels,
etc. It is the market for the Beaver Lake and Battle River settlements.
Macleod (population 1,200), on Old Man River, at the southern
terminus of the Calgary & Edmonton Railway and an important
divisional point on the Crow's Nest Pass Railway line, is the chief
centre of business and headquarters for the great ranching industry
of Southern Alberta.
Lethbridge (population 2,326), on the Crow's Nest line of the C.
. P. R. situated about thirty miles east of Macleod, is a coal mining
town doing a good business, with large stores and several public
buildings. With the recent construction of very extensive irrigation works to the west and south of Lethbridge, a large area of
excellent land, tributary to the town, has become available for
settlement.
There are also a number of other towns and villages throughout
Alberta, which are growing both in wealth and population. At
some of these manufacturing industries have been established, and
those in the wheat belt have grain elevators, etc. AT  TTT15 IRRIGATION WORKS—SOUTHERN  ALBERTA.
A   WESTERN   CANADIAN   IIOMF.STEAO. 48 ALBERTA—CATTLE AND HORSE RAISING
Cattle Raising.
There are countless herds of fat cattle on the ranges of Southern Alberta, which at any season are neither fed nor sheltered;
cattle, too, which in point of breeding, size and general condition
are equal, if not superior to any range cattle in the world. Shorthorns, Herefords and Polled Angus (black and red of the latter),
are the chief breeds. There are some Holsteins and Ayrshires, but
they are not generally used except where dairying is the main desideratum. For the small stock breeds where dairying and beef producing must materially go hand in hand, probably a good milking
strain of Shorthorns will be found the most profitable. To illustrate the class of cattle produced, it may be mentioned that a train
load of four-year-old steers from the Cochrane ranch after being
driven 140 miles and shipped by rail 2,300 miles to Montreal, weighed at the end of the trip on the average 1,385 lbs. Four-year-olds
and long threes have, for several years past netted the owners
from $42 to $48 on the range; three-year-olds, $38 to $40 each; old
cows from $24 to $28. Calves from six to eight months old are worth
$14 to $16. During the past few years prices for all classes of cattle
have steadily increased, and at the present time breeding herds
which a few years ago, were sold for from $23 to $25 per head all
round, cannot be purchased for less than $28 to $30. Bulls for breeding purposes are imported chiefly from Manitoba and the eastern
provinces of Canada and from Great Britain. Breeding enterprises for furnishing bulls under the management of experienced
men, would doubtless prove profitable ventures, and several are
already being carried on, furnishing a class of stock not exceeded
by many of the older established breeding farms of the east.
The outlay in cattle ranging is meeting with satisfactory and
encouraging reward, there being ready sale at the ranches. In
Northern Alberta this branch is but in its infancy, but is developing
rapidly. The local market annually consumes from eighteen to
twenty thousand beeves, with a growing demand, while the great
market of the world is within easy access. The number shipped
for England is annually increasing.
Horso Raising.
In breeding horses, Alberta occupies a somewhat similar position to Canada that Kentucky does to the United States. Owing
to the high altitude, dry and invigorating atmosphere, short and
mild winters, and its nutritious grasses and inexhaustible supply of
.clear, cold water, it is pre-eminently adapted for breeding horses,
and the Alberta animal has already become noted for endurance,
lung power and perfect freedom from hereditary and other diseases. There are, in Alberta, several grades of horses varying in
point of quality from the hardy Indian pony (Cayuse), to the beautiful, well-formed thoroughbred. Thoroughbreds from Great Britain and Kentucky, Clydesdales from Scotland, Percherons from
France' and trotting stock from the. United States have been imported at great expense, and the result is that the young horse of
Alberta will compare with any in Canada, and find's a ready market
in England and Belgium.   Good three-quarter bred Clydes and Shires ALBERTA—STOCK RAISING 49
which at maturity will weigh 1,400 to 1,600 lbs., have been selling at
three years old readily for $75 to $100. Good quality of other classes
bring from $40 to $100. During the past two years shipments of
polo ponies were made to England with successful results. A large
number of Alberta bred horses were taken to South Africa, and
there on the rough veldt under most trying circumstances held
their own with picked horses from all parts of the Empire, the
United States, etc.
Sheep.
For sheep, there are thousands of acres of rich grass lands well
watered, and adapted in every way for first-class mutton, and fine
wool, where cold rains and dust storms, so injurious to the fleeces,
are almost unknown. There is a railway running through the centre of the grazing lands and markets for mutton and wool are within reach. The clear, dry, bracing air of the country suits sheep,
which suffer from little or no disease. Sheep mature early, owing
to the fine quality of the grass. To winter them safely, good, warm,
roomy sheds, plenty of hay (10 tons to the 100 head), and attention
is all that is wanted. The popular breeds are Shrops and Downs,
and in some  cases  they  are  crossed with  Merinos.
During the last ten years many hundreds of thousand cattle,
sheep and horses have been raised in the southern half of Alberta
on the rich grasses, without any feeding or shelter other than the
shelter found along the hillsides or in clumps of trees on the bottom lands. The cattle and sheep when taken off the pasture are
fat and fit for any butcher's shop in the world, and the horses are
in capital condition.
Hogs.
The favorite breeds are Berkshires, Small Yorkshire Whites and
Tamworths, which, if fed until they will weigh from 150 to 200 lbs.
dressed, quoted (winter of 1901), at $4.50 to $6.50 per 100 lbs. for
consignment to pork packing and curing establishments. Those who
are patrons of any creamery can always rear several pigs and find
an active demand for them, and a good market—and one that is
expanding greatly—is always attainable to those who have a surplus of coarse or inferior grains, which can best be utilized in developing pigs to proper weight. Hog raising can be increased indefinitely with great profit to the farmer as the demand is greatly in
excess of the supply.
Poultry.
One of the most profitable branches of farming in the Canadian
West is the production of eggs, especially if these can be obtained
during the winter months, when prices range from 30c. to 40c. a
dozen. There is also a ready demand for fowls for home consumption, the supply not nearly equalling the demand. This climate
cannot be equalled for the rearing of turkeys, the dryness and altitude being especially favorable for this profitable bird. Geese,
Which are exceedingly hardy and easy to rear, grow to a large size 50 ALBERTA—ITS   MARKETS
on the rich pasture without very much care or extra feeding. There
are great possibilities for shipments, both east and west, of poultry,
raising of which has been found very profitable.
Dairying.
The conditions for carrying on dairying successfully are most
favorable in Alberta, and although the industry is yet in its infancy,
great strides have already bee:i made in that direction. There are
eight Government Creameries in operation, of which number four
will be running- all winter. Besides these, there is a private creamery at Bowden and one at Red Deer. Good prices are obtained for
the output of butter which finds a ready market principally in
British Columbia. The main creameries established by the Government, are situated at Calgary, Olds, Innisfail, Tindastoll, Red Deer,
Wetaskiwin, Edmonton and Fort Saskatchewan. Besides these a
number of tributary cream receiving stations are established along
the line of railway in such a way that they are within reach, practically, of all the farmers who may desire to patronize them. The
main creameries are supplied with first-class cold storage rooms and
other modern improvements. A regular weekly refrigerator service
is furnished by the Canadian Pacific Railway Company which makes
it practicable to ship perishable food products to the British Columbia
markets in the. pink of condition. The dairy industry in Alberta
is carried on under similar conditions to those existing in Assiniboia,
already referred to. The average prices realized for Alberta Government Creamery butter, during the last two years, have been over
20c. per pound for the summer season, and 23%c. per pound for the
winter season at the creameries. It will be seen, then, that the
patrons have realized 16c. and 19%c. net per pound of butter during
the summer and winter seasons respectively. In connection with the
creamery work the government has carried on at Innisfail the collection of eggs, reference to which is made on another page.
Markets.
Alberta is the nearest agricultural country to the rich mining
regions of both northern and southern British Columbia, which are
rapidly developing, and with which a large and growing trade has
already been established, which is immensely increasing yearly
since the completion of the Crow's Nest Pass Railway; and the
whole Mackenzie Basin is supplied from Edmonton, which is an
outfitting and supply depot for prospectors in the copper areas and
gold-bearing streams north and west whose headwaters are reached
from that town. The trade of this vast district is immense and
gradually increasing, as mining and trading in the north expand,
the fur trade alone reaching $500,000 annually. The establishment
of flour and oatmeal mills, creameries, etc., ensure an excellent
market for the products of the farm.
The ranchmen of Southern Alberta find a ready market for their
stock practically at their very doors through buyers who supply the
English, United States, Eastern Canadian and British Columbia
markets, and the small farmers have a home market as well as
one in British Columbia. ALBERTA—DELEGATES' REPORTS 51
Minerals.
Alberta possesses untold wealth in her immense mineral deposits. For years past gold in paying quantities has been found on
the banks and bars of the North and South Saskatchewan and in
the Pembina, Smoky, Macleod and Athabasca rivers. Gold colors
are found in many streams and rivers in Alberta. Large veins of
galena have been located which are pronounced by experts to contain a large percentage of silver. Capital alone is wanting to make
them treasures of wealth to the country. Copper ore in enormous
quantities has also been found said to contain 60 per cent, of pure
copper.   Iron ore has been discovered in various parts of Alberta.
As to the quantity of the coal deposits of Alberta, it is impossible
to form any estimate, the whole country being underlaid with rich
deposits of anthracite, bituminous, semi-bituminous and lignite. The
coal mines already discovered are of sufficient extent to supply Canada with fuel for centuries. Lignites are now mined at Medicine
Hat, Cypress Hill, Red Deer, Otoskiwan, Edmonton, Sturgeon River
and Victoria, and are obtained at the pit's mouth at from 65c. to
$2.50 per ton. The semi-bituminous is mined at Lethridge (where
$1,500,000 have been invested), Pot Hole, Milk River Ridge, Woodpecker, Crowfoot and Knee Hill Creek, and is obtained at from $1.50
to $3.00 per ton. The true bituminous is mined at Waterton River,
Pincher Creek, on each of the South, Middle and North Branches of
the Old Man River, on High River, Sheep Creek, Fish Creek,
Bow River and Canmore, and fetches similar prices to the semi-
bituminous. Anthracite is mined at Anthracite (four miles from
Banff), and is sold aboard cars at from $2 to $5 per ton, according
to grade. There are extensive collieries at Lethridge, Canmore and
Anthracite, and at Frank and Blairmore new mines are being
operated. The Government issues permits to mine on Dominion
lands at the following royalties: 10c. per ton for lignites, 15c. for
bituminous,   and 20c.  for  anthracite.
Soft coal is so plentiful that the certainty of a cheap fuel supply is assured to Albertans for all time to come.
Game in Alberta.
Alberta is an attractive country for the sportsman.    Wild duck
of all varieties, geese, prairie chicken, blue grouse, snipe, partridge,
and other small game are usually plentiful, while in the north and     /
the mountain regions of the south, deer, moose and other large game    /
are by no means uncommon.   Bands of antelope are also often seen   /
on the plains in the south.     Trout, from the brook trout to salmon
trout, abound in all the streams and lakes of Southern Alberta.
Settlers' Testimony.
Ponoka, Alta., November 9th, 1901.
I came from Iowa, April 17th, 1900, in search of a home; came
doubting whether I would be satisfied; but it was "a surprise to me;
found the country better than I expected, and all that it was claimed
to be. Purchased 380 acres and also took a homestead, for an
investment of $500.00 I have been offered $3,500.00 in eighteen months. 52 ALBERTA—SETTLERS' TESTIMONY
I do not regret coming to Alberta, although I left the choicest portion
of the United States, for to me it means a home without a mortgage
or landlord's lien. Land is of better quality than any place I have
ever seen; is easily worked after once broken, and for productiveness has no superior on the continent. We have a. good healthy
climate, free from sudden storms; tornadoes and cyclones are unknown. I see no reason why a sober, industrious person cannot
succeed. We have the land well watered, timber, coal, abundance
of grass, and, in fact, acknowledged to be the best cattl? country
in the world. For proof of this, we export cattle to Liverpool, taken
from the grass without being fed grain. We have people here
from all parts of the United States, who seem well pleased with
the country, and also with the Canadian Government, and prefer
living under it, rather than being a tenant at will, as is often
the case in the overcrowded portions of the East. Taxes are a
mere trifle, yet we have all conveniences that can be expected in a
new country, such as schools, churches, etc. It will be but a few
years until land will sell for as much per acre as in the most favored
portions. Since I left Monona County, Iowa, and came here, there
have been 45 families from my home county, and all that came here
(but one exception), located in Alberta, and the influx has only commenced.
Edmund Christie.
Bittern Lake, Nov. 10, 1901.
I bought a farm last year, and had 22% acres summer fallowed.
Not having grain enough for seed, I let a neighbor have Ave acres of
it. The balance of it I put into oats, about 15 acres, which yielded me
between 1,600 and 1,700 bushels, 1% acres, wheat, which gave me
60 bushels; the balance I had in garden stuffs, 100 bushels of potatoes,
100 bushels of bagas, 50 bushels sugar beets, 30 bushels carrots, and
other small garden products. We have had a very successful
season, and are very hopeful for the future. I can confidently
recommend this country to any man who has a little means with
which to start.
W. W. Treleaven.
Macleod,  November 18th, 1901.
I came to Southern Alberta twenty-four years ago without any
capital. Eighteen years ago I commenced farming and stock raising and have been doing so ever since. I now own two sections of
land, $1,280 house, 300 head of cattle, 50 horses and all farming machinery required to cultivate 250 acres of land, and $10,000 worth of
other property, all of which I have made off the farm and stock.
I farm 250 acres of land, cutting about 50 acres green for feed; that
with the straw from the other two hundred acres gives me enough
winter food for my stock. There is unlimited summer pasture. We
raise all kinds of grain—wheat, oats, barley, flax, and roots of every
variety. I will give you the amount of grain I threshed for the
past three years: 1899, ten thousand bushels; 1900, seven thousand
five hundred; 1901, seven thousand, all of good quality, none damaged in any way; and I sold it at good profitable prices-     Wheat ALBERTA—SETTLERS' TESTIMONY S<$
buyers* say that they get no better wheat anywhere than they do
here. For mixed farming I do not think that Southern Alberta has
its equal in the Dominion of Canada.
D. J. Grier,
Bentley", Alberta, November 18, 1901.
Last season the first crop was raised in this valley of the Blind
Man River. It was all on new breaking, and considering that fact
was remarkably good. No threshing machine was brought in, so
it was all fed in the sheaf. We expect a thresher in soon to thresh
out the present crop, and there will be somewhere near 20,000 bushels to thresh in the valley, with a prospect of three times that
much a year from now. Where there were but two homesteads
in the valley July 1st, 1899, there are now over 150 settlers, and
a population of nearly 800. Settlers are now locating in townships
42, Rge. 3 and 43, Rge. 2, over twenty miles up the valley from this
post office, and there is still a large tract of fine land in and beyond
those townships, open for entry.
The soil is a black loam on clay subsoil, with some sand in the
loam in places, which makes an ideal soil for vegetables and roots.
I raised 240 bushels of potatoes this year, of as fine a quality and
with as little trouble in cultivation as one could desire. I had ten
acres of an experimental farm this past season, on which was raised
three kinds of field peas, white hulless barley, "Success" beardless
which grew and ripened to my satisfaction. I am satisfied that we
can raise pork here as cheaply as anywhere on peas and barley, and
of a finer quality than any corn fed pork in the world. Beef
can also be produced at a small cost. Cattle are still feeding on
the prairie at this writing, and two years ago cattle were not hand
fed until after the 1st of January. Horses, except those kept up
for work, ran on the prairie the past two winters without feed or
care, and a pair of colts, 3 years old next spring, and which I will
break to harness this winter, have not cost me $2.00 each for feed,
and care since I bought them with their mothers over two years
ago. We have many fine springs of the purest water here; good
wells can be got at from 18 to 40 feet; there is plenty of timber
for fuel and fencing, while spruce and tamarac building timber, can
be got a few miles west. Coal will be found soon without a doubt,
as it is picked up along the river in the spring, having come down
on the ice. The summers are cool, with no bad winds or electric
storms, and the past two winters were a genuine surprise to us
in their mildness and freedom from severe storms, extreme cold, and
such unpleasant winter weather as we had been used to in Wisconsin. The settlers in this locality are nearly all from the States,
Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Nebraska, the two Dakotas,
Wyoming, Montana, Kansas, Colorado, Washington and California
being represented. A saw mill on Gull Lake supplies us with native
lumber at from $12.00 to $20.00 per M., and the lake itself is well
stocked with fish. Another sawmill is being built 16 miles up .the
river, and will soon be running. On the Blind Man River, and on
the outlet from Gull Lake, to the river, are some of the finest
water-power sites, some of which will undoubtedly soon be utilized.
A flour and feed mill would find a paying business, after another
year, and other lines of trade and business are needed at once.
• W. B.  McPherson. 54 ALBERTA—DELEGATES' REPORTS
Delegates' Reports.
Winnipeg, September 3rd, 1901.
We, the undersigned have made a close examination of the
North Western lands, and would say there is no country that we
have ever seen either in the United States of America or England,
that can compare with the fertile soil of Manitoba, and Northern
Alberta for mixed farming. We took a five days' trip to the
Vermillion District last week and found bats that measured
6 ft. 1 in. in height and grains the largest we ever saw. These
oats ran 125 bushels per acre, and 48 lbs. to the busheh The general average of oats run from 85 to 90 bushels per acre. Wheat
is simply grand; there is no better grain grown, anywhere; it is a
common crop that does not bring 40 bushels, and as high as 53
bushels per acre. We found cattle all through the Canadian Territories that excel all. We would say to intending settlers who
wish to secure homes of their own, that this part will suit almost
all who wish to enjoy a comfortable climate; the weather is nice
and bracing with warm day-time and always cool at night. Parties wishing to purchase lands can buy farms from $2 to $5 per
acre, or homestead as they prefer.
Thomas W. Thompson,
Knightsville, Clay Co.,
Indiana, U. S. A.
James Marsh,
Fontanet, Vigo Co., Ind., U. S. A.
We, the undersigned, intending settlers from Washington, can
corroborate the above statement as being true in every particular,
as we have also been to the Vermillion district,
James   Walker,  Belmont,  Washington.
J. R. Thompson, Belmont, Washington.
Calgary, February, 14, 1901.
Having travelled hundreds of miles north and south in Alberta
District for the purpose of determining its adaptability for mixed
farming, and having had 25 years' experience travelling in the
United States, I am forced to the conclusion that no better land can
be found on the continent of America for mixed farming or cattle
raising. The climate is almost perfect. The soil is a deep black
loam with clay subsoil and capable of growing cereals in profusion as
well as growing all kinds of roots. Coal to be had in nearly every
part of the country. Schools and churches everywhere. Calgary,
the chief city of Alberta, is very attractive and on account of its
situation will soon become a second Winnipeg. Good markets for
all produce, and good prices. Government lands to be had within 8
to 20 miles of the Edmonton R. R., north, while there are almost
whole townships untaken around Calgary of the very best land
within 8 to 15 miles, which will surely double in value every 10
years.
Henry Haskins (Delegate),
Duluth,   Minnesota. Alberta—delegates' reports 5§
Winnipeg, Man., September 6th, 1901.
We, the undersigned delegates from Jefferson County, in the
State of Nebraska, ,beg leave to state that we are now on our way
home, well satisfied with our treatment throughout the whole trip.
We spent most of our time around Lacombe, on the Calgary and
Edmonton Railway, and found that as far south-east as 35 miles
from that point the land was well taken up, and of good quality.
We believe the soil in this locality is the best We ever saw, and
the crops are excellent in every respect. The oats were the largest
and the whgat the finest we have ever seen; and the brome grass
and timothy hay grown on new ground were simply a marvel. We
saw potatoes grown on the sod that beat anything "we have ever
seen before. Garden stuff of every kind was in very fine condition,
and wherever we had an opportunity of testing water we found the
same in every case of excellent quality. We made special enquiries regarding climatic conditions and found everyone living
in that section of Canada in love with the climate, and we are
satisfied any person coming, even from one of the warmer States,
would find the climate agreeable and perfectly satisfactory very
shortly after their arrival. We did not see anybody dissatisfied
wuth any of the conditions of the country, but all appeared ' to be
glad that they had come to the district. Land is being taken up
very fast, and we do not wonder, as it is of excellent quality. We
saw several fields of oats into which we walked, and allfaough we
are each over 5 ft. 6 in. in height, the oats just about1 hid us from
view; and the heads on the straw were very excellent. We have
no hesitation in saying that if a man with a fair amount to start
with can reach this district, the sooner he gets there the better;
and this is the report we intend to make to our friends. We are
taking back samples of oats and brome grass and flax which we
have picked from the soil ourselves, and they will be an illustration
to our people of what this magnificent country can grow.
J. M. Scherrer.
H. B. Scherrer.
Winnipeg, Man., 6th September, 1901.
We, the undersigned Bohemian delegates, representing a number
of. farmers in Saline County, Nebraska, having returned from a
visit to the Ponoka District, in Alberta, desire to state that we
found the conditions of land, etc., in that locality more than equal
to our expectations. Two of the undersigned have purchased lands
in the Sharphead Indian Reserve, and- one other has bought railway
land. The soil is very rich, and as an instance of its richness one
of the undersigned took note of a piece of land which, on the 20th
June this year, was only just broken up. On his ra'turn within
the last week he found oats growing on the said breaking, running
five to six feet high, with magnificent heads on. We found very
fine wheat, barley and peas growing in this locality. We had an
opportunity of visiting some of those settlers who were growing
garden truck, and we can truly say we never saw better vegetables
in our lives. We made enquiries as to the supply of water, and
found that it could be obtained almost anywhere at a reasonable
depth.     We had an opportunity of seeing some of the weather and
* 56 ALBERT A—DELEGATES' REPORTS
climate in the locality, but made further enquiries from those who
lived there, and we can safely consider the climate a good one,
and everybody we met seemed to be very contented and happy, and
we saw no one who was desirous of leaving the land unless he could
sell at a higher price and buy somewhere else more cheaply. We
visited a number of the Bohemians from our own State, who have
settled in this locality, and found them all very well satisfied with
their new homes, and we think the fact that we ourselves have
purchased land with the intention of settling in Canada, is the best
proof of our opinion of that country. We saw some oats grown
in the district of Ponoka, and measured it ourselves, and found it was
7 feet 8% inches, with magnificent heads. We are returning to our
homes to-day well pleased with our trip and able to make a satisfactory report, which we trust will induce a number of our people
to follow in our footsteps in the  Ponoka district.
Joseph Hynek,
John Shimerda,
Franc Slepicka,
Alois   Slepicka, .
John Vostrez.
John F.  Slepicka,
Mexico, Indiana, August, 1901.
I truly think Canada offers a fine opening for a young man or a
man who is renting land in Indiana. One hundred and sixty acres
of good black land will cost you only ten dollars at the time you
enter for it, and by plowing and cultivating five acres each year
for three years, gives you one hundred and sixty acres of good land
for $10. This land can be bought from the railroad companies, private corporations or the government for $3 to $4 per acre.
From a financial standpoint, I believe that for a series of years
(five), a young man can make $16 in Canada, whereas he would only
make i$l here, and I feel sure that I spent more money to get my
eighty acre farm in White County, Indiana, cultivated than it would
cost me to cultivate eight hundred acres In Canada. This may seem
a strong view to take of the matter, but when you take into consideration the clearing, ditching, fencing and the expensive breaking in of the stumps, and then compare the expense to that of land
needing only the breaking you will conclude that it is not such a
wild statement as you mighit at first think.
I enjoyed the balmy, breezy atmosphere, which was bracing and
refreshing and the nights which made it so pleasant for sleep.
On making inquiries regarding the winters in this country I
learned that the people never suffer from the cold, as the weather
is dry and Invigorating, and in a great many places farmers and
herders allow their stock to run outside the year round.
One great advantage to settlers In Western Canada is the free
creameries established by the government and run exclusively in
the interests of the farmer.
I visited Thomas Daley, a farmer near Edmonton, Alberta, who
showed me oats he had raised, some of which took the first prize
at the Paris Exposition last year. The same yielded 110 bushels to
the acre in 1899.
Frank Fisher.
S\ DELEGATES* REPORT 5?
Winnipeg,  Sept. 5, 1901.
After visiting other parts of Western Canada, we, delegates
from Illinois, United States, inspected Northern Alberta. Our first
stop was at Olds, around which place there is a splendid country,
and the crops first-class. The grain was all heavy in the head, well
filled, and we imagine that any kind of vegetables can be grown to
perfection in that locality. At one man's farm we saw onions, lettuce, potatoes, turnips, radishes and, in fact, everything that is
grain in a market garden growing there in perfection. And here we
would like to add that the prairie and other flowers might easily
make thds place as delightful to live in as the older parts of our
own country.
We then went to Red Deer, and found the land pretty well taken
up in this locality. All the farmers there seemed to be prosperous
and in good spirits. The worse fault we found in this locality was
the desire On the part of those who had land to acquire more.
From thence we went to Wetaskiwin, where we found all kinds
of grain in first-class condition and growing somewhat taller than
in other parts. Harvesting was then fairly commenced, and, judg-
ng from the conversations we had, the yield would be something
very much above the average. We saw in this locality Timothy hay
finer than we had ever seen standing out of doors; and clover will
grow three tons to the acre.
We visited the Edmonton country and found the same to be
excellent north and south of the Saskatchewan River. The land is
very rich with a clay sub-soil, and as a consequence the grain is
■very tall; in fact, we saw some oats that were over six feet high.
So far as we could learn from our own. short personal experience
and from conversation with the settlers who had been there for
several years, the climate is comparatively mild, and the winters are
very fine. We naturally enquired about the danger from summer
frost, and readily came to the conclusion that any danger there
might be from such in any locality where we visited would disappear entirely upon cultivation of the 'land.
We made special enquiries regarding the quality and quantity
of water from Olds north as far as Edmonton, and found that water
of very excellent quality, was easily obtained at shallow depths, and
we did not see any traces of alkali in these localities.
We found some splendid samples of Fall wheat, and it is our
opinion that this will make the most successful grain grown in that
country. We saw it in the field, and "magnificent" is the only word
w'e can apply to it.
Some of us have already purchased our farms, and the balance
are in negotiation for other pieces, which we consider a fairly good
recommendation for the country, even without the statements given
above:
In conclusion, we would say that we think the country is a good
one for a man to invest his money in, and cannot be equalled for a
poor man who is willing to work; and it is our intention, on returning to those who chose us as delegates, to report that they can
make no mistake in taking up their abode at as early a date as
possible in the Canadian West.
W.  A.  Shonkwiler,
A.   M.  Arrington,
Atwood P.O., Douglas Co., 111.
D. G. Harrison,
Morrison P.O., Whiteside Co., 111.
^6 58
WESTERN CANADA—'THE SURVEYS
SYSTEM OF LAND SURVEY.
Manitoba and the Northwest Territories have now been accurately surveyed by the Dominion Government, and parcelled out into
square and uniform lots on the following plan: The land is divided
into ," townships " six miles square. Each township contains thirty-
six "sections" of 640 acres, or one square mile each section, and
these are again sub-divided into quarter sections of 160 acres. A
road allowance, one chain wide, is provided for between each section
running north and south, and between every alternate section east
and west.
The following is a plan of a township:
Township Diagram.
SIX MILES SQUARE.
1
31
1
32
Gov.
1
1
33
C.P.E.
1
1
34
1
35
(.iov,
1
C.P.R.
1
Gov.
1
C.P.E.
1
1
80
1
29
i
28
1
27
.1
26
1
25
i
&
xn
WlB
fa
Hi
t-i
a
GO
Gov.
1
19
Schools
1
Gov.
1
C.P.E.
1
H.B.
1
C.P.E.
1
29
1
21
1
22
i
23
1
24
C P.E.
1
Gov.
1
C.P.E.
1
Gov.
IB
C.P.E
1 ...
1
14
Gov.
1
V,
1
18
1
17
1
16
13
C.P.1,
Gov.
1
C.P.R.
1
Gov.
1
C.P.E.
1
Gov.
1
7
1
•8
1
9
1
10
1       |       1
11      j     12
C.P.E.
1
H.B.
1
C.P.E.
1
Gov.
1
Scliool&l  Gov,
1   1   1
I
1
5
1
4
?,
k
1 -
Gov.
C.P.E.
1
Gov.
1
C.P E.
1
Gov.  j C.P.B.
^3   O
g  O
Government Lands, open for homestead (that is for free settlement).—Sections NOS. 2, 4, 6, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22, 24, 28, 30, 32, 34, 36.
Canadian Pacific Railway Lands for sale.—Sections Nos. 1, 3, 5, 7,
9, 13,  15, 17,  19,  21, 23, 25,  27,  31,  33,  35.
School Sections.—Sections Nos. 11 and 29 are reserved by government for  school purposes.
Hudson's Bay Company's Land for sale.—Sections Nos. 8 and 26.
k •Western Canada—pree homestead regulations
FREE HOMESTEAD REGULATIONS.
Any even-numbered section of Dominion Lands in Manitoba or "\
the Northwest Territories, excepting 8 and 26, which have not been   \
homesteaded, reserved to provide wood lots for settlers, or for other    \
purposes, may be homesteaded upon by any person who is the sole,
head of a family, or any male over 18 years of age, to the extent of
one quarter-section of 160 acres, more or less.
Entry.
Entry may be made personally at the local land office for the
District in which the land to be taken is situate, or if the homesteader desires he may, on application to the Minister of the In- |
terior, Ottawa, the Commissioner of Immigration, Winnipeg, or the
Local Agent for the district in which the land is situate receive authority for some one to make entry for him. A fee of $10 is charged {
for homestead entry.
Homestead Duties.
Under the present law homestead duties must be performed in one
of  the   following  ways,   namely:—
(1) By at least six months' residence upon and cultivation of the
land in each year during the term of three, years.
(2) If the father (or the mother, if the father is deceased) of any
person who is eligible to make a homestead entry resides upon a
farm in the vicinity of the land entered for by such person as a
homestead, the requirements of the law as to residence prior to obtaining patent may be satisfied by such person residing with , the
father or mother.
(3) If a settler has obtained a patent for his first'homestead, or a
certificate for the issue of such patent countersigned in the manner
prescribed by the Dominion Lands Act, and has obtained entry for a
second homestead, the requirements of this Act as to residence prior
to obtaining patent may be satisfier1 by residence upon the first homestead.
(4) If the settler has his permanent residence upon farming land
owned by him in the vicinity of his homestead, the requirements of
the law as to residence may be satisfied by residence upon the said
land.
Application for Patent
Should be made at the end of the three years, before the Local
Agent, Sub-Agent or the Homestead Inspector. Before making application for patent the settler must give six months' notice in writing to the Commissioner of Dominion Lands at Ottawa of his intention.to do so. Application for patent must be made within five years
from the date of the homestead entry, otherwise the right thereto
is liable to forfeiture. western Canada—government mineral lands
GOVERNMENT MINERAL LANDS.
Goal Lands.
j.f surveyed, can be purchased by one individual to the extent of
320 acres, price $10 per acre for soft coal, $20 per acre for anthracite.
He is not compelled to work the claim. Purchaser has to pay royalty of ten cents per ton.
Right to Explore for Coal.
On staking out boundaries, run lines north and south, east and
west, marking on each post the name of individual staking same,
and date of such staking; then apply to Minister of the Interior, who
will grant right upon payment of $10 to explore for 60 days on expenditure of at least $2 per day. At expiration of 60 days a further
extension may be granted if asked for. This right to explore enables
parties to satisfy themselves whether there is sufficient coal on the
property to warrant a purchase. If the land is surveyed no staking
is   necessary.
Synopsis of the Regulations  for the Disposal of
Quartz Mining Claims on Dominion Lands in
Manitoba and the Northwest Territories (including the Yukon
Territory).
Every person 18 years of age and over, but not under, and every
joint stock company holding a Free Miner's Certificate, may obtain
an entry for a mining location.
A Free Miner's Certificate is granted for one or more years, not
exceeding five, and is not transferable. The annual fee for a Free
Miner's Certificate for an individual is $10, and for a Free Miner's
Certificate to a joint stock company, from $50 to $100, according to
the  nominal  capital  of the  company.
The holder of a Free Miner's Certificate who has discovered mineral in place, may locate a claim not exceeding 1,500 feet lqng by
1,500 feet wide, by marking it with two legal posts, one at each end,
on the line of the lode, or vein, and marking out the line between
them. Upon each post shall be marked the name of the claim, the
name of the person locating and the date, and the number of feet
lying to the right and left of the line.
The claim shall be recorded with the Mining Recorder of the
District within which it is situated, within 15 days after the location
thereof, if located within 10 miles of the office of the Recorder; one
additional day shall be allowed for such record for every additional
ten miles or fraction thereof. In the event of a claim being more
than 100 miles from a Recorder's Office, and situated where other
& WESTERN CANADA—INFORMATION FOR SETTLERS 61
claims are being located, the Free Miners, not less than five in number, may appoint a Free Miner's Recorder, but if the latter fails
within three months to notify the nearest Government Mining
Recorder of his appointment, the claims which he may have recorded
will be  cancelled. ,
The fee  for recording a claim is $5.
An expenditure of not less than $100 per year must be made on
the claim, or a like amount paid to the Mining. Recorder in lieu
thereof. . When $500 has been expended or paid in connection with
the location, the locator may, upon having a survey thereof made
and upon complying with certain other requirements, purchase the
land at the rate of $5 per acre cash, but if the surface rights have
already been disposed of, at $2 an acre.
A location for the mining of iron, mica and copper, not exceeding
160 acres in area, may be granted, provided that should any Free
Miner obtain a location which subsequently is found to contain a
valuable mineral deposit other than iron, mica or copper, his right in
such deposit shall be restricted to the area prescribed for other
minerals, and the remainder of the location shall revert to the Crown.
The patent for a mining location shall reserve to the Crown forever, whatever royalty may hereafter be imposed on the sales of the
products of all mines therein, but not exceeding five per cent., and
the same royalty shall be collected on the sales which may be made
prior to the issue  of the patent.
A liberal supply of timber for house building purposes and fuel
is granted free to settlers on payment of a small office fee for the
permit. ,        •
For full information as to the conditions of tender, and sale of
timber, coal or other mineral lands, apply to the Secretary of the
Department of the Interior, Ottawa, Ont., or to any of the Dominion
Land Agents, Manitoba, or the Northwest Territories.
James A. Smart,
Deputy Minister of the Interior, Ottawa, Canada.
INFORMATION FOR SETTLERS.
Newly arrived immigrants will receive at any Dominion Lands
Office in Manitoba or ,the Northwest Territories information as to
the lands that are open for entry, and from the officers in charge,
free of expense, advice and assistance in securing lands to suit them,
and full information respecting the land, timber, coal and mineral
laws, as well as respecting Dominion Lands in the Railway belt in
British Columbia, may be obtained on application to the Superintendent of Immigration, Department of the Interior, Ottawa; the
Commissioner of Immigration, Winnipeg, Manitoba; the Deputy
Commissioner of Agriculture, Regina, N.W.T., or to any of the Dominion Lands Agents in Manitoba or the Northwest Territories.
For disposal of the public lands by free-grant or sale, the Dominion has established the following agencies, at which all the business in relation to lands within, the district of each must be trans,
acted: 62 WESTERN CANADA—INFORMATION FOR SETTLERS
Government Land Offices.
(Figures  are  inclusive.)
Winnipeg District.—Includes all surveyed townships, Nos. 1, to 25,
north; ranges—all east of 1st meridian, and ranges 1 to 8 west; also
townships 1 to 4, ranges 9 to 14, and townships 5 to 7, ranges 9 to 12
west.      Agent,  Winnipeg.
Brandon District.—Townships 1 to 4, range 15 west to 2nd meridian; townships 5 to 7, range 13 west to 2nd meridian; townships 8
to 12, range 9 west  to 2nd meridian.     Agent, .Brandon.
Minnedosa District.—Townships 13 and 14, ranges 9 to 22 west;
townships 15 to 20, ranges 9 to 23 inclusive west; townships 15 to 21,
ranges 24 to 25; townships 15 to 22, range 26; townships 15 to 24,
range 27; townships 15 to 26, range 28; townships 17 to 26, range 29.
Agent,    Minnedosa.
Dauphin District.—All townships lying to the north of the district  of  Minnedosa.      Agent,   Dauphin.
Alameda District.—Townships 1 to 9, ranges 1 to 30 west 2nd meridian.      Agent, Estevan.
Regina District.'—Townships 10 to 18, ranges 1 west of 2nd to 30
west of 3rd; townships 19 to 21, ranges 7 west of 2nd to 29 west of
3rd; townships 22 and 23, ranges 10 west of 2nd to 29 west of 3rd;
townships 24 to 30, ranges 2 west of 2nd to 29 west of 3rd; townships 31 to 38, ranges 2 west of 2nd to 10 west of 3rd.     Agent, Regina.
Yorkton District.—Townships north of and including township 17,
ranges 30 to 33 west 1st mei-idian; townships north of and including
township 19, ranges 1 to 6 west of 2nd meridian; townships north of
and including township 22, ranges 7 to 9 west 2nd meridian; townships north of and including township 24, ranges 10 to 12 west 2nd
meridian; townships 24, ranges 10 to 12 west 2nd meridian; townships 24 to 38, ranges 13 to 20 west 2nd meridian.     Agent, Torkton.
Lethbridge District.—Townships 1 to IS, ranges 1 to 24 west of the
4th meridian; townships 1 to 12, range 25 west of the 4th meridian
to  B.   C.      Agent,  Lethbridge.
Calgary District.'—Townships 19 to 30, ranges 1 to 7 west 4th meridian; townships 19 to 34, ranges 8 to 24 west 4th meridian; townships 13 to 34, range 25 west 4th meridian to B. C.     Agent, Calgary.
Red Deer Sub-District.—Townships 35 to 42, range 8 west 4th
meridian to B. C.     Agent, Red Deer.
Edmonton District.—Townships north of and including township
43 from range 8 west of 4th meridian to British Columbia. Agent,
Edmonton. •
Battleford District.—Townships north of and including township
31, range 11 west of 3rd meridian to 7 west of 4th meridian. Agent,
Battleford.
Prance Albert District.—Townships north of and including township 39, range 13 west of 2nd meridian to 10 west of 3rd meridian.
Agent,  Prince Albert.
From time to time the boundaries of the different agencies are
liable to alteration as the progress of settlement renders advisable.
In every case, however, ample notice is given to the public of any
changes made in the land districts, and in the case of colonists newly
arriving in Manitoba, they can obtain the fullest possible information in regard to all land matters by enquiring at the office of the
Commissioner of Immigration in Winnipeg. WESTERN C 4.NADA—RAILWAY LAND   REGULATIONS 63
At the offices in the districts, detailed maps will be found showing the exact homestead lands vacant. The agents are always
ready to give every assistance and information in their power.
Labor registers are kept at the Government Land and Immigration offices and may be made use of, free of charge, by persons seeking employment as well as by farmers and others seeking help of
any kind.
RAILWAY LAND REGULATIONS.
The Canadian Pacific Railway lands consist of the odd-numbered
sections along the Main Line and Branches, and in the Lake Dauphin
District in Manitoba and in Northern Alberta. The Railway Lands
are for sale at the various agencies of the company in Manitoba and
the Northwest Territories, at the following prices:
Lands in the Province of Manitoba, and in Assiniboia, east of the
3rd meridian, average $3.00 to $6.00 an acre.
Lands  west  of  the  3rd  meridian,  including valuable  lands  in  the
Calgary District and Northern Alberta, generally $3.00 per acre;
in special locations $3.50 to $5.00 per acre.
For the convenience of investors, maps showing in detail the lands
and prices have been prepared and will be sent free to applicants.
Terms of Payment.
The aggregate amount of principal and interest is divided into
ten instalments; the first to be paid at the time of purchase, and
the   remainder   annually   thereafter.
The following table shows the amount of the annual instalments
on a quarter section of 160 acres at different prices:—
K0 aer»s at ?3 no per acre, 1st instalment g7j,90 and nine equal instalments of $60.00
3 50
4.00
4.50
5.00
6.60
6 00
S3
00               "
05.85              "
107
85              "
119
85              "
131
80              "
143.80              ''
70.00
80.00
90.00
100.00
110.00
120.00
DISCOUNT FOR CASH.—If land is paid for in full at time of
purchase a reduction from price will be allowed equal to ten per
cent, on the amount paid in excess of the usual cash instalment.
Interest at six per cent, will be charged on overdue instalments.
General Conditions.
All sales are subject to the following general conditions:—
1. All improvements placed upon land purchased to be maintained thereon until final payment has been made.
2. All taxes and assessments lawfully imposed upon the land or
improvements to be paid by the purchaser.
3. The Company reserves from sale, under the regulations, all
mineral and coal lands, and lands containing timber in quantities,
stone, sl.nte and marble quarries, lands with water power thereon,
and tracts for town sites and railway purposes. 64 WESTERN   CANADA—RAILWAY LAND REGULATIONS
4. Mineral, coal and timber lands and quarries, and lands controlling water power, will be disposed of on very moderate terms to
persons giving satisfactory evidence of their intention and ability to
utilize the same.
Liberal rates for settlers and their effects are granted by the
Company over their railway.
Southern Manitoba and Assiniboia Lands.
The lands of the Manitoba South-Western Railway Company are
administered by the Land Commissioner of the Canadian Pacific
Railway, under the same regulations as above. They are situate
immediately north of the international boundary, and extend northward 21 miles, and from range 13 in Manitoba westward to the
Missouri  Coteau.
The Manitoba South-Western lands are subject, in addition to
the purchase money, to the payment of a survey fee of ten cents
per acre.
Thriving Towns. s.
The Company offer for sale at their Land Office in Winnipeg most
desirable Town Lots in the various towns and villages along the
Main Line east of Brandon, and along all branch lines in Manitoba.
The terms for payment for these lots are:—One-third cash, balance in six and twelve months, with interest at eight per cent. If
paid for in full at time of purchase, a discount of ten per cent,
will be allowed.
For full information apply to
F. T.  GRIFFIN,
Land Commissioner C.  P.  R.  Co.,  Winnipeg.
or • to
W. Toole, District Agent for Alberta, Calgary.
British Columbia.
For descriptive pamphlet of British Columbia and particulars of
lands and town lots for sale by the Railway Company, in that province write to  the Land  Commissioner  at Winnipeg.
or to     A. TAYLOR,
District Land Agent, Nelson, B.  C.
Information as to prices and terms of purchase of railway lands
may be obtained from all station agents along the Company's main
line and branches. In no case, however, is a railway agent entitled
to receive money in payment for lands. All payments must be remitted direct to the Land Commissioner at Winnipeg.
The Canadian Northwest Land Company.
This Company own 1,750,000 acres of selected land in Manitoba
and Assiniboia. ' These lands are on sale at the various land agencies
of the Canadian Pacific Railway Co. For maps and further information application should be made to the office of the Land Com."
pany at Winnipeg.
it   L •WESTERN   CANADA—SETTLERS'   EFFECTS 65
Stop-Over Privileges.
Intending settlers are given the privilege of stopping .over at
stations where they wish to inspect land. Application should be
made to the conductor before reaching station where stop-over is
required.
SETTLERS' EFFECTS.
Freight Regulations for their Carriage on the C.P.R.
1. The rates in this tariff are subject to the General Notices and
Conditions of Carriage printed in the Company's form of Shipping
Receipt, and will apply only on shipments consigned to actual settlers, and are entirely exclusive of cartage at stations where this
service is performed by the Railway Company's Cartage Agents.
2. Carloads of Settlers' Effects, within the meaning of this tariff,
may be made up of the following described property for the benefit
of actual settlers, viz.: Live Stock, any number up to but not exceeding ten (10) head, all told, viz.: Cattle, calves, sheep, hogs, mules or
horses; Household Goods and personal property (second-hand);
Waggons, or other vehicles for personal use (second-hand); Farm
Machinery, Implements and Tools (all , second-hand); Lumber and
Shingles, which must not exceed 2,500 feet in all, or the equivalent
thereof; or in lieu of, not in addition to the lumber and shingles, a
Portable House may be shipped; Seed Grain; small quantity of
Trees or shrubbery; small lot Live Poultry or pet animals; and sufficient feed for the live stock 'while on the journey. Settlers' Effects rates, however, will not apply on shipments of second-hand
Waggons, Buggies, Farm Machinery, Implements or Tools, unless
accompanied by Household Goods.
3. Car Rental and Storage of Freight in Cars.—Under this tariff
when freight is to be loaded by consignor, or unloaded by consignee,
one dollar ($1.00) per car per day or fraction thereof, for delay beyond 48 hours in loading or unloading, will be added to the rates
named herein, and constitute a part of the total charges to be collected by the carriers on the property.
4. Should the allotted number of Live Stock be exceeded, the additional animals will be charged for at proportionate rates over and
above the carload rate for the Settlers' Effects, but the total charge
for any one such car will not exceed the regular rate for a straight
carload of Live Stock.
5. Passes.—One man will be passed free in charge of live stock
when forming part of carloads, to feed, water and care for them in
transit.     Agents will use the usual form of Live Stock contract.
6. Less than Carload Shipments.—Less than carloads will be
understood to mean only Household Goods (second-hand), Waggons,
or other vehicles for personal use (second-hand) and second-hand
Farm Machinery, Implements and Tools. Settlers' Effects rates,
however, will not apply on shipments of second-hard Waggons,
Buggies, Farm Machinery, Implements or Tools, unless accompanied WESTERN   CANADA—SETTLERS    EFFECTS
by Household Goods.     Less than carload lots must be plainly addressed.
7. Merchandise, such as groceries, provisions, hardware, etc., also
implements, machinery, vehicles, etc., if new, will not be- regarded
as Settlers' Effects, and, if shipped, will be charged the regular
classified tariff rates. While the Canadian Pacific Railway is desirous of continuing to give liberal encouragement to settlers, both
as to the variety of the effects which may be loaded in cars, and
the low rates thereon, it is also the duty of the Company to protect
the merchants of the Northwest by preventing - as far as possible,
the loading of merchandise of a general character in cars with
personal effects. Agents, both at loading and delivering stations,
are, therefore, strictly enjoined- to give their personal attention to
the preventing of the loading of contraband articles, and to see
that the actual weights are way-billed when carloads exceed 24,000
lbs.
8. Top Loads.—Agents must not permit, under any circumstances,
any article to be loaded on the top of box or stock cars; such manner of loading is dangerous,  and is absolutely forbidden.
9. Settlers' effects, to be entitled to the carload rates, cannot be
stopped at any point short of destination for the purpose of unloading part. The entire carload must go through to the station to
which originally consigned.
10. The Carload rates on Settlers' Effects apply on any shipment
occupying a car, and weighing 24,000 lbs. or less. If the carload
weighs over 24,000 lbs., the additional weight will be charged for at
rates shown.
11. Minimum Charge.—Minimum charge on any shipment will
be 100 lbs. at regular first-class rate.
12. Settlers' Effects ex connecting lines must be charged- full
rates   from   Canadian   Pacific  Railway  Junction  points.
0RAIN   ELEVATORS,   FORT   WILLIAM, WESTERN CANADA—CUSTOMS   REGULATIONS. 67
CUSTOMS REGULATIONS.
Settlers' Effects.
Settlers' Effects, viz.: Wearing apparel, household furniture,
books, implements and tools of trade, occupation or employment,
musical instruments, domestic sewing machines, live stock, carts and
other vehicles and agricultural implements in use by the settler for
at least a. year before his removal to Canada, not to include machinery, or articles imported for use in any manufacturing establishment, or for sale, also books, pictures, family plate or furniture,
personal effects and heirlooms left by bequest: provided that any
dutiable article entered as settlers' effects may not be so entered
unless brought with the settler on his first arrival, and shall not be
sold or otherwise disposed of without payment of duty, until after
twelve months actual use in Canada; provided also that under regulations made by the Controller of Customs, live stock, when imported into Manitoba or the Northwest Territories by intending
settlers shall be free until otherwise ordered by the Governor-in-
Council.
Settlers arriving from the United States are allowed to enter
duty free stock in the following proportions: One animal of neat
stock or horses for each ten acres of land purchased or otherwise'
secured under homestead entry, and one sheep or swine for each
acre so secured.
The settler will be required to fill up a form (which will be supplied him by the customs officer on application), giving description,
value, etc., of the goods and articles he wishes to !jbe allowed to
'bring in free of duty. He will also be required to take the following
oaths:
I    do hereby solemnly make oath and say, that all the
goods and articles hereinbefore mentioned are, to the best of my
knowledge and belief, entitled to free entry as settlers' effects, under
the tariff duties of customs now in force, and that all of them have
been owned and in actual use by myself for at least six <months
before removal to Canada; and that none of the goods or articles
shown in this entry have been imported as merchandise or for any
use in manufacturing establishment, or for sale, and that I intend
becoming a permanent settler within the Dominion of Canada.
The following oath shall be made by intending settlers when importing live stock in Manitoba or the Northwest Territories, free of
duty:
I  do solemnly swear that I am now moving into Manitoba (or' the Northwest Territories), with the intention of becoming
a settler therein, and that the live stock enumerated and described
in the entry hereunto attached is intended for my own use on the
farm which I am about to occupy (or cultivate) and not for sale or
speculative purposes, nor for the use of any other person or persons
whomsoever.
No Cattle Quarantine.
The regulations regarding the quarantine of settlers' cattle for
ninety days before entering Canada, have been cancelled and no
delay whatsoever is now being experienced at the boundary line beyond that ordinarily required for inspection. WESTERN CANADA—GENERAL INFORMATION
GENERAL INFORMATION.
How to Obtain a Ranch.
If it is the intention to embark in the business of raising cattle,
horses or sheep on a large scale, an extent of ground equal to the
rancher's requirements can be obtained under lease from the Dominion Government on the following easy terms:
The lease shall be for a period not exceeding twenty-one years.
The lessee shall pay an annual rental of two cents an acre. The
lessee shall within three years place one head of cattle for every
twenty acres of land covered by his lease; at least one-third the
number of cattle stipulated for shall be placed on the range within
each of the three years from the date of the order-in-council granting the lease. Whether he be a lessee or not, no person shall be allowed to place sheep upon public lands in Manitoba and the Northwest without permission from the Minister of the Interior. Full
particulars can be obtained on application to the Minister of Interior, Ottawa.
Capitalists coming to this country and wishing to engage in this
business will find thousands of acres of unoccupied meadow lands,
possessing every attraction and advantage from which to choose a
location.
Capital Required.
The question " How much is necessary ? " is a difficult one to
answer. It depends upon circumstances. "Very many men have
gone into Western Canada without any capital and have prospered.
A little capital, however, makes the start easier and saves valuable
time. Some statements of what can be done upon a certain capital,
say 500 dollars (£100) or 1,000 dollars (£200), or 3,000 dollars (£600),
may, nevertheless, be advantageous.
This information has been given by many writers, in tables of
various kinds and for various localities, but all amount to about the
same conclusions, namely:—
The 500 dollars (£100) will set a man down upon some western
quarter-section (160 acres) obtained as free homestead, or one chosen
among the cheaper lands belonging to the railway company, and
enable him to build a house and stay there until his farm becomes
productive  and self-supporting.
In this connection a practical farmer of some years' residence in
Manitoba  speaks  as  follows:
"Land can be purchased cheaply here, or it can be had for nothing
by homesteading. A single man can start on an outlay of $385, made
up as follows : One yoke of oxen and harness, $100; plow, harrow,
etc., $40; stove and kitchen furnishings, $40; bedding, etc., $20; lumber, doors, windows, etc., for log house, $50; provisions, $90; seed, $30.
A farmer with a family of five would have to lay out $240 more,
bringing his outlay up to about $600. WESTERN CANAf>A—GENERAL INFORMATION
" A farmer can come in about the middle of March, select his
land and build his shanty; he can commence to plough about the
fifth of April; he can break ten acres and put it under crop on the
sod; he can continue breaking for two months after he puts the ten
acres under crop, and can break 30 acres, and backset the 40 acres
in the fall ready for crop in the spring. He can raise enough on
the ten acres to give him a start; he can cut hay enough for his
oxen and a cow in July, and it will cost him about $60 additional to
seed the forty acres in the spring.
It must not be forgotten, however, that hundreds have arrived
at Winnipeg without any money, and by first working on wages have
prospered and become substantial farmers.
When to Go.
The best time to arrive in Western Canada for those who have
decided where they will locate, or for young men expecting employment on a farm, is March. The latter will then have opportunities
of visiting different sections, if they desire, before the busy season
sets in, and the actual settler with, a family will be able to get settled before the farm work claims his attention. Those wishing to
make a prospecting tour with the idea of becoming settlers should
start during the summer or early fall—from the beginning of June
to the end of August—when the conditions are most favorable for
the selection of land.
Educational Facilities.
The management of the school system in the Territories is vested in a Council of Public Instruction, consisting of four members
of the local government and four appointed members without votes—
two Protestants and two Roman Catholics. A school district comprises an area of not more than twenty-five square miles, and must
contain not less than four resident ratepayers and twelve children between the ages of five and sixteen, inclusive. Any three qualified
ratepayers may petition for the formation of a school district, and
upon its proclamation the ratepayers therein may establish a school
and elect trustees to manage it. These trustees have power to erect
and equip buildings, engage certificated teachers, levy taxes and perform such other acts as may be necessary for the proper conduct of
a school. The classes of schools established are denominated Public
and Separate. ' The minority of the ratepayers in any organized
public school district, whether Protestant or Roman Catholic, may
establish a separate school therein, and in such case the ratepayers
establishing such Protestant or .Roman Catholic separate school,
shall be liable only to assessment of such rates as they impose upon
themselves in respect thereof. Any person who is legally assessed
or assessable for a public school shall not be liable to assessment for
any separate school established therein. Schools are maintained
by legislative grants and by local taxation. The school year for
which grants may be paid does not exceed 210 teaching days. The
legislative grant is paid as follows:—For each day a school (with
an average attendance of at least six pupils) is open, $1.40; for every
pupil in average daily attendance an additional grant of $1.50 per
school year; for a teacher holding a second class certificate 10 cents, 70 WESTERN  CANADA—GENERAL INFORMATION
or a first class certificate, 20 cents for each day such teacher is actually engaged in teaching; to each school according to its grading on
inspector's reports a sum not exceeding 15 cents per day. The grant
paid in no case exceeds 70 per cent, of the salary earned by the
teacher. High schools receive a special additional grant of $75 per
term. The average salary paid teachers is $44.39 per month. In
the programme of studies provision is made for teaching the elementary subjects, and such additional subjects as are required for
teachers' examinations and university matriculation. The last half
hour of school may be devoted to such religious instruction as the
trustees may determine. On 1st January, 1901, there were 492 schools
in operation with 592 teachers and 20,343 pupils. Towards the support of these schools the Legislature expended $168,322. The peo-.
pie take a keen interest in their schools, and provide means for
giving children es practical an education as can be obtained in the
older provinces, or any other part of the civilized globe.
Macdonald Manual Training Schools are established at Regina
and Calgary for the children of the public schools and for the
teachers-in-training.
Harvest Hands.
So bountiful are the harvests that it.is now necessary to bring
in from Eastern Canada from 10,000 to 20,000 farm laborers to work
in the wheat fields. These earn good wages, and many remain
and become actual settlers themselves. Cheap rates are offered
to points in Manitoba and the Northwest Territories, and special
trains run for their accommodation. Those who go are given certificates and when they have them properly filled out and signed by
the employer to the effect that the holder has done one month's
farm work he is returned to his destination at a low fare. Agents
meet each train en route, with maps of the province on which is
marked the number of laborers required in each locality. By this
means laborers are easily directed to where they can obtain work
without any delay, and all confusion and congestion in large centres
are avoided. The special laborers' excursions run about the middle
of August, when harvesting operations are commencing, and steady
employment can be obtained during that month, September, October
and part of November to take off the crops and complete the threshing of the same.
Cost of Supplies.
There are a large number of towns, villages and hamlets scattered throughout the entire country from Lake of the Woods to the
Rocky Mountains, at which articles needed by farmers are readily
obtainable. Reasonable prices are charged, generally, but not always,
a very small advance on eastern figures. The genera] stores in the
smaller villages usually carry full lines of luxuries as well as the
necessaries of life. The large implement firms have agencies in
almost every settlement and lumber yards have also been established.
Irrigation.
In the southern portion of the District of Alberta and the western portion of the District of Assiniboia it is now generally recognized that during the majority of years irrigation is necessary to ensure
the  production  of  grain  or  fodder  crops,   the  rainfall   during  the .    WESTERN CANADA—GENERAL INFORMATION 71
growing season being too small to produce certain crops by the
ordinary methods of farming. The aridity of these districts, while
necessitating irrigation, really constitutes one of the chief features
in the great success which has attended stock raising and dairying
therein, the dry summer seasons being accompanied by an almost
total absence of flies, and resulting in a natural curing of the prairie
grass in such a manner that the nutritive qualities are retained, and
stock grazing outside during the winter will keep in good condition.
With irrigation to produce good fodder crops every year ranching and dairy or mixed farming in these portions of the Territories
offer many attractions to the "immigrant who does not want to go
in for purely farming operations, and very satisfactory development
in both of these lines has taken place during the past few years.
Irrigation "in these districts has now extended entirely beyond the
experimental stage and the experience of the past few years has conclusively proved that the crops of grain, including wheat, oats and
barley, and, fodder crops, including timothy, bromus and alfalfa, as
well as all kinds of roots and vegetables raised by means of irrigation will compare favorably with crops of a similar character produced in the ordinary way in any other portion of the Northwest
Territories.
The large and healthy growth of irrigation development in the
districts referred to is entirely the outcome of the efforts of the
resident population to supply fodder which is the only need to make
the arid portion of the Territories an ideal stock and dairying country, and is not in any sense attributable to efforts to " boom " irrigation  or  the  construction  of  irrigation  works.
The irrigation works constructed and in operation in the different
portions of the arid region may be divided into the following districts:
Canals and
Ditches in
operation.
. Calgary  District      70
High  River District  14
Macleod District  11
Pincher Creek District.    / 15
Lethbridge District  18
Maple Creek District  25
Battleford District  6
Regina District  10
169
These ditches or canals comprise a total length of some 469 miles,
and the acreage susceptible of irrigation therefrom is approximately
614,684 acres. The larger number of these ditches and canals are
private undertakings, constructed for the irrigation of lands belonging to. individual owners or ranch companies, but some of the
larger works such as those constructed by the Calgary Irrigation
Company, the Springbank Irrigation District, and the Canadian
Northwest Irrigation Company, are corporate undertakings designed
to supply a large quantity of water and reclaim large areas of land
as business ventures. Good farms susceptible of irrigation from
these large canals can be obtained at from $8.00 to $10.00 per acre, 1% Western Canada—general Information
with the further advantage that under the Northwest Irrigation Act
an absolute title is obtained to the water required for irrigation, and
the irrigation farmer is not subjected to the disputes and troubles
regarding water rights which have hampered irrigation development
in other portions of Western America.
Farming by means of irrigation is a novelty to immigrants from
the older portions of the Dominion of Canada, from Great Britain,
and from several of the European countries, but to the immigrant
from those portions of the older countries where irrigation is practiced, and from the Western portion of the United States, the opportunity of obtaining a good irrigated farm affords a primary inducement to locate and make a home for himself and family in Southern
Alberta or Western Assiniboia.
The rapid mining development which is taking place in the adjoining Province of British Columbia has created a splendid market
for all the products of the irrigated farms in Alberta and Assiniboia,
and has done much to put irrigation on the satisfactory basis which
it now occupies. Many owners of irrigated farms are devoting
themselves entirely to the growth of timothy as hay for that market,
and are finding ready sale for all their product at from $9 to $11 a
ton.
Milling in "Western Canada.
Wheat-flour milling is the most important manufacturing interest
in Western Canada, and the product not only finds a ready market
throughout the whole Dominion, but is exported to Great Britain,
Newfoundland, China and Japan and Australia. Mills are located
at different points throughout the country, one at Keewatin having
a daily capacity of 3,000 barrels, and another at Winnipeg of 2,500
barrels, and the total daily capacity of the 66 mills reaches 13,230
barrels. There are also oatmeal mills in operation at Winnipeg,
Portage la Prairie, Brandon, Pilot Mound, and Strathcona, having a
daily capacity of 750 barrels.
Grain Elevators.
The grain elevator system throughout Western Canada is perfect, the facilities now existing being sufficient to handle, if necessary 100,000,000 bushels of grain in less than six months' time. The
magnificent system affords a ready market at all seasons of the
year, the farmer being enabled to have his grain unloaded from his
waggon, elevated, cleaned and loaded on the cars in an incredibly
short space of time at very moderate charges. It is within the right
of anybody or company to erect an elevator anywhere in Manitoba
and the Territories under exactly the same terms and conditions as
those already built, the markets being open to anyone who chooses
to engage in the business. There is no monopoly. Farmers are
also given the privilege of loading their grain into the cars from
their waggons. In 1891 the total storage capacity was 7,628,000
bushels; since that time it has increased to over 24,000,000 bushels, a®
follows :—
Bushels.
Canadian Pacific Ry., Port Arthur and westwards..21,926,000
Canadian Northern Railway 2,100,000
Warehouses      310,000
a Western Canada—general information
73
Experimental Farms.
Experimental farms have been established throughout Canada
by the Government. One of these is at Brandon, Manitoba, and
the other at Indian Head, Assiniboia. Although only 175 miles apart,
the  conditions  are  entirely  different.
These farms exist for the purpose of ascertaining the most suitable varieties of, and the best methods of cultivation for, cereals,
grasses, roots, and other field crops; the hardiness and general
suitability of the different varieties of fruits and vegetables, and
also the best fodders for cattle and other stock. Considerable attention, also, has been given to the eradication Of injurious insects,
noxious weeds, and fungus diseases. The system of experimental
farms has already aided in solving the question of scientific farming, and in the future will be a still more potent influence. As
practical educators the farms are of immense value.
Agricultural Societies.
There are about 50 agricultural societies in the Northwest Territories, with a large membership. Of the receipts of those societies
one-third is contributed by the Federal and Territorial Governments.
A number of Farmers' Institutes are also connected with them.
Encouragement of Pure Bred Stock Importation.
Owing to the comparatively recent settlement of Western Canada,
especially the Northwest Territories, it is not to be expected that
establishments for the rearing of pure bred stock could yet be
numerous enough to meet the growing demands of the country for
that class of stock. There are now a large number of pure bred
animals raised in the West, but in order to facilitate the importation of the best blood on the continent of America, the Territorial
Government and the Canadian Pacific Railway Company have joined hands, and perfected arrangements whereby pure bred bulls can
be brought from any point in Ontario to any point in the Territories at a uniform rate of $5.00 per head. The railway company
. grants free transportation and the Government takes charges of the
practical work and pays any deficit whioh may arise. Several
hundred brood sows and pure bred boars were also brought into the
Territories in 1899 under a similar arrangement, and sold by public
auction to settlers requiring them.
The railway company also endeavored to create a greater interest in the breeding of improved cattle and hogs by distributing in
Manitoba and the Territories, for the free use of settlers eight car
loads of pure Shorthorn hulls and four car loads of boars of the
Tamworth, Berkshire and Yorkshire varieties. These animals were
placed with responsible farmers on the condition that neighbouring
settlers are to have their service free for two years in the case
of bulls, and one year in the case of boars, at the expiration of the
term the animals become absolutely the property of the farmers
with whom they were placed. 74
WESTERN  CANADA   CREAMERIES
Western Canada Creameries-
Reference is made elsewhere to the dairy industry in Assiniboia,
Saskatche'svan and Alberta. It can be further added that the
Department of Agriculture of the Canadian Government at Ottawa
continues to manage the creameries in the Territories. There were
in operation during 1901, twenty creameries, with several contribu-
tary skimming' and cream-collecting stations. As a result of the
past season's business, seven more of these creameries have, through
the assessment of one cent per pound of butter, repaid the loans
which were made to them by the Department at the time when the
arrangement was first entered into. The output of the largest
creamery in 1901 was 121,419 lbs. of butter, and the total butter output was 672,125 pounds.
There is now considerable balance of revenue, from the manufacturing charge of 4 cents per lb. of butter at several of the
creameries, over the expenditure for operating and maintaining
them. Any such balance in the manufacturing account is credited
to the loan fund, and when the indebtedness to the Department has
been paid, the amount is placed to the credit of the patrons of the
creamery.
A large proportion of thie butter is marketed in British Columbia.
A limited quantity is sent to China and Japan and also to the
Yukon. During the past season about 200,000 lbs. were forwarded
to Montreal for export to Great Britain, where satisfactory prices
have been realized.
The Refrigerator Car Inspector at Montreal reports this butter
as having arrived there, after a journey of 2,000 miles by rail, in
better condition than some other butter coming less than 100 miles,
thus dmonstrating the practicability of successfully shipping putter
from the far West to England.
Four of the creameries in Alberta were operated during the
winter of 1900-1901. In addition to these there is one in Assiniboia
running during the winter of 1901-02.
In connection with the creameries, the Department undertakes
the collection and disposal of eggs on account of their patrons. In
1901 eggs were collected at the Churehbridge and Grenfell Creameries
in Assiniboia and at the Red Deer Creamery in Alberta. During 1902
the collecting will probably be extended to include fifteen creameries. A circular issued by the Department gives the following
information regarding the system :—
" The eggs will be handled in cold storage and by refrigerator
cars from the time they arrive at the creameries, until they reach
the merchants at points of distribution. That will permit them to
be preserved in a fresh condition to insure the highest market price
at the time of disposal. A monthly advance of 10 cents per dozen
will be made to those who furnish eggs. The eggs will be sold to
the best advantage, and after deducting the cost of cases, collecting,
handling, freight charges, &c. the balance will be paid to the patrons
at the end of the season. The cream drivers will collect the eggs
while on their regular rounds, at a price per dozen, to be settled by
agreement between them and the directors of the creameries. An
expert egg man will be employed at the Calgary Cold Storage to
inspect all eggs. Eggs will not be received if they are more than
one week old. It will be understood when a patron furnishes eggs,
that he agrees to the foregoing condition." WESTERN CANADA—HOW   TO   REACH   IT
75
HOW TO REACH THE CANADIAN WEST.
Colonists having arrived in Canada at Quebec or Montreal in
summer, or Halifax, or St. John, N.B., in winter, travel to new
homes in Ontario, Manitoba, the Territories, or British Columbia
by the Canadian Pacific Railway direct. Settlers from the Eastern
States travel via Montreal, Prescott or Brockville, and thence by
the Canadian. Pacific; but if from southern and western New York
or Pennsylvania, via Niagara Falls, Hamilton, Toronto and North
Bay, thence Canadian Pacific Railway; those from the Middle States
either by Toronto, or by Sault Ste. Marie and Portal, Assiniboia,
via St. Paul; from the Middle Western States by Portal (or, if for
Manitoba by Gretna, Manitoba); from the Pacific Coast States by
Vancouver or Sumas, or through the West Kootenay mining regions
and Canadian Pacific from Rossland and Nelson. On the same fast
transcontinental trains with the first-class cars are colonist cars,
which are convertible into sleeping cars at night, having upper and
lower berths constructed on the same principles as those of first-
class sleeping cars, and equally as comfortable as to ventilation,
etc. They are taken through, without change, all the way from
Montreal to Manitoba. No other railway can do this. No extra
charge is made for this sleeping accommodation. Second-class
passengers, however, must provide their own bedding. If they do
not bring it with them, a complete outfit of mattress, pillow, blanket and curtains will be supplied by the agent of the company at
the point of starting at a cost of $2.50—ten shillings. The curtains
may be hung around a berth, turning it into a little private room.
In addition to this, men travelling alone are cut off from families
by a partition across the car near the middle, and smoking' is not
permitted in that part of the car where the women and children are.
The trains stop at stations where meals are served in refreshment rooms, and where hot coffee and tea and well-cooked food
may be bought at very reasonable prices. The cars are not allowed to become over-crowded, and the safety and welfare of passengers are carefully attended to. Every possible care is taken that
the colonist does not go astray, lose his property or suffer imposition. Where a large number of colonists are going to the west
together special fast trains of colonist sleeping cars are despatched.
No other railway in America offers such good. accommodation to
colonist passengers as does the Canadian Pacific.
All trains are met upon arrival at Winnipeg or before reaching
that city, by the agents of the Government and Canadian Pacific
Railway Company, who give colonists all the information and advice they require in regard to their new home.
In cases where some locality for settlement has been selected, at
which friends are awaiting them, they are shown how to' proceed
directly to that point. If they have not decided upon such a locality,
but intend to seek a home somewhere further west, every information can be obtained at the railway company's land office, or the
Government Immigration Office in Winnipeg, a short distance from
the railway station. WESTERN CANADA—HOW   TO   REACH   IT
Special round-trip explorers' tickets can be obtained at the Company's Land Office, the full price of which will be refunded if the
holder purchases 160 acres or more. In this way land hunters are
enabled to make a personal inspection of the land free of cost for
themselves.
Most men wish to examine and choose for themselves the section
which seems to them the most suitable, and this is strongly recommended in every case. They are assisted in doing this by officials
appointed by the Government for the purposje. Meanwhile, the
family and baggage can remain at the government immigration
house in safety and comfort. Providing themselves with food in
the city markets, they can cook their own meals upon the stoves
in the house, and with the bedding that has served them during
their journey, they can sleep in comfort in the bunk bedsteads with
which the rooms are fitted. Should they prefer, however, to stop
at an hotel, they will find in Winnipeg public houses of all grades,
where the total cost for each person varies from $1 (4s.) to $3 (12s.)
a day, according to circumstances, and good boarding houses are
numerous, at which the charges are somewhat lower.
It sometimes happens that the intending settler has not much
more than sufficient money to carry him as far as Winnipeg. In
that case he will be anxious to begin immediately to earn some
money. The Dominion Government has an agency at Winnipeg,
whose business it is to be informed where labor is needed. Societies representing almost all the nationalities of Europe have been
formed in Winnipeg, and will welcome and see to the welfare of
their respective countrymen.
At certain seasons farmers are on the look-out for able men and
pay good wages, generally averaging $15 (£3) to $20 (£4) per month
and board, and during harvesting as high as from $25 (£5) to $40
(£8) per month and board is paid. The girls of a family usually
find employment in Winnipeg and other towns, in domestic service,
in hotels, shops, factories and establishments employing female
labor. Good wages are paid to capable girls and there is usually a
greater demand for them than can be supplied.
CANADIAN PACIFIC RY. CO.'S PUBLICATIONS.
Among the publications issued by the Canadian Pacific Railway
Company are pamphlets or folders entitled " British Columbia,"
" The Gold Fields of Cariboo and Kootenay," " Northwestern Ontario Gold Fields," "The Klondike and Gold Fields of the Yukon,"
"New Route to Hawaii and Australia," "Around the World," "New
Highway to the Orient," "Fishing and Shooting," "Westward to the
Far East," and "East to the West" (guides to the principal cities of
Japan and China, either by the west or east), "The Climates of
Canada," "Banff and the Yoho Valley of the Rockies," "Swiss
Guides in the Canadian Rockies," "A trip to Hawaii," "Historic
Quebec," "Montreal" and a series of "Summer Tours," which can
be obtained  free of charge from agents of the Company. NORTHERN ONTARIO—RAINY RIVER DISTRICT 77
NEW ONTARIO
The Rainy River District.
While this pamphlet is chiefly devoted to a description of the
prairie regions of Manitoba and the Northwest Territories; it will
not be out of place to refer briefly to the unsettled lands of Northwestern Ontario. To those who prefer a land of river, lake and
forest to a prairie country—or to those who prefer to remain nearer
the Eastern Provinces of the Dominion, the Rainy River District
presents  many  attractions.
Before reaching Manitoba, the traveller on the C.P.R. passes
through the northern portion of this region, but the fertile belt estimated to contain about 600,000 acres of good agricultural land, lies
principally in the Valley of the Rainy River. The Rainy River
forms for some distance the boundary between Ontario and the
United States. It is a fine navigable stream from 150 to 200 yards
wide, and connects the Lake of the Woods with Rainy Lake, a distance of about eighty miles. The river passes through a rich, alluvial tract of a uniform black loam of great depth. Nearly all the
land fronting on the river is suitable for agriculture, and a considerable settlement already exists there. Fort Frances, the principal town on Rainy River, has a sawmill and several flourishing
stores and industries; its population is about 1,400. The region is
reached during the season of navigation by steamer from Rat Portage, on the main line of the C.P.R. The climate in winter, while
being perhaps a few degrees colder than that of older Ontario, Is
remarkably healthful and pleasant, and the snow fall is not deep.
Vegetation is luxuriant in the extreme; all the cereal and grass
crops common to Ontario grow there, and garden crops flourish
exceedingly. The country is well wooded with pine, oak, elm, ash,
basswood, soft maple, poplar, birch, balsam, spruce, cedar and tam-
arac. Lumbering operations are extensively carried on, and there
are well-equipped sawmills on Rainy River, Rainy Lake and at
,Rat Portage. As a mining region the Rainy River district is yet
in its infancy, but its possibilities in this regard are known to be
very great. Numerous and valuable discoveries of gold and other
minerals have been made throughout the district, and at the pre-
scent time the country is attracting the attention of capitalists and
investors. There are several important gold mines now being worked
on the Lake of the Woods, Rainy Lake and Seine River, and elsewhere mining operations are being actively carried on. Thus the
mining and lumbering industries combined, afford the settler the
best of markets for his produce at prices considerably higher than
can be secured in Eastern Ontario. The lands are owned and administered by the Government of Ontario (Department of Crown
Lands, Toronto), anfl are open for settlement in 160 acre lots free, 78
NORTHERN ONTARIO—RAINY RIVER DISTRICT
with conditions of residence,  cultivation of ten acres for every 100
located  and  erection  of  buildings.
Any person may explore Crown Lands for minerals and mining
lands may be purchased outright or leased at rates fixed by the
Mines Act. The minimum area of a location is forty acres. Prices
range from $2 to $3.50 per acre, the higher prices for lands in surveyed territory and within six miles of a railway. The rental
charge is at the rate of $1 per acre for the first year and from 30
cents to 15 cents per acre for subsequent years, according to distance
from a line of railway and whether the land is situated in surveyed or unsurveyed territory; but the leasehold may be. converted
into freehold at the option of the tenant, at any time during the
term of the lease, in which case the first year's rent is allowed on
the purchase money. At the expiration of ten years, if all conditions have been complied with, the lessee is entitled to a patent
without further cost and free from all working conditions. A royalty of not more than three per cent, is reserved, based on the value
of the ore, less cost of mining and subsequent treatment for the
market, but not to be imposed until seven years after the date of
the  patent or lease.
The Wabigoon Country, Rainy River District.
North of the country, bordering on the Rainy River, described
above, and directly on the line of the Canadian Pacific Railway, is
a section to which the Wabigoon River gives its name. Attention
was first drawn to it a few years ago by the Ontario Government
establishing there what was called a "Pioneer Farm," for the purpose of demonstrating the agricultural capabilities of the country,
which had hitherto remained undeveloped. The precise location of
the farm is 215 miles east of Winnipeg, and 80 miles east of Rat
Portage. After one year's successful experiment the land was
thrown open for settlement (that is, in the spring of 1896), since
which time it has been rapidly taken up. The settlers consist almost entirely of a good class of Ontario farmers, and the development of the country is being pushed forward with energy. The
little town of Dryden, on the C.P.R., and Wabigoon are the business
centres of the district. They possess a number of stores, hotels,
railway stations, small sawmill, etc., and have steamboat communication via Lake Wabigoon with the mines in the vicinity.
The land is not free grant, but it is sold to actual settlers only,
at fifty cents per acre (consequent upon certain improvements), one-
fourth down and the balance in annual instalments. How much
agricultural land there may be available at this point has not as
yet been definitely ascertained, but it is known to be limited in extent. The chief advantages of the country are as follows: First,
the Canadian Pacific Railway passes through it, which renders access easy at all times of the year, and places it within the reach
of such centres as Rat Portage and Winnipeg. Second, good markets are to be found in the mining and lumbering camps near-by,
and also at Rat Portage, a thriving town on the C.P.R., and the
centre of the milling and mining industries of the district. Third,
the land, although not a prairie, is easily cleared. Some stretches
are entirely destitute of timber, having been swept by forest flres,
and require only a little underbrushing before the plough starts to NORTHERN   ONTARIO—ALGOMA  AND   NIPISSING DISTRICT 79
work. Elsewhere the growth is light, and may be cleared with
much less labor than is required in heavily timbered countries. At
the same time, sufficient large timber for building purposes is to be
found here and there, so that it will be seen, the advantages of a
prairie and of a timbered country are here combined to a large
extent. The country is well watered, and possesses a good soil and
a good climate. It is adapted to mixed farming,' but particularly
to  dairying  and  stock-raising.
Thunder Bay District.
In the vicinity of Port Arthur and Fort William, two important
points on Thunder Bay, Lake Superior, there are a number of townships of good agricultural land similar to that of the Rainy River
Valley, besides a country rich in gold, silver and iron. The land
here is given as free grants, subject to settlement duties, and is
attracting a good many settlers from-the United States. The principal movement of settlers to this district is occurring in the Slate
River Valley, the White Fish Valley, south and southwest of the
two towns, and the township of Dorion, east of Port Arthur, on the
main line of the C.P.R.
The Dominion Government maintains a Settlers' Home at Port
Arthur, and an agent of the Department of the Interior, Mr. R. A.
Burriss, is located at this point.
Algoma and Nipissing.
Eastward along the north shore of Lake Superior, the country
is found to be wild and rocky in the extreme. Whatever may be
its mineral wealth, which has not as yet been ascertained to any
extent, it is certainly not suited to agriculture. At Sault Ste. Marie,
however, at the junction of Lakes Superior and Huron, another
stretch of country adapted for settlement is reached. The country
to the north of Lake Huron is known as the Algoma District, and
includes St. Joseph and Great Manitoulin Islands. It contains a
large proportion of fertile land, but sparsely settled, yet considerable development has already taken place. Already there are
thriving settlements not only on the large islands of St. Joseph
and Manitoulin, but here and there along the north shore also, from
Gouldis Bay, about twenty or twenty-five miles north-east of Sault
Ste. Marie, to.the valley of the French River, some 200 miles to the
eastward, and elsewhere. The country is fairly accessible, the
Canadian Pacific running through it from end to end, and this fact,
together with its nearness to centres of population, and the cheapness of its land, 50 cents per acre, renders it an attractive field for
settlement. There seems to be no doubt that it will one day become
the seat of very large sheep-raising, dairying and stock-raising
interests,  for which purpose it is pre-eminently adapted.
Sault Ste. Marie is the central point of the Algoma District. The
town is easily reached either from older Ontario or the United
States. It is situated on the "Soo line," a branch of the Canadian
Pacific, connecting with St. Paul and Minneapolis, in the west and
Boston in the east. In addition several steamship lines call there.
Large pulp and paper mills, iron smelters and other industries arc
making Sault  Ste.  Marie an important industrial  centre.    The Al- 80 NORTHERN ONTARIO—THE  TEMISKAMING   COUNTRY
goma Central Railway is also being constructed from Sault Ste.
Marie northwards, and will aid materially in the development of
the country.
The land, while very rich, is not in an unbroken, continuous
stretch, as 'is the case in the southern portion of Ontario. Its
physical characteristics and appearances are entirely different, and
is adapted to special lines of agricultural production. Taken as a
whole, the country may be described as an undulating plateau or
table-land, elevated some 600 or 1,000 feet above the sea level, covered for the most part of a vigorous growth of forest. Between
the ridges and protected by them, stretches of arable land, often
unbroken for thousands of acres, wind in and out. As a dairy, stock
and sheep-raising country, it has all the advantages of cheap land,
good transportation facilities, rich soil, good water and cheap
building material, while its climate is unexcelled for the production of vigorous stock and vigorous men.
The Algoma and Nipissing districts are known to be rich in a
variety of minerals. Gold, silver, copper and iron have been discovered to the north of Lake Huron, and elsewhere, and it contains
the most extensive nickel deposits in the world, which, are now being
worked in the vicinity of Sudbury.
The Temiskaming Country.
Another agricultural section in the northern part of the province
is the Temiskaming country, which borders on Lake Temiskaming,
a broadening of the Ottawa River. It is in the Nipissing District,
and about two hundred and fifty miles north of Toronto, in a direct
line. It is reached from Mattawa on the C.P.R., partly by railway,
along the eastern bank of the Ottawa River, and afterwards by
steamboat on Lake Temiskaming.
The whole country is overlaid by a rich, alluvial soil, level in
character, and equal in fertility to any in the province. The land
is thickly timbered with a somewhat small growth, but for the
most part may be cleared without excessive labor. Its capabilities
as to climate and productiveness are very similar to those of the
country above described, but its unbroken character gives it an
additional attraction. There is a very extensive area of very fertile
farm land in this section, 600,000 acres of which have been placed
on the market at fifty cents per acre. The country is attracting
quite a number of settlers from the older parts of Ontario and Quebec,
and is well worthy of attention. The region of the Upper Ottawa
is to-day one of the most important lumbering districts in Canada,
and affords the settler an. excellent market for the products of the
farm, while the excellent market for pulp wood, with which the
country is covered, furnishes the new settler a source of income.
A pamphlet giving full (particulars regarding New Ontario may
be obtained on application tP the Department of Crown Lands,
Toronto,  Ontario, THE CANADIAN PACIFIC RAILWAY
IS THE ONLY ROUTE TO THE
FERTILE FARM LANDS OF
WESTERN CANADA
THE MINING, LUMBERING. FISHING
AND FARMING REGIONS OF
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Io also the BEST to the States of WASHINGTON and OSBaON and all points on P^get Sound
and the Pacific Coast, and the Shortest Route to the KLONDIKE
and ATLIN GOLD WELDS
BE SURE AND ASK TOUR STEAMSHIP AGENT FOB PASSAGE BT THIS  LINE OF RAILWAY
COLONIST  SLEEPING
upplied for all holders of Second Class  or Colonist Tickets fbee  of charge.   Passengers are, however,
required to provide their own be dding.   If they do not bring it with them, sleeping car outfit may be
purchased from the railway agent at the Port of landing at a very reasonable price,
FOR  FURTHER  INFORMATION  APPLY TO STEAMSHIP AGENT,  OR TO
67-68 King "William St., B.C., 30 Cockspur St , S ."W London, Eno.
9 James St...,,.      Liverpool, Eno.
^67 St. Vincent St        Glasgow.
A. H. NOTMAN Assistant General Passenger Agent   ...1 King St., East, Toronto.
E. V. SKINNER General Eastern Agent 353 Broadway, New York.
A. C. SHAW General Agent, Passenger Department ...' ...228 South Clark St.. Chicago,
M. M. STER N District Freight and Passenger Agent, 627 Market St.,Palace Hotel Bld'g, SanFrancisco.
A.J. HEATH   District Passenger Agent         St. John,*N.B.
J. COLVIN District Passenger Agent. ..,.., 304 "Washington St., Boston, Mass.
Archer BakerSi
H
E. J. COYLE  Assistant General Passenger Agent " Vancouver, B.C.
W. R. CALLAWAY ,.'.General Passenger Agent, Soo Line Minneapolis, Minn.
G. W. HIBBARD    .., .General Passenger Agent, South Shore Line Marquette, Mich.
C. E. McPHERSON . ..GeneralPassenger Agent, "Western Lines , Winnipeg.
C. E   E. USSHER General Passenger A.gent, Eastern Lines Montreal.
W, R. MacINNES Assistant Freight Traffic Manager, "Western Lines "Winnipeg.
W. B, BULLING Assistant Freight Traffic Manager, Eastern Lines Montreal.
ROBERT   KERR
PASSENGER TRAFFIC  MANAGER ...',
MONTREAL (/     :; -' i    '
THE GREAT HIGHWAY
TO  THE
PACIFIC COAST
THE ORIENT, THE TROPICS, THE ANTIPODES
AND THE FAR NORTH
THE BEST. CHEAPEST AND QUICKEST WAY
TO
Northern Ontario Manitoba     Assiniboia     Saskatchewan
Alberta British Columbia     Puget Sound
The Klondike Alaska      California      Japan      China
Philippines New Zealand     Hawaii     Australia
OR
AROUND THE WORLD
IS   BY  THE
CANADIAN PACIFIC RY.
i'«/

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