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The challenge of the mountains Canadian Pacific Railway Company 1909

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Copyright, 19C9, by
The Canadian Pacific Railway Company Canadian^aciT^c^k^ailway^Hotel System
Banff Springs Hotel, Banff, Alberta
Some places of interest near Banff
Buffalo Park Museum
Lake Minnewanka Cave and Basin
Spray Falls Hot Sulphur Springs
Bankhead Coal Mines
The Observatory on Sulphur Mountain
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VI Canadian ^aci^cf|Jailway' Hotel System
Lake Louise and the Chalet
Some places of interest near Lake Louise
Mount Lefroy and Glacier Lake Agnes
Victoria Hanging Glacier Mirror Lake
Valley of the Ten Peaks Moraine Lake
Saddleback Lookout Paradise Valley
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Mount Stephen House, Field, B. C.
Some places of interest near Field
Drive to Emerald Lake
Yoho Road Drive
Cathedral Mountain
Fossil Beds
Natural Bridge
Monarch Mine Cabins
Mount Stephen
Burgess Pass
Grade Reduction Loops Can adian <Taci/icrRailway Hotel Syste
m
Emerald Lake Chalet, near Field, B. C.
Some places cf interest near Emerald Lake
Lookout Point Takakkaw Falls
Twin Falls Summit Lake
Yoho Glacier Wapta Glacier
Yoho Valley Canadian 'VacificRailway Hotel System
Glacier House, Glacier, B. C
Some places of interest near Glacier
The Great Glacier
Mount Abbott
Cougar Valley
Glacier Crest
Observation Point
Caves of Nakimu
Mount Sir Donald
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Climb the mountains and get their good tidings. Nature's
peace will flow into you as sunshine flows into trees. The
winds will blow their own freshness into you, and the storms
their energy, while cares will drop off like autumn leaves.
—John Muir.
UROPE has its Switzerland, famed throughout the civilized world for the splendor
of its mountain scenery. For variety and
charm, as well as accessibility, it has well-
grounded claims to the title of a prince of
playgrounds. But though its scenery is unchangingly
beautiful and the familiar Alpine monarchs retain a
ceaseless fascination for the mountaineer, yet his soul
will crave — and rightly so — for the chief joy of the
climber's ambition — a "first ascent."
He turns naturally, therefore, to the great continent
of America, where he expects to find plenty of new things,
and generally finds them on the largest scale. In mountaineering his confidence is not misplaced, and for him
the paradise of the entire hemisphere is among the Rocky
Mountains in the western part of Canada. Here, and
here alone, the multitudinous conditions of Switzerland
are combined — the wondrous glacial fields, the massing
of majestic ranges, the striking precipices and snow-
crowned peaks, the forest areas, clear lakes and peaceful
valleys. Much of this majestic scenery may be enjoyed
without passing out of sight of the transcontinental railroad; and some of the grandest mountains and the finest
7 climbs are but a short distance from it. 'If all the
mountain climbers in the world were to make a combined attempt to explore the Canadian Rockies the task
would not be completed within a century.'1 With these
and similar words Edward Whymper, the first conqueror
of the Matterhorn, challenges the mountaineers of the
world to invade the Rockies of Canada.    He offers to
In the Canadian Rockies, near Field, C C.
them the glory of a 1first ascent,' so dear to every
mountain climber. Realizing the importance of preserving the beauty of this region, the Canadian Government has set aside 5,732 square miles as a national
park, in which the Canadian Pacific Railway Company
has built a number of charming chalets and hotels, each
8 equally noted for its comfort and service, and the beauty
of its location.
Thousands of people from all parts of the world visit
these resorts annually.    The Canadian Pacific Railway
line above all others merits the much-used description,
"The scenic line of the world."    From Calgary to Vancouver, a distance of six hundred and forty-two miles, the
beauty and grandeur of the scenery is continuous.    It is
doubtful if any other railway in the world has a run of
this distance with such  remarkable attractions.    That
"there is not a dull or uninteresting minute all the way"
is the testimony of everyone who has made the journey.
"It is like Switzerland and the Tyrol.on a vast scale
— or like a score of Switzerlands with loftier mountains,
larger lakes, mightier glaciers and rivers."    Thus writes
a famous British journalist.     ' The higher Andes and the
sky-piercing Himalayas, while surpassing all mountains
Bow River, Tunnel Mountain and Mount Rundle, Banff
9 in height and stupendous grandeur, lack the element of
beauty of the Canadian Rockies because the latter have
the scenic grandeur of combined snowfields and forests."
—(W. D. Wilcox.) .Jf|
Only one regret is expressed by visitors, and that is
when they have allowed themselves too little time to see
this charming country. A stay of at least several days
should be made at each of the resorts, in order to fully
realize the magnificence of the surrounding mountains,
which must be viewed under the various atmospheric
conditions. The wonderful changes in light and shadow,
and the glories of sunrise and sunset in the Canadian
Rockies, are things never to be forgotten. Unfortunately
the average tourist. is all too prone to stop over only
between trains and thus catch but a hurried glance of
these glorious peaks, which is regrettable, inasmuch as
frequently the greater beauty is missed entirely, though
many thousands claim that travelling through these
mountains without leaving the train has been the most
enjoyable event and greatest scenic treat of their lives.
Tourists and mountaineers can no longer be satisfied
with repeating the ascents of the well-trodden peaks of
the Old World, now that they have this vast new region
thrown open to them- -a region which Edward Whym-
per, with all the authority born of a lifetime spent in
scaling the heights of Switzerland, the Andes and the
Himalayas, has declared to be equivalent to 'fifty or
sixty Switzerlands rolled into one." Here the geologist,
the botanist and the naturalist can find in every direction opportunities for original research work of the most
valuable character; and the mountaineer and sportsman
can revel in regions untrodden from the beginning of
time. The health or pleasure seeker can hardly fail
here to obtain new energy and new inspiration, while
the artist may find in the Rockies a new world to conquer and make his own.
10 Mountain Climbing in the Canadian Rockies
ii The Canadian Rockies are the scenic climax of the
mighty Rocky Mountains, called "the Backbone of
America." To the northward they gradually diminish
in height until the Arctic circle is reached. Southward
they lack that ruggedness and glacier beauty which
give them their attractiveness to the lovers of Alpine
scenery.
Bow River Valley, near Banff
The New York "Tribune" says : " It is not generally
known that within four days' journey of New York City
there are waiting for the sightseer and scientific investigator some of the grandest and most impressive glacial
* streams' in the world. Nothing in Switzerland is to
be found more beautiful than the glaciers of'the Canadian Rockies and Selkirks, and one of the chief attractions of the trip is the fact that one may journey there
and back in civilized luxury,  and while enjoying the
12 scenes, at the very 'noses' of the wonderful glaciers
themselves, may be comfortable and remain in close
touch with the world."
Four great ranges are crossed by the Canadian Pacific
Railway—the Rockies proper, the Selkirks, the Gold
Range and the Coast Mountains, the latter standing like
Glissading in the Canadian Rockies—a Novel Summer Sport a great bulwark along the shores of the Pacific. The
traveller from the east approaches this mighty series of
ridges across a country that makes their majesty doubly
imposing by reason of the contrast.
For a day or two he has traversed the prairies, a
country with many beauties of its own and marvellously
rich in natural resources. As the train approaches the
mountains their huge bulk seems to prohibit passage
absolutely, and the clear air brings them apparently
close to the train, when they are still miles away.
£3 one looks upon these peaks that seem to start out
of the plain, it is difficult to realize their stupendous
The Gap, Eastern Entrance to the Canadian Rockies
14 The Three Sisters, near Canmore, Canadian Rocky Mountains
magnitude. Everything here is on such a gigantic scale
that it takes time and effort to weigh the immensity of
the great upheavals.
The entrance to the Rockies is by 'The Gap." It
seems that the train has reached an impasse, and that
there is no way by which it can surmount the lordly line
of heights drawn up across its path. Suddenly, however, it takes a sharp turn and finds itself between two
walls of vertical rock, and a passage is forced to the
world of mountains beyond. It has found and followed
the course of the Bow River, and, keeping to the valley
that the stream has worn for itself in the course of ages,
the track turns northward and runs between the Fairholme Range, on the right, and the Kananaskis Mountains, on the left.
Prominent  among them  are  the  Three  Sisters,   a
trinity of noble peaks.    The most distant one from the
15 Cascade Mountain, Banff
track is sharp and jagged, but on its shoulders a mantle
of snow is thrown and fills up all its crevices. Round
the others, to their very summits, tiers of rock run in
massive spirals with curious regularity. Across the
broad lower slopes they extend till, widened and softened into rolling spurs, they run right down to the River
Bow. flowing like a silver streak beneath.
10 Immovable the Three Sisters stand, beautiful in
their purity, peaceful in their solitude, steadfast in their
guard. Like sentinels apart from their compeers, they
seem to the traveller to hold eternal watch and ward
over the wonders of the region through which he is
to pass.
Cascade Mountain is a few miles away from the railway track. At its base are the anthracite mines of Bank-
head, operated by the Canadian Pacific - Railway Company, which supply the country from Winnipeg to Vancouver with hard coal. The powers of the eye are greatly
increased, and, to one fresh from the plains, things yet
afar off appear quite near. However, the traveller
gradually understands his mistake, and the track, following the course of the Bow River, turns sharply to the
west just as the lowest spurs are reached, and arrives
at Banff, the gateway to the Canadian'National Park.
3gf.
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A Well-Known Resident of Banff
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Headquarters of the Canadian National Park
Hemmed in by mountains, and charmingly situated
on the Bow River, is the prettiest little town in Canada.
Banff is the property of the Canadian Government and,
under the control of the Park Superintendent, public
improvements of all kinds are being constantly carried
on, to the great advantage of both residents and visitors.
Few, if any, towns are more beautifully situated;
few places have found such speedy recognition of their
attractiveness, and none have better deserved the enco-
Main Street, Banff
18 miums of enthusiastic visitors, than Banff, for of all the
lovely resorts on the American continent it is without
a peer. Its surroundings are the mountain steeps, beside whose immense crags and peaks the works of man
sink into insignificance. It is not a question of one
mountain or two, but of many, for they stretch away
as far as the eye can follow them in every direction,
rolling back, one behind another, in varied and sublime
confusion.
The stores, while not pretentious, have from years
of experience and catering to visitors gained a complete
knowledge of their requirements, and few indeed will
be the needs, in the way of camping equipment, photographic supplies, fishing tackle, and such like necessities for tourists, that the Banff stores cannot supply.
To the north rises the swelling, rounded back of
Stony Squaw Mountain, with cliff-like buttresses projecting at its eastern end. Towering above this, majestic in its strength, dominating the whole scene, is Cascade
Mountain, a huge black, time-worn pyramid, its sides
ribbed and scarred by avalanche and tempest. To the
west the Bow River winds in a broad, open strath, the
Sawback Range flanking it at the northern side, with
Mount Edith, a splendid dolomite peak, its symmetrical
upper cone glistening virgin white in
its mantle of everlasting snow, almost
concealed,despite its
superior height, by
intervening mountain masses. Eastward lies Tunnel
Mountain,  a   knob-
char\a.r\   Vii11     trT-i-f-Vi   o The Royal Northwest Mounted Police,
bnapea   mil,   Wltn   % the Guardians of the Park
19 precipitous face to the south, and with a zigzagging
carriage road traceable up its eastern side. Because of
its ease of access—many a visitor climbs it as an appetizing walk before breakfast—and the magnificent view,
it is the first and favorite trip of every tourist. Opposite
it rise the up-tilted terraces of Mount Rundle, almost
10,000 feet high, its sides furrowed and trenched by
snowslides. From the valley it appears to have two
summits, and for this reason is sometimes called Twin
Peaks.
The northern one is some thousand feet or more
lower than the other. It is evident that time was when
Tunnel was merely a shoulder of Rundle, but some tremendous cataclysm of nature split the huge mountain.
Tunnel tilted northward—its rocky ribs being plainly
discernable in the lateral stratification — and the sleepless, tireless Bow River forced and fought itself through
the opening, boring its way towards the limitless plain
to the eastward. Above the murmur of pines can be
heard, rising and falling on the wind, the noise of the
boiling river as it tears through the rapids, and its roar
as it leaps over Bow Falls.
It is a scene possessing almost every element of
beauty, and many of sublimity. Over-arched, as it is
in summer, with a sky that in its deep azure outrivals
that of Italy, lit with the brilliant sunshine characteristic of Western Canada, and possessing an exhilarating
atmosphere, full of ozone, purified by frost and forest,
is it any wonder that overworked business men absorb
its quiet peace gratefully, and declare it to be the most
invigorating spot on the continent, or that pilgrims in
search of the beautiful, pronounce the views superior
to those of Zermatt or the Engadine ?
Alike in summer and in winter, Banff's climate is
delightful.
20 The Museum
The Canadian Government maintains at Banff a
museum of very great interest to visitors, as it contains
many splendidly preserved specimens of the animals,
fishes and birds to be found within the Park; a carefully mounted and classified herbarium; and Indian
relics and specimens of Indian workmanship, many of
them of extraordinary interest. The official in charge
has for years taken a record of temperature, and the
meteorological charts will repay examination by the
weatherwise.
Buffalo at Banff
The Bow River Falls
Another of the sights that is sure to claim early attention from the visitors is the Bow Falls, situated beneath the Banff Springs Hotel. Almost as soon as the
Bow passes under the Banff bridge it eddies and rushes,
as if preparing for its final leap. Soon it begins to foam
and boil. Jagged black rocks, with their softer tissues
worn away by the rushing stream, stand up here and
21 there out of the roaring flood, dripping and glistening
like natural fangs. Churned to a whiteness like that of
milk, the river roars and hisses through the trench it
has worn at the base of Tunnel Mountain, leaps down
to small ledges, and then hurls itself, a stream eighty
feet wide, in a deafening cataract of wonderful beauty.
It is not, of course, comparable with the Falls of Niagara or the Yellowstone, but among the lesser falls of
the continent it has few rivals.
Banff Hot Springs
The Banff Hot Springs undoubtedly possess wonderful curative value for rheumatic and kindred ailments
and the cures recorded almost stagger belief.
Bow River Falls, Banff
22 The Basin, Banff
It may be of interest to give an analysis of the hot
sulphur water effecting such marvellous cures. Mr.
McGill, assistant analyst of the Canadian Government,
reports:
"The dissolved solids are as follows:—
Chlorine (in chlorides)      0.42 grains
Sulphuric Acid (SO3)   38.50
Silica (Si02)      2.31
Lime (CaO)    24.85
Magnesia (Mg°)      4.87
Alkalies (as Soda, Na20) .   0.62
Lithium A decided trace.
;The  temperature  of the  spring  is   114.3   degrees
Fahrenheit."
Tunnel Mountain
The finest local drive is that on Tunnel Mountain —
distance seven miles.   A spiral drive, known as the Cork-
23 One of Banff's Many Pretty Drives
screw, leads along the side of the mountain at an altitude of over 5,000 feet, the return being made down
the further side on a steep grade passing the barracks
of the Mounted Police and through the town.
24 The Cave and Basin
A delightful drive for about a mile up the valley of
the Bow River, along a winding road between tall pines
at the base of Sulphur Mountain, leads to the Cave and
Basin.
The cave itself is covered in by a natural roof of
rock and is fed by water from the springs still higher
up the mountain. It is not much larger than a good-
sized room, but the curious deposits of sulphur about
its roof and wall make it well worth a visit. Adjoining it is a natural basin, at which the Government has
erected bathing houses, and so popular is this resort
Banff Springs Hotel from Tunnel Mountain
25 that at almost any hour of the day can be heard the
splash of waters and the joyous shouts of the bathers.
Banff Springs Hotel, of the Canadian Pacific Railway
Hotel System
Located on a rocky elevation on the south bank of
the Bow River near the mouth of the Spray, this splendid
hotel commands a view perhaps unrivalled in America.
Young L/adies Playing Hockey at Banff—Banff's Winter
Climate Is Charming
In the refinements of its appointments and the completeness of detail marking the whole establishment,
the Banff Springs Hotel ranks" among the finest summer
hotels to be found anywhere. The excellence of the
cuisine — a characteristic of the Canadian Pacific service — is enhanced by the magnificence of the outlook
from the dining hall and the music rendered during
dinner by an orchestra. In the evening, when the
guests, tired with excursions, are lounging in the roomy
rotunda, basking in the warmth of the huge log fires
in the big open fire-places on either side, a charming
concert is given by the orchestra.
26 Bankhead Coal Mines
One of the most popular drives in the Park, and a
little more than half way to the Lake Minnewanka,
where the interesting operations of an anthracite coal
mine may be seen.
On the way is a corral of 2,000 acres, in which is
a herd of eighty buffaloes and calves — the remnant of
the countless thousands of bison which once roamed
the adjacent plains. Bands of elk, moose, antelope, deer
and Angora goats have also been added to the Park.
The Observatory
The Government Observatory on the summit of
Sulphur Mountain (8,000 feet) is reached by a bridle
path by way of Hot Springs, and is four miles from the
Banff Springs Hotel, s There are shelters en route, and
from the summit magnificent views of the entire Bow
Valley are to be had, which amply repay the ascent.
■■■■ ■- ■■
Lake Minnewanka, near Banff
27 At Lake Minnewanka
Distance nine miles from Banff, the drive skirting
Cascade  Mountain and following Devil's  Head  River
until the precipitous sides of Devil's Head Canyon are
crossed by a rustic bridge.  The lake is sixteen miles long,
with a width of from one to two miles.    On it is placed
a launch, which can be chartered by visitors at the rate
of $1.00 per head for parties of five and over.    The sail
usually occupies three hours.    Fishing tackle,  boats,
etc., may be procured, this being a favorite resort for
anglers.    A cluster of Hoodoos (natural concrete pillars)
and the Devil's Gap, on the way to Ghost River, are
amongst the points of interest in this locality.
The Loop
A beautiful drive
around the Bow
Valley in full view
of Bow Falls —
distance about
seven miles—skirt-
ing the base of
Mount Rundle, to
the banks of the
Bow River.
Attractions at Banff
It is simply impossible to properly enumerate the
many attractions of
this delightful spot.
The carriage drives
along excellent
roads, with new
beauties of scenery
unfolding with
every turn of the
Hoodoos, Natural Concrete Pillars, near Banff      road,are delightful.
28 |        Lar^e, LoitisSe,   ^^^        )
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" Lakes of gray at dawn of day,
In soft shadows lying;
Lakes of gold with gems untold,
On thy bosom glowing.
Lakes of white,
At holy night,
Gleaming in the moonlight."
Thirty-four miles westward from Banff is Laggan
(the station for Lake Louise and Lakes in the Clouds).
Two and a half miles from the station by a fine carriage road is Lake Louise (altitude 5,645 feet)—the most
winsome spot in the Canadian Rockies. Of the beauty
of this remarkable lake there is no divided opinion;
every visitor to its shores sings its praises, and it
is acknowledged by the most competent judges to
be one of the great masterpieces in Nature's picture
gallery. As a gem of composition and coloring it has
no rival. At every hour of the day the view is
ever changing with the shadows. This is especially
true of the early morning and evening hours. Walter
Dwight Wilcox, F. R. G. S., in his charming book,
I The Rockies of Canada," describes the colorings
of Lake Louise as follows : "It is impossible to
tell or paint the beautiful colors, the kaleidoscopic
change of light and shade under such conditions. They
are so exquisite that we refuse to believe them even in
their presence; so subtle in change, so infinite in variety,
that memory fails to  recall their varying moods.    I
29 have seen twenty shades of green and several of blue
in the waters of Lake Louise at one time. Sometimes
in the evening, when the quantity of light is rapidly
diminishing, and the lake lies calm or partly tremulous
with-dying ripples, marked vertically by the reflections
of cliffs and trees, there is a light green in the shallowest
water of the east shore, a more vivid color a little farther
out, and then a succession of deeper shades merging
one into another by imperceptible change, yet in irregular patches according to the depth of water, to the deep
bluish green and the blue of the middle lake. The eye
wanders from place to place and comes back a few
moments later to where the brightest colors were, but
no doubt they are gone now and the mirror surface is
dulled by a puff of air, while the sharp reflections have
been replaced by purple shadows, or the obscure repetition of the red-brown cliffs above the water. It may
be that a day, a year, or possibly a century will pass
before these identical glories of color will come again."
Lake Louise lies at an elevation of 5,645 feet, and is
shut in on every side by rocky, snow-capped heights,
offering a picture of perfect peace. Mr. Edward
Whymper has compared it to Lake Oeshinen in Switzerland, but has declared it ' is more picturesque and has
more magnificent environments." It is about a mile
and a half long and half a mile broad, while its depth
is over 200 feet.
Two miles across the boulder-covered glacier lake
there begins to rise southward the forefront of the great
glaciers. Thence the ice slants away upward until it
reaches a depth of possibly five hundred feet of solid blue
and green, to where it is fed by continuous avalanches
from the endless groups of enormous heights beyond. At
the upper end of this brow rises a stern black wall to a
30 The Beautiful Lake Louise
height of fully half a mile, over which the avalanches
thunder. This wall is five miles away, but looks to be
but one, because of the clearness of the atmosphere.
Above this black avalanche-wall there gradually
rises, like the roof of the universe, the pure white snow
field on Mount Victoria to a height of ten or twelve
31 thousand feet. Joining with Victoria in forming this
ice field are the towering heights of Lefroy, Beehive,
Whyte, Niblock, St. Piran, Castle Crags, and many
other lofty peaks. To the east an upright mountain
forms a perpendicular wall of several thousand feet.
From Lake Louise the ascent to Mirror Lake and
Lake Agnes is made easily on horseback or afoot. Lake
Agnes, the higher of the two, with an altitude of 6,280
feet, is about two and a quarter miles from the hotel by
a good trail.
Lake Louise Chalet
Charmingly situated on the very verge of the water
in the midst of the evergreen wood, the Canadian Pacific
Railway has built a lovely chalet, which has since been
enlarged to a great hotel. It is open from June to September, and at it Swiss guides, horses and packers can
Lake Louise Chalet, Laggan
32 The Beehive and Mirror Lake
be hired for excursions near or far. It affords most
comfortable accommodation and conveyances to meet
every train. The rates are $3.50 a day, and by pre-
arrangement the round trip can be made from Banff
at single fare, tickets being issued on presentation of
certificate signed by the manager of the Banff Hotel.
33 Telephonic communication exists between the station
and the chalet and telegrams may be sent to any part
of the world.
Lakes in the Clouds
Mirror Lake is another beautiful gem. It has no
visible outlet, the waters escaping through an underground channel to Lake Louise, 1,000 feet below. The
waters of this lake rise or fall as the inflowing stream
pours its flood into the lake more or less rapidly than
they are carried off. Lake Agnes, another of the Lakes
in the Clouds, is situated amid scenes of the wildest
beauty. On the side, like sentinels, stand Mounts Whyte
and Niblock, grim and silent; and the irregular peaks
Lake Agnes, Highest of the Lakes in the Clouds
34 Moraine Lake and Valley of the Ten Peaks
running back tell of violent eruption in that great and
terrible day of upheaval far back in the misty ages of the
earth's infancy. A little way down the valley Nature
smiles, not broadly, but none the less sweetly; for here
among the mosses are found the forget-me-nots, the
wood anemones, the blue bells of the Scottish Highlands,
the ferns, the Alpine eidelweiss (the bridal flower of the
Swiss mountaineer) and the heather, that reminds the
sons and daughters of Bonnie Scotland of their native
hills. It is an Alpine garden, and the eternal hills seem
worthy guardians of this spot of peerless beauty.
Paradise Valley
To the east of  Laggan run two mountain valleys,
both * of which are noted for their exquisite scenery.
35 Mountain Climbing near Lake Louise
Paradise Valley, the nearer to Lake Louise, lies between
Mount Sheol and Mount Temple, while the Valley of
the Ten Peaks, as its name implies, is lined by ten
great peaks, and holds at its head Moraine Lake.
Its entrance to Paradise Valley is under the shadows
of Mount Sheol, that rises to nearly 10,000 feet. The
traveller, as he gazes into the valley spread at his very
feet, cannot but be struck by the wondrous beauty laid
out before him, and the immensity of the scale and the
perfection of the symmetry of Nature's work.
The Valley of the Ten Peaks extends parallel to
Paradise Valley on the other side of Mount Temple. In
it is Moraine Lake, two miles long and half a mile wide,
in which there is trout fishing. The Government has
recently constructed a splendid carriage road from Lake
Louise to Moraine Lake.
36 A great giacier has found its way down the heights
at the head of the lake and has forced its course between
and around the peaks, presenting a scene that is picturesque and ever awe-inspiring.
An interesting feature about this glacier is that it
seems to be advancing. For some reason that cannot
be explained, the glaciers, not only in the Canadian
mountains, but the world over, have of late years been
receding, and the Moraine Lake ice-river is, therefore,
an exception to the usual rule. Its force is tremendous, and it is most impressive to note how the woods
have fallen before its resistless force.
Abbot Pass pierces the divide and by it are reached
Lakes O'Hara and Oesa, the latter of which is at so
great an altitude that its waters are released from the
grip of the frost for barely five weeks a year, and has,
therefore, received a name that means in the Indian
tongue the Lake of Ice.    North of Lake O'Hara lie the
Mount Temple and Railway in the Valley
37 Scene near Laggan
Wiwaxy  Peaks;  to  the  south  the  Ottertail  andt the
Prospectors' valleys lead on into a maze of mountains.
Soon after leaving Laggan the track quits the valley
of the Bow and turns southwest to cross the divide. A
fine view is obtained of the valley of the Bow, extending
in a northwesterly direction to the Bow Lakes, while
overtopping the Slate and Waputekh ranges, that the
railway skirts, loom up the enormous buttresses of
Mount Hector, named after Sir James Hector, who, as a
member of the Palliser expedition of 1858, was one of
the first to explore that pass.
Six miles from Laggan the summit of the Rockies
is reached, and the Great Divide is passed, 5,269 feet
above sea level. It is marked by a rustic arch spanning
a stream, under which the waters divide by one of those
curious freaks with which Nature occasionally diverts
herself. For the two little brooks have curiously different fates, though they have a common origin.    The
38 waters that deviate to the east eventually mingle with
the ice-cold tides of Hudson Bay, while the rivulet that
turns to the west finally adds its mite to the volume of
the Pacific.
This is the region of mighty avalanches. It is said
that by actual count, and without the aid of a glass,
eighty distinct glaciers can be seen. In some parts of
this region the scenery is almost terrible in its majesty.
The Kicking Horse River
Stephen, the most elevated station on the Canadian
Pacific Railway line, takes its name from the first president of the company, Lord Mount Stephen, while the
next on the westward slope, Hector, recalls Sir James
Hector. Of the latter the Kicking Horse River also
preserves the memory, for the "kicking horse" was one
The Great Divide, Where the Waters Divide Eastward and.,Westward
39 that inflicted upon him serious injuries during the Pal-
User expedition.    The story is a curious one, as it shows
on what chances the success of an exploration may depend.    The expedition was encamped on the banks of
the Wapta, where a pack horse broke three of the leader's ribs by a kick.    He lay unconscious for hours till
his Indians thought him dead and prepared to bury him,
but  as they bore him along he  regained his  senses.
When he recovered he went to inspect his grave, that
had been dug some little way from the camp, and then
fired by curiosity determined to discover where led the
valley in which it had been intended to leave him forever.    He explored it further and found it a practicable
way of crossing the mountains.    Thus was the Kicking
Horse River brought to light and received the name of
a vicious animal, which all unintentionally had led to
so important a discovery.
Cathedral Mountain, 10,204 feet high, rises on the
south side of the track, just before Field is reached. It
is happily named, for its summit bears a wonderful
resemblance to some noble ruin of Gothic architecture.
From the very verge of the rise, where the gradual slope
has given place to a precipice, springs a great crag, like
the shattered tower of a cathedral.
Between Hector, near the summit of the Rockies,
and Field, at the base of Mount Stephen, one of the
greatest engineering feats of this century has just been
completed. To reduce the steep grade on the western
slope of the Rockies, the line has been lengthened from
a little over four miles to eight and one-fifth miles, or in
other words the grade on this portion of the line is reduced about one-half and the road is made twice as long.
The new line has two spiral tunnels driven through
solid rock- -one 2,912 feet and the other 3,184 feet in
length.    Each spiral tunnel, with approaches, makes a
40 complete loop of track. A short, straight tunnel completes this immense work, which was carried through at
a cost of nearly a million and a half dollars. This new
construction not only reduces a heavy grade, but adds
greatly to the scenic effects to be obtained from the
passing trains. On the higher track excellent vistas
are afforded of the Yoho Valley, lying to the north,
and from the lower track Cathedral Peak and Mount
Stephen stand out in bold relief in all their immensity
and grandeur.
Grade Reduction Loops, East of Field, B. C.
41 \
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Mount Stephen House, Fi^ld, B. C
At Field the prospect widens, and the Kicking Horse
River for a short distance flows across broad, level flats,
that are only covered when the water is high. The
place itself is a prosperous little village, but is dwarfed
into insignificance by the splendid mountains that hem
it in. On one side is Mount Burgess; on the other
Mount Stephen, one of the grandest of all the Rockies. >v
Field is the gateway of the wonderful Yoho Valley, and
the headquarters for mountaineers of the more ambitious type. The Yoho Valley is now included within
the confines of the national park.
Looking from the shoulder of Mount Burgess or
Mount Stephen the valley seems narrow, the river a mere
stream, and the dwellings in the village dolls' houses.
From below Mount Stephen fills all the view; so rounded,
so symmetrical that the spectator hardly realizes at
first that he has before him a rock mass towering 10,000
feet above sea level and 6,500 feet above the valley.
But as he gazes its majesty bears in on him and he is
filled with a sense of awe and wonder. One great
shoulder is thrown forward, a mountain in itself, and
then the dome swells gently, easily, till it reaches the
clouds. Sometimes, indeed, the mist settles on it and
obscures half its bulk; sometimes the sun lights up its
crevices and touches its peak with gold; sometimes a
cloud lies like a mantle across its face, but with it all
it dominates everything and seems to defy man and
Nature. There is nothing broken or rugged in its outlines, no suggestion of wildness or desolation; it impresses by its sheer bulk and massiveness and forces
the admiration of the most heedless.
To practiced climbers the ascent of Mount Stephen
presents no insuperable difficulties, and, indeed,.the trip
to the summit and back from Mount Stephen House
has been made in eight hours. Swiss guides are stationed at the hotel, and will help the ambitious to accomplish the feat. The lower slopes of the mountain
have one spot well worth visiting, the fossil bed, where
for 150 yards the side of the mountain, for a height of
300 or 400 feet, has slid forward and broken into a number of shaly, shelving limestone slabs, exposing innumerable fossils.
43 From the top of Mount Stephen a magnificent view is
obtained, that well repays the toil and difficulty of the
ascent. The Van Home Range is seen beyond the
Kicking Horse Valley to the west, the Emerald group
occupies the north, while on the east the peaks that line
the Yoho Valley, Mounts Habel, Collie, Gordon, Balfour,
and many another, are in full view. Across the river
to the south a number of fine mountains are in sight,
Mounts Assiniboine, Goodsir, The Chancellor and Vaux.
For miles and miles the tourist can see over valleys
and peaks, and so realize the immensity, as well as
the beauty, of the Rockies.
Chalet at Emerald Lake, B. C.
As a base for the numerous expeditions to be made
from Field, the Canadian Pacific Railway has built there
a comfortable hotel and has since been called upon to
enlarge it twice. It is planned cunningly, and has
splendid accommodations, including a billiard room
and suites of rooms with private baths. Moreover, at
the livery, carriages, pack and saddle horses, mountaineering outfits and Swiss guides can be engaged at
reasonable rates. .
44 From Field is a delightful drive of seven miles round
the spurs of Mount Burgess to Emerald Lake, another of
■those charming tarns that spangle the mountain side.
The road leads through a splendid spruce forest. In
one place the road has been cut straight as an arrow for
a mile in length.    Snow Peak Avenue this stretch is
Mount Burgess and Emerald Lake
45 called, and the effect of the narrow way with the mighty
trunks standing bolt upright on either hand, with a
glimpse of the mountains at the end of the vista, is
curious and unique. At Emerald Lake is a charming
chalet operated by the Canadian Pacific Railway, where
tourists may find first-class accommodation and rest
at the very entrance to the Yoho Valley. The lake,
apart from its beauty, is a favorite resort for anglers,
as the trout are many and gamy, and heavy are the
creels that have been filled from its waters.
The Natural Bridge
One of the most
interesting of the
short excursions to
be made from Field
is a walk of two and
a half miles to the
Natural Bridge,
spanning the Kicking Horse River.
This bridge was
formed by the action
of the water of the
river itself on the
soft limestone rock.
Once upon a time
the bed of the river
extended up to the
rocks that now
bridge it, and its
waters poured over
it in headlong fall.
Gradually, however,
Natural Bridge, near Field, B. C. the   SOit    Stone   was
46 eaten away, and a
hole was formed in the
rock. Once the way
was found, nothing
could stop the flood,
and day by day it
enlarged the outlet,
until now it has worn
a tunnel for itself, and
the rocks that once
faced a waterfall
remain to bridge the
river.
The Yoho Valley
Emerald Lake is
half way to the Yoho
Valley, one of the
most beautiful mountain vales in all the
world.
It is really a delightful experience to ride
from   Emerald  Lake
through   the   Yoho Takakkaw Falls, Yoho Valley
Valley and stay at the comfortable camps provided by
the Canadian Pacific . Railway Company for tourists.
Every person who has taken this trip is enthusiastic
regarding the many beautiful sights and scenes visited.
On this riding trip will be seen mighty glaciers, their
surface lit up and flecked with many hues in the sunlight, and charming cascades, their waters leaping, in a
filmy thread-like line, 800 feet or more. Thick woods
shut out the summit of the pass, but part asunder to
grant a glimpse of Summit Lake, a stretch of water
1,800 feet above Emerald Lake.
47 A short distance and Look-out Point is reached,
where a superb view of the celebrated Takakkaw Falls,
the highest cataract in America, is obtained. Eight
times as high as Niagara (1,200 feet), it compares with
anything in the Yosemite Valley. Fed, as it is, by the
melted snows of the glacier, it is at its best in' summer.
All up the valley other cascades are seen or heard.
The hills are crowned with glaciers and the water melted
from them seeks the shortest way to the valley, even
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A Party at Summit Lake, near Yoho Valley
at the cost of a plunge of hundreds of feet. Perhaps the
most fascinating of them are the Laughing Falls. Their
leap is only 200 feet, but their waters seem to laugh with
glee as they go, and their milk-white flood smiles delightfully through the dark evergreens around. Further up the valley on the left branch of the forked stream
are the Twin Falls, an almost unique phenomenon and
as beautiful as it is unexpected.
48 But there is sterner scenery than any the waterfalls
present along the Yoho Valley. A great glaciei, too,
far larger even than the famous Illecillewaet Glacier of
the Selkirks, overhangs the right-hand fork of the valley.
The Wapta Glacier, as it is named, is part of the great
Waputekh ice field guarded by Mount Gordon, Mount
Balfour and the broken crags of Trolltinderne (The
Elfin's Crown).
At the fork of the Yoho Valley another shelter has
been provided for visitors, and there are many who will
take advantage of it. It is possible to make the trip
'round the valley from Emerald Lake in a day, but all
who can will spare another day or two.
The return to Field may be varied by crossing the
Burgess Pass, which is unquestionably one of the finest
mountain rides in the world and should be taken by
every lover of mountain scenery. From this lofty trail
Emerald Lake is seen thousands of feet below, with the
Emerald Range rising beyond, while on the other hand
Mounts Cathedral, Stephen and Dennis and the Ottertail
Range excite admiration. From this eminence a zigzag path leads down by easy stages to Mount Stephen
House.
Field to Glacier
Field left behind, the train has to descend the western slope of the Rockies to the Valley of the Columbia.
To reach it the course of the Kicking Horse River is
followed through some magnificent mountain scenery.
The track runs between the Ottertail and Van Home
ranges. The highest of the range, Mount Goodsir, a
victim to the prowess of Professor Fay, of Tuft's College,
stands miles from the railway, but its hoary head is seen
towering above its sisters. The Van Home Range, just
across the narrow valley, is less severe in its outline; its
slopes are ochre-hued, and its summit is an alternating
49 Twin Falls, Yoho Valley
succession of crest and trough. To the southeast the
Beaverfoot Mountains, a splendid line of peaks, stretch
in regular array as far as the eye can reach, and between them and the Ottertails rises the immensity of
Mount Hunter.
At Leanchoil, the canyon of the Kicking Horse is
entered.    Straight up and down the rocky sides extend
50 in a wall that seems impregnable. Thousands of feet in
the air they rise; and their summit is lined with a number of peaks, perpetually covered with snow, to which
no names have yet been given. The cleft is a bare
stone's throw across, and through it river and railway
find their way. Ledges have been blasted in the face
of the rock; jutting spurs have been tunnelled through;
from side to side the track has been carried; and always
below is the river, foaming and roaring, breaking itself
against the sides of the canyon. The difficulties presented to the railroad builder here were stupendous,
and man had to fight a great battle with the forces
of Nature, when he entered upon the task of mastering
them.
All of a sudden there is a wonderful change. The
descent is completed and the track emerges in the broad
Valley of the Columbia. One of the resting places of
the mountains has been reached, and the travellers
gaze with pleasure upon the thriving little town of
Golden.
One of the principal difficulties in constructing this
part of the line was caused by the mountain torrents,
which rush down these mountain sides in deep, narrow
gorges over which the railway must cross. The largest
of these bridges which was thus made necessary crosses
Stony Creek, a noisy stream flowing in a narrow
V-shaped channel, 300 feet below the rails. This is
said to be one of the highest railway bridges in the
world.
Rogers' Pass was named after Major A. B. Rogers,
by whose energy it was discovered in 1883.
51 <$*>!
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A Fair Member of the Canadian
Alpine Club
The names of many
famous men have been
associated with mountain
climbing. Tyndall and
Leslie Stephen wrote delightful accounts of the
achievements and joys of
arduous ascents. Ruskin
was converted to the use
of Alpine climbs, and
wrote that "the pure and
holy hills should be treated as a link between earth
and heaven." Honorable
James Bryce, British
Ambassador at Washington, was the first since
Noah, it is said, to make
an ascent of Mount Ararat.
There is some quality, in
short, of remoteness and
effort, of aiming at some
distant goal which can
be attained only by mastery of one's self and the
fastnesses of nature, that
exercises   an   irresistible
52 Canadian Alpine Club in Camp
fascination in the case of resolute and well-endowed persons. The Canadian Alpine Club traces its first impulse
back through twenty-four years, as far as the day when
Sir Sandford Fleming, his son and Principal Grant, of
Queen's University, with their party and pack-train,
came out from the difficult forest trail and camped on
the meadow at Rogers' Pass. Inspired by the mountain prospect, they resolved themselves into an Alpine
Club, and drank to the club's success from the stream
at their feet. The Canadian Alpine Club is fortunate in
having Sir Sandford Fleming as its patron, for few
of those who have helped to shape the destinies of Canada have made the apparently unattainable come near
and then come true as often as he. ' Sic itur, ad astra'
is the motto of the Canadian Alpine Club. The spiritual
meaning of the phrase seems almost to have obscured
its physical significance.    But no one who has seen a Swiss Guides in the Canadian Rockies
night of stars shine faintly in a mountain country can
doubt that there is an influence in these heights which
lifts up the hearts of all who visit them. Membership
in the club is divided into five grades: Honorary, of
those who are distinguished in mountaineering, exploration or research; Associates, who may be active members
or may not, but who contribute $25.00 to the club's
treasury; Active members, who have made an ascent
of at least 10,000 feet in some recognized Alpine region,
or have contributed to Canadian Alpine literature by
scientific publications based on personal experience;
and graduating members, who are given two years to
qualify as active members, a period of probation which
is not renewable under the auspices of the Canadian
Alpine   Club.    The   summer  camps  in  the   Canadian
1 Rockies and Selkirks have been very successful, under
the able direction of Mr. A. O. Wheeler, F. R. G. S.,
president of the club, and both the active and graduating memberships have recently been greatly augmented.
Ready for a 10,500-Foot Climb
55 c—
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Nestling in a niche of the narrow valley a few rods
from the railway, and surrounded by the beautiful
evergreen trees that everywhere thrive in this region,
is a charming hotel, the Glacier House, which has become so popular that the Canadian Pacific Railway
Company has found it necessary to enlarge the original
structure, erect new buildings, and increase the capacity
of the annex, so that now over one hundred guests can
Glacier House, Glacier, B. C
56 The Great Glacier of the Selkirks
be accommodated. General Hamilton wrote in the
guests' book at the hotel: "My wife and I have travelled for nearly forty years all over the world, and are
both agreed the scenery at Glacier House is the finest
we have  seen  in Europe,  Asia,  Africa or America."
57 First to attract the   tourist is the   Great   Glacier  of
the Selkirks, which crowds its tremendous head down
the mountain gorge within thirty minutes' walk of the
hotel.    At the left Sir Donald rears his mighty peak
more than a mile and a half above the railway.    This
monolith was named after Sir Donald A. Smith (now
Lord Strathcona and Mount Royal), who was one of
the chief promoters of the Canadian Pacific Railway.
A mountain rivulet rushes down the abruptly rocky
sides of the mountain opposite the hotel, and a trail has
been cut up the steep incline to a spot beside the rushing
stream, where a rustic summer house has been erected.
The effect is novel and pleasing.    The waters from this
stream have been utilized to supply the hotel and fountains that play in the foreground.    All the streams here
are simply ice water from the glaciers.    A tower has
been erected near the annex of the hotel, on which is a
large telescope commanding a view of the great glacier
and surrounding objects.    As one alights here a feeling
of restfulness comes over him.    Everything conspires
to a feeling that all the cares and rush of the business
world are shut out by the great mountain.    The trees,
the streams, and even the mountains speak of peace
and quiet.
The Great Glacier is nearly two miles from the hotel,
but among such gigantic surroundings looks much
nearer. Its slowly receding front, with crevasses of
abysmal depths cutting across its crystal surface, is
only a few hundred feet above the level of the railway.
Good trails have been made to it, and its exploration is
not difficult, although it is not wise to traverse some
portions of it without a guide to pilot the way among,
yawning bergschrunds that slash its surface.    It is the
58 centre of a group of glaciers embracing more than one
hundred and fifty-seven square miles, and the hoary
head seen from the hotel is one of several outlets. The
great ice peaks and glaciers are truly an interesting
study. They intensify the gloomy thick clouds, and
burst into glittering silver when the sun shines on them.
Later they are robed in the gorgeous colors of the
evening; and in the mysterious silent night the moon
and the stars look down to see their faces in the
glassy surface.
The Illecillewaet Glacier, like nearly every other
observed glacier in the world, is receding. It is reckoned that the sun drives it back on the average 35 feet
a year, and recovers this much from the bonds of ice.
However, after the ice is gone, the moraine remains,
Lake Marion, near Glacier House
59 and it will be many centuries before the great
rocks carried down by the glacier are reduced to
dust, and the land thus reclaimed supports renewed
vegetation.
From Glacier House other expeditions of great interest may be made. One trail leads first to the shores
of Marion Lake, 1,750 feet above, and two miles distant
from the hotel, where a shelter is erected. Splendid
views are obtained on the way of the range from Eagle
Peak to Sir Donald, and a path strikes off for Observation Point, where another shelter is built for those who
would dwell on the glories of Rogers' Pass to the northeast and the Illecillewaet Valley to the west. Mount
Abbott is a day's climb, but it is an easy one, and should
be undertaken by all, for from it a splendid view is
obtained of the Asulkan Valley.
From Observation Point an extremely fine view is
obtained, down the Illecillewaet Valley, along the precipitous sides of which the track has had to make a
descent of 522 feet in seven miles. This feat taxed
to the utmost the skill of the engineers, and they
accomplished it by means of the famous Loops of
the Selkirks, a winding course which the railway has
to follow.
First, the track crosses a valley leading from Mount
Bonney glacier. Then it touches for a moment the base
of Ross Peak. It doubles back to the right for a mile or
more, and so close are the tracks that a stone might be
tossed from one to the other. Next it sweeps around
and reaches the slope of Mount Cougar on the other side
of the Illecillewaet, but it has to cross the stream once
more before it finally finds a way parallel to the general
trend of the valley.    The line has made a double "S'
60 in its course, and has cut two long gashes on the mount-'
ain side, one above the other.
Twenty-two miles from Glacier, the Illecillewaet
River runs through the Albert Canyon, a gorge so marvellous that several of the regular trains stop for a few
minutes to allow passengers to see its wonders.
The Lookout in Cougar Valley, near Glacier, B. C
More mountains there are, and we shall not lose
sight of them all when the waters of the great Pacific
dash at our feet; for in the mighty upheaval the deep
waters of the sea were no barrier, as is seen by the uplifting of the thousands of bold promontories and mountain isles that cluster along the northwest coast and
stretch out in the great chain of the Aleutian Islands.
These mountain fastnesses will ever remain a game
preserve   for the   grizzly, cinnamon and black bears,
61 • the mountain sheep (big horn), the mountain goat, the
puma or mountain lion, the moose, elk, caribou, and
various species of smaller deer, wolverine, and a great
variety of smaller fur-bearing animals. The mountains will remain a vast park, where man can not only
behold the larger wild beasts, and the beautiful
creatures whose soft fur fair women will ever admire,
but where he may find Nature as it passes from the great
Creator, untarnished by the hand of man. Succeeding
generations of the children of men will gaze upon these
majestic mountains, whose peaks of eternal ice tower
above the clouds that would hide the sun; and will look
with awe at the wild canyons and mountain torrents;
and will behold with ecstacy the many scenes of Edenic
beauty, too sacred to remain in the gaze of the multitude, but "sought out of all those who have pleasure
therein."
In the Ice Cave of the Great Glacier
62 The Great Caves of Nakimu, near Glacier, B. C.
These great caves, which were recently discovered
by Charles H. Deutschman, are situated about six miles
from Glacier, B. C, at the head of a beautiful valley,
the  altitude being  1,980  feet from the
track and   above   the   snow   line.    The
wonderful   caverns  are   formed   by   the
action of water for ages upon the solid
rock, and are a series of chambers with
large entrances, the ceilings being polished
strata of rock, varying in height.     The
main chamber is about 200 feet in height,
with a varying width of from 150 to 200
feet.    The walls sparkle with the quartz
crystals, and myriads of miniature lights
are reflected from the darkness.    In other
parts the walls are smooth as marble, the
harder portions of the formation showing
like the rounded rafters of a cathedral
dome.    No evidence has so far been discovered that
any portion  of these caverns has ever been used  as
the   habitation  of  human  beings.     A  visit  to  these
remarkable   caves   is  an   interesting   day's   trip   from
Glacier, as the scenery from the trail is grand beyond
description.
Revelstoke to Kamloops
Revelstoke is an important centre; from it there is
water communication with the rich Kootenay and
Boundary districts. It is on the Columbia River,
which has made a great bend since the train crossed it
at Donald and, flowing now south instead of north, is
much increased in size. Twenty-eight miles below
Revelstoke it expands into the Arrow Lakes, which fill
the trough between the Selkirk  and Gold  ranges as
63
Chas. H.
Deutschman they run north and south. A branch line runs down
to Arrowhead, and from there well-appointed Canadian
Pacific Railway steamboats carry travellers to Nakusp
and Robson, from which the Slocan, Kootenay, Boundary and Rossland districts are reached.
Down Arrow Lake the steamer plies to Nakusp and
Robson, passing, near the head of the lake, the famous
Halcyon Hot Springs. This is a favorite summer resort,
having a good hotel, while opposite is Halcyon Peak,
Sentinel Valley near Crows Nest, B. C.
10,400 feet high, and several fine waterfalls. A spur
of the Canadian Pacific Railway connects it with Sandon
on Slocan Lake, in the centre of the silver-lead district,
and with Rosebery, to join the steamer that plies down
the lake to Slocan City. Here again the rails begin and
communicate with Robson at the end of the Lower
Arrow on the west, and with Nelson on an arm of
Kootenay Lake on the east.
64 On the Kootenay Lakes, near Nelson, B. C.
The Arrow Lake steamer has also come the full
length from Robson, 165 miles, through splendid mountain scenery, while from Robson trains run over a short
but important line to Trail and Rossland, through one
of the richest mining regions in the world. Yet another
branch from Robson has been constructed through the
Boundary district to Midway and opens up another
prosperous mining locality.
The Crows Nest branch of the Canadian Pacific Railway ends at Kootenay Landing, and from there to
Nelson there is communication by Canadian Pacific
Railway steamer. A steamboat line has been established from Nelson up Kootenay Lake to Lardo, whence
an isolated branch of railway runs thirty-two miles
north to Gerrard, and a steamer plies across Trout Lake
to Trout Lake City, a matter of seventeen miles, so
that every part of Southern British Columbia may be
65 reached by the Canadian Pacific Railway and its connections.
The thriving town of Revelstoke stands in the broad
valley of the Columbia, over which a bridge half a mile
long has been built.
As Craigellachie is passed a monument may be seen
which marks the spot where the last spike was driven
into the great line that joins the Atlantic and the Pacific.
The work had been begun from both ends of the railway,
and it was on November 7, 1885, that, with fitting ceremonial, the last strokes were put to the truly stupendous
task — five years before the stipulated time.
The chain of lakes passed, the valley closes in until
Sicamous Junction is reached. Sicamous is at an altitude of only 1,300 feet above sea level, and is the gateway to a splendid ranching and farming district. From
it can be visited, by the Okanagan branch, Okanagan
Lake, down the seventy miles of which plies the Canadian
Pacific Railway steamers to Penticton, from which the
mining towns to the south may be reached by stage.
The whole region of the Okanagan is a land with a balmy
climate, where fruit grows to perfection, and at Vernon
and at Kelowna, on the lake shore, Lord Aberdeen, late
Governor-General of Canada, has splendid farms. The
names Peachland and Summerland, given to places not
far from Penticton, are suggestive and fully justified.
Shuswap Lake is a most beautiful sheet of water.
It runs up the valleys between the mountains wherever
its waters can find a level, and its long arms have been
compared to the tentacles of an octopus. Each of them
is many miles long and at places as much as two miles
broad, but they often narrow down to a few hundred
yards, and at one such spot the railway crosses the
Sicamous Narrow by a drawbridge.    It then follows
66 Kamloops Lake
the south shore of the Salmon Arm, crossing the Salmon
River.
At Tappen the Salmon Arm is left and the track
strikes boldly out for Shuswap Arm, though in so doing
a way has to be cut through the forest, and Notch Hill,
600 feet above the lake level, has to be passed. From
this elevation a charming view is obtained. On every
side the lake extends silvery arms that wander among
rounded hills and thick woods.
Shuswap Lake gradually narrows into the south
branch of the Thompson River, and steadily down-hill
along its banks runs the line.    The country is an excel-
67 Elk River Canyon, B. C
lent ranching district and has been long settled from
the Pacific Coast.
Kamloops is a thriving little town, and an air of
activity is given to the place by the numerous sawmills
and the steamboats that ply on the lake. It draws
much profit from the mining fields, being a supply point
for them, and from the ranching district to the south,
communication being by stage.
The Thompson and Fraser Canyons
Nicomen is a little mining town where, on the opposite side of the river, gold was first discovered in
British Columbia. The discovery was doubtless the
clue to the finding of the rich goldfields of Caribou, as
miners always prospect up stream to find the lode from
which the placer came.    We are now in the Thompson
68 Eagle Falls, Harrison Hot Springs, B. C
Canyon, whose gold, gorge narrows and deepens till the
scenery is wild beyond description. At Lytton, a small
trading town, the canyon widens to admit the Fraser,
which comes froni the north, between two ranges of
mountain peaks.
The old Government road to Caribou is in evidence
all along the Fraser and Thompson valleys.    Since the
69 «f
building of the railway the use of the wagon road has
been discontinued, except in some places where local
interests make it convenient. At Spuzzum it crosses
the river on a suspension bridge no feet above low
water; yet it is said that in 1881 the river rose to such
a height that it was only by the greatest exertion that
the bridge was saved from destruction by driftwood.
Emerald Lake, Wapta in the Distance.
For fifty-four miles between Lytton and Yale the
river had cut through t his lofty range of mountains,
thousands of feet below their summits. On this section of fifty-four miles a construction army of 7,000
men worked.
During the building of this road, men were suspended by ropes hundreds of feet below the tops of the
cliffs to blast a foothold. Supplies were packed in on
the backs of mules and horses; and building materials
often had to be landed on the opposite bank of the
70 stream and taken across at great expense. It is estimated that portions of this work cost $300,000 per mile.
Below the town of Lytton the river is spanned by a
cantilever bridge 530 feet long, the centre span being
315 feet. The difficulty of its construction was great,
owing to the fact that the site could only be approached
from one end. One-half the materials were sent across
the river on a steel cable one and one-fourth inches in
diameter. Several pieces of the structure weighed
over five tons each. It is claimed that in this respect
the bridge is without a rival.
The Pacific Coast
At Yale the tourist feels the balmy air of the Pacific.
At Spence's Bridge he saw a curious Indian cemetery,
with rudely carved birds perched even on the Cross,
the totem intruding on the Christian symbol. All down
the canyons he has seen occasional natives fishing for
salmon or washing for gold, and at Agassiz he finds a
Vancouver, B. C.from Vancouver Hotel
71
J n
fine Government experimental fruit farm, while five
miles away to the north is Harrison Lake, with its hot
sulphur springs, the visitors to which stay at Harrison
Springs Hotel.
At Mission Junction he can, if so disposed, change
to the branch line, that runs to the international boundary and there joins the Northern Pacific Railroad. By
this route he reaches Seattle and makes connection with
the Shasta route for San Francisco and all the Pacific
States. The main line, however, keeps on past Westminster Junction, where a branch line leads to Westminster, and arrives at the terminus of the Canadian
Pacific Railway at Vancouver.
There he finds his long journey ended and himself
on the shores of Burrard Inlet, one of the finest harbors
on the Pacific. If the inducements of Vancouver and
the splendid service of the Canadian Pacific Railway
Canadian Pacific Steamer "Princess Charlotte "—Seattle,
Victoria and Vancouver Service
72 Hotel, Vancouver, do not tempt him to stay, he can
embark at the very railway station on steamships that
will take him to the ends of the earth. The Canadian
Pacific Railway Company's Empresses will transport
him swiftly and comfortably to Japan or Chinj.; the
Canadian-Australian line runs regularly to HonoM^K
Fiji, Australia and New Zealand; while if such long
journeys do not suit his pleasure, he can sail by a Canadian Pacific Railway steamer to Victoria on Vancouver
Island, or take longer coasting trips to the golden Yukon,
or to Seattle.
Vancouver has a fine harbor, landlocked, well
lighted and safe, to which resort, besides the liners
already mentioned, freighters from all parts of the
world. They bring silks and teas from the Orient;
they take away the lumber and canned fish of British
Columbia and the wheat and flour of the Canadian
West; and they make the port one of the most important of the Pacific Coast.
The city, though only twenty years old, and burnt
to the ground in 1886, now has over 60,000 people and
is the centre of many flourishing industries, presenting
everywhere the appearance of a rapidly progressing
community. Its well-built, wide streets add to the
impression, and the extremely picturesque surroundings of the city make it pleasant as a residence and
delightful to visit. Stanley Park is its crowning glory,
in the depths of which the Douglas fir and giant cedar
are seen in all their magnificence and Nature is allowed
to display her unspoiled beauty.
A few hours' steam from Vancouver is Victoria, the
capital of British Columbia. Across the Straits of
Georgia daily plies the fast new Canadian Pacific Railway steamer "Princess Victoria,': passing through an
73 ,1?
The Canadian Pacific Empress Hotel, Victoria, B. C
archipelago of small islands, comparable to the Thousand Islands of the St. Lawrence, though with infinitely
finer timber. Victoria itself is a city of lovely homes
and the seat of the Provincial Government, its Parliament building being one of the handsomest edifices on
the continent. This city is of singular beauty and has
a population of over 30,000. The magnificent Empress
Hotel, the latest addition to the splendid Canadian
Pacific Hotel System, overlooks the harbor and for situation and appointments is acknowledged to be one of
the finest hotels on the Pacific Coast. Beacon Hill
Park, 300 acres in extent, is no less beautiful than
Stanley Park.
Farewell, old mountains! Your vales with their
beautiful verdure, and your sunny slopes shut in from
the fierce winds and fiercer business of the outside
world, have spoken of earthly peace, and given glimpses
of   Edenic  beauty   too   rarely   seen   on   earth!    Your
74 snowy crests, reaching above the clouds into the purer
atmosphere' of the heavens, have been an inspiration,
ever pointing to the Infinite! Your great glaciers with
their enduring ice have been a monitor of the Eternal.
Grand old mountains!    Your frown is terrible!
" Yet are ye even prodigal of  smiles,
Smiles sweeter than your frowns are stern." m*
Empress of Britain
One of the palatial Royal Mail steamships of the Canadian Pacific Railway Company's
Atlantic service. Makes the passage between Liverpool and Quebec in less than a week;
900 miles in sheltered, waters; less than four days at sea.
Empress of Japan—Pacific Service, Canadian Pacific Railway Co.
TO JAPAN AND CHINA
'' Empress of India "
'' Empress of China "
" Empress of Japan "
"Monteagle"
Sailing between Vancouver and Victoria, B. C, and Yokohama, Kobe and Nagasaki,
Japan, and Shanghai and Hongkong, China.
THE SHORTEST AND SMOOTHEST ROUTE ACROSS THE PACIFIC
76 The Canadian Pacific Railway
The World's Highway Between the Atlantic
and the Pacific
Special Attention Is Called to the Parlor, Sleeping and Dining Car Service
—So Important an Accessory Upon a Railway Whose Cars Run
Upwards of  Three  Thousand  Miles Without  Change
These cars are of unusual strength and size, with berths, smoking and toilet
accommodation correspondingly roomy. The transcontinental sleeping cars are fitted
with double doors and windows, have higher ceilings than most sleeping cars, and with
vibration reduced to a minimum, are the most comfortable cars operated by any railroad in the world.   The seats are well upholstered, with high backs and arms.
The upper berths are provided with windows and ventilators. The exteriors are of
polished red mahogany and the interiors are of white mahogany and satin wood.
No expense is spared in providing the Dining Cars with the choicest viands and
seasonable delicacies, and the bill of fare and wine list will compare favorably with
those of the most prominent hotels.
Observation Cars, specially designed to allow an unbroken view of the wonderful
mountain scenery, are run on transcontinental trains during the summer season
(from May to about October 15th).
The First-Class Day Coaches are proportionately elaborate in their arrangement
for the comfort of the passengers; and for those who desire to travel at a cheaper rate
Tourist Cars, with bedding and porter in charge, are run at a small additional charge;
Colonist Sleeping Cars are run on transcontinental trains without additional charge.
The colonist cars are fitted with upper and lower berths after the same general style as
other sleeping cars, but are not upholstered, and the passenger may furnish his own
bedding, or purchase it of the company's agents at terminal stations at nominal rates.
The entire passenger equipment is matchless in elegance and comfort.
First-Class Sleeping and Parlor Car Tariff
FOR ONE DOUBLE BERTH, LOWER OR UPPER, TOURIST CAR
IN SLEEPING CAR BETWEEN TARIFF
Halifax and Montreal  $ 4,00 	
St. John, N. B., and Montreal  2.50 	
Quebec and Montreal  1.50 	
Montreal and Toronto  2.00 	
Montreal and Chicago  5.00 	
Montreal and Winnipeg  8.00 $4.00
Montreal and Calgary  13.00 6.50
Montreal and Banff  14.00 7.00
Montreal and Revelstoke  15.50 7.75
Montreal and Vancouver  18.00 9.00
Ottawa and Toronto  2.00. 	
Ottawa and Vancouver  17.50 8.75
Fort William and Vancouver  15.00 	
Toronto and Chicago  3.00 	
Toronto and Winnipeg  8.00 4.00
Toronto and Calgary  12.00 6.00
Toronto and Banff  13.00 6.50
Toronto and Revelstoke  14.50 7.25
Toronto and Vancouver  17.00 8.50
Boston and Montreal   2.00 	
Boston and Vancouver  19.00 	
New York and Montreal  2.00 	
Boston and St. Paul  7.00 	
Boston and Chicago  5.50 	
Montreal and St. Paul  6.00 	
St. Paul and Winnipeg  3.00 	
St. Paul and Vancouver  12.00 6.00
Winnipeg and Vancouver  12.00 6.00
Between other stations rates in proportion.
Rates for full section double the berth rate. Staterooms between three and four
times the berth rate.
Accommodation in first-class sleeping cars and parlor cars will be sold only to
holders of first-class transportation, and in tourist cars to holders of first or second
class accommodation.
77 (fir he?
Canadian Pacific Hotel System
While the sleep'ng and dining car service of the Canadian Pacific Railway
furnishes every comfort and luxury for travelers making the continuous overland through trip, it has been found necessary to provide comfortable, "well-
managed hotels at the principal points of interest among the mountains where
tourists and others might explore and enjoy the magnificent scenery.
Algonquin Hotel, St. Andrews, N. B.
{Open from June to September)
This popular Atlantic Seaside Resort is situated on a peninsula five miles long,
extending into Passamaquoddy Bay. Good deep-sea and fresh-water fishing may be
enjoyed; the roads are perfect, making driving and cycling most enjoyable. The
facilities for yachting and boating cannot be surpassed and there are golf links that
have no superior in Canada. The hotel, on which a large expenditure has recently been
made in improvements, offers everymodern accommodation for tourists.
Rates, $3.50 per day and upward.   Special rates to those making prolonged visits.
McAdam Station Hotel, McAdam Jet., N. B.
Offers the visitor in search of sport a choice of routes through the whole provinces. It
gives him, too, an outing at a summer retreat, free from the heat and crowds of the
fashionable resorts, whence the hunting and fishing grounds are easily accessible.
The rates are from $2.50 £3r day upward.
The Chateau Frontenac, Quebec
In the quaintest and historically the most interesting city in America, is one of the
finest hotels on the continent. It is fireproof and occupies a commanding position
overlooking the St. Lawrence, its site being, perhaps, the grandest in the world. The
Chateau Frontenac was erected at a cost of over a million dollars. Great taste marks
the furnishing, fitting and decorating of this imposing structure, in which comfort
and elegance are combined to an unequaled extent.
Rates, $4.00 per day and upward, with special arrangements for large parties and
those making prolonged visits.
The Place Viger, Montreal
Is a handsome structure which faces Place Viger Square; is most elaborately furnished and modernly appointed, the general style and elegance characterizing the
Chateau Frontenac, at Quebec, being followed. Conveniently located near the steamship wharves.
Rates, $3.50 per day and upward, with special arrangements for large parties or
those making a prolonged stay.
Caledonia Springs Hotel, Caledonia Springs, Ont.
Is situated at the famous Caledonia Springs, so well known all over the American
Continent.
The Royal Alexandra, Winnipeg, Man.
A newly completed 300-room house, situated at the railway station; furnished with every
modern convenience, including cafe and grill room.   European and American plans.
Rates:   European plan, $2.00 per day up.
Banff Springs Hotel, Banff, Alba.
(Open from May to October)
In the Canadian National Park, on the eastern slope of the Rocky Mountains, 4,500
feet above sea level, at the junction of the Bow and Spray rivers. A large and handsome structure, with every convenience that modern ingenuity can suggest, costing
about half a million dollars.
Rates, $3.50 per day and upward8 according to the rooms.   Special rates by the week
or month will be given on application.
78 Canadian Pacific Hotels—Continued
The Lake Louise Hotel, Laggan, Alba.
(Open from June to October)
This quiet resting place in the mountains is situated on the margin of Lake
Louise, about two miles distant from the station at Laggan, from which there is a good
carriage drive and an excellent base for tourists and explorers desiring to see the lakes
and the adjacent scenery at their leisure.
The rates are $3.50 per day and upward.
Mount Stephen House, Field, B. C.
Is a magnificent mountain hotel, several times enlarged, fifty miles west of Banff in
Kicking Horse Canyon, at the base of Mount Stephen, the chief peak of the Rockies,
towering 8,000 feet above. This is a favorite place for tourists, mountain climbers and
artists and sport is plentiful, Emerald Lake, one of the most picturesque mountain
waters, being within easy distance. The newly discovered Yoho Valley is reached
from Field.
Rates, $3.50 per day and upward, with special arrangements for parties making
prolonged visits.
Emerald Lake Chalet, Near Field, B. C.
(Open from June to October)
Is a Swiss Chalet Hotel, situated on the margin of Emerald Lake, near Field, and
affords splendid accommodation for those wishing to remain at the lake or who intend
visiting the famous Yoho Valley, to which excellent trails lead from this point.
Rates, $3.50 per day and upward.   Special rates to those making prolonged visits.
Glacier House, Glacier, B. C.
Is situated in the heart of the Selkirks, within forty-five minutes' walk of the Great
Glacier, which covers an area of about thirty-eight square miles.
The hotel is in a beautiful amphitheatre, surrounded by lofty mountains, of which
Sir Donald, rising 8,000 feet above the railway, is the most prominent. The dense
forests all about are filled with the music of restless brooks, and the hunter for large
game can have his choice of "big horn, mountain goat, grizzly and mountain bear."
The main point of interest, however, is the Great Glacier. One may safely climb upon
its wrinkled surface or penetrate its water-worn caves.
Rates $3.50 per day and upward, with special arrangements for parties making
prolonged visits.
Hotel Revelstoke, Revelstoke, B. C.
At the portal of the West Kootenay goldfields and the Arrow Lakes, situated between
the Selkirk and Gold ranges.   Is complete in all details.
Rates, $3.00 per day and upward.   A. J. MacDonell, Lessee.
Hotel Sicamous, Sicamous, B. C.
Built on the shores  of the  Shuswap  Lakes,  where the Okanagan branch of the
Canadian Pacific Railway leads south to the Okanagan Valley and the contiguous
mining country-
Rates, $3.00 per day and upward, with reductions to those making prolonged visits.
Mrs. H. Moore, Lessee.
Hotel Vancouver, Vancouver, B. C.
Is at the Pacific Coast terminus of the railway. This magnificent hotel, lately much
enlarged, is designed to accommodate the large commercial business of the place, as
well as the great number of tourists who always find it profitable and interesting to
make here a stop of a day or two. It is situated near the center of the city, and from
it there is a glorious outlook in every direction. Its accommodations and service are
perfect in every detail, and excel those of the best hotels in Eastern Canada or the
United States.       ||||
Rates, $4.00 per day and upward, with special terms for those making prolonged
visits.
Empress Hotel, Victoria, B. C.
Newly completed; 175 rooms; at short distance from boat landing. Furnished with
every modern convenience.   European and American plans.
Inquiries as to accommodation, rates, etc., at any of the Canadian Pacific hotels
will be promptly answered by addressing managers of the different hotels, or communicating direct with
The Manager-in-Chief of C. P. R. Hotels, Montreal.
79 riwr I
Agencies
Adelaide..SOUTH Aus.. Australasian United Steam Nav. Co. [Ltd.]	
Antwerp Belgium. . Sidney Edward Cruse, Agent —	
Auckland N. Z..Union S. S. Oo. of New Zealand [Ltd.l	
Baltimore Md. .A. W. Robson, Passenger and Ticket Agent 127 E. Baltimore St.
Bellingham WASH..W. H. Gordon, Passenger Agent 1233 Elk St.
Berlin Germany. .International Sleeping Car Co 69 Unter den Linden
Bombay India..Ewart Latham & Co., Thos. Cook& Son 13 Esplanade Rd.
-o -un- ~~ 5 F. R. Perry, District Passenger Agent 362 Washington St.
Boston MASS.} q A> Titcomb, City Passenger Agent	
Brandon Man..Geo. A. Walton, District Passenger Agent	
Brisbane QD..The British India and Queensland Agency Co. [Ltd.]
Bristol Eng. .F. W. Forster, Agent 18 St. Augustine's Parade
-o i~       -d.-,-, ~™,,, i International Sleeping Car Co Nord Station
BrusselS....BELGiUM|Thos>0ook&gon - tt Rue de ]a Madeleine
Buffalo N.Y..G.H. Griffin, City Passenger Agent 233 Main St
-,,_.. T c Thos. Cook & Son 9 Old Court House St.
Calcutta INDIA ^ G-illanders, Arbuthnot & Go	
Calgary Alba..J. E. Proctor, District Passenger Agent	
Canton China .. Jardine, Matheson & Co   	
Chicago III. .A. C. Shaw, General Agent, Passenger Department 232 S. Clark St.
Cincinnati   Ohio..A. J. Blaisdell, G. A.P. D SintonHotel Block, 15 E. Fourth St.
Cleveland Ohio.. Geo. A. Clifford, City Passr. Agent... Cor. Superior and West Third Sts.
_. fffro    .„„5 International Sleeping Car Co Central Station
Cologne Germany } Thos. Cook & Son IDomhof
Colombo Ceylon. . Bois Brothers <fc Co., Thos. Cook & Son	
Detroit Mich. . A. E. Edmonds, City Passenger Agent 7 Fort Street W.
Dumth  Minn. .M. Adson, Gen. Passr. Agt., D. S. S. & A. Ry Manhattan Bldg.
Frankfort ..Germany..International Sleeping Car Co 17 Kaiserstrasse
Glasgow ...Scotland..Thomas Russell, Agent 67 St. Vincent St.
Halifax N. S.. J. D. Chipman, City Passenger and Freight Agent 37 George St.
Hamburg .. Germany .. Thos. Cook & Son, Tourist Agents 39 Alsterdamm
Hamilton Ont. . W. J. Grant, Commercial Agent Cor. King and James Sts.
Hobart Tasmania..Union S. S. Co. of New Zealand [Ltd.]	
Hongkong D. W. Craddock, General Traffic Agent, China, etc.
Honolulu H. L.Theo. H. Davies & Co. [Ltd.]	
Kobe Jap an.. J. Rankin, Agent : 14 A. Maye-Machi
Liverpool ENG..H. S. Carmichael, General Passenger Agent 24 James St.
T I   ,  -n„„ ( Geo. McL. Brown, General Traffic Agent 62-65 Charing Cross S. W.
London ENG. } H D Annable, General Freight Agent....67-68 King William St. E. 0,
London ONT..W. Fulton, City Passenger Agent 161Dundas St.
Los Angeles Cal. .A. A. Polhamus. Traveling Passenger Agent 609 South Spring St.
iur  j -j   mM      0_.„T (International Sleeping Car Co 18 Calle de Alcala [Equitable Bldg.]
Madrid SpAIN} Thos. Cook & Son 30 Calle de Arenal
Melbourne Aus..Union S. S. Co. of New Zealand [Ltd.]	
Minneapolis Minn..W. R. Callaway, Gen. Passenger Agent, Soo Line
_.     "i      . ^SlU 5 E. J. Hebert, General Agent, Passenger Dept Windsor St. Station
Montreal......... Que. } A> E Lalande, City Passenger Agent 129 St. James St.
Moscow Russia .International Sleeping Car Co Hotel Metropole
«T  -cr    ,_, -vr -.7- 5 Allan Cameron, General Traffic Agent 458 Broadway
New York N.Y.^International Sleeping Car Co 281FifthAve.
Niagara Falls N. Y. .D. Isaacs Prospect House
s§|B I tt,^ W§SM S International Sleeping Car Co 2 Avenue Massena
•Nlce * RANCE? Thos. Cook & Son 16 Avenue Massena
Ottawa Ont. . George Duncan, City Passenger Agent 42 Sparks St.
(International Sleeping Car Co 3 Boulevard des Capicunes
Paris France ■< Hernu, Peron & Co. [Ltd.], Ticket Agents 61 Boulevard Haussman
( Thos. Cook & Son 1 Place d'Opera
Philadelphia Pa. . F. W. Huntington, General Agent Passr. Dept 629-631 Chestnut St.
Portland ME..R. D. Jones, Ticket Agent, Maine Central Railroad Union Depot
Portland Ore. .F. R. Johnston, General Agerft Passenger Department—142 Third St.
Quebec Que .Jules Hone, City Passenger Agent 30 St. John St., cor. Palace Hill
•r-  If Tm.T^5 International Sleeping Car Co 93Piazza San Silvestro
■Kome ITALY } Thos Cook & Son 54 PinzzaEsedradi Termini
Sault Ste. Marie. Mich. . W. J. Atchison, City Passr. Agt. ;W. C. Sutherland, Depot Ticket Agent
St. Jonn N. B..W. B.Howard, District Passenger Agent 8 King St.
St. Paul Minn. .L. M. Harmsen, City Ticket Agent, Soo Line 379 Robert St.
St. Petersburg Rus.. International Sleeping Car Co \ 5 Perspective Newsky
San Francisco .... Cal. .E.E.Penn.G.A.P.D.; J.H.Griffin, D.F.A.,77 Ellis St.. James Flood Bldg.
Seattle Wash. .A. B. Calder, G. A. P. D Mutual Life Bldg., 609 First Ave.
Shanghai China. .A. R. Owen, Agent	
Spokane Wash. .J. S. Carter, Gen. Agt. Passr. Dept. .Cor. Stevens St. and Riverside Ave.
Suva Fiji. .UnionS. S. Co. of New Zealand [Ltd.]	
Sydney Aus. .UnionS. S. Co. of New Zealand [Ltd.]	
Tacoma Wash..O. H. Reade, Passenger Agent 1113 Pacific Ave.
Toronto Ont..R. L. Thompson, District Passenger Agent 67 Yonge St»
Vancouver B. C..C. B. Foster, Asst. Gen. Passenger Agent; J. Moe, City Ticket Agent
Victoria B. 0..L. D. Chetham, City Passenger Agent H02 Government St.
"Warsaw Russia. .International Sleeping Car Co Hotel Bristol
"Washington D. 0. .E. P. Allen, C. F. & P. A Bond Bldg., 14th St. and New York Ave.
■Winnipeg Man. .A. C. Smith, City Ticket Agent Cor. Main St. and Portage Ave.
Yokohama Japan. . W. T. Payne, Manager Trans-Pacific Line 14 Bund
^*($ >
Messrs. THOS. C00K.& SON. Tourist Agents, with offices in all parts of the world, are
also agents of the Canadian Pacific Railway, and can supply tickets and information.   fir  w1'
CANADIAN
^PACIFIC/
1
I
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