Open Collections

The Chung Collection

Chung Logo

The Chung Collection

A market analysis for the development of Canadian Pacific piers in Vancouver Canadian Pacific Railway Company. Department of Research. Jul 1, 1965

Item Metadata

Download

Media
chungtext-1.0226340.pdf
Metadata
JSON: chungtext-1.0226340.json
JSON-LD: chungtext-1.0226340-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): chungtext-1.0226340-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: chungtext-1.0226340-rdf.json
Turtle: chungtext-1.0226340-turtle.txt
N-Triples: chungtext-1.0226340-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: chungtext-1.0226340-source.json
Full Text
chungtext-1.0226340-fulltext.txt
Citation
chungtext-1.0226340.ris

Full Text

 A MARKET ANALYSIS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF
CANADIAN PACIFIC PIERS IN VANCOUVER
DEPARTMENT OF RESEARCH,
REPORT S-327-65,
JULY   1965.
/re A* a <y? y™*  B^A
BaZi   &--*- c .
12ZZL  A Market. Analysis for the Development of
Canadian Pacific Piers in Vancouver
Department of Research,
Rebort S-327-65,
July 1965. (fi
i
k ]
II Preface
This study has been undertaken at the request of the
Vice-President, Rail Operations, to analyze the international
waterborne traffic through the Port of Vancouver. The
purpose of this market analysis is to provide assistance in
the design and development of new deep-sea general cargo
faoilities in Vancouver by Canadian Pacific.
This study does not deal with the estimated capital
costs or economic feasibility of such development. It is
rather intended as a guide in the development of engineering
designs and capital costs so that meaningful economics can
be developed at a later date.
The possible locations for the construction of new
facilities are: the sites presently occupied by Pier A, Sheds
5,6 and 7, and the narrow finger piers to the east of Sheds
5, 6 and 7. The development of Canadian Pacific's pier sites
is dependent upon the compatibility of such development with
the overall development of Canadian Pacific's waterfront
property, and the availability of back-up servicing areas for
the pier operations.
Present plans for the development of the Canadian Pacific
property immediately behind the pier sites are such that no
serious constraints are imposed upon the development of the
pier facilities for general cargo use. Present plans allow
for the continued -operation and the possible expansion of the
rail yards behind the pier sites.
The only restraint upon the development of the pier
facilities is the Harbour Freeway, presently in the initial
planning stage, which would pass immediately south of Sheds
5, 6 and 7 at an elevation of 22 feet above track level. This
development would not seriously affect the design of pier
facilities at this site.  A MARKET ANALYSIS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT  OF
CANADIAN PACIFIC  PIERS  IN VANCOUVER
Table  of Contents
Chaptei
PaSP
General Analysis  of Canada's Waterborne
Import/Export Traffic
II
Market Analysis of International Water-
borne Traffic Through, the Port of
Vancouver
21
III
Methods of General Cargo Handling
35
IV
Analysis of General Cargo by Shipping
Agent
k9
Survey of Competitive U.S. West Coast
Port Facilities
58
VI
Alternative Designs and Stages of
Development for Canadian Pacific General
Cargo Pier Sites
6-+
VII
Guidelines for Pier Design
77
Appendix
I
II
III
Commodity Classification of Bulk and
General Cargoes
Projected General Cargo Traffic for the
Port of Vancouver
(1) Pages 26-30 of Chapter IV, Report S-265-63
(2) List of Shipping Agents and Lines Serving
Vancouver \
(W A MARKET ANALYSIS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF
CANADIAN PACIFIC PIERS IN VANCOUVER
Tables
Table No.
Description
Page
A-l
A-2
A-3
A-k
A-5
Percentage Distribution of Canadian Merchandise
Exports and Imports by Selected Countries and
Years -.™
Increase in Volume of Non-Agricultural Exports,
Canada and World
Canadian Imports by End-Use
Distribution of General Cargo Unloaded at
Canadian Ports, Pacific Coast Ports, and the
Port of Vancouver, 1963
Distribution of General Cargo Loaded at
Canadian Ports, Pacific Coast Ports, and the
Port of Vancouver, 1963
1
3
11
B-l
B-2
B-3
B-if.
B-5
Composition of International Cargoes, Loaded
and Unloaded, Through the Port of Vancouver,
1953-19614. 22
Market Areas for General Cargo, Port of
Vancouver, 1963 28
Actual and Forecast Loaded and Unloaded
General Cargo, Port of Vancouver 30
Significant Increases in Export General Cargoes,
By Commodity 29
Significant Increases in Import General Cargoes
By Commodity
C-l
C-2
C-3
C-J+
c-5
c-6
0-7
Oriental Traffic - Handling Methods
Australasian Traffic - Handling Methods
European Traffic - Handling Methods
Import Steel - Origin and Method of Handling,
Pier B-C, 1961+
Import Lumber - Origin and Method of Handling,
Pier B-C, 1961;
Import Heavy Machinery - Origin and Method of
Handling, Pier B-C, I96J4..
Composition of Overside Export Cargoes, by
Commodity and by Destination, Pier B-C, 1961).
35
36
36
37
39
39 II Table No.
Description
Pafte
D-l
D-2
D-J+
D-5
Analysis of General Cargo Traffic, by Shipping
Agent, 1961;
Inward and Outward Distribution of Traffic, by
Shipping Agent, 1961;
Distribution of Local Versus Overland Movement
to and from C.P.R. Piers in Vancouver, 1960-61;
Piers in Vancouver, 1961;
Analysis of Rail Traffic off Canadian Pacific
Piers in 1961;, by Shipping Agent
51
52
51;
56
Figure No.
Figures
A-l
A-2
A-3
A-l;
A-5
A-6
A-7
A-8
A-9
B-l
B-2
B-3
B-k
International Cargoes Loaded and Unloaded at
Canadian Ports, 1953-63
International General Cargo Traffic Loaded and
Unloaded at Canadian Ports, 1958-63
Composition of Loaded International General
Cargoes at Canadian Ports
Composition of Unloaded International General
Cargoes at Canadian Ports, 1958-63
Percentage Composition of Waterborne Cargoes
at Canadian Ports - 1963
Flow of Export General Cargo to Japan and the
United Kingdom by Area of Exit - 1963
Flow of Import General Cargo from Japan and
the United Kingdom by Area of Entry - 1963
Flow of Import General Cargo from Japan by
Area of Entry, 1950 - 1963
Flow of Import General Cargo from the United
Kingdom by Area of Entry, 1950 - 1963
Total International Cargoes Loaded and Unloaded
at the Port of Vancouver, 1953-61;
Gen
.argoes Loaded and Unloaded at the Port
of Vancouver, 1953-1961;
Composition of International General Cargoes,
Port of Vancouver, By Commodity, 1963
Composition of International General Cargoes,
Port of Vancouver, by Area of Origin and
Destination, 1963
1
5
6
7
7
13
11;
15
16
21
23
25
26 rtp
I
I
1
I
1 Figure No
B-5
B-6
B-7
Composition of General Cargoes Loaded at  the
Port of Vancouver,  1953-61;
Composition of General Cargoes Unloaded at the
Port of Vancouver, 1953-61;
Anticipated Occupancy Rates for Port  of
Vancouver's Present General Cargo Facilities
Paf?e
27
27
32
C-l
C-2
Flow of Import General Cargo on Pier B-C, by
Origin - Average Tonnage per Ship - 1961;
Flow of Export General Cargo on Pier B-C, by
Destination - Average Tonnage per Ship - 1961;
38
k-1
Map No.
Maps
I
II
III
IV
V
VI
VII
Present Pier Facilities Adjacent to Downtown
Vancouver
General Plan for Reconstruction of Pier A
(Number 1)
General Plan for Reconstruction of Pier A
(Number 2)
Proposed Connection of Pier A to Pier B-C
General Design of Facilities for Sheds
5, 6 and 7 Site
Proposed Stages of Development for Canadian
Pacific General Cargo Piers (Number 1)
Proposed Stages of Development for Canadian
Pacific General Cargo Piers (Number 2)
65
67
69
70
72
75
76 ii
I
I
I CHAPTER I
GENERAL ANALYSIS OF CANADA'S
WATERBORNE IMPORT/EXPORT TRAFFIC
In order to place the growth pattern of international
traffic through the Port of Vancouver in proper perspective,
an analysis of Canada's import and export trade is necessary.
The format of this analysis is as follows:
A. General Aspects of Canada's Foreign Trade
B. Commodity Analysis
C. Port Analysis: Competitive Factors
D. Summary
A. General Aspects of Canada's Foreign Trade
Table A-l shows the geographic distribution of Canada's
exports and imports over the period 1945-1964. In 1964, 53.4
percent of Canada's exports were destined to the United States,
while 69.0 percent of Canada's imports came from that Country.
Canada's trade with the United Kingdom has declined somewhat
in import suae e while its trade with other countries has been
increasing more rapidly. In particular, Canada's trade with
Japan has increased markedly.
Recently Canada's exports of manufactured goods have been
expanding more rapidly than exports of primary or processed
materials, as shown by Table A-2, a pattern similar to that
experienced in the world as a whole.
Table A-2
Increase in Volume of Non-Agricultural Exports,
 Canada and World
(Average Annual Percentage Change)
Canada
1946-63  1960-63
World
1955-63
Primary Materials
Processed Products
Manufactured Products
TOTAL
S.6
4.5
0.'
4.6
6.0
4.0
21.0
6.1
4.
.0
6
,S
g
.S
6.3
Source: Economic Council of Canada, First Annual Review, 1964.  - 2 -
Table A-l
o
pi
ooooooo o
OOOOOOO Q
oooooooo
oooooo o o
o o OO ooo©
oooooooo
W
<D
rt-H
p.
c
o
oj
*■*!
4>)
•C
oi
t---t COCOl—GI G*\ in
-H-rtj-cvic-Tvo-rtjrvo o\
CO«-i--liH*r|-rl--l*rt.
(rtOOO-riC.COi-.CO
j^ MD .rtfr-rtf-rtf-rtf-D __r
■o
c
CO
CO
p
o
o,
K
w
a)
a
•H
*o
c
at
Jrt
o
i-rt ral
0) i-.(
S cdt
a.
C >i
a. (
t-t -oi
•a ci
CO cd.
cd co(
o
0
•H
<M   J-l
OP
c
c a
O o
•HO)
■P       )
•3-OJ
■° s>)
-HrtrtS
S. O)
P <U\
a rl)
•H  fl>)
Q CO)
a- >»
-rt-rt-ll
CO
p m,
c
<D
>*&
u
0)
CU Mi
o
xi
Kl
{
cot
■oj
cd)
•G
M
rtSi
cOi
•HI
to
<
C)
■*■»$
it
c.
°)
§
°
i
cd
fl)
p.
cr
i-rt
_a
8f
■oi
rt)
fart.
J
ci
Di
fl)i
Irtrt
cOi
CO)
)
a>
-p
t-i
Si
O rt-*-**■ 00 COVO--* 00
■■rt rltrl ri ---I t-i <-. *-l
I
VO -H COON-**©! O
ocvi ro<*.c».--t ^*
t—CM CM O OOOOO
•      •••••       •
OOVOCOOO C—C--VO
sooHtxnAini-.
o\tr\ t*-tr— irvst* -^j* -=t
CM--lrtrtrtr.r.rt
vo cm --i como o-rti-
rt'— in o vo _r cr.vo co
cvVrtOvo uMfMrMrtCMn
09
P
rt-t
I
H
0)1
CO)
•H)
•o)
c
cd)
o(
a>
rH O-O t—VO fr-00 CO
HrtOOOOOO
I
■st-coOOOO CO
O O CM CM OJ CM CU
«-< «-i ooir.cocvi--f
cu mirtTMAirMnm
ONC0VO t~t«-oos
aD cm co o o O-co t-
H       t-l rt
CJ-*0.0\CUOr-0-*0
"TWO OJ t>-b-C0 t— C7\
|>-.VO f-VO VO VO VrtO vo
g
g
3
CO
l-l
CO
o
rt,
o
rtp
co
•H
•H
>
(I)
K
cd
o
i.
-p
OQ
t-I
P
CO
p
CO
c
cd
■o
CO
c
CO
o
co
m
Q
CO
J-.) lf\0-f\ O rt CM CO-rtf
CO) --rt* IT. LfWOVrtOVrtOVOVrtrt*
CU) ONCT\O%O\O\O\O\0\
>-l rtt-iHrtrtrtr-Irt
1-t.O LTvO rt CM CO--t
^r Lr\-(.vovovovovo
a\ o\ <j\ o\ o\ o\ o\ as
r-i rt r-i r-t i-i r. i-i <-l
CJ
o
(rt
O
oo  - 3 -
Canada's exports of manufactured products are anticipated
to increase over the next decade at an annual rate of at least
5 percent. Most of the export markets for these products are
found in the developed countries - United States and European
countries.
The future level of Canada's imports is dependent
primarily upon the growth of personal income and consumption
in Canada, and the share of the consumer market satisfied by
domestic as opposed to foreign sources of supply.
The devaluation of the Canadian dollar in 1962 arrested
the rise of Canada's imports during 1962 and 1963. However,
recently Canada's imports have been rising sharply, due mainly
to the strong expansion in domestic investment activity. In
the long run, as personal income expands, further increases in
imports may be expected. However, imports may grow at a slower
rate than gross national product. Substitution for imports
by domestic production may be expected, as the growing Canadian
market enables domestic producers to compete more effectively
withLforeign suppliera_.
Table A-3 shows the composition and growth rates of
Canada's imports for selected periods.
Table A-3
Canadian Imports by End-Use
(Percent of Current Value)
Consumer
Industrial Auto-     goods
Materials Capital mobiles other than  ; Total
_and Fuels  Goods  & Parts Automobiles Imports
Average 1950-52
Average 1961-63
Average Annual
rate of growth
1950-52 to
1961-63
46
26
7
21
100
36
31
d
25
100
6.3
2.1      6.4    7*4
Source: Bank of Canada, Statistical Summary.
B.   Commodity Analysis
From 1952 to 1963, total international waterborne cargoes
loaded and unloaded at Canadian Ports increased by 61 percent.
Figure A-l shows the growth pattern over this period of total
loaded and unloaded international cargoes.
4.8 II - 5 -
mm
of t
25
ons
ons
20
15 -
10 -
1958
Figure A-2
International General Cargo Traffic
Loaded and Unloaded at Canadian Ports
 1958-63	
59
Loaded
Total
60
61
62
63
Source: D.B.S., Shipping Report, Part I.
General cargoes are considered as those cargoes which
are handled by the traditional ship-shore winch gear, such as
ingots, packaged goods, and wood pulp bales, as opposed to
those commodities which are generally poured or shovelled into
a ship such as grain, salt, or cane sugar. A complete
classification of commodities between bulk and general cargo
is presented in Sheets 1-4, Appendix I. This list also shows
the commodity composition of the major classifications of
general cargoes used throughout this Report.
Export general cargoes loaded at Canadian Ports
increased from 9.8 million tons in 1958 to 14.2 million tons
in 1963» representing an increase of approximately 45 percent.  - 6 -
All categories of export general cargoes increased with the
exception of inedible end-products. In comparison, import
general cargoes decreased from 6.4 million tons in 1958 to
4.6 million tons in 1963, a decrease of approximately 39
percent. This decrease was caused by a marked decline in
petrochemical imports, as the domestic petrochemical industry
expanded to satisfy domestic requirements. Excluding these
petrochemical products, waterborne general cargo imports
increased from 3.3 million tons in 1958 to 4.3 million tons
In 19631 an increase of some 32 percent.
The composition of the loaded and unloaded general
cargoes from 1958 to 1963 is shown respectively by Figures A-3
and A-4.
Figure A-3
Composition of Loaded International
General Cargoes at Canadian Ports
Millions of Tons
15 —1
Total
10 —
Fabricated Materials
Inedible
195*
59
60
61
62
"I
63
* Crude Materials and End Products
Note: Composition of categories, Figures A-3» A-i; and
A-5, is shown in Appendix I.
Source: D.B.S. Shipping Report, Part I  - 7 -
Figure A-l;
Composition of.Unloaded International
General Cargoes at Canadian Ports 1958-63
Millions of Tons
8 -i
6 -
Fabricated Materials
Inedible
1958
59
60
61
62
* Food, Feed & Beverages, Crude Materials, and
End Products .
Source: D.B.S., Shipping Report, Part- I.
otal
63
. The percentage composition of international water-
borne general cargo loaded and unloaded at Canadian Ports
during 1963 is shown by Figure A-5.
Figure A-5
Percentage Composition of Waterborne
Cargoes at Canadian Ports - 1963
LOADED
f- 11.6%
if- 0.6$.
Consumer
Goods
•End Products,
Inedible
■Crude Materials,
Inedible
IF 5.2%'
fr-9.6%
Food, Feed,
Beverages and Tobacco
UNLOADED
•31.1%-)
■3«0%^
£-73.0%— Fabricated Materials, —34,8%-)
Inedible
20.2%-)
10.9%-)
Source: D.B.S. Shipping Report, Part I m - 8 -
C.  Port Analysis - Competitive Factors
Of particular significance to this study is Vancouver's
competitive position relative to Atlantic and Eastern Canadian
ports and other West Coast ports. Presented below is an analysis
of the competitive factors which influence the port distribution
of Canada's waterborne foreign trade.
1. Vancouver's Competition with Eastern and Atlantic Canadian Ports
(a) Unloaded General Cargo
The percentage shares which Pacific ports, and, in particular, the Port of Vancouver, obtained during 1963 of total general
cargoes unloaded is shown by Table A-l;.  Pacific ports obtained
l8.5 percent of the total international general cargo traffic
unloaded during 1963* Vancouver obtaining 9.5 percent, or slightly
more than half, of the cargoes unloaded at Pacific ports.
Of the food, feed, beverages and tobacco traffic, Pacific
ports obtained 22.8 percent of the Canadian total, which compares
to 18.5 percent of Canada's retail trade located in British Columbia
and Alberta. The Pacific ports obtained virtually none of the
inedible crude materials, which are comprised of such commodities
as soya beans, pig iron, rubber and pulpwood, consumed primarily
by the manufacturing industries located in Ontario and Quebec.
In comparison, the Pa6ific ports handle a substantial share
of such  commodities as woodpulp, lumber, iron and steel and
alloys, and chemicals.  Vancouver's relatively low share of
these unloadings  is due primarily to the large shipments
of Alaskan wood pulp and lumber which are routed via
Prince Rupert.
Pacific ports obtained 30.5 percent of the total end
products unloaded at Canadian ports during 1963.  indicating that
some of this traffic was destined to Eastern markets. The Port of
Vancouver obtained 85.6 percent of this import traffic unloaded at
Pacific ports. The consumer good traffic, comprised mainly of
small lot shipments, was mainly routed through Eastern and Atlantic
ports. Vancouver obtained 86.5 percent of the total Pacific Coast
consumer good traffic. . Tabl« A-5
OOfmooi. n^M     o
OAOOOBM<|4nAO
S-.()QO,-*»0*J-1M>
■OOO        » co O- O c. O
o
00
cm
O  CO
an
-5
o m
r»
o
o*
3    U    C
0*3
o a. u
o co ia o n '
n o» Ot co
O O « t»
■h n o '
m O m '
■ccMOC-cnOnc.
-i oo O io oo
00 if O ■© (0
.-i cm in io
M
rt  *■•
Q.   4>
M    Q.   I
Q
io
■O
o
-o
•o
m
<*0
■o
CO
•o
o
•o
o
8
■o
o
f*.
■o
s
CO
O
CI
•«
CI
■"*
H
P.
-H
tO
m
O O O  O
O •*  O* T-i
8-if  O* h-  •*  **  CO
O>0**Ti-*i-iiOrt_>«-.-*,^-
-lOO'O
"  N  O « H (.
j- ci ■* o en
O m n (. o
cm co «h io •*
•ocrsiior-cotroim
Q. 9
s 3 i
rtrtrt_6 **
M   ■  '
O cu
E 0 TJ m
[ 0. c o
•o
s
N
t"*.
«o
r-.
iO
CI
eo
IO
eo
ri-
«r>
s
g
CM
A
o
O
t-
Ot
OI
o
-0
V
t>
-0
o
IO
T
**
iO
CI
fl
tn
CO
h  H   l>   N
o » •* •*
O f t- *o
CO
Oi
CI
^4
CI
m
rt.
IO
•n
o
r--
o
o
m
A
<*)
Oi
lO
CO
in
tn
*■*
in
CO
-*
C.
(0
CI
*■*-■
t
o
CI
*-0
r-
Q
CI
«*
iO
*■*
2
H
**
O O t- (I** CO
OJ f- OJ fr. O
iO OJ (1*1 IO IO
O <o to O **
o O
Ic O
I O  -H
rt-rt
m
-o
s
IO
»•»■
o
to
r*-
iO
4>
N
CO
00
■♦
t-»
o
•tf
tO
»
CO
O
_.
.-a
CI
«
•o
•O
_
CO
■*
«H
O
C|
-O
-rt)
CSI
(M
CI
_,
CO   CO
Oi
f»
-f o.
is-
t-
w n
C--
<0 CI
CM
a
^rtrt]
,,-,
^
^
<o
CO
o
N
1*-
Ot
•*
o
o
CO
00
tO
.o
N
5
<n
<n
r-
VI
,-.
th
m
•©
m
cn
IO
<o
H
■n
Oi
<h
m
•*
SlO  CO   IO   OJ
■«•*   A>   OJ   -O
OJ   l"-  CM   *0   -O
• 6 w fi &
H -*0
a *>
k.   Oi U   I   oi
3 %t
5 T»
■o I c -d 4
tL N
4
U  rtQ
O   Al   IA   4   C  H <v
J3   f   *  H   i.   1.13   C
3   C   rt   41   41
t-i   fl   M   41 Vi
I  TD   4)   9   O   G   •
*•  13   »
9. i
t>  4 -O
in   4   id
4 fi *o   i-i   rt   it)  p
«  * v.  rt  c
rt    f   t
•p a i
4«id30i0iU-O>£
41 rt ■___ m 41 3 0 0 0) -h
Zb-O(-.>w0-rt.BO
* M ■ -Q
M •  • #
OHIO
All
0  9-4
z - o ^ - 10 -
(b) Loaded General Cargo
General cargoes loaded at Canadian ports during 1963 amounted
to 11;.2 million tons', significantly more than the 1+.6 million tons
unloaded.
Of the total export general cargo, 5.9 million tons, or l\2
percent, was loaded at Pacific ports, 1.9'million or 33 percent of
tne Pacific port total being loaded at the Port of Vancouver (see
Table A-5).
Inedible fabricated materials accounted for 10.1; million
tons or 73 percent of the total loaded general cargo for Canada as
a whole, 89 percent of the Pacific Coast loaded traffic and 69 percent of the Port of Vancouver loaded traffic. Forest products were
the most significant component. With regard to lumber exports,
Pacific Coast ports obtained 93 percent of total Canadian traffic,
while Vancouver obtained 31 percent of the Pacific Coast total.
Woodpulp exoorts were routed 51 percent via Pacific Coast ports,
Vancouver obtaining 20 percent of the Pacific Coast traffic.
Most of Canada's exports of consumer goods are comprised of
manufactured goods destined to European markets, so that their
normal routing pattern is through Eastern ports.
The only other important category of exports from Canada -
food, feed, beverage and tobacco - amounted to l-.l; million tons,
of which 28 percent was routed via Pacific ports. The Port of
Vancouver obtained 96 percent of the exports in this oategory routed
via Pacific ports.
(c) Import and Export Routing Patterns
The determination of the routing patterns of Canada's import
and export traffic is dependent upon the relationship between ocean
and inland transportation rates, times-in-transit and the relative
port facilities and services available.
Loaded general cargo from Canadian Ports Is comprised mainly
of wood pulp, scrap iron, metal ingots and other goods which are
further processed in destination countries. Relative to consumer
goods, these commodities cannot withstand high transportation costs,
but can absorb longer times-in-transit.  So a.
£ 4
to tn r- o> r-       o O —' t
§33!
• -ntfcootocomm**
lANfOh«OOAN
i oj      c- o -o <o      n rt o
Is- in co o to
o to >-• m ~*
O^OiOrtCOh-rtiriOO
oj -h en  cm r*-
rt -O OJ -O   IO
O IN t H P|
OJ CO CM CO *»
m co is co o -
iO CO I"*- OJ OJ
to CO 0 CI
if 'O CM
Ot cj
-o
-rt,
m
CO
s
OJ
«>
o
O
r»
CO   f-
CO
CO
iO
-.
00
t-
•n
i* <o
..
OI
CO
en
tN
4ft
8
S -o
A
0>
Ul
CI
n
CM
A
co m
OI
o
Q
r-
m
■#
h-
a H
OJ
rt
<M
0-»H
*A
.--I
tt
If
_•
CI
H
•e
V)
9-
Ot
■*
■*
*■•
n
4-
t«.
01
■»
rt
to
*
o
s.
(O
-
ooooo
o i*- co t-
i^i>rrt.i-iinrtOcnC4ci     "O
iHSWrt*fiHt>No     <3
l IO   CM H  N   (M t  (»|HH in
co oo N m v.
•o oo oj fn co
-rtrt)   CO
I  c o
rt a
•-I ■«* (***■ m m
to r- q oi o
Ot Qt V "O <0
OJ   O  O   O
o n •# ot
■ff.ni
•o
-p
•o m
iO
(X
T-t      O
tf
5
o
tn
•*
OJ
OJ
OtrtC0lOe-Q*-f*-IQtt*H
COHHrjf.mtOlf'.
(TiOff-va-cMojcoh-io
■* O  oj        o  to  -i  oi        (0 '
CO-DO NtHh CM
io io r- ci
rt-)   CM  CO   'O   -_>
CO   O  CM   O  OI
•o o oi «r cm i
If*
-.OCooiconNnn
oojoeot-or-otoo
m--o.O!OOit-'*-fc*>co
r*-.
o
tr
th
CI
S
CO
ot
<M
fs
to
ri
■-.   03   00
01 o o
tn
iO
P
r-
*©
o
Ml
o
tfi
o
O
o
CM
CI
■*
CO "O o
a at eo
t- o o
tn
C0
OJ
CI
o
o
o
01
•o
CM
m
SI
t***
Fl** w
-H
1 o « tn
iOOm
I   if   tO   CM
o a o ♦** a
•H «
fa  rt -o H   4)
rt  rt c rt i-t
fa  ■ 4 Q.jfi
« -H Oi   rt
n- 5 -» u-fa <
ai <4 rt a w <
n •       Bl
a. * i fa p ■<
i   -til M    II Vi
IV 4 Vi
>      ¥i at. tj
« v 9 * o s *
! £ £ tt
I t-«   4)   4
ZU.OU.->
0 -O 41 41
D> O -0 > JZ
3   0 0 41 -H
irtO  <J U. CO O
■rift  ■
<H
x o >.     a »
a-H     o .0
rt
■O             r.              H
C "0   rt        at T-t
4  0              rtrt
♦** *D   « J_t   l-i
«1   rt   C  rt         4)
c. pT« rt tj   c
rt
X    <U         fa  • -fa
4    H   rt    (U   4--     0
u
rt   u)   rt   m   3   m
4   C   M -fa  fa
OS  rt  41 rt'_c  ta
3 B. a. f- o U "-■
G«i flrtfi
0 9 0 fa
IIEO
£ C li « «
u rt £ t-i £
rt w fa 4> ♦»
z H o C o
T?
<
h-
o
irt
n
■V
B
3
s
C
0  - 12 -
In general, ocean transportation, although slower, is considerably less expensive than land transportation. As a result,
semi-processed general cargo is usually routed via the port
nearest to the production area. For example, Prairie-originated
scrap iron destined to Japan is routed via the Lakehead, while
the movement of ComtJico's lead and zinc ingots to European markets
is via New Westminster, B.C.
In comparison, the import general cargo is largely comprised
of consumer goods, and end products destined to widely scattered
domestic markets. Since such shipments require relatively short
transit times, but can absorb higher transportation costs, the
Canadian port of discharge tends to be that which is nearest the
country of origin. For example, Japanese-produced consumer goods
destined to Eastern Canadian markets are routed predominantly
through Vancouver. Similarly, consumer goods produced in the
United Kingdom destined to markets as far west as Alberta are routed
mainly through Eastern and Atlantic ports.
These factors may best be Illustrated by comparing the
routing of Canada's trade with Japan and with the United Kingdom.
Figure A-6 shows the flow of export general cargo In 1963 to Japan
and the United Kingdom by geographical area of exit.  Of the 970,000
tons of general cargo exported to Japan, 853»000 tons or 88 percent
was routed via Pacific ports. Almost all of the general cargo
routed to Japan via Eastern ports was composed of scrap iron.
However, of the 3*9 million tons of general cargo destined to the
United-Kingdom, only 1.1; million tons or 36 percent was routed via
Pacific ports.  - 13 -
Figure A-6
Flow of Export General Cargo to Japan and
the United Kingdom by Area of Exit - 1963
(000 tons)
j
^f<A
BS3     •
I^^^UT
To th* United  Kingdom:
3.869
1.390
Pacific Fort*
Greet  Lake
"•port*    1
*     Atlantic  and  .Lower  st-   Laurence  Ports,   Montreal  and  below.
Figure A-7 shows the flow of Canadian import general cargo in
1963 from Japan and the United Kingdom by area of entry.  Of the
238,000 tons of Japanese import general cargo, 171,000 tons, or
72 percent, was routed through Pacific ports. Of the 6_*.5,000 tons
of general cargo originating in the United Kingdom, only 19 percent
was routed via Pacific ports. This indicates that, as mentioned in
the previous section, import consumer goods are being routed predominantly via the major deep sea port nearest to the country of
origin.  - 14 -
Figure A-7
Flow of  Import General Cargo from Japan and
the  United Kingdom by Area  of Entry,  1963
■ (000 tons)
Prom Japan
238
:>
Ffciflc Forts
Atlantic
Ports •
From tho United Kingdom
695
Pacific Ports
560
*     Atlantic and Lower   St.  Lawrence  Ports,  Montreal  and below.
Atlantic
Porta
Great  Lake
Porta
As vessels of greater speed and efficiency are introduced,
this shipping pattern may change somewhat. However, the liner
services on the Pacific Ocean are such that major changes in the
established pattern are unlikely. Consumer-good shipments are in
small lots moving steadily throughout the year, so that a shipping
line would not easily be induoed to provide direct port-to-port
service. The liners in service between Japan and the East Coast
ports usually call on Califomian ports, Gulf ports and U.S.
Atlantic Seaboard ports before finally calling at Montreal and
Toronto. Thus, the time-in-transit from Japan to Montreal via
water is some 50 days, as compared with the time in transit from
Japan to Montreal routed through Vancouver of approximately 20 days,
Another advantage to the Japanese shipper routing his goods
through Vancouver is that it provides a distribution centre for the
sorting and consignment of his goods destined to the consumer
markets in B.C., the Prairies and Eastern Canada. Thus, shipments
can be controlled and the volume of cargo per ship maximized. (fl
II - 15 -
In addition, adequate bulk cargoes are available on the
Pacific coast for the return trip to Japan whereas comparable
cargoes, in adequate volume, are not available at Eastern Ports.
Nevertheless, the percentage share which Pacific ports
obtain of the Japanese import general cargo traffic has been
declining since 1955 when all such traffic was routed via the
Pacific coast. This trend is shown in Figure A-8, and can be
explained by the introduction of some liner service between the
Orient and Eastern Ports, the increasing availability of scrap
iron and steel from Eastern ports as return cargo, and the opening
of the St. Lawrence Seaway.       A_
The cargo unloaded at Montreal and Toronto from Japan is .
•primarily composed of articles such as hardware goods, which have
a high density. The reason for this pattern,as compared with the
low density traffic handled at Vancouver, is that the shipper, while
charged on the higher of the cube or weight basis on the ocean leg
of the voyage, pays a rate based more closely on weight measurement
for land routing. Thus, a shipper, may save considerable costs by
routing lowN~deiisity traffic through Vancouver to Eastern Canadian
markets insteadTof paying relatively high ocean rates, on a cube
basis, for goods being shipped from Japan to Atlantic or Eastern
Canada ports. This partially accounts for such a large share of .
Japanese traffic destined to Eastern Canadian markets passing
through Vancouver. n
Figure A-8
Flow of Import General Cargo from Jaoan by Area of Entry.  1950-63
II I  *- - '    '  — *--»— - -   -- ,»-- ||       || | | __■   IIHI   IB       |       ■   IB '' "^ ~*
'cent   100
75-
50
25
Great Lakes,
Upper & Lower
St. Lawrence
Ports
Pacific Coast Ports
1950
£
A   '   5E
58
6b
6263 1
I
I
II - 16 -
In comparison, the European traffic presently discharged at
Vancouver is almost entirely destined to British Columbia and
Alberta markets.  One explanation for this routing is that the rail
rates from Vancouver to the markets within this area are considerably less than those from Montreal.  In addition, the European
goods which pass through Vancouver, such as liquor, iron and steel
products, and confectionery goods, can absorb greater times-in-.
transit than many other consumer goods. Furthermore, lumber products, lead and zinc ingots, apples, and canned salmon provide the
European ships with a substantial return movement.  Thus, It is
the general cargo rates from Europe to Vancouver which are set
generally to cover only variable costs.
The completion of the St. Lawrence Seaway has not yet had a
measurable impaot upon the pattern of the European general cargo
traffic routed through Eastern ports, as opposed to Western ports,
as shown in Figure A-9.  Contrt__aued development of the Seaway Route
may, however, result in some decrease in the share of European
import traffic routed via Pacific ports.
Figure A-9
Flow of Import General Cargo From The
United Kingdom .by Area  of Entry,   1950-63
percent
100
75
0 -
25-
1950
Great Lakes, Upper & Lower St. Lawrence
Ports
52
Pacific Coast Ports
Skr
56
58
60
62 63 rtfl
I
ii
il - 17 -
2.  Port of Vancouver's Competition with Other West Coast Ports,
(a)  Canadian Ports
Vancouver obtains slightly more than half of the general cargo
unloaded and approximately one-third of the general cargoes loaded
Pacific ports. However, if the Alaskan-produced pulp and paper
products routed through Prince Rupert are excluded from the general
cargo totals, Vancouver obtains over £.0 percent of the West Coast
import traffic. The Port of Vancouver handles a relatively low
share of the pulp and paper export traffic through Pacific ports.
This is largely due to the location of the pulp and paper mills on
tidewater at small ports which enables deep-sea vessels to load
such cargoes directly.
In general, the Port of Vancouver enjoys a. virtual
stranglehold on the general cargo traffic which could be routed
through alternate B.C. ports. For example, in 1963 Vancouver
obtained 96 percent of the flour and bagged animal feed
exports handled at Pacific Ports, most of which originated east
of the British Columbia - Alberta border.
Vancouver's major competitor for export cargoes is
the Port of New Westminster, However this Port has significant
disadvantages relative to Vancouver. Located some 12 miles up
the narrow Fraser River, New Westminster experiences considerable
silting, periodic heavy fog, and variable tidal conditions, all
of which hamper normal shipping. Furthermore, the poor draft at
the New Westminster cargo berths necessitates the "topping-off"
of ships at Vancouver piers, thereby increasing a ship's turnaround time by approximately two days. This, in turn, causes
some problems in the manner in which the cargo is stowed.
Similarly, the limited facilities at New. Westminster often require
ships to wait for berthage for the loading of their cargoes. The
lead and zinc traffic of"Camineo> available at New Westminster, is
extremely lucrative to shipping lines as it not only produces high
revenue but also provides excellent initial stowage to balance the
low density cargo. II - id -
The only other port on the West Coast competing with Vancouver
is Prince Rupert, which is considered a secondary port by shippers
and shipping lines alike. The large volume of traffic through the
Port of Vancouver has resulted in expansion of many specialized services, such as customs brokers, shipping agencies, and pool car
operators.  In addition, there has been a development of a large pool
of longshoremen, back-up warehouses, and an inland system of communication and transportation. At present, such facilities are inadequately developed at Prince Rupert. However, the rapid expansion of
the pulp and paper industry in northern British Columbia will most
likely result In increased volumes of export cargoes being routed
through Prince Rupert. As a result, Prince Rupert may attract
additional import cargoes.
Overall, it is anticipated that Vancouver will improve its
position relative to New Westminster, particularly if new general
cargo facilities are constructed at Vancouver, while a large share
of the growth in export traffic (primarily wood pulp) will be routed
via Prince Rupert. The total share of Pacific Coast general cargo
traffic obtained by Vancouver is not anticipated to change materially,
(b )  United States Ports
Seattle Is the only U.S. port on the West Coast which offers
any serious competition to Vancouver for general cargoes.
With regard to import general cargo, the Port of Seattle
unloads some Australasia-originated ships which call at Hawaiian
Island ports and carry goods destined for Canadian markets.
On the other hand, the export of such highly perishable
goods as Okanagan apples, which are being forwarded to the Hawaiian
Islands are often routed through Seattle, Portland or San Francisco.
This traffic is routed overland to these ports of exit in an effort
to minimize the transit time.
The Port of Vancouver may expect increased competition in
the above mentioned markets, but this traffic represents only a
small portion of the total export and import traffic passing through
the Port.  - 19 -
D. Summary.
1. In recent yeaMf-Canada's foreign trade has become more
diversified. Although the United States and the United Kingdom
account for approximately 70-75 percent of Canada's trade, other
export markets and import sources have been expanding rapidly over
the past decade. Trade with the Orient has been particularly
buoyant.
Furthermore, the growth rates of imports of consumer
and investment goods have been significantly greater than those
for fuels and industrial materials. Similarly, Canada's exports
of highly manufactured goods have recently expanded appreciably,
particularly in comparison x^ith the more moderate growth in the
export of raw materials and semi-manufactured goods.
2. Canada's total, international waterborne cargoes
have also risen substantially over the past decade:
Canada's Total International Waterborne Trade
(millions of tons]
Exports
Imports
1952
32.5
33.3
1963
63.4
-4-6.2
Percentage
Change. 1952-63
110
19
61
TOTAL 71.3    114.6
3. International waterborne general cargoes have changed
in composition and in total:
Canada's International Waterborne General Cargoes
(millions of tons)
Exports
Imports
1953
9.8
6.4
1963
11;.2
4.6
Percentage
Change.1952-63
■lj.5
- -39
15
TOTAL 16.2 18.6
The decrease in general cargo imports was caused by
a substantial decline in imports of petrochemicals. Excluding
these products, imports of general cargoes increased by 32 percent,  - 20 -
4. The distribution of the general cargo traffic by port
area for 1963 was as follows:
Distribution of Canada's General Cargoes Loaded and Unloaded,
 by Port Area, and for the Port of Vancouver, 1963
(percent)
Port Area Loaded   Unloaded
Eastern and Atlantic Ports     53.3     31.5
Pacific Ports 41.7     13.5
Vancouver       (13.7) . (9.5)	
100.0    100.0
5. An analysis of import and export routing patterns
indicates that:
(i)   Import general cargoes, primarily processed and consumer goods, tend to be routed through the Canadian deep
sea port which is nearest the country of origin,
(ii)  Export general cargoes, chiefly semi-manufactured
goods, are routed predominantly via the port nearest to the
producing area.
(iii)  In general, the Port of Vancouver has a superior
competitive position relative to other B.C. Ports.
6. Although increasing competition from Eastern Canadian
Ports will be felt in the future by the Port of Vancouver, primarily with regard to import traffic in general, and Oriental
imports in particular, the overall share of general cargo traffic
obtained by Vancouver should remain relatively constant as a result
of the more rapid growth of Oriental import traffic anticipated
and the expected growth of export traffic through the Port.
7. Canada's general cargo trade with the Orient is
anticipated to expand rapidly, while trade with Europe is
expected to increase moderately.  - 21 -
CHAPTER II
MARKET ANALYSIS OF INTERNATIONAL WATERBORNE TRAFFIC
THROUGH THE PORT OF VANCOUVER
A detailed market analysis of the Port of Vancouver's
international traffic has been undertaken so that a forecast of
the future volume of such traffic can be developed and the
capacity of the present general cargo facilities compared to
these forecasted levels. Furthermore, an analysis of traffic
growth by commodity has been necessary, as new facilities must
be tailored to suit the handling characteristics of specific
commodities.
This analysis proceeds as follows:
A. Overall growth of international traffic handled
through the Port of Vancouver.
B. Growth of general cargo traffic.
C. Forecast of general cargo traffic and its relation
to capacity of present general cargo facilities.
D. Summary.
A. Overall Growth of International Traffic Handled Through
the Port of Vancouver.
The growth of the Port of Vancouver's total international
cargoes loaded and unloaded from 1953 to 1964 is shown by Figure B-l,
Figure B-l
Total International Cargoes Loaded and Unloaded
Millions             at the Port of Vancouver
of Tons       1953-64	
12 -
Total,
9 -
6 -
3 -
Loaded
1    '    I
1953  .-54  55  56
Source: Table B-l.
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64 II
v\
II - 22 -
Table B-l shows the composition of the international
cargoes through the Port of Vancouver for the period
1953-1964| segregated between bulk and general cargoes (see
Appendix I for list of commodities in each category).
Table B-l
Composition of International Cargoes, Loaded and Unloaded,
Through the Port of Vancouver, 1953-1964
(Thousands of Tons)
Bulk
Cargo
General Cargo
Loaded Unloaded
Total
Cargo*
Year
Loaded
Unloaded
Loaded
Unloaded
1953
3,123
950
1,223
373
4,346
1,323
1954
3,253
391
1,333
412
4,640
803
1955
2,736
223
1,293
431
4,029
655
1956
4,363
264
1,196
710
6,059
975
1957
5,705
233
1,073
631
6,773
369
1953
4,333...
252
1,205
371
5,593
622
1959
4,436
354
1,137
490
5,573
344
I960
4,451
363
1,515
436
5,966
804
1961
5,967
530
1,534
425
7,551
955
1962
5,645
663
1,591
451
7,236
1,119
1963
6,905
735
1,945
442
3,850
1,176
1964**
7,917
765
2,292
539
10,209
1,354
* TOTAL jnay not correspond exactly to Bulk and General Cargo
due to rounding.
*#Preliminary figures, from unpublished data.
Source: D.B.S., Shipping Report, Part IV.
The importance of bulk cargo to the Port is obvious, as in
1964 some 75 percent of total tons handled were bulk cargo, in the"
period 1953-64, bulk cargo traffic increased by some 113' percent
as compared with a growth in total traffic of 104 percent.
Some 91 percent of the bulk traffic during 1964 was
composed of export cargoes. Grain comprised 65 percent of these
loadings; the only other significant commodity group being
crude wood materials which represented 11; percent of the total.  - 23 -
The level of bulk commodity cargoes moving through the Port
of Vancouver may be expected to continue to expand rapidly, particularly those destined to the Orient.  One consequence of such
growth may be an increase in the return flow of general cargo.
Canada's exports to Japan, chiefly bulk commodities, have a value
far exceeding Canada's imports from Japan, most of which are
general cargoes. Due to this fact, trade restrictions against
Japanese imports have been slowly relaxed in an attempt to reduce
Japan's large trade deficit with Canada. As a consequence, imports
of general cargo from Japan may be expected to continue to expand.
Furthermore, the continued expansion of bulk cargo exports to other
Oriental countries will undoubtedly lead to a return flow of imports
of manufactured goods in the future.
The decreased unloadings of bulk cargoes from 1953 to 1958
reflect the substantial decrease in imports of crude oil and petroleum, caused by increased production of these products in Western
Canada. Increased imports of salt, and industrial materials were
primarily responsible for the rapid rise in bulk commodity unloadings from 1958 to 1961;. |£S
B. Growth of General Cargo Traffic
1. Historical Trend in General Cargo Traffic
Figure B-«2 shows the total loadings and unloadings of
general cargo handled through the Port of Vancouver from 1953
to 1961;.
Figure B-2
General Cargoes Loaded and Unloaded at the
Port of Vancouver - 1953 to 1961;
ThoueandB of tony
3000-1
6}  64
S mi t-i*', o !  Tab .a T.-1  - 21; -
This chart indicates that the growth over the period 1953 to
1961; was concentrated during the period 1959 to 1961;.  Over the
period 1953-61;, total international general cargo handled increased
by some 80 percent.  General cargo unloadings, which comprise" some
20 percent of the total, increased by some ^6- percent in this period
while general cargo loadings increased by 87' percent, due primarily
to expanded exports of forest products.
2.  Composition of General Cargo by Commodity and by Country
A breakdown of Vancouver's import and export general cargo
traffic into major commodity groups indicates those commodities
whicTa are most important to the Port's operation. A similar breakdown of this traffic by the Ports trading partners provides an indication of the geographical trading areas which are most significant.
Figure B-3 shows the commodity composition of the Port's
general cargo traffic for 1963 (the latest year for which detailed
information is available), classified by origin and destination.
Figure B-l; shows the Port's trade, classified by major commodity
group with various geographic areas.
(i) General Cargo Loadings
Most of the growth in loaded general cargo has been in the
largest component, inedible fabricated materials, which has grown
steadily from 500,000 tons in 1953 to some 1.3 million tons in 1963-
This group is comprised mainly of forest products destined to the
U.S. Atlantic Seaboard (lumber), the U.S. West Coast (pulpwood and
lumber), and Asia (lumber), as well as non-ferrous ingots to
Western Europe.
The food, feed, beverage and tobacco component of export
cargoes was destined chiefly to Asia (flour and bagged feed), other
markets being located in Europe and Central America.
The only other cargo loading of significance was inedible
crude materials, consisting of a wood waste material movement to
U.S. West Coast Ports.
Figure B-5 shows the composition of the general cargoes
loaded at the Port of Vancouver for the period 1953 to 1963. w rt.   T\C _
Composition of Tnternacional General Cargoes,
Port of Vancouver,
,r> By Commodity,
 i262	
Figure ? 5
Thousands
of tons
200
150
Unloaded
100
50
Fabricated
Materials
Consumer
Goods
Food,Feed,
Beverage & Tobacco
7777Z
Other
'"■I""
LAyA
Thousands
of tons
1350
1200
Loaded
1050
900
750
600
450
300
150 -
Fabricated
Materials
Food,Feed,
Beverage & Tobacco
Other
Legend:
.sia
Western- Etirope
__d
0 jean ic
North America
__3
South America
Central AmerSfe-
East.ern_Eu***oi-)
Other*
off
Othe" -"pfprs  to sri vt
not *Jpeci"Pie.*.  in onch
c".i*ii*."«.it?y class 1 f 1 cat'.
See Ax.nent.ii T   f'*r
comno-'ity  cl-'s--'    "a   ' *
•t nxig
Source: D.13.H., t-Ulppi.i*** He  u, Part IV -I fl - 26 -
Composition of International General Cargoes,
Port of Vancouver,
By Area of Origin ft Destination,
 -__-_}	
Figure 8 Ij
wx
Thousands
of tons
250
200 -
150
100 -
50
Asia
Unloaded
Western
Europe
Legend:
Fabricated
Materials Inedible
Thousands
of tons
□
1050 r
900
750
600
-.50
300
150 I
Loaded
Cnn-sumer Good*3
North
America
Asia
Western
'Europe
£
?q
Food,Feed,Beverage
& Tobacco
_____
■■d Prodi*1*-**'
'•rude Materia.
Inedible
Other*
Other
* Other refers to all commodities not srp..ifted
in each origin/destiration are**.
lote: Gee Appendix T for commodity classification
Source: D.B.S., Shipping Report, Part IV  >7 _
Figure B-5
Comoosition of General Cargoes Loaded at the
Port of Vancouver - 1953 to 1961; 	
Thousands of Tona
2000
1500 -
xooo
500
Total
1953
Source: D.B.S. Shipping Report, Fart XT ...
ii) Cargo Unloadings
The composition of the general cargo unloadings at the
Port of Vancouver during 1953-63 Is  shown by Figure B-6.    %%
should be pointed out that a major commodity reclaasification by
D.B.S.   in 1958 is the main reason for the sharp discontinuity of
the data in that year.
Figure B-6
Composition of General Cargoes Unloaded at the
Port of Vancouver - 1953 to 61;	
rnousands of tons
soo
600 -
1.00 -
200 -
Total
icated Materials
Inedible
1
63
57    59    M.
Source: D.B.S. Shipping Report, Part IV ■\/n
i - 28 -
In 1963) the most important component was inedible
fabricated materials, representing 42 percent of the total
cargo,and was comprised chiefly of iron and steel products.
The major area originations for this traffic were Asia,
(plywood and steel products) and Western Europe (glass and
steel products).
Consumer goods unloaded at the Port during 1963 originated in the Orient (59 percent), in Europe (32 percent),
and in other areas (9 percent). Food, feed, beverage and
tobacco traffic was received from widely scattered markets.
The distribution of the Port's traffic by major
trading area for 1963 was as follows:
Table B-2
Market Areas for General Cargo,
Port of Vancouver,
 1262	
Area
Loaded -     Unloaded
-   Percent   -
We stern Europe
Asia
Oceania
North America
Other
15.7 33.2
22.3 46.9
2.6 7.0
47.6 4.6
11.3 3.3
Total   100.0 100.0
Source: D.B.S. Shipping Report, Part IV,
C. Forecast of General Cargo Traffic and Its Relation to
Capacity of Present General Cargo Facilities.
1. Forecast
The future level of trade passing through the Port of
Vancouver-As dependent upon many factors. The level of
general cargo exports through the Port is dependent chiefly
upon expansion of production in Western Canada, particularly in Southern British Columbia, and the ability of the
Canadian producers to compete in European, Australasian,
Oriental and U.S. East Coast markets. Future import levels
are dependent primarily upon consumer trends in Western
Canada, the share of this market supplied by imports, and the
Port of Vancouver's competitive position vis-a-vis Eastern
Canadian Ports. I - 29 -
Table B-3 shows a summary of the Port of Vancouver*s
general cargo traffic projected to 1973, as compared to the 195&
and 1963 levels. A detailed forecast of 26 commodity groups,
on which the forecast is based, is shown in Appendix II.
Over the next decade, total general cargo handled through the
Port is anticipated to increase by an average of 4.5 percent
per annum. Exports of general cargo are foreseen to expand
by 5.0 percent per annum, as compared with a forecast rate of
growth for imports averaging 2.2 percent per annum.
The expansion of exports of forest product general
cargoes is expected to be particularly rapid in view of the
current expansion of pulp mills in the interior and coastal
regions of British Columbia, and the expected further development of such plants. In particular, wood pulp exports through
the Port are anticipated to increase markedly. The most
significant increases in export and import general cargoes are
shown respectively in Tables B-4 and B-5.
Table B-4
Significant Increases in Export General Cargoes,
 By Commodity	
Average Annual
Percentage Increase
1963-73	
7.75
Fodder and Feed, excluding Unmilled
Cereals (bagged animal feed)
Wood Fabricated Materials (lumber)
Wood Pulp
Non-Ferrous Metals (lead, zinc and
aluminum ingots)
5.00
13.50
5.25
5.00
All Export Cargoes
Source: Appendix II, Sheet 7.
The relatively low rate of increases for general cargo
imports may be attributed to:
i)   Intensified competition which is expected to be experienced
by the Port of Vancouver from Eastern Canadian Ports on
the routing of Oriental goods.
ii)  A greater proportion of the Prairie-destined, European-
originated imports being routed through Eastern Canadian
Ports, with further development of direct services to
Great Lake Ports.
iii) A greater self-sufficiency on the part of Western Canada
with respect to many of the imported goods, such as
chemical products, as compared with the improving market
position of many of the export products passing through
the Port. "\ /n o
fc-rt-
U
as
o
u
<D
fl
<D
O
•3
o
*3
03
o
fl
Ih
<D
>
3
O
13 O
fl fl
co as
>
*3
(D -H
*C O
cd
o -p
H.   P-l
o
p p^
a
as
o
©
O
c
aS
©
co
al
o
S.
O <A
rt   S-nO
GH>e>i
© tso-A
(_0 aS C—
as P On
!-. fl H
©
O
s.
tt)
tn
aS
3
fl
• ©
>
•3
CD
-p
ct •*■*.
SM
•H On
P r.
ra
tt)
ca
aS
<d
t. *:-
,oco
(-in
l-l 0s
0)
tt)
bOCA
tO CCSvO
as 43 on
J.  fl H
CD  CD
>  O
a. ftf *
CD
p.
CA
mo
O
H
CO
■LPvJ
0*n
r.
30
Table B-3
OvO
o
OJ-     r-i
CVl-A      CM
OnO
lAr.
IA
caia
-A--5-
0-
rtrtrtrtT-O^      CO O CM        _T\
OO     o        "iacm     _=r
o c
i_r.o
CM o
o
IA
CM
O O
o o
o o
O
O
o
O O
oo
oo
O
o
o
O O
o o
1A1A
O
o
o
o c
o o
o o
o
o
TA
o o
"LAO
C—1A
CM O
C-c^i
-------I
CM
CM
-O
voir.
--rtrr-.
CM
ri
CM
00 I**-
Tj-f-t
<-. CM
•t,
CM
IA
vO
U*\
CM
C—nO
H-A
fr-
mo
CM         a*-"-,
H
TA
IA
H
CO 00
CM J***
i-H1A
CA
o
-A
CM
"*—
vO
CA
r—co
.***-
H
C*—CO
CA
"lAco
oco
CM
XA1A
r-i
O
H
OlA      On
--j-CO
I     I
[*—
I
c**.o
vOO
o
o
H
r-irtA
oca
IA
CO
CM UN
--±0
vO r-
C*—
---i-
O *>-
CMA
tr—co
-rtrtj*
nOO
O [*—
U  H CT*|
-O
[*—
o
CMlAl
r.CO|
r-
ON
TA
H CM
0^*.
CA
CM
H 0s
C—H
o o
rKo
<A
M
vO
-**t
CM CO
O
CM
H
H
CM
ncSsS-
CMGO
CAr-H
H     j
IA
O
IA
H
OnOI
nO
-AO
CMH
9
_ C-O
CM.__f
o^3
r.
O 0*n
H O
vO f-
"IA
CM
CA
CACn
O   ON
rij-i
CM
O
nO
CACOI
H C*\
H
CM
IA
-rt-r-rt-r
O On
A' CM
CQ
O
CO **A|
1>-nO|
t-i O
H
H
-S-rt-rti*
CM CO
O CM
-3-eo
CA
CM
__t
nO cm
o
H
CO
O
iH
_d-CN
nOiH
cA
CO
c—
CACM
rHCN-
IA
00
H r-l
IA
CO
--to
o c—
CM CA
1
H
o
ON
n0
CA
CM
tr—
CO
o
IA
H
-P
CD
CD
fl
CO
T.
•o
fl
i-i.
CD
o
?-
3
O
co
p
o
o
o
o
as
.0
<D
0
H
EH
TS
3
©
fl
CD
©
P
as
fl
aS
Kr
•H
©
tt.
*3
0]
H
-fl
-13
©
H
rO
r
p
as
c
as
^.
5:
U
H
•r-l
"3
O
0
0)
■*-!
©
W
SU
!>
0)
©
fl
U
0
CD
3
1".
•3
-P
•3
H       T!
ra      *3
tsS      *3
f-.
O
as
©
ai
©
©
3        ©
0      ©
-3
-3 -3
**irt
*3 "3
|5**|
-3 *3
ra 3 *3
O -3 *3
-3 -3
©
-4
CD
ai
!_-.
U
©
CO
I--.
©
OS
1-3
P   ©   OS
(J
0 0 aS
•J
H © aS
i-^
*3
•0
-3
O
<
.   . ©-Tf
O
<d
*3 -3
O
<i
0 *3 O
<
O "3  O
<3i
oS *3 O
<-:
fl
d>
aJH
EH
P
ai H
EH
©
as rH
E4 :
3 as H
EH
aS H
E--
f. (SH
EH
3
CD
O
fl
O
©
O
G
O
•p
0
C
O
3 OR
O
J. O fl
O
© O  fl
O
O
&.
H-l
;--
EH
•-3
i-3
EH
as
J&
EH
Oi--. 1=)
EH
©i-~I t->
EH
fli--. t)
tH
J--.
0
a
S
©
g
•^
©
•H
p.
3
O
O
ts
*3
S.
CO
O
O
3
^
•3
fl
H
O
Sm
as
fl
0
H
fe
O
fe
w
0
«s!
**->
CM
CA
-T\
nO 1 - 31 -
Table B-5
Significant Increases in Import General Cargoes,
By Commodity
Meat and Meat Preparations
Cocoa, Coffee, Tea and Spices
Transport ajfci on and.. Jtlommjani cat ion
Equipment Zs-..] *- 'Ay
Average Annual
Percentage Increase
1963-73	
5.25
4.25
5.75
2Z2"
All Unloaded Cargoes
Source: Appendix II, Sheet 7.
Overall, from 1963-73 general cargo handlings at the
Port are expected to increase by an average of l£*3>.'• percent
per annum, as compared to an increase of 8.5 percent per
annum experienced in the period 195---1963.
2. Comparison of Projected Levels of General Cargo
Traffic and Present Port Capacity.
Over the past three years, the general cargo pier
occupancy rates have increased from Ij.8 percent in 1962 to
52 : '■ percent in 1964. This increased occupancy is the direct
result of increased cargo handlings coupled with no increase
in capacity. However, part of the increase in 1964 was due
to the substantial volume of flour handled as a result of the
non-recurrent large'Russian sale.
Figure B-7 shows the occupancy rates over the past
three years, and an indication of the impact which the projected growth of general cargo presented above would have
upon future occupancy levels. By 1967-68 the average
occupancy rate of the Port's general cargo facilities will
have reached 60 percent, the level indicated on page 34 of
the previous Department of Research Report, S-265-63, as the
practical operating maximum for Canadian Pacific piers. By
1973, the average occupancy rate for the Port is anticipated
to reach approximately 75 percent. This projection is
consistent with that presented on Page 10 of the aforementioned
Report. I - 32 -
Figure B-7
Anticipated Occupancy Rates for Port of
Vancouver's Present General Cargo
Facilities
Percent
100
90
80
70
60-
50
40
t
Anticipated Occupancy Rate
Maximum Occupancy Rate of
' Present Canadian Pacific Piers
'   '
■   ■   '   ■
1962 63  64  6$  66  67  66
70     71     72     73
1_L
D.    Summary
1.   Total international waterborne traffic passing through
the Port of Vancouver increased over the past decade as follows:
Total International Waterborne Trade
 Port of Vancouver
(Millions of Tons)
1953
1964
10.2
1.4
Percentage Change
1964/53
•4.3
1.3
137
5.6.
11.6
107
Loaded
Unloaded
Total
2.   Bulk cargoes passing through the Port over this period
increased as follows:
Bulk International Waterborne Trade
 Port' of Vancouver
Loaded
Unloaded
Total
1953
3.1
1.0
4.1
(Millions of Ton.
1964
7.9
0.8
8.7
Percentage Change
1964/53
155
20
112  - 33 -
Expansion in Canada's.exports of bulk commodities to
such countries as Japan are expected to induce a return flow
of general-cargoes.
3.   General cargo traffic passing through the Port has
expanded as follows:
General Cargo International Waterborne Trade
Port of Vancouver
Loaded
Unloaded
1953
1.2
0.4
(Millions of Tons)
1964
2.3
0.6
Percentage Change
1964/53
' 92,
50
81
Total       1.6 2.9
Exports of forest products, such as newsprint and lumber
expanded appreciably, which accounts for most of the growth
in loaded general cargo traffic.
4. General cargo unloadings at the Port of Vancouver during
1963 originated in Asia (46.9 percent), Western Europe
(33.2 percent), and other widely dispersed areas (19.9 percent)
Traffic received from Asia was comprised primarily of plywood,
steel, and consumer goods while that from Europe, of glass,
specialty steel, liquor, and confectionery.
5. General cargoes loaded at the Port during 1963 were
destined to the U.S. Atlantic Seaboard (47.6 percent), Asia
(22.8 percent), Europe (15.7 percent), as well as other, areas
(13.9 percent). Exports to the U.S. were comprised largely
of lumber; to Asia, of lumber, newsprint, and woodpulp; and
to Europe, of plywood, apples, and aluminum, lead and zinc
ingots.
6. Over the next decade, total general cargo is expected
to increase by i)..5 percent per annum. Exports are foreseen
to expand by 5-0 percent per annum, while imports are anticipated to increase more moderately, by 2.2 percent per annum.
The greatest expansion of trade through the Port is expected
to be the export of wood pulp from mills presently planned or
under construction at interior and coastal British Columbia
points. * n f] - 3k -
As a consequence of such growth, the occupancy rates at the
Port's general cargo facilities may be expected to expand from 52
percent in 1964 to 60 percent in 1967-68, the rate which, is the
working maximum for Canadian Pacific Piers In Vancouver.
By 1973* the average occupancy rate for the Port is anticipated to reach 75 percent, providing that no new facilities are
constructed.  - 35 -
Chapter III
METHODS OF GENERAL CARGO HANDLING
In the design of new pier facilities in Vancouver, one
must consider the methods of general cargo handling which would be
used at such facilities. This Chapter reviews the methods of
general cargo handling, including the future of containerizatlon.
A. Present Methods of Cargo Handling at Pier B-C
As the methods used in the handling of general cargo
are' dependent-upon commodity position of such traffic, as well as
the pier facilities available, It is useful to review the present
cargo handling operation at Pier B-C.  iSS
The handling of general cargo involves three basic
methods:
(1)   "Overside" between ship and barges..
(ii)  "Direct rail", consisting of either movements between Ship
and rail cars on the pier apron, or ship and rail cars
placed behind the transit shed. This latter method refers.*
only to those handlings which move through the transit
shed which are handled entirely by Empire Stevedores.
Such movements occiu-_. when no sortation is required and,-'
therefore, could be performed direct to or from rail cars
on the pier apron at a new facility. However, at Pier B-C,
due to the narrow, 27-foot apron such methods are not
practical and are therefore not implemented for much of
the "direct rail" cargoes.
(iii) "Transit shed", consisting of cargoes requiring sortation
or, in the case of export cargoes, storage.
1•  Import General Cargo Handling Methods     fiP
(a) Import Cargo Handling, by Origin of Traffic
(1) Oriental Traffic-. ^ *
During 1964, inward general cargo traffic handled
at Pier B-C from the Orient averaged 1,070 tons per ship. These
cargoes were handled as follows: ~LmH
Table C-l      ||g|
Oriental Traffic - Handling Methods
Methods of Handling
Overside
Direct Rail
Transit Shed
TOTAL
Average
Tons per Ship
297
226
iitZ
1,070 '
Percent
. . 27.8
21.1
51.1
100.0  - 36 -
Of the cargoes handled through the shed requiring
sortation, 452 tons, or 83 percent, were routed inland by truck,
and the remainder, by rail. This rail traffic is comprised
mainly of pool car shipments.
A total of 321 tons, or 30 percent, of the total
traffic off the average Oriental ship was routed inland by rail,
a significantly greater proportion than the import traffic so
routed inland off other incoming vessels,
(ii) Australasian.traffic r
Ships in Australasian service averaged only 801 tons
of unloaded import cargoes per ship and were handled as shown in
Table C-2.
Table C-2  '
Australasian Traffic - Handling Methods
Methods of Handling
Overside
Direct Rail
Transit Shed
Average
Tons per Ship
Percent
14
.1
17
.7
68
.2
.     113.
; 142"-.
% i_±6     ' °^X
TOTAL     801 jR
A large proportion of Australasian traffic, 68.2 percent is handled through the shed. Total rail traffic amounted to
22.5 percent of the inward ship tonnage.
100.0
(iii) European Traffic
Ships arriving from Europe unloaded an average of
1,024 tons per ship. Only 22 percent moved inland by rail, being
primarily short haul. The most significant flow off European
ships is the local truck traffic, accounting for some 75 percent
of the total unloadings, and 81 percent of shed traffic off such
vessels. The principal flows off an average European ship are as
follows:-
Table C-3      .     ' -   W
'European Traffic - Handling Methods
Methods of Handling
Overside
Direct Rail
Transit Shed
TOTAL
Average '
Tons per Ship
42
954
1,024
Percent
2.7
4.1
22i2
100.0  - 37 -
The principal flows of import general cargo traffic are
summarized in Figure 0-1.
(b) Import Cargo Handling, by Commodity
(i) Transit Shed Cargoes
All packaged import general cargo at Vancouver is handled
through the transit shed. Within the shed, these cargoes are sorted
and consigned to their respective destinations. Approximately 85
percent of this traffic is routed inland via truck.
A significant amount of pool car traffic is generated from
goods imported from the Orient, consisting of small lot shipments of
such commodities as canned foodstuffs, transistor radios, cameras,
textile goods, sewing machines, etc.
The Australasian traffic handled through the transit shed
was mainly comprised of meat and fruit and related preparations.
European import cargoes which are handled through the shed
are mainly foodstuffs and end products, consisting of fruit and
sugar preparations, beverages, glassware and a broad range of household goods.
(ii) Direct Rail and Overside Cargoes
The import cargoes handled direct to rail cars and overside
are comprised mainly of lumber and steel products.
The steel products, comprised chiefly of pipe, rods, bars
and plates, handled at Pier B-C totalled 5l»lj-80 tons in 1961f, of
which lf.2,166 tons originated in the Orient. Almost all of the
steel traffic was handled either overside (59.7 of total steel
traffic), or direct to rail cars (3-1 • 5 percent).* Table C-ij. shows
the distribution of import steel, by origin and by mode of
handling. I-I
Table C-rtj.
Import Steel - Origin and Method of
 Handling, Pier B-C, 1964
Origin
Orient
Australasia
Europe
Percent
of Total
81.9
13.0
5.1
Method of
Handling
Overside
Direct Rail
Transit Shed
Percent
of Total
59.7
•31^.5
5.8
TOTAL
100.0
TOTAL/
100.0 -rtS^-rt-B - 30 -
A'LO^ Or//*f*0*T GEAtAMATAL. CA*&0 OAA  &£*3-C
BV   OA*lG-lrV
— AV*AA*£   TOf/f/terB A^rTS/A/A>-
±94+
A/oufiS C-l
#
04/6//V
of Ship:
Or**r/AS
Qy/rtT/vr
^tArcrTO
A/tit.
5-y-ga s+7)
lAALAA&7to*tt
Shed Va*!
T#UC*f
Ortxsja*
A vsrx/k.4s/A
Tauch
Tauca
#AtL
.J-  - 39 -
As in the case of steel products, import lumber traffic is
primarily from the Orient, as shown by table C-5. Of the total
7,407 tons of Import lumber handled at Pier B-C during 1964, 73 per
cent was handled overside, the remainder being handled through the
shed. This traffic is comprised of specialty lumbers, plywood and
veneers.
Table C-5
Import Lumber - Origin and Method of Handling,
 Pier B-C. 1964	
>w
Origin
Orient
Australasia
Europe
TOTAL
Percent
of Total
97.4
1.0
1.6
Method of
Handling
Overside
Direct Rail
Transit Shed
Percent
of  Total
73-4
26.6
100.0
TOTAL
100.0
iii)    Heavy Machinery and Equipment
Heavy machinery and equipment is handled with a crane.
All but 164 of the 16,493 tons of heavy lift traffic originated in
the  Orient.     Of the  total heavy lift traffic,  72 percent was
handled from "Bhe ship direct to rail cars,  the remainder being
handled through the shed.    Table C-6 shows  the distribution of
this  traffic by origin and method of handling.
Imp
or
of
Table C-6
b Heavy Machine ry - Origin and Method
Handling, Pier B-C, 1964
Origin
Percent
of Total
99.0
1.0
Percent of
Method of Handling      Total
Orient
Australasia
Europe
Overside
Direct Rail            71.8
Transit ghed          28.2
TOTAL
100.0
TOTAL
100.0
2.    Handling Methods  of Export General Cargo
For British Columbia ports,  export  general cargo is  greater
than import general cargo.    However,  at Canadian Pacific piers,
inward cargoes greatly exceed outward cargoes,   since there is  a
multi-pier loading of ships,  as compared with their discharge at a
single pier facility.    For example, Furness Withy ships disoharge  - 40 -
all of their import cargoes at Pier B-C, whereas they load
cargoes at New Westminster (lead, zinc and plywood), Pier B-C
(packaged general cargo), and forest products at other Pier facilities either in Vancouver or at smaller, outlying, coastal ports. In
addition, some ships load a parcel of grain or other bulk commodities
which are not available at Pier B-C.
In contrast to the handling of Import general cargo,
virtually none of the export traffic at Pier B-C was handled direct
from rail, as almost all such cargoes were handled either overside
or through the shed. Export cargoes handled through the shed
usually required storage for varying periods of time.
(a) Export General Cargo, by Destination
(i)   Oriental Traffic
In comparison to the average 1,070 tons per vessel discharged from Oriental ships, only 268 tons were loaded at Pier B-C
during 1964. A significant proportion of the export traffic, 35
percent, was loaded overside. Export cargoes handled through the
transit shed averaged_173 tons per ship.
(ii)  Australasian Traffic
A greater balance in the inward/outward cargo handling
was experienced with Australasian ships - 629 tons per ship handled
outward, as compared to 801 tons per ship handled inward at
Pier B-C during 1964. Of the total export cargo, 41 percent was
handled overside, 2 percent direct from rail cars, and the remainder,
57 percent, through the shed.
(iii) European Traffic
As in the case of Oriental ships, European ships load
relatively low tonnages outbound in comparison to their inbound
cargoes. During 1964, only 341 tons was handled per European ship
on outward voyages, versus 1,024 tons per ship on inward voyages.
Of the total export cargoes on a European ship, 26 percent was
handled overside, the remainder being handled through the shed.
Figure C-2 summarizes the export general cargo Pier
flows, by area destination.        ''B&'*  _ jB-    C
- Ui -
F/gorz   C-Z
^LOhS Ot* eXf^GRT £■£//£At'AA- CAR&O  O" P**# B-C,
Bt Z>E~ST/AAAT10A/
— Al ******    ro/VA/ZHWr   Atif S*t*—
'tvArro/A 1964-
HI At
Oa/eatt
26S
y
Ov£AiS/A2£-
95
AT3
3H££>
tJuSTBaLAjiA
ez9
Olr£A?S/D£
Z59
Aj*o*+
AirVL.
t+
356
TtffiO
EuGaPC
OA£*SlD*
CUT.
341
Z54
1
c
Thaia
Sh£»  - 42 -
(b) Handling Methods, by Commodity
In comparison to the small lot size of import cargoes,
export cargoes are generally comprised of large unit shipments.
(i) Transit Shed Cargoes
Cargoes handled through the transit shed were comprised .
primarily of flour, bagged animal feed, chemical products, asbestos
and some newsprint.
(ii) Overside Cargoes
Overside Cargoes are comprised mainly of lumber, newsprint,
and woodpulp. Figure C-7 shows the composition of the overside
export general cargo handled at Pier B-C during 1964, by area
destination.
Table C-7     pre
Composition of Overside Export Cargoes, by
Commodity and by Destination,
Pier B-C, 1964
Destination:
_ Orient
Europe
Australasia
Commodity,
\
Lumber -
55.1
20.4
89.4
Wood Pulp
31.1
13.4
6.5
Newsprint''
13.8
66.2
4.1
Total
100.0
'100.0
100.0
Total (Tons)
10,435
2,162
6,219
(Tons per Ship)
95
87
259
B. Future Meth
ods
of General Cargo Handling
The previous section reviewed the present methods of
handling general cargo at Pier B-C.  Such methods are typical of
handling practices in Vancouver. At U.S. West Coast Ports, there
is no overside loading or unloading of cargoes, and there are only
floating cranes to facilitate the handling of cargoes at general
cargo berths, except at container piers. However, at these ports,
the direct rail movements are an important part of the handling of
cargoes.  J
J
4  iIjH|
i "lam.*
iP^
. Hk.
jfe
- 43 -
Overside handling of cargoes are and will remain an integral
part in the handling of ships' traffic at Vancouver, both inbound
and outbound, particularly with regard to ships in Oriental
service. This feature, which Is not prevalent at U.S. West Coast
ports, may be attributed to:
l) The location of pulp and paper mills on tidewater
ii) The location of steel fabricating plants on the
lower reaches of the Fraser River. Water access*
to such ports is" by barge only.      -S^eat!
iii) The fact that overside cargoes are only charged
half wharfage and thus terminal charges are
reduced. , ft ,'*
iv) The well-developed barge services in the greater
Vancouver area.
Although the techniques of handling general cargo
through the shed are common to all piers, the degree of operating
efficiency varies from pier to pier. Such, variance is dependent
upon the overall pier layout, the design of the transit shed, the
equipment available to handle the cargoes, the proper utilization
of manpower, and competent management.
Crucial to the handling of general cargo is the'
dimensioning and construction of the transit shed. The optimum
transit shed design from a handling standpoint would :
i) Enable the distance which shipments must travel
between the ship and the inland mode of transportation to be minimized.
ii) Minimize the time goods spend flowing through
the transit shed.
iii) Provide adequate access'into the transit shed from
both the apron and the inland loading and unloading
platform.
iv) Be free from any structural interference which
would impede the flow of traffic.
v) Allow space for the sortation and consignment of
cargoes.
vi) Provide space for short term storage of cargoes.
These factors are interdependent. For example, if the
transit shed was constructed solely to minimize the distance of
cargo flows, considerable shed congestion would occur since allowance would not be provided for adequate spaoe for sortation. k - 44 -
C. The Future of Containerized Traffic
At present,'containerization of general, cargo exists
to varying degrees at the U.S. and Canadian West Coast ports.
At San Diego, California, virtually none of the
traffic is received or shipped in containers. Much of its
general cargo is bulky, such as cotton bales, iron and steel
products, or dimension lumber. The packaged Oriental traffic is
handled by a conventional sling-pallet operation.
At the Ports of Long Beach, Los Angeles and San
Francisco, California, rather elaborate container operations exist.
At these ports, specialized deep sea terminals for handling containers are in operation and are geared to the Hawaiian Island
and Coastal Trade services. Certain shipping lines operating into
San Francisco and Los Angeles from the Orient have partly containerized their general cargo. The advantage of operating these
containers is enhanced by a movement of packaged general cargo
from California to,the Orient, balancing the inward flow of such
cargoes.
The Port of Seattle has recently experienced a rapid
increase in container services, these services being with the
Hawaiian Islands and Alaska, where general cargo traffic* is
available in both directions for containerization.
In general, containerization is most prevalent where
there is:
i) An adequate volume of general cargo traffio in small
unit sizes between two specific location's. These
cargoes have relatively high terminal costs and are
susceptible to high pilferage and damage. I
ii) A reasonably balanced two-way movement of such cargoes.
iii) A relatively short distance from port to port.
iv) An availability of wharf and back-up space.
v) Inland origination and terminations a relatively
short distance from the port.  - 45 -
In view of these factors, It is not surprising that at
present, only a few small containers, carrying traffic highly
susceptible to damage or pilferage, are handled at the Port of
Vancouver.  Out of twenty-five shipping agents interviewed in
Vancouver, only one considered that containerization was conceivable on a significant scale in the Port of Vancouver.
While there is an adequate volume of general cargo moving
from the Orient into the Port, there is virtually no corresponding
traffic which could be containerized for the return trip. Furthermore, must of the imported Oriental traffic moves Inland to the
Prairies or-Eastern Canada, and if containers were used, a long
empty return movement would ensue.
At all container terminals on the U.S. West Coast, large
back-up areas are provided for the marshalling of containers. No
such area could easily be provided at any existing general cargo
pier in Vancouver.
In addition, general cargo handling methods at Oriental
Ports, except for iron and steel products, are primarily between
ship and small boats, so that large containers would be difficult
to handle.
With regard to the European general cargo traffic, there is
also a lack of a two-way balanced movement, the ships loading outward mainly with bulk cargoes or with such general cargo as lumber,
newsprint and woodpulp.
It would thus appear that the containerization of general
cargo in any significant volume will not take place within the
foreseeable future.  Its inception will depend upon a substantial
change in the composition of outward cargoes, in the development of
domestic container services, and upon the costs of handling cargo
by more conventional means.  1
' - 46 -
D Summary
1. The methods of handling import general cargo traffic and the
average tonnages per ship, by origin, are summarized as follows
Import General Cargoes,
Handling Methods and Average Ship
Tonnages, Pier B-C. 1964
Methods of Handling
Origin of Traffic
Orient
Australasia
Europe
Overside
Direct Rail
Transit Shed
27.8
21.1
51.1
41.1
17.7
68.2
2.7
4.1
93.2
TOTAL
100.0
100.0
100.0
Average Tons per Sh
•-P
1,070
801
1,024
Total Routed Inland
by Rail (percent)   30.0 22.5 22.0
2. The import general cargoes handled overside were comprised of
steel and lumber products, most of which originated in the
Orient. Cargoes handled direct to rail cars were made up of
plywood, heavy machinery and equipment, and a wide range of
iron and steel products.  In comparison, cargoes handled
through the transit shed were comprised mainly of small-lot
shipments of consumer goods and end products.
3. The methods of handling export general cargoes and average
loaded tonnages per ship are summarized as follows:
Export General Cargoes,
Handling Methods and Average Ship
•tonnages^
rier rs-u, ...yoi*.
Origin of Traffic
Orient
Australasia
Europe
Overside           35.4
Direct Rail           -
Transit Shed         64.6
41.2
2.2
56.6
25.5
74.5
TOTAL              100.0
100.0
100.0
Average Tons per Ship  268
629
341
. \t. -47*
4»    Overside cargoes were comprised of lumber, woodpulp, and
newsprint. Virtually none of the export cargoes were handled
direct from rail cars. Export general cargoes bandied through
the transit shed were comprised mainly of flour, animal feed,
asbestos, and chemical products.
5. In view of the high proportion of cargoes loaded overside,
the .multi-loading of ships at various pier facilities, and the
outward loading of bulk cargoes, maximum ship export general
cargo tonnages have seldom been handled through the transit
shed of general cargo piers in Vancouver. Thus, relatively
little transit shed space has traditionally been allocated for
the handling of export cargoes.
However, the planning of new general cargo facilities
should allow for considerable transit shed space for export
cargoes, since proper facilities would most likely result in a
consolidation of ship loading at such a pier. In addition, the
growth of export cargoes, particularly wood pulp, is expected
to exceed that of import cargoes, reuniting in an even greater
imbalance of inward/outward cargoes that is now experienced
in the Port as a whole.
6. Overside handling of cargoes are, and will remain, an integral
part of general cargo pier operations at the Port.
7. It would appear that a significant degree of containerization
of general cargo traffic in the Port of Vancouver will not
take place in the foreseeable future.
8. The transit shed should be so designed to minimize the time
spent and distance travelled for cargoes moving through the
shed. Engineering studies should consider the practicality
and capital costs of transit sheds of various dimensions and
should also consider the incremental capital costs of providing a shed of clear span construction, as opposed to the
traditional design utilizing interior columns. 9 1
- 48 -
9. The handling of Oriental and Australasian traffic requires
the availability of rail tracks and crane facilities on the pier
apron, while the handling of European traffic does not.  In view
of the importance of Oriental and Australasian traffic, and the
anticipated growth of Oriental traffic in particular, engineering studies should develop the incremental costs of providing
such rail and orane facilities.
10. For all transit shed general cargo, inland transportation is
provided primarily by truck, and the transit shed should be
designed accordingly.
11. There is presently no significant open storage area available
at the Canadian Pacific pier facilities in Vancouver. The
possibility of attracting some export lead and zinc ingot
traffic, as well as the growing import of steel and automobiles
from Japan, suggest that serious consideration be given to
allowing for some open storage in any new facility which is
designed. Handling lead, zinc and steel traffic would likely
require a reinforced area, the incremental costs of which
should be estimated.  - 49 -
CHAPTER TV
ANALYSIS OF GENERAL CARGO BY SHIPPING AGENT
In this Chapter, the pier and rail earnings from
specific shipping agents are developed. Shipping agents manage
the port business of shipping lines, and it is the shipping
agent who determines which berthing facilities in the port are
used by the shipping lines which it services. Therefore, it is
primarily the shipping agent with whom the pier operator must
negotiate in order to obtain traffic for his piers.
A. Volume and Unit Pier Contributions.
The amount of traffic handled by individual shipping
lines varies from year to year. However, the share of traffic
handled by the major shipping lines remains relatively constant,
due to the greater efficiency of their ships and the frequency
of service which they provide, while traffic handled by the
smaller shipping lines varies considerably from year to year.
The following analysis of the general cargo traffic is classified according to the agents who manage shipping lines in
services with the Orient, Australasia and Europe.
A reasonable cross-section of shipping agents utilize
Pier B-C and an analysis of their traffic over Pier B-C
provides a good indication of those agents whose traffic would
be most lucrative to an operator of a new pier facility in
Vancouver.
There is no significant difference in pier revenues per
ship from various shipping agents as regards berthage, dock
wharfage, and tying-up and letting-go.  It is the cargo handling
operation which (as a result of differences in total ship
tonnage and its commodity position), accounts for most of the
variation in contribution per ship. \ id
1
i
n
ii
i I
- 50 -
The contributions per ship from pier handling at Pier B-C
during 1964 for the various agents is shown in order of their
rank in Table D-l. These contributions refer only to the
difference between cargo handling revenues and Empire Stevedore
charges. Although car loading and unloading revenues and
expenses cannot be precisely estimated, the contribution from
car loading and unloading generally varies directly with the
contribution from handling.
There is a significant difference in the profitability
on handling per ship, by shipping agent, ranging from a high.of
$2,837 for a Johnson-Walton vessel to,$90 for a Sea Freight
vessel. There is no distinct relationship between the profitability per ship on pier handling operations and the origin/
destination of.-.the traffic.
Higher ship tonnages are received primarily from the
large shipping agents, such as Furness Withy, Johnson Walton,
Canada Blue Star (American Mail Line), Matson Navigation, and
Empire Shipping, reflecting their superior competitive
position. However, there is a wide variability in contributions
per ton by shipping agent, due to differences in the commodity
composition of the traffic received from each shipping agent,
coupled with the handling rate and cost structure. For
example, a contribution of only §0.94 per ton was earned from
handling Empire'Shipping traffic, due to a relatively high
proportion.of this traffic coming under low tariff classifications. In comparison, a contribution of $1.38 per ton was
earned from C. Gardiner Johnson traffic since much of this
traffic was comprised of plywood, small packaged goods, and
large cubic cargoes, for which Canadian Pacific pier handling
revenues are relatively high.
B. Balance in Inward/Outward Flows.
As has been pointed out previously, most of the traffic
handled at Pier B-C is import traffic. Furthermore, there
are distinct variances in the balance of inward and outward
tonnages received from each shipping agent. For example,
almost all of the C. Gardiner Johnson traffic is inward
whereas a greater balance is achieved with Furness Withy and
Canadian Blue Star traffic.  51 -
Table D-l
Analysis of General Cargo Traffic
by Shipping Agent - 1964	
Rank
Agent
Origin*
Number of Ships Berthed Contribution
All Piers    Pier on handling
in Vancouver**  B-C per ship
          §—__	
Contribution
Per Ton
Total Tom Pe:
Ship    handled
at
Pier B-C
1
Johnson-Walton
0
2
Furness Withy
A,E
3
Canadian Blue"""
Star
(American Mail
Line)
0
4
Matson Navigation
A
5
Pacific Export
0
6
C. Gardiner ■
Johnson
0
7
North Pacifl-i*'
Shipping
0
8
Balfour Guthrie
E
9
Empire Shipping
0,A
10
Anglo-Canadian
E
11
Dingwall Cotts
0
12
Greer-Tidewater
0
13
Dodwell
0
14
S.S. of
New Zealand
A
15
Inter-ore
Shipping
0
16
B.C. Ship
Chartering
E
17
Sea Freight
AVERAGES
0
54
28
58
9
33
36
2
20
32
9
2
27
2,837
1,5*8
1,350
1,248
1,165
1,060
1,024
1.19
.94
1.28
.79
1.36
1.38
.83
0 ■ Orient
45
1
927
1.74
71
32
887
.94
Ul
14
844
.74
1|6
10
831
1.49
15
6
822
.88
23
1
627
1.17
2
2
356
1.52
N.A.
1
212
.54
N.A.
1
134
1.57
N.A.
1
90
1,029
.71
1.50
t :
E ■ Europe :
A a Austra
la
sia
2,364
1,740
1,165
1,767
1,144
1,154
1,319
1,098
1,736
1,141
559
1,225
536
624
396
85
126
1,324
Includes the same ship berthed at more than one pier on the same voyage.
The. Canadian Blue Star Line uses Ballantyne Pier (IIHB),therese the An-e*"ican
Mail Line (for which Canadian Blue Star is the A-rent) utilizes Canadian
Pacific pier facilities.
Note: See Appendix IH for a complete listinr of shipr-in*** lines
serviced by the various agents. f
fl
II
I
II
IE- I
II
i
I
i
L
I - 52 -
Table D-2 shows the relationship between import and export
traffic for each major shipping agent.
Table D-2
Ship
Rank
Shipping Agent
John.on Walton
INWARD AND  OUTWARD
BY 3HIPPIN0
DISTRIBUTION OP TRAPPIC
10EKT.   196'j
Outbound
Av.rage
Tonnage
Orlpln/Deet
0
imtlsa
Inbound
Average Total  ton. per
Ship
1
92.1             *
7.9
2.384
2
Matoon Navigation
A
.   69.8
30.2
1.7GT
3
Porn... withy
A,  E
71.5
26.5
1,740
4
Empire Shipping
0, A
77.6
22.4
1,736
5
North Pacific Shipping
0
97.8
2.2
1,319
6
Qreer-Tldewater
0
99.6
.4
1,225
7
Canadian Blue Star
(American Mall Line)
0
66.6
33.*
1,165
8
C. Oardlner Jonneon
0
91.8
8.2
1,154
9
Anglo-Canadian Shipping
E
61.1
38.9
1,148
10
Paoific Export
0
100.0
-
1,144
11
Balfour Oathrl.
E
■ 95.9
4.1
1,093
12
S3 of Ntn« Zealand
A
27.6
72.4
911   .
13
Rlngw.ll Cotta
0
75-1
24.9
559
14
Dodwell
0
100.0
-
536
IS
-  Inter-ore Shipping
0
-
100.0
396
16
Sea Prelght
0
100.0
-
126
17
B.C. Ship Chartering
E
rt 24.7
75.3
85
Weighted Average
.     75.»
24.6
1.324
.
3 • on
ant. A - Auatralaala, E ■
Europe.
Some weight in the choice of agents should be given to
the importance of obtaining balanced inward and outwar-HP^
tonnages. This balance results in greater pier-handling
efficiency, as a better allocation of labour may thereby be
made. Such advantages occur mainly in the car-handling and
unloading operation where Canadian Pacific personnel are
employed and are thus not reflected in Table D-l. In addition,
a balance of inward and outward cargo results in somewhat
more cargo being handled per ship - hour in berth, thereby
increasing the effective capacity of the pier.
C. Contribution from Rail Handling; by Shipping A°;ent.
As presented in the previous Department of Research
Report 5-265-63, dated December, 1963, the contribution from
rail earnings, which may be attributed to the operation by
Canadian Pacific of piers in Vancouver, is a significant
proportion of the total contribution which may be expected
from a new pier facility. "~1    /fl
.
ii
I
i
1
tm
I
i - 53 -
In the aforementioned Report, the following subjects were
analyzed in some detail in order to estimate the rail contribution attributable to pier operations:
(i)   Routing of import cargo.
(ii)  Influence of origin on rail traffic.
(iii) Overland versus local traffic.
(iv)  Average cost of import traffic.
(v)   Solicitation advantage of Canadian
Pacific operated piers.
The routing of the import cargo, the influence of the
origin on rail traffic, and the average cost of import traffic
as presented in the December, 1963 Report, need no revision as
an examination of 1964 data indicates no significant change
since 1962.
For convenience, pages 26-30 of the 1963 Report are
reproduced in Appendix IH.  The method of routing import
traffic remains primarily with the consignee rather than the
steamship line. The influence of the origin on the inland
destination and the amount of rail traffic received by origin
also remains similar to that presented on page 27 of the
aforementioned Report.  In addition, the distribution and
composition of import rail traffic by destination has not
changed appreciably. Almost all of the European traffic
routed by rail is destined to British Columbia, Alberta and
Saskatchewan.  In comparison, a large porportion - over 50
percent - of the Oriental traffic is destined to Eastern
Canadian markets.
D. Overland Versus Local Traffic.
As presented in Figure D-l and Table D-l in the
Appendix of the aforementioned Report, during 1963, 19.4
percent of the inbound general cargo off Canadian Pacific
piers was routed inland via rail. It was further commented
that the percentage of import traffic routed inland by rail
might be expected to decline. In 1964, the proportion of
inbound general cargo off Canadian Pacific piers routed
inland by rail increased to 23.3 percent. No particular
factor appears to explain this increase and it may be that
the previous forecast was overly pessimistic.
_J-  - 51t- -
Table D-3 shows comparable data for 1964 to those of 1960-63
which were presented in the previous Report.  It will be
noticed that a larger proportion of the export cargoes were
routed via rail during 1964 - 71.9 percent. This was almost
entirely due to an exceptionally large export rail movement
of flour which occurred during I964.
Table D-
}
Distribution of Loca
from C.P.R. Piers in
1 Versus Overland Movement to
Vancouver, 1960-1961;*
and
TOTAL
INBOUND
OUTBOUND
Local
Overland
Local
Overland	
Rail   Truck
Local
Over.
Via '
Rail
Lano
Via
Truck
Via
Rail
via
Truck
Percentage
i960
56.3
41.5
2.2
100.0
43.5
53.6   2.9  100.0
52.9
44.7
2.4
100.0
1961
71.2
26.8
2.0
100.0
59.1
44.5    3.4  100.0
66.9
30.9
2.2
100.0
1962 _
70.6
26a
3.3
100.0
48.9
54.5    4.6  100.0
68.7
27.8
3-5
100.0
1963
77-3
19.4
3.3
100.0
66.2
30.2   3.6  100.0
74.9
21.8
• 3.3
100.0
1964
73.5
23.3
3.2
100.0
27.9
71.9     .2  100.0
49.4
50.0
.6
100.0
Por comparison purposes, the first 10 months of each year were chosen.
Solicitation Advantage.
In the previous Report, an estimate was made of the
rail solicitation advantage from operating piers in Vancouver.
It was estimated that Canadian Pacific obtained some 47
percent of available rail traffic off KHB piers in 1962.
During the course of the present study, access to detailed
NHB records was obtained and an analysis indicated that the
Canadian Pacific portion of available rail traffic off NHB
piers in 1964 was some 49 percent as shown in Table D-4. *\ m
!
i
1
1 - ^ -
Table D-k
Rail Traffic off B.H.B. and Canadian
Pacific Piers in Vancouver. 196I)..
Origin
Orient
Australasian
Europe
TOTAL
Rail Traffio off N.H.B. Piers
Total Rail                         C.P. ^Share
-\72Z2ZZyZZ2: (»000 tons)  	
52.7
2.0
6O.8
115.5
24.7
1.0
31.4
57.1
C.P. Percentage
Share
46.9
50.0
51.6
49.4
Orient
Australasian
Europe
TOTAL
Rail Traffic off C.P. Piers
27.1
2.2
.6.7
36.0
(>000 tons)
23.7
2.0
6.0
31.7
Source: Records of the General Foreign Freight Agent,
Vancouver.
87.5
90.9
89.6
88.1
While the Canadian Pacific rail portion rail traffic ,<
off Canadian Pacific piers in 1962 was estimated to be some
74 percent, our analysis indicates that in 1964 the comparable
proportion was 88 percent. Although the variance in these
two estimates appears high, it should be noted that total rail
traffic off Canadian piers in 1964 was some 36,000 tons so
that a transfer of only 5,000 tons of rail traffic from
Canadian National to Canadian Pacific would account for the
14 percent increase in the Canadian Pacific rail share.
Between 1962 and 1964, rail traffic off Canadian Pacific piers
increased by some 3,300 tons.
Although the Canadian Pacific share of the N.H.B. rail
traffic in 1964 was some 49 percent, its share of rail traffic
off other piers is likely somewhat higher. The 1962
estimate .that Canadian Pacific would retain 50-60 percent of
rail traffic originating on Canadian Pacific piers, if this
traffic were transferred to other piers, is still valid.
This implies a solicitation advantage for rail traffic between
28 percent and 3# percent.  - 56 -
This same solicitation advantage would also likely apply on
rail traffic transferred from other piers to Canadian Pacific
piers.
F. Rail Preference Rank, by Shipping Agent.
Table D-5 lists the shipping agents according to their
rail preference ranks. This ranking is based upon the average
gross rail waybill revenues per ship handled by the shipping
agents at Pier B-C during 1964 and assumes an equal percentage
contribution from all traffic. This analysis clearly indicates
that ships originating in the Orient generate substantially
more rail traffic and revenues than do ships originating
elsewhere.
Table D-5
Analysis of Rail Traffic
: off
Canadian
Pacific Piers in 1964,
by
Shipp
ing Agent
CP. Rail
Rail
CP Rail
. Revenue Per
Rank
Agent
Origin*
Tonnage
Ship ($)
1
Johnson-Walton
0
1,167
60,906
2
Greer-Tidewater
0
958
49,998
3
North Pacific Shipping
0
937
48,902
4'
..Canadian Blue Star
(American Mail Line)
0
495
25,834
5
Dodwell
0
401
20,928
6
Empire Shipping
0
»A,E
427
20,761
7
C. Gardiner Johnson
0
382
19,937
8
Anglo-Canadian Shipping
E
1,368
18,427
9
Dingwall Cotts
0
322
16,805
10
Pacific Export
0
222
11,586
11
Matson Navigation
A
212
9,875
12
Sea Freight
0
138
7,202
13
S.S. of New Zealand
0,A
63
3,052
14
Furness Withy
A,E
167
2,752
15
Balfour Guthrie
E
148
1,994
* 0 = Orient, A s Australasia, E = Europe
G. Overall Contribution by Shipping Agent.
It is not practical to develop the combined pier and rail
contributions per vessel for each shipping agent, as would be
necessary in order to rank the agents by their overall contribution to the Canadian Pacific family. Perusal of the pier
handling contributions per ton, shown in Table D-l, and gross
revenues, shown in Table D-5, clearly indicates the importance
of rail revenues in the overall earnings from the pier
operation, particularly in view of the contribution over rail
variable costs from this traffic of approximately 60 percent  - 57 -
(Report S-265-63, page 30), the solicitation advantage of some
28-38?_ attributable to pier operations, and the fact that the
pier contributions shown in Table D-l account for some 75 per
cent of total pier contributions.
It is evident from the data presented that the shipping
agents which should be most actively solicited are those
with the most frequent service and who service Oriental ships.
If it is necessary to guarantee berthage to such agents, this
may well be in the best interests of Canadian Pacific. ' •
H. Summary.
The analysis outlined in this chapter indicates that:
1. There is a considerable variation in handling contributions per ship by shipping agent and this variance is
due primarily to the volume and commodity composition
of the specific traffic.
2. Ships originating in the Orient generate the greatest
rail revenues and contributions.
3. Taking into account both pier and rail contributions
over variable costs, as well as the rail solicitation
advantage derived from pier operations, shipping agents
which have frequent services and which deal with the
Orient are most profitable to Canadian Pacific.
4. Consideration might be given to guaranteeing berthage
for such agents.
5. Specialization in this traffic would provide Canadian
Pacific with the opportunity of sharing the rapidly
growing trade with the Orient.
6. In addition, there are substantial benefits to be
obtained by a pier operator from achieving a balance
between import and export cargo and shipping agent
solicitation should take this into account. I
#
I
4
i
I
■
t
4
l 58 -
CHAPTER V
SURVEY OF COMPETITIVE U.S. WEST COAST PORT FACILITIES
As a result of a recent tour of the U.S. West Coast Ports
of San Diego, Long Beach, Los Angeles, San Francisco, and
Seattle, some indications of the principal dimensions and
criteria for the design of general cargo pier facilities have
been obtained.
In the past, general cargo terminals were designed and
constructed of masonary and steel, with such features as single
storey transit sheds with ample clear storage heights, narrow
pier aprons, and depressed railroad track wells (within or
immediately adjacent to transit sheds). Facilities currently
being constructed take into account modern requirements for
longer berths, wider aprons, and larger transit sheds. More
expansive facilities have been necessitated to accommodate
the present trend towards larger ships with greater cargo-
carrying capacities. Moreover, new designs take advantage of
new construction techniques and materials, and new handling
methods, such as high cargo piling, which are made possible
by the use of pallets and palletized shipments, container, and
other unitized cargo handling methods. Furthermore, the trend
towards a greater share of the general cargo traffic being
routed by truck has resulted in greater allocation of space
for truck access.
As a result of these trends, one of the distinct
features of the modern terminal on the U.S. West Coast is
the provision of considerable back-up areas for the easy
movement of cargoes and of open storage for such commodities
as lumber, steel and automobiles. In addition, where the
volume of a particular commodity is large, specialized
facilities have been provided. For example, at Long Beach,
California, a complete conveyor belt system, operating
directly from the hold of the ship to rail - truck connections,
has been installed for the handling of bananas. X -.---a-.
59
In addition, specialization is evident in the use of
buildings on dock locations. At San Diego, Long Beach and
Los Angeles, single or multiple warehouses are located on
the landside of transit sheds. This layout allows the transit sheds to be used solely for the initial sortation and
consignment of cargoes, with further sortation, storage and
consignment of cargoes taking place in the warehouses.
The principal dimensioning for new general cargo
terminal facilities on the U.S. West Coast is generally
applicable to the construction of new facilities in Vancouver.
A special feature of the U.S. West Coast ports, the container
terminal, is not applicable to Vancouver, as discussed in
Chapter III of this Report.
Set forth below are the principal dimensions of the
new general cargo terminal facilities which are generally
preVrtCLent on the U.S. West Coast, and which might apply to
the development of facilities at the Pier A, and Sheds 5, 6,
and 7 sites. These dimensions provide only a general indication of what would be necessary at either of these locations.
A. Berth Length
Almost all U.S. port officials interviewed were in
agreement that 600 feet is required for each berth length,
provided that more than one berth is constructed in a row.
This indicates that 1800'.of berth space at Sheds 5, 6, and
7 would provide three berths. However, in the case of single
berths, such as would be most feasible at the Pier A site,
700 feet would be required for each berth.
B. Berth Depths and Pier Elevation
For a C-4 class mariner vessel of modern construction,
36 feet below the mean low water level is required at berths.
However, many of the port authorities considered that the
draught should be slightly in excess of this amount - 38 feet
to allow for the deeper draught of future vessels.
It was considered unlikely that conventional general
cargo vessels would be constructed in the near future which
could not be handled at a berth with a 38-foot draught and
600-foot length. 1W\
1
i
.J - 60 -
It was mentioned by several engineers at the U.S. West
Coast ports that the surface of the pier or wharf should be
at least 6 feet above the high water level at spring tides.
This, of course, depends on the specific tidal variations at
a particular port.
C. Apron Width and Facilities
Almost all new facilities observed have two rail tracks
on the aprons. The widths of the aprons vary from 5Q to 65
feet; however, in discussions with various port officials, it
was mentioned that 50 feet is considered adequate. Widths in
excess of this, create unnecessary travelling distances for
fork-lifts and other cargo-handling equipment, without providing any additional material-handling benefits.
The only apparent advantage of a 65-foot apron is that
this allows truck movements directly onto the apron of the
wharf. It is doubtful whether such movements would be of
significant volume in Vancouver to justify additional apron
width.
iWith regard to the Canadian Pacific operation in
Vancouver, it should be remembered that cargo handling from
the ship to the apron is presently performed by longshoremen,
who are paid directly by the shipping agent. From the apron
to the "place of rest" within the transit shed, Empire -
Stevedores handle the cargoes and are paid by Canadian Pacific
on a tonnage-handled basis. Therefore, providing extra apron
width would only benefit Canadian Pacific if:
(i) Such construction resulted in cost savings
to Empire Stevedores and these savings were
passed on, in whole or in part, to Canadian
Pacific by rate reductions,
(ii) Such apron width increased the speed at which
cargoes^were moved into the shed, thus providing faster discharge of the vessel, with
a resultant increase in the capacity of the
facility* e. i-rtrti
f
fl
i
|
fl
I
1
1
ft. - 61 -
(iii) Such apron width improved the competitive
position of Canadian Pacific piers by
allowing shipping agents to turn their
ships more rapidly and reducing their
longshore costs.
Since benefits to Canadian Pacific would thus be
indirect, the apron width could perhpas be reduced at 45
feet. This would be 5 feet greater than aprons at
Centenniel Pier, the newest general cargo facility in
Vancouver. Engineering studies should clearly indicate
the incremental costs of additional apron width from 40 to
50 feet.
D. Transit Sheds and Warehouses
1. Transit Sheds
The optimum number of square feet of transit sheds per
berth is considered by port officials on the U.S. West Coast
to be 90,000 square feet. This allows for 40 percent of the
area to be used for aisles and non-cargo areas and is based
upon the maximum carrying of a C-4 class vessel, an average
density of 50 lbs. per cubic foot, and an average height of
12 feet in the piling of cargoes. At the Shed 5, 6, and 7
site, this would entail the construction of a shed 200 feet
wide and 1350 feet long ta handle three berths. However, if
transit shed space for the berths is continuous, such as
would be the.case at Sheds 5, 6, and 7, 80,000 square feet
per berth would be adequate, since it would be highly
improbable that three ships carrying maximum tonnages would
be handled at the same time. Thus, the shed length could be
reduced by 150 feet to 1200 feet, allowing for more open
storage. In addition, this space would appear to be adequate
since maximum ship tonnages are rarely experienced i_n I
Vancouver, and a considerable proportion of the inbound
traffic is handled overside (see Ch. III). As a matter of
interest, Pier 3-C presently has approximately 50,000 square
feet per berth and Centenniel Pier has approximately 70,000
square feet per berth. 1
I 62 -
Although average ship tonnages loaded and unloaded at
general cargo facilities in Vancouver are presently substantially below tonnages at U.S. West Coast ports, which would
appear to reduce the requirements for transit shed space,
several offsetting features must be considered which suggest
that U.S. West Coast standards be accepted:
i)  The average density of general cargo handled at
Vancouver is 20-25 percent lower than the average
density at U.S. West Coast ports. Furthermore,
Vancouver import general cargo is comprised of more
small shipments than is the case on the U.S. West
Coast, requiring more space for sortation and
storage,
ii),' Average ship tonnages are expected to increase
substantially over the next ten years. Most of
the growth in general cargo traffic will result
in higher tonnages per ship rather than an
increased number of ships handled,
iii) To a large extent, transit shed requirements are
determined by maximum ship tonnages rather than
average tonnages if the facility is to be
competitive,
iv) It is hoped that the facilities which would be
provided would induce greater concentra-yion of
unloading and, in particular, loading of general
cargoes at one facility which would further
increase average ship tonnages.
If a finger pier was constructed at the Pier A site,
to provide two berths, greater transit shed space may be
required, since more lengthy cargo movements within the shed
would be required. In this instance, if the transit shed was
constructed over the entire length of the pier - 700 feet -
and if 90,000 square feet were provided for transit shed space,
per berth, the transit shed width would have to be approximately
250 feet. ■^ jf\
9
I
1 - 65 -
!**#
The specific transit shed design will, of course, be the
responsibility of the consulting engineers. However, the
following specific transit shed dimensions and facilities are
those which are common to several U.S. West Coast facilities:
i) Platform Width - at rear of transit sheds, a
20-foot platform for the loading and .unloading
of trucks and rail cars. Many of these
facilities also have a full width canopy
across this platform,
ii) Clear Shed Piling Height - 20 foot minimum.,,
iii) Wall and Interior Columns - 20-25 foot longitudinal wall bays. Interior columns, where
prevalent, are 60 to 70 feet apart and do not
impede the flow of traffic. Many of the new
transit sheds are of clear span constructlpn'.
iv) Doors - door openings are usually located in
each alternate wall bay, making a continuous
•wall 40 to 50 feet between door openings.
Most doors are 20-feet wide and 18 to 20-feet
high on both the apron and platform sides.
Almost all of the doors viewed were rolling
steel doors - composed of hinged leaves
connected together and held by guides on
either side, and opened by sliding vertically
up side guides and rolling into a scroll.
2. Warehouses
At the U.S. West Coast ports of San Diego, Long Beach,
and Los Angeles, warehouses have been constructed as an
integral part of the pier operation. However, since their
function is the provision of storage space, they have been
kept separate from the transit sheds. At present, transit
sheds in Vancouver also serve the purpose of providing
storage - particularly for export cargoes. If warehouses,
separate from transit sheds, were constructed it would
require greater pier space - space which cou^Ld only be
provided by extending the pier further out into the water,
which would be costly.  - 64 -
CHAPTER VI
-ALTERNATIVE DESIGNS AND STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT
FOR CANADIAN PACIFIC GENERAL CARGO PIER SITES
4
There are at present two pier sites available to Canadian
Pacific in downtown Vancouver for the construction of general
cargo facilities: The site of the present Pier A, and that of
Sheds 5, 6 and 7 (See Map I).
At Pier A, Shed A-l on the west side has been condemned
while Shed A-2 can only be used to handle small lot shipments.
Therefore, at present, Pier A is used primarily for ship layovers and for overside cargo movements.
Recently, Sheds 5, 6 and 7 have deteriorated to such an
extent that shipping agents have Objected to the berthing of
their vessels at this site. Cargoes placed in the shed have
experienced extensive water damage due to leaking roofs.
Furthermore, the costs of handling cargo at this facility are
high, due to low ceiling heights, many interior columns and
narrow doorways. As a result, this facility is now used
primarily for overside loading.
A. Proposed Overall Designs for Pier A Site
The limitations imposed on the overall dimensioning of
general cargo facilities at the Pier A site are as follows:
i) The present distance between Pier A and Pier B-C of
355 feet must be maintained, as this distance is
required for manoeuvering ships into the Pier A-2
berth and the Pier B berths. Space is also
required for the placement of barges alongside
the ships. Thus, the eastern face of a new pier
at this site must coincide with that of the
existing Pier A.
ii) To the west, there are several serious limitations.
Firstly, the docking facilities of the fire and
other government boats, presently located immediately
west of the present Pier A, would have to be
relocated. Secondly, the location of the Immigration
Building would prevent rail access to the western
apron of a reconstructed Pier A. UH-.       .rtrtOrtU
rtrtrtrtrtT^U - 64 -
CHAPTER VI
ALTERNATIVE DESIGNS AND STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT
FOR CANADIAN PACIFIC GENERAL CARGO PIER SITES
There are at present two pier sites available to Canadian
Pacific in downtown Vancouver for the construction of general
cargo facilities: The site of the present Pier A, and that of
Sheds 5, 6 and 7 (See Map I).
At Pier A, Shed A-l on the west side has been condemned
while Shed A-2 can only be used to handle small lot shipments.
Therefore, at present, Pier A is used primarily for ship layovers and for overside cargo movements.
Recently, Sheds 5, 6 and 7 have deteriorated to such an
extent that shipping agents have Objected to the berthing of
their vessels at this site. Cargoes placed in the shed have
experienced extensive water damage due to leaking roofs.
Furthermore, the costs of handling cargo at this facility are
high, due to low ceiling heights, many interior columns and
narrow doorways. As a result, this facility is now used
primarily for overside loading.
A. Proposed Overall Designs for Pier A Site
The limitations imposed on the overall dimensioning of
general cargo facilities at the Pier A site are as follows:
i) The present distance between Pier A and Pier B-C of
355 feet must be maintained, as this distance is
required for manoeuvering ships into the Pier A-2
berth and the Pier B berths. Space is also
required for the placement of barges alongside
the ships. Thus, the eastern face of a new pier
at this site must coihcide with that of the
existing Pier A.
ii) To the west, there are several serious limitations.
Firstly, the docking facilities of the fire and
other government boats, presently located immediately
west of the present Pier A, would have to be
relocated. Secondly, the location of the Immigration
Building would prevent rail access to the western
apron of a reconstructed Pier A. fl
4
H
fl - 65 -
Map I
<M C\ ■mm
i - 66 -
*
This structure would also interfere with truck
loading and unloading and the location of the
transit shed. The ultimate restriction on the
width of Pier A westward is the East Barge Slip.
Adequate space must be allowed for vessels
operating at the western berth of a reconstructed Pier A, and for the approach of barges into
the eastern barge slip. In view of these two
features, the maximum width of a reconstructed
Pier A is limited to 360 feet,
iii) As mentioned in Chapter V, 600 feet per berth is
the minimum pier length required where more than
one berth is constructed consecutively. This
would require a pier 1200 feet in length if two
berths on either side of a finger pier were to be
constructed. It is likely that a pier this
length would result in relatively high construction costs per berth, as there is extremely deep
water at the end of the present 750 foot Pier A.
In addition, the length of a pier at this location is restricted by the harbour headline, which
is approximately 1100 feet from the shoreline.
These features suggest that this site is best suited to
a two-berth facility if a finger pier were constructed.
The optimum dimensioning of the apron and the number of
square feet of transit shed space presented in the previous
chapter cannot be adhered to, due to these limitations.
Map II shows a suggested layout for a finger pier, 700
by 360 feet, which would provide for two new berths at the Pier
A site. The specific dimensions of the proposed reconstruction
are as follows:
1)    45-foot wide aprons, with two rail tracks  on eaoh apron
ii) A depressed well, 50 feet wide and extending some I(.25
feet down the centre. Two rail tracks would be placed
inside this well. I
{.Ml
n
4
1
P
1
[ 67 -
Map  II
Hf
21
•^ i
511
*{
-Hj
i
I
Ph
o
c
o
•■"■J
•p
°)
4-U
CO)
C
°
<->
DCS
oj
V)
c|
e.
HI
1
<-}
«}
c
oi  68
iii) On each side of the well, transit sheds would be 110
feet wide. In total, approximately 155,000 square
feet of transit space would be available, or 77,500
square feet per berth. This is slightly less than
the 80,000 square feet proposed in Chapter V.
HoweVer, the area common to both berths at the
northern end of the well could be allocated to either
berth so that a greater space for a particular berth
could be made available when necessary.
An alternative utilization of the Pier A site would be
the construction of a marginal wharf parallel to the shoreline
as shown in Map III. Such a pier layout would have the
advantage of greater backup area. Only one berth 650 feet in
length would be made available, but more transit shed space
per berth, approximately 90,000 square feet, could be
constructed.
As in the case of the proposed finger pier shown in
Map II, the marginal wharf would also have to contend with the
problems of relocating the fireboats and the interference
with rail access by the Immigration Building.
Although the costs of constructing such a marginal
wharf may be less per berth than for a finger pier, due to
the difference in water depth, its construction would
necessitate the removal of the fill extending down the centre
of the present Pier A which would add considerably, to the cost.
A third alternative for the site would be the construction of a large pier by joining the present Pier A to Pier B-C,
as shown in Map IV. Pier B-C is 1,080 feet in length, whereas
the present Pier A is 750 feet in length. As vessels of
greater length are introduced into general cargo service,
Pier B-C will be inadequate to handle four vessels (two at
Pier B and two at Pier C), and will become a two-berth operation. The reconstruction of Pier A by joining it to Pier B-C
would create three new berths, but would eliminate one berth
at Pier B, so that only two additional berths would be made
available.
There are several other drawbacks to such a proposal
which cast doubt upon the economic feasibility of this layout:
i) An expensive dyke woi^d have to be constructed in
deep water to contain the large area to be filled
between Piers' A and B.  - 69 -
Map   III
CVlJ
<
•H
l-W,
PC i
tA
CC
HJ
P-S
<-))
OS i
■
14
■
14
1
ii
4
m
E
w
IN - 70
Map IV
#
o
I
fq
U
CD
O
c
o
•r-i
+->
O
CD
c
c
o
o
CD
co
o
o.
o
u
Ok B
rtrtH
n
H
li
li
i
I*
■
■
1
■
i
1 - 71 -
I
i
■4
i
m
ii) The filled area would probably result in excess
backup area.
iii) Berth "three" shown on Map IV would,have to
utilize the present Pier B shed, which would
require lengthy cargo movements. Alternatively^
a transit shed could be constructed parallel to
berths 2 and 3, necessitating a major revision
to Pier B-C.
iv) Unusable areas would be created at the corners,
in order to permit angling of rail tracks to
berths 2 and 3.
In view of these factors, the capital costs per additional
berth of such a layout would likely be high as compared with
alternative uses of this site. .
There are, of course, many other possible designs for
the Pier A site, particularly as regards the joining of Pier A
and Pier B-C. It is felt that the layouts suggested in Maps
II, III and IV represent the most practical of these designs
in terms of operating efficiency and capital cost.
B* Design for Facilities at Sheds 5. 6 and 7 Site
Sheds 5, 6 and 7 are in a similar state of deterioration
as the present Pier A. Thus, the reconstruction of Sheds 5,
6 and 7 is as vital to the improvement of the position of
Canadian Pacific in Vancouver as the reconstruction of Pier A.
Map V shows a possible utilization of the Shed 5, 6 and
7 site, resulting in the provision of three berths.
The limitations upon the design layout for this site are
as follows:
i)
ii)
Facilities constructed at this site should not interfere
with the operation of Pier C. Thus, the bulkhead line
illustrated on Map V angles out from the corner of Pier
C so that some 100 feet is allowed between Pier C and
the new berths. In addition, the newly-constructed
facilitie-s would angle out from the Western Waterway
Terminal Pier, so as not to impede its operation.
The location of the transit shed would have to be planned so as not to interfere with the proposed Harbour
Freeway. However,^since this Freeway will be supported
by columns placed 60-70 feet apart, it will not
interfere with rail/truck access to the rear of a transit shed.
iii)
The.Pier "D" fill would have to be dredged.
The available 1800 feet of berthing space would provide
for three general cargo berths. The required width of the
marginal wharf would be 295 feet comprised of the following:
Apron
Transit Shed
Back-up Area
45 feet
150 feet
100 feet
295 feet  - 72 -
Map V
DC •
fl - 73 -
As it is unlikely that three ships of maximum tonnage
would be handled concurrently, 80,000 square feet of shed
space per berth would be sufficient, which would be provided
by a 1600 x 150 foot transit shed.
This general desigivwould also allow for double-ended
rail connections to the apron and to the rear of the transit
shed. At either end of this shed, open storage space
(approximately 45,000 square feet) for such cargoes as lead
and zinc ingots, would be available.
An advantage of this general design is that it can be
progressed in stages, as required by the development of
traffic.        see •■
C. Pier Sites East of Sheds 5. 6 and 7
The area east of Sheds 5, 6 and 7 extending to the
Canadian National Pier is presently occupied by a number of
narrow finger piers. This area could be utilized in the
future for further development of general cargo facilities
by Canadian Pacific.
•The Western Waterways Terminal, immediately east of
Sheds 5, 6 and 7, is located on land leased from Canadian
Pacific until 1975. This lease has a cancellation clause of
one year if Canadian Pacific were to decide to utilize this
area for the construction of new pier facilities. The
present pier is used mainly for overside loading at its
western berth and for some coastwise shipping at its eastern
berth.
East of this pier, the "Coastwise" Pier (also known as
Pier H) is used for general wharfage and storage. The Pier
is leased from Canadian Pacific on a one year renewable basis.
The Evans, Coleman and Evans Pier (a local construction
materials firm) is utilized for deep sea general cargo. Only
one effective berth is available for this purpose. The Pier
is located on foreshore and water lots leased from Canadian
Pacific and provides for termination in six months if required
for railway purposes. !
1
I r 71+•
D. Proposed Stages of Development
In view of the market analysis and forecast presented
in earlier chapters of the Report, it is clear that it would
not be economic to develop all three available sites
simultaneously. The provision of two or three new general
cargo berths appears to be most practical, with further development contingent upon traffic growth, the volume of business
experienced at the new facilities, and their profitability.
As both the Pier A and the Sheds 5-6-7 sites are badly
deteriorated and not contributing substantially to the
profitability of the operation, while the piers to the east of
Sheds 5-6-7 are generating rental inqome with no associated
expenses, it would appear preferable to develop either the
Pier A site or the Sheds 5-6-7 site initially.
Although the choice between these two sites is dependent upon relative capital costs per berth and the anticipated
contribution from each operation, the physical constraints
on the development of the Sheds 5-6-7 site appear to be less
onerous than those on the development of the Pier A site.
Without prejudging the results of the engineering and
profitability which will be necessary before a final decision
is made, "Maps VI and VII show two suggested staged developments
for the entire Canadian Pacific waterfront area. Undue sr.i
■..-. '..*■■ - 75 -
Mao VI
H
IH
O
to
cd
j->
co
-f
r.
Oi
S-.
4.
c
cu
O
o
cd
c S
cd (
h {
•a j
cd
G j
cd (
o i
fa .51
o    (
<Vh    I
O
gl
e aa(
p. ..j
o oi
H
«>
to
cd
•P
CO
tH
o
>
(1)
rl
0-i{
oS
<m cd
OO
oo
CD
t-_
cd
-p
CO
o
I
■o
CQ
o
rtrt.
O
P-4
00-
fi
cd
P.
-h bO
i-P  C
led -h
-4*0
bOc-l
H
H
<_.
to
cd
■p
co
1. fl
i .Map VII
H
H
H
<u
to
cd
CO
H
CD
to
cd
CO
P.
GO
r-i
H
CD
bO
cd
4->
OO "-.  (-
1 - 77 -
CHAPTER VII
GUIDELINES FOR PIER DESIGN
The overall market analysis which has been carried out
indicates that general cargo traffic through the Port will
continue to grow, although at a rate somewhat below that which
has been experienced recently. Within the next five years,
the present general cargo piers should be operating at, or
above, their-practical maximum occupancy rate. In addition,
the age and condition of many of these facilities is such
that a pier of modern design, particularly in the locations
being considered by Canadian Pacific, would likely succeed in
attaining an occupancy rate somewhat above that of the Port
as a whole. Thus, serious consideration should be given to .
developing the Canadian Pacific waterfront site, commencing
with two or three general cargo berths, with further
construction dependent upon market developments.
The previous chapter has outlined several possible pier
layouts which could be developed within the physical constraints of the Canadian Pacific waterfront property at
Vancouver. It will be the function of engineering consultants
to provide detailed designs and to estimate the capital costs
of each alternative. These capital cost estimates will make
possible a final economic evaluation of the various alternatives.
In considering the first phase of the general cargo pier
development, several salient features of the general cargo
market must be kept firmly in mind:
1. Exports of wood pulp are expected to provide the
largest increase in traffic handled through the
Port*-. This may result in a general balance of
import and export cargo through a new facility,
as opposed to the traditional marked imbalance
in favour of inward traffic at general cargo
piers at Vancouver.  - 78 -
The design of a new pier should be directed
towards providing facilities able to capture
and efficiently handle this traffic, in conjunction with the more traditional type of
general cargoes handled through the Port.
The movement of a substantial volume of
packaged, small-lot shipments, which has been.
a distinctive feature of the Port's traffic,
will continue to grow.
The design of a new pier must thus provide
adequate transit shed space, to facilitate
the efficient movement and sortation of such
goods.
The nature of the traffic handled, as well as
the location on water of many of the important
shipping points, indicate that the substantial
volume of overside loading and unloading will
continue.
The design of a new pier must thus provide for
easy barge access to the ships and for the
possibility of incorporating pier cranes with
overside reach.
As is the case at all major North American
general cargo ports, trucks are the predominant
mode of inland transportation at Vancouver. If
anything, the relative importance of truck
transportation, for inland routing, will increase,
The design of a new pier must thus provide for
adequate and accessible truck bays and for
possible direct truck access to the transit shed.
The importance of Vancouver as a forwarding point
for many Oriental and Australasian imports
destined fax inland, and the value of this
traffic to the Railway, will continue. Also,
much of the traffic through the Port will
continue to be composed of commodities which can
be handled direct to rail cars without intermediate shed handling.  - 79 -
The design of a new pier must thus allow for rail
access into, or adjacent to, the transit shed, as
well as for possible direct rail access to the
ship side.
6. It is possible that certain commodities may be
handled at a new pier which have not traditionally
been handled at Canadian Pacific piers, such as
lead and zinc ingots and import automobiles. The
design of a new pier should thus allow for the
possibility of providing open storage space which
might have to be reinforced for certain of these
cargoes.
7. A considerable volume of heavy machinery and
equipment traffic is handled at general cargo
piers in Vancouver, and this import traffic is
expected to continue growing.
The design of a new pier should thus consider the
possibility of providing pier-based cranes of
adequate capacities to handle this traffic.
8. Although containerization of general cargo traffic
is becoming common at many ports, it is not
likely that a significant degree of containerization will be experienced at the Port of Vancouver
in the foreseeable future. However, some small
containers are presently handled at the Port, and
this traffic will expand.
The design of a new pier should not provide for
extensive container handling of general cargo in
the foreseeable future.
Specifically, it is recommended that the engineering
analysis^ which is to be undertaken consider the four general
pier layouts, as set forth in Chapter VI:
1. Two-berth finger pier at Pier A site (Map II).
2. One-berth marginal wharf at Pier A site (Map III).
3. Two-or three-berth marginal wharf at Sheds 5, 6 and
7 site (Map V). M 3
I
3
- 80 -
4. Four-berth facility to be created by joining Piers A
and B-C (Map IV). It is felt that the capital costs
per berth of this proposal are excessive and it
should only be considered in a cursory manner.
For these general pier layouts, the engineering analysis
and capital cOst estimates should be based on the following
dimensions and facilities:
1. Transit Sheds: An area of 80,000 square feet per berth
for each pier layout.
2. Pier Aprons: A width of 45 feet.
3. Cranes: Provision of 15-ton cranes as follows:
2 cranes for two-berth finger pier at Pier A site:
1 crane for one-berth marginal wharf at Pier A site;
1 crane for two-berth marginal wharf at Sheds 5, 6,
and 7 site;
2 cranes for three-berth marginal wharf at Sheds 5,
6, and 7 site;
3 cranes for four-berth facility created by joining
Piers A and B-C.
In addition, the capital costs of providing cranes with
overside reach capabilities, that is, the ability to
transfer loads between the ship and barges on the waterside of the ship, should be developed and shown separately
for each basic pier design.
4. Rail Facilities: Rail access adjacent to transit sheds
to be provided.
In addition, the capital costs of
accommodating and constructing two rail tracks on the
pier apron should be developed and shown separately for
each basic pier design.
5. Storage: The capital costs of providing a storage area
of some 3,000 square feet, either within the transit shed
"or at some convenient open area, capable of withstanding
storage of cargo stacked to a loading of 2.5 tons per
square foot over an extended period of time, should be
developed and shown separately for each basic pier design.
When specific designs and capital cost estimates are made
available, it will be possible to select the basic pier layout
which is most economic and further detailed engineering
design work will be carried out on that basic layout. At
such time, the implications on capital costs of varying
certain specifications can be considered. These variations
would include:
Increasing or decreasing transit shed area per berth
by 10,000 square feet.
Increasing or decreasing apron width by 5 feet.
Providing more or fewer cranes per berth and considering cranes of different capacities. i
5 - di -
Providing certain special facilities, such as a customs
area, cargo compounds, canopies for truck bays, etc.
On the basis of the changes in capital costs resulting
from these variations, a decision can be made as to the optimum
specific design of the facility and the overall economics of
the proposed development can be assessed.
_ 4
fl
4
fl
fl
14
fl
*
fl
4
fl
fl
fl
4 A Market Analysis for the Development of
Canadian Pacific Piers in Vancouver
APPENDICES m
4
4
i
IH
ii
i
4
a
fa
fa
fa Appendix I
Sheet 1
COMMODITY CLASSIFICATION
BULK CARGO
GROUP I - Live Animals
GROUP II - Food, Feed, Beverage and Tobacco
1. Grain, Flour, Meal and Cereal Preparations
Barley
Rye
Corn
Wheat
Oats
2. Sugar  and Sugar  Preparations
Sugar
3. Crude Vegetable Products,   Inedible Except Tobacco,
Fibres and Wood
Flaxseed
Rapeseed
GROUP  III  - Crude Materials,   Inedible
1. Crude Wood Material
Logs,  Round Timber
Pulpwood
Crude Wood Materials,  N.E.S.
2. Metals  in Ores, Concentrates and Precipitates
All Metallic Ores and Concentrates
3. Scrap Metals and By-Products
Iron and Steel Scrap
Non-Ferrous Metal Scrap
Slags,  Drosses and other By-Products
4. Coal,  Crude Petroleum  and Related Crude Products
Coal,  Anthracite and Bituminous
Crude Petroleum and Related Crude Products
5. Crude Non-Metallic Minerals
Non-Metallic Minerals Crude
GROUP  IV  - Fabricated Materials,   Inedible
1. Chemicals and Related Products
Fertilizer and Fertilizer Materials, N.E.S.
2. Petroleum and Coal Products
Gasoline
Fuel Oil 4 =
COMMODITY CLASSIFICATION
GENERAL CARGO
GROUP I - Live Animals
Appendix I
Sheet 2
GROUP II - Food, Feed, Beverage and Tobacco
1. Meat and Meat Preparations
2. Fish and Marine Animals
3. Dairy Produce - Eggs and Honey
4. Grain Flour, Meal and Cereal Preparations
Cereals Unmilled N.E.S.
Malt
Wheat Flour
Cereals Milled, N.E.S.
Grain, Flour, Meal and Cereal Preparations
5. Fruit and Fruit Preparations
6. Nuts, Except Oil Nuts
7. Vegetables and Vegetable Preparations
8. Sugar and Sugar Preparations
Molasses Crude
Sugar, Molasses and Syrups, N.E.S.
Sugar Preparations
9. Cocoa, Coffee, Tea and Spices
10. Margarine, Shortening and Lard
11. Miscellaneous Foods, Food Materials and Food Preparations
12. Fodder and Feed, Except Unmilled Cereals
Hay, Forage and Straw, N.E.S.
Hulls, Screenings, Chaff and Scourings
Wheat Bran, Shorts and Middlings
Grain Feeds, N.E.S.
Soyabean Oil Cake and Meal
Oil Seed Cake and Meal, N.E.S.
Feeds of Vegetable Origin, N.E.S.
Feeds of Animal Origin
Complete Feeds and Feed Concentrates
13. Beverages
All Distilled Alcoholic Beverages
14. Tobacco 1
i Appendix I
Sheet 3
GROUP III - Crude Materials, Inedible
1. Crude Animal Products, Inedible (Except Fibres)
Raw Hides and Skins
Crude Animal Products, Inedible N.E.S.
2. Crude Vegetable Products, Inedible, Except Tobacco,
Fibres and Wood.
Seeds for Sowing N.E.S.
Mustard Seed
Soyabeans
Rubber and Allied Gums, Natural
Crude Vegetable Materials, Inedible, N.E.S.
3. Textile and Related Fibres (Including Waste)
4. Waste and Scrap Materials, N.E.S.
Hogged Fuel   (Wood)
Waste and Scrap Materials,  N.E.S.
GROUP  IV  - Fabricated Materials,   Inedible
1. Leather and Rubber Fabricated Materials
2. Wood Fabricated Materials
3. Pulp
Woodpulp
4. Paper  and Paperboard
5. Textile Fabricated Materials
6. Oils,  Fats,  Waxes,  Extracts and Derivatives, Animal
and Vegetable.
7. Chemicals and Related Products
8. Petroleum and Coal Products
Lubricating Oils and Greases
Coke
Asphalt
Tar,  Pitch and Creosote
Petroleum and Coal Products,  N.E.S.
9. Iron and Steel  and Alloys
All forms including Track,   Pipe,   Tubes
and fittings.
10.     Non-Ferrous Metals
All non-ferrous Metals and Alloys r?
s
i
fa
fa
fa
fa a
Appendix I
Sheet 4
GROUP IV - Continued
11.  Metal Fabricated Basic Products
Includes Sewer Pipe, Glass, Cement and Lime
13.  Miscellaneous Fabricated Materials
GROUP V - End Products Inedible
1. Machinery
2. Transportation and Communication Equipment
3. Other Equipment and Tools
Miscellaneous Equipment, N.E.S.
4. Personal and Household Goods
5. Miscellaneous
Firearms, Weapons and Ammunition
Containers, Returned Empty
Containers, Closures and Parts, N.E.S.
Miscellaneous Products, N.E.S.
GROUP VI - Consumer Goods
Source: D.B.S. Shipping Report, Part IV k
i
fa
fa
fa
fa
IJ 9
APPENDIX II
Sheet 1
Projected General Cargo Traffic for the
Port of Vancouver,
This Appendix presents detailed projections of the Port
of Vancouver's general cargo traffic classified as follows:
A) Food, Feed, Beverage and Tobacco
B) Crude Materials, Inedible
C) Fabricated Materials, Inedible
| D) End Products, Inedible
E) Consumer Goods
The summary of these projections is presented on Sheet 7.
A) , FOOD, FEED. BEVERAGE AND TOBACCO
Within the food, feed, beverage and tobacco oomponent, the
following trends may be expected:
1.  Meat and Meat Preparations
The major part of the unloaded traffic of this commodity
consists of fresh and cured meat, chiefly lamb, from Australia -
and New Zealand. A marked increase in the cargo unloadings
has been experienced during the period 1958 - 196*3, end further
increases are expected due to an expanding domestic market in
Western Canada.
Export cargoes of canned meat have increased appreciably
and have been destined to the U.S., Oceania and Japan. Moderate
increases in these loadings are anticipated.
2.
Fish and Marine Animal Products
Exports of fish and marine animal products are expected to
increase moderately during the next ten years. European
countries provide the major market for these shipments. The
relatively low rate of Increase for this category of exports Is
due primarily to the limited fish production on the West Coast.
Imports of fish, primarily from Japan and U.S. Pacific
ports, are comprised chiefly of specialty fishes such as shrimps,
prawns, and oysters. Such Imports may be anticipated to increase
rapidly,
3. Bagged Grain7 Flqur/ Meal end Cereal Preparations^
Wide year to year fluctuations in the Port's handling of
this commodity component may be anticipated over the next ten
years. These export commodities are destined to the United
Kingdom and to Latin American countries, and no overall change
is anticipated.
4. Fruit and Fruit Preparations^
These Jcmport cargoes originate in Japan, Australia and
Hawaii. As mentioned previously, much of the Hawaiian traffic
and some of the Australian traffic may be lost by the Port of
Vancouver to the Port of Seattle due to containerization of
these cargoes. As a result, little growth is anticipated for
this classification of cargoes. ft
H
I
\4
fl
fl
ii
Si
4
i
i
n
tl
fl
fl Sheet 2
With regard to the export movement, a moderate Increase
in the shipments of apples to the United Kingdom and to
Scandinavian countries is projected.
5. Vegetables and Vegetable Preparations
The Port of Vancouver handles a relatively minor amount
of vegetables and vegetable preparations. Import cargoes
are comprised mainly of onions from Chile, while export
cargoes, of vegetables to Alaska. A moderate increase is
anticipated for these handlings.
6. Sugar and Sugar Preparations
Imports of cane sugar have been excluded from this analysis
since these imports are handled entirely over the B.C. Sugar
Refinery dock. The remainder of the component is comprised
of import confectionery from the United Kingdom, which
comprises a negligible amount of the Port's traffic.
7. Cocoa7 Coffee, Tea and Spices
The inward movement of coffee beans from Central and
South American countries, comprising most of the Port handlings
of this component, may be expected to increase at the same
rate as the adult population growth, as it has in the past.
8
Fodder and Feed
The  export handlings of bagged fodder and feed are
destined almost entirely to Japan. The rapid rise in these
exports from some 10,000 tons in 1958 to 79,000 tons in 1963
is anticipated to continue during the next decade.
9. Beverages
Imports of beverages, primarily liquor shipments from the
United Kingdom, Australia and South Africa, are primarily for
consumption within British Columbia and Alberta. These imports
are anticipated to increase at a faster rate than adult
population, more in line witn the anticipated rapid rise in
Incomes per capita In British Columbia.
10. Other
The level of traffic through the Port of Vancouver of other
food and beverage products is anticipated to remain at its
present level of some 25,000 tons.
Overall, the level of these handlings are anticipated to
increase by some 35 percent from 1963 - 1973, comprised of a
rise of 43 percent for import cargoes and 33 percent for export
cargoes.
B)  CRUDE MATERIALS - INEDIBLE'
Traffic in this component represents 8.8 percent of the
handlings through the Port in 1963. The trends within this
component are as follows:
1.  Crude; Vegetable Products.
The major commodity in this classification is the export
of mustard seed in bagged form to scattered markets. These
loadings, fluctuating widely from year to year, are not
anticipated to increase appreciably. A relatively minor amount
of import crude rubber is received by the Port of Vancouver, a
movement which is not expected to increase appreciably. 1
fa
li
fa Sheet 3
2. Textiles and Related Fibres
Hemp and jute, imported from Australia, Central America,
and Africa has increased moderately over the last five years
and a continuation ih this trend is anticipated.
3. Waste and Scrap Materials
The most important commodity in this component is the
export of hogged fuel (firewood and other scrap material
from the forest Industry) to U.S. Pacific Coast ports.
Only moderate growth of these exports is anticipated over
the next ten years.
In total, exports of inedible crude materials are
anticipated to increase 23 percent from 1963 to 1973*
O
FABRICATED MATERIALS - INEDIBLE
Inedible fabricated materials comprised 63*9 percent of
the cargo handling through the Port of Vancouver during 1963*
1.  Wood Fabricated Materials
A continued upward trend in loadings of wood fabricated
materials, the largest single component of the Port's
handlings, has been apparent over the last five years. These
cargoes, destined mainly to the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf Ports,
were comprised of dimension lumber handled overside at
general cargo piers, and, more recently, at large assembly
pier facilities such, as Vancouver wharves and Lynn Terminals.
Further growth, although at a reduced rate, is anticipated.
2.
Paper and Paper Board
omprised of
Australasia,
These markets
on and future
se underdeveloped
e countries.
the economic
oped countries
newsprint
ancouver are
Export of paper and paper board, mainly c
newsprint shipments, are destined primarily to
the Orient, and to Central and South America,
have a great potential for newsprint consumpti
levels will depend upon economic growth of the
countries and also, the literacy rates of thes
However, no significant breakthrough in either
growth or the literacy rates of the underdevel
is particularly apparent at this time, so that
shipments to these areas through the Port of V
expected to increase only moderately.
3.  Wood Pulp
Exports of wood pulp are destined to widely scattered
markets. 30.9 percent of the Port's exports during 1963 were
destined to Japan, 39.1 percent to Earopean countries, and 30
percent to other areas. These exports have increased
substantially from I960 to 1963 and a substantial increase in
exports of is expected in.the future due to the expected
construction of pulp mills in Southern British Columbia. In
order to reach International markets, much of the production
of these mills will likely be routed through the Port of
Vancouver.
In addition, plans have been announced for construction oi
pulp mills on Tidewater along the Southern British Columbia
coastline. Although a large portion of these cargoes may be
exported directly from the small outlying ports, a portion may
arrive by barge in Vancouver. L SHEET 4
for export purposes. Therefore, the Port of Vancouver Is
antlcipatdd to experience a very marked Increase in its pulp
handlings, handlings which have traditionally been accomplished
by overside loading. However, if large 20-30,000 ton capacity
ships specialized for the handling of pulp are introduced into
this service, a stockpiling of .pulp will most likely be
necessitated at wharves in Vancouver, and, for this reason,
specialized general cargo facilities may be necessitated.
.  __
rt— --J--. 44  '   ■      -—
4.
Textile Fabricated Materials
Textile imports routed through Vancouver to Canadian
markets originate in India, Japan and other Oriental countries.
The level of this trade has been decreasing over the last five
years and expectations are for these imports to decrease
to 75 percent of their current levels.
5.  .^edible Aqimal Product^
fiestlhed basicaiiy*to""japan and other oriental countries,
these exports of oils, fats, waxes and animal extracts have been
fluctuating considerably and thlS trend is expected to continue.
6.
Chemicals and Related Products
From 1953 to 1957, handlings of chemicals and related
products were comprised of imports whereas, since that date, the
import cargoes have declined appreciably, while exports of
these commodities have increased significantly. This change
is due to the domestic expansion of the chemical industry
changing Canada's position from that of an importer to one of
an exporter. Most of this chemical production Is centred in
Edmonton, Alberta. The unloaded chemical products through the
Port of Vancouver have stabilized at a level of some 10,000 tons.
This level may be expected to be maintained during the next ten
years. On the other hand, exports of chemical products may be
expected to expand considerably as the result of emerging
markets in the Orient and a greater share of the U.S. Pacific
and markets being supplied by chemical Imports from Canada.
7. Iron and Steel and Alloy*3
Imports of iron and steel, primarily from Japan and the
United Kingdom, have remained relatively constant over the
past five year8. Due to the expansion of the iron and steel
industry in the greater Vancouver area, imports of iron and
steel, which are destined primarily to this market, are expected
to increase only marginally.
Non-Ferrous Metals
8. Metal^ Fabricated Basic Products
Metal fabricated basic products, originating in Japan and
the United Kingdom, are expected to decline over the next 10
years, since a greater proportion of the domestic market has
recently been supplied by domestic production.
Non-Metallic Basic Mineral Products
The Port of Vancouver handles import plate and sheet glass
from Belgium and Luxembourg, as well as from Japan and the \rtrt_ Sheet 5
United Kingdom. These handlings have remained relatively
constant and only a small increase is anticipated for the next
ten years.
In summary, the Port's handlings of inedible fabricated
materials may be expected to increase by 70 percent from 1963
to 1973, or by approximately 1,000,000 tons. Almost all of
this increase is expected to be in the form of pulp and
dimension lumber. In fact,the handlings of inedible fabricated
materials other than those of the forest industry are expected
to expand fronsome 250,000 tons in 1963 to slightly more than
300,000 tons in 1973, or by some 22 percent.
D) END PRODUCTS - INEDIBLE
1.  Machinery
The Port's handlings of machinery has increased appreciably
over the past decade. Exports are comprised mainly of shipments
to India, Pakistan and South America of electric generators
and other similar types of heavy machinery. Imports of tractors
and special industrial equipment are recdved from the United
Kingdom and other European countries. These imports may be
expected to expand, while the exports may be expected to
fluctuate considerably and are dependent primarily upon political
considerations in the methods of allocating foreign aid to
underdeveloped countries.
2.
Transportation and Communication Equipment
Imports of European automobiles handl
of Vancouver have been decreasing in recen
due to the introduction of Japanese automo
Canadian market and the recent indications
of Canada's imports of automobiles from Eu
increase in the Port's handling of automob
over -the next ten years. Should the We3te
market be supplied from Southern Californi
a result of the recent Canada - U.S. trade
of autos would increase sharply.
3.  Other Equipment and Tools
ed through the Port
t years. However,
biles into the
of a stabilization
rope, a moderate
lies may be expected
rn Canadian auto
a assembly plants as
agreement, handling
This component Includes all miscellaneous electrical and
technical equipment and apparatus. A rapid increase in recent
years has been experienced in the Port's handling of import
equipment and tools in this category due to the introduction
of such equipment produced in Japan supplying a greater
percentage of the Canadian market. Further increases at a
similar rate are anticipated over the next ten years, particularly
in the small packaged goods of such items as Japanese produced
cameras, radios and hardware goods.
The total Inedible end products comprised two percent of
the total general cargo handlings at the Port of Vancouver
during 1963. These exports are expected to increase by 59
percent over the next 10 years. i
4
d SHEET 6
E)  CONSUMER GOODS
Due to a major reclassification in 1958, the level of
these handlings decreased appreciably. Since 1958,
handlings of consumer goods have remained virtually constant and a minor increase of only 8 percent is anticipated
over the next ten years* 1
Ifl oO'-fOoon-.-.-.o
cioin co n
M
M
X
■o
a
w
V
a
cu
-B
<
<J)
o
o
Cl
o
o
o
o °
o
o
o
o
o
o
m o
n
8
o
o
o
o
o
in
t- o
o
N
in
m
in
c-
CM
r- oo
o
in
01
cn
in
Ca)
<r
cn Is*
•"*
0*
QQOQOOOOOQ
OOQOOOOOOO
ooooommooo
■omcNOfnf-t'-'Ti^'-r
OOOOO
ooooo
ooooo
o o o o
in o O O
CM  O  O  O
38
o 5
O
o
o
o
8
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
Q
O
O
Q
8
8
O
Q
O
O
O
O
o
o
G)
CO
Q
O
01
•n
o
o
in
■n
m
0)
■*
•H
88
O O
o o m m o m
o
o
8
s
o
o
8
O
O
8
O
8
p
o
o
<j
6
o
O
6
O
6
o
a
in
>n
Q
o
CM
in
p4
o
A
ot
61
■"r
*
CO
.»
l-t
SO O  O O
O O O O
OOOOO
ooo
in o O
O O
O O
O m
O O
o o
o o
o
9
m
8
O
m
OO (M
in oi
r»
m
CM
X
CM
■©
c*-.
CM
o
o
,_|
I"*
r.
f*
CM
(0
O
rt?
CO
-4
o
m
Ot
m
m
CO
CO
o
m
o
9
n»
o
■*
rH
m
—l
eo
m
CM
01
cn
CM
CO
01
--,
«\
rn
00
-o
o
•n
•o
m
o»
•n
-o
o
o
o
o
•o
*"*
■o
m
00
■o
o
r-
o
CO
0»
04
-i
0)
*
rt
m
CM
H
m
3
'O f. f H   C.
CM m CM oo ■*
e*-* cn f- co o*-
m CO 0* CM  CM
o
r*-
m
cn
-o
m
i**
o
cn
l-l
N
•C
Ot
"t
'T
in
o
P
■*
Cfa
ui
OI
rt
cu
tn
oi
•O
m
-H
cn
^
CO
-o
00
OI
<i
OI
t>
rH
in
•n
m
r*-
,__-
CM
f-
00
in
<M
O
CM
oo
-o
CO
■v
o
0-
O
cn
o
OI
t--
H
0-
m
c
m
O Ot O- o»
H I. rlH
h o* cm m
m -T m cm ct- cn O
CO (f)
o* o co en oj
t> cn Is- ct*
A _t '
CM   ■**  I
I-    rH    f-    0)
-> o> o -o
O  T  <■  h
fl
,-t
m
CD
m
m
CO
CM
a
m
o
CO
o
■t-
•^
r-
«H Oi 01
oo co m
■H  S  V
Ct)
r_|
CM
in
OI
o»
n.
CM
CM
in
^
**
CO
m
■o
o
■*
.r
<o
■*
o
o
CO
01
m
t-*-
CO
(•**■
t-
CM
01
«■■.
Oi
I**
rH
o
•H
[-■*■
O
P
01
CM
'M
CM
CM
•-<
•-I
■-I
-H
o
t»
•■»
CO
in
»
-o
o
CT.
O-
cn
■n
■o
01
on
f
CM
N
Ot
m
in
<n
t*.
■*
tr
T
cn
CM
•H
r*.
o»
01
■■n
■o
01
CM
,~t
o
H
ooNmaxox-ndS-oin
iriOfHnini-.cONOin
r-'OmmCT'in-MrncMpn
io ma)      oot^-m      ■*
Oi ^ i-4 CM  rn CM
O 'i
o>
i>
■♦
m
■o
CO
00
00
c>
CM
r-*-
<n
Ai
o
m
rH
■*
CO
in
m
m
at
tn
o
N
0>
■♦
m
<o
n
eo
Ot
cn
m
C7*.
m
<i O l- •*-!        C» O
•h •* m t*     co m
<t -t co o   i  r- t
eo ■* oi
cn rn co
CM  tj-  OJ
O m o> cm
CO  m  N  O
r-t   rH   o   a
in oo
•-i a}
Ot  Os  oj
P) W i-*
m
m o o o*
m m
_o o ao o -h
So- m cm o
C. N O N
cm ■*■!■ tn cn cm
(•-■■ cm -^ os rn
O m n cm o
cm co -h m ■*
(O iO Nrt *
1*% OTT4 O Qi
CM   -T "*   O
•H
OO
,_!
00
01
rt
rH
n«
01
Ot
■#
•«
o
m
tf
r»
■♦
cn
o
!.
CM
o
p
o
cn
rH
ta
rH
t^-
■n
*
<*i
O
o
CT>
01
"T
^*
m
^f
n
Ot
If
■*
m
m
•o
in
CO
00
in
4-1
CO               (/|    r-t
M
3
<0
C
Q. in   ai -h
•0
0)
O
CI   c   u -h
W  0
M
u  O-H  1
C  u
a.
a-H a c
0 a
u
"-**■ tt s
■H   *
a   <4
+J   rH
•n
(0
4   fl
c
CrtQ      «)     C    rH
H   B
(0
0
a a. it u
• 'H
li
a c
a
v t-« id v
0   fl)
cam
fj
tp            +>      *
Q,   O
>   M        "O
B
9
id   - a
+-•   'H
TJ   Ot O   0
A   M
u
<H
C   3   01   -H
S   H
id (/. ^
0
•0
Vi *0
c
a» *o o c
•0 "0
Sh
4
«    C    (J    fl
9
c c
xi  (d
Oi
id n
tt
id        ■*« h
rt
C
♦*   H   *   0)
U    tH
+> jz
(Ji   -J   O  "O
01   o
id  u)
flj
S
Oi Ci O "0
>  -C
Q)   -H
u
!h
ai s o o
0   t*
S u.
O
u.
>«UlL
03  O
*OD 111
O    li f
m *-* *d
a id b
oi ai a
• rH     W "J
01 w c
> 9 io
g-ri s h
TJ *J *■' 0»
3 X « £
M 01 id -P
(j H 3 O
iljb   •U-m
*2    Q.   fl)   -H    l/)
o   3   id  <y -n
3 £ a. h o
in
"9
M
u
6
"5
3
■o
0
C)
O   Vi
HI
a, o
rt)
u
n
QJ    rt)
tt
id
A)
4 "O
(A
n
..I   £
01   4
4
T)
B
M
01
-H
*0  01
R
<o
92
(fl
•H
3
u
■H -O
w
(fl
rt
M
U    *w
•
V
H
<H
R
B   C
I
<d
01
01   0
C
C
.c
JC    IH
0
0
J   HI
s
>
Z
O
0
-H •
v     '3
C   C   0)    Ul   01
U fljs  hi.
_S rtrt_H "c  9) ,$?
IHOD.O  Sheet 1
A-QT.pr.rljx   TTT
Pages 26-30 Of Chanter IV.  Report  S-265-63
Rail Revenues and Costs Attributable to the
Operation by Canadian Pacific of Piers in
Vancouver
The purpose of this chapter is to estimate the net rail
contribution over variable costs attributable to the Canadian Pacific
pier operation in Vancouver. In particular, an attempt will be made
to measure the Canadian Pacific rail tonnage generated by the operation
by Canadian Pacific at the piers, and the contribution of this traffic.
In order to estimate this contribution the following information is required:
(I)  Routing of Import Cargo
(ii) Influence of the Origin on Rail Traffic
(Iii) Overland 'versus Local Traffic
(iv) Average Cost of the Import Traffic
(v)  Solicitation Advantage of Canadian Paolfic Operated
Piers
(i) Routing of Import Cargo
The routing of the import cargo depends to some extent on
the origin of traffic. The routing of all the Canadian Pacific Import
rail traffic in the Port of Vancouver Is:
Routing of All C.P.R. Import Traffic, 1962
Routing by;
0 oj. cl\«  _D/ Ju
SS Company B/L
SS Company Routing
Consignee
Pounds
9*087,301+
S2,5&7
1+53,260
202,622,528
212,215,659
JL
.2
95.3
100.0
Virtually all of the import traffic routed on a Canadian
pacific bill of lading consists of goods from Europe.    The routing by
consignee, however, does not mean that the traffic is predetermined to
be routed by a particular carrier.    Firstly, on traffic from the
Orient,  a procedure has recently evolved whereby consignees will relinquish their routing to a customs agent.    The relevant shipping
line will be informed which agent will be responsible for the routing
of the traffic.    The railways attempt to obtain this traffic by
soliciting customs agents, who are basically pool car operators. 4
i
i
i
i vSheet 2
There are only two pool car operators of this nature in Vancouver -
J.W. Mills and Leimar Forwarding. Canadian Pacific obtains the
bulk of the' traffic handled by these forwarders.
Secondly/ much of the inbound commodity traffio Is unrouted
when It arrives in Vancouver. The railways solicit this traffic by
contacting consignees. This solicitation is aided by the information
on advance shipping manifests obtained from the shipping agents.
(Ii) Influence of the Origin on Rail Traffio
The distribution by origin of the weight of the Inbound
general cargo received by Canadian Pacific differs considerably from
the distribution of the gross waybill revenue as shown below:
Inbound General Cargo
Origin of Traffic  Weight '000 lbs.
of
rtirt-
Waybill
Revenue {%)      j,
Orient
Australasia
Europe
101,657
3,722
87,1U7
192,526
52.8    12,652,609      79.8
1.9 86,687        2.6
1+5.3 586,730     17.6
100.0    $3,3-26,026    100.0
Source: Records of TShe Foreign Freight Agent, Vancouver, 1962.
The main reason that the Oriental and Australasian rail
traffic accounts for a higher proportion of waybill gross revenue than
the inbound weight of the general cargo is the muoh longer haul of
this traffic.
Distribution of Import Rail Traffic by Destination,
 1962	
Origin
of Traffic
Orient
Australasia
Europe
Total
Alt a.,
Sask.
33.3
51.1
99.5
63.8
Eastern
Manitoba    Canada
(Percent)
TJ.S. Points      Total
8.5
17.3
.3
1+.9
5U.3
29.1
 ;l
29.2
3.9
2.5
.1
2.1
100.0
100.0
100 oO
100.0
Source: Records of the Foreign Freight Agent,  Vancouver.
An analysis of the inbound general cargo by Piers in the
Port reveals that the Canadian Pacific Piers obtain a larger percentage
of Oriental versus other Import, traffic than the N.H.B. Piers:  Sheet 3
Piers of
G o-t oR«
N.H.B.
Traffio Over Canadian Pacific and N.H.B. Piers, by
. Origin, 1962
Orient
86.5
59.1
(Percent)
Australasia
1.8
Europ e
8.0
39.1
100.0
100.0
Hence, the gross waybill revenue per ton for traffic originating at Canadian Pacific Piers is higher than that over N.H.B. Piers:
*
Gross Waybill Revenue Per Ton by Piers, 1962
Piers of
O.P. Rail Tonnage
.   22,951+
32,659
55,613
CP. Waybill Revenue
l,19l+, 609
1,360,1+55
2,55o,6l+o
Revenue
Per
Ton
#52.01+
■41
,66
$1+5.86
C oP«R.
N.H.B.
Total
Source: Records, Foreign Freight Agent, Vancouver
■■=•*—._■       *
'.  rt -     a rt _l •' i*~ ! —  •   a   ...'.y..':
'-..     "8Srt
(iii) Overland Versus Local Traffic
Another factor to consider is the distribution of the landed
Import cargo between overland and local traffic. Figure D-l and
Table D-l show that the overland portion of the pier traffic has been
gradually diminishing while truck share of this overland traffic, al--
though small, has been increasing. A reasonable forecast for the
next several years is that the overland portion will continue to
gradually decline to 21 percent of the total, as against some 25 percent
in the first ten months of 1963 of which the railways share will
amount to some 17 percent of the overall total.
These estimates are based on traffic over Canadian Pacific
Piers, which is concentrated more toward Oriental, longer haul traffio.
However, for the Port as a whole, the overland portion may be somewhat
less. A factor which would tend to increase the overland portion is
the fact that some of the local cargo is taken off the docks by truck
for storage and is later routed overland by rail or truck. Despite
these qualifications, it is felt that the 17 percent estimate of the
rail overland portion of the Pier traffic is reasonably accurate.  Sheet 4
(iv) The Average Cost of the Import Traffic
A detailed list of the import and export commodities over
all the Vancouver piers is shown in Tables D-2, D-3 and D-1+. The
average cost of moving the most important of these commodities to key
points is shown in Table D-5« Finally, the weighted, average cost per
ton of import rail traffic, based on 83.6 percent of this traffic, is
$19.0l+. In comparison with the average gross revenues, per ton of rail
traffic off the Canadian Pacific and N.H.B. Piers in Vancouver the net
revenue is:
Gross Revenue per ton
Average Cost per ton
Net Revenue per ton
C.P. and
CP. Piers
N.H.B. Piers
$52.01+
$1+5.86
21,61
19.01+
too. 1+3
$26.82
The higher net revenue on rail traffic over C.P. Piers
can be explained by the longer length of haul. r
i
k List of Shipping Agents and Lines
Serving Vancouver.
Appendix m
Sheet 5
Agent
7 Anglo-Canadian Shipping
6 Balfour Guthrie
B.C. Ship Chartering
/ Canadian Blue Star
Canadian Transport
Dingwall Cotts
Dodwell
*■ Empire Shipping
*  Furness Withy
A. Gardner Johnson
5 Greer-Tidewater
Johnson Walton
Kingsley Navigation
Matson Navigation
Pacific Export
Royal Mail Lines
Shipping Line (s)
Fred Olson Line
D'Amico
Consorcio Naviero Peruano
Hamburg American
Pacific Shipowners Ltd.
American Mail Line
Charter
Fernville Lines
States Line
Pacific Ocean Line
Taiwan Navigation Co. Ltd,
P.A.D. Line
Shingwa-Kissho
Shingwa Kaium Kalsha
Nissan Risen Kaisha
Italian Line
Toho Kaiun Kaisha
Furness Line.
Crusader Line
Mitsui - O.S.K.
N.Y.K.
K. Line
N.K.K.
Oceanic Line
Yamashita Line
Charter
Mitsui - O.S.K.
Royal Mail Line
Sea Freight Shipping
Jni on S.S. of N.!
World Wide Shipping
Inter Ore Shipping of Canada
Splosna Plovba
Union Line
P & 0
State Marine Line
Philippine National  i
I
4
^OOKS-ooaC->5 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/cdm.chungtext.1-0226340/manifest

Comment

Related Items