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The Canadian Pacific : the new highway to the east across the mountains, prairies & rivers of Canada Canadian Pacific Railway Company 1888

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CANADIAN PACIFIC
RAILWAY.
MONTREAL 1888. r
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CANADIAN   PACIFIC   LAKE   STEAMSHIP :    TORONTO,   OWEN   SOUND   AND
PORT   ARTHUR   LINE.
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IFIC
w
M   RAILWAY from the Atlantic to the Pacific, all the way
on British soil, was long the dream of a few in Canada.
g—s^%*This dream of the few became, in time, the hope of the
ifS     \      many, and on the confederation of the British North
i|s§ American provinces, in 1867, its realization was found
to be a political necessity.     Then the Government of
the new Dominion of Canada set about the building of
>    the Canadian Pacific Railway, a work of such vast pro-
I  ( portions that the richest empire of Europe might well have
hesitated before entering upon it.
Much of the country through which the railway must be
built was unexplored. Towards the east, all about Lake Superior,.
and beyond to Red River, was a vast rocky region, where Nature in her
younger days had run riot, and where deep lakes and mighty rivers in every
direction opposed the progress of the engineer. Beyond Red River for a
thousand miles stretched a great plain, known only to the wild Indian and
the fur trader; then came the mountains, range after range, in close succession, and all unexplored. Through all this, for a distance of nearly three
thousand miles, the railway surveys had first to be made. These consumed
much time and money ; people became impatient and found fault and doubted.
There were differences of opinion, and these differences became questions of
domestic politics, dividing parties, and it was not until 1875 that the work of
construction commenced in earnest.
But the machinery of Government is ill adapted, at best, to the carrying
on of such an enterprise, and in this case it was blocked or retarded by
political jealousies and party strife. Governments changed and delays
occurred, until finally, in 1880, it was decided almost by common consent
to surrender the work to a private company.
The explorations and surveys for the railway had made known the
character of the country it was to traverse. In the wilderness east, north,
and west of Lake   Superior, forests of pine and other timber, and mineral
1
J 6 THE  CANADIAN PACIFIC  RAILWAY.
deposits of incalculable value, were found, and millions of acres of agricultural
land as well. The vast prairie district between Winnipeg and the Rocky
Mountains proved to be wonderfully rich in its agricultural resources.
Towards the mountains great coal-fields were discovered, and British Columbia,
beyond, was known to contain almost every element of traffic and wealth.
Thousands of people had settled on the prairies of the Northwest, and their
success had brought tens of thousands more. The political reasons for building
the railway were lost sight of and commercial reasons took their place, and
there was no difficulty in finding a party of capitalists ready and willing to
relieve the Government of the work and carry it on as a commercial enterprise.
The Canadian Pacific Railway Company was organized early in 1881, and
immediately entered into a contract with the Government to complete the line
within ten years.
The railway system of Eastern Canada had already advanced far up the
Ottawa valley, attracted mainly by the rapidly growing traffic from the pine
forests, and it was from a point of connection with this system that the Canadian
Pacific Railway had to be carried through to the Pacific coast, a distance of
two thousand five hundred and fifty miles. Of this, the Government had under
construction one section of four hundred and twenty-five miles between Lake
Superior and Winnipeg, and another of two hundred and thirteen miles from
Burrard Inlet, on the Pacific coast, eastward to Kamloops Lake in British
Columbia. The company undertook the building of the remaining nineteen
hundred and twenty miles, and for this it was to receive from the Government
a number of valuable privileges and immunities, and twenty-five million dollars
in money and twenty-five million acres of agricultural land. The two sections
of the railway already under construction were to be finished by the Government, and, together with a branch line of sixty-five miles already in operation
from Winnipeg southward to the boundary of the United States, were to be
given to the company, in addition to its subsidies in money and lands;
and the entire railway when completed was to remain the property of the
company.
With these liberal subventions the company set about its task most
vigorously. While the engineers were exploring the more difficult and less
known section from the Ottawa River to and around Lake Superior, and
marking out a line for the navvies, work was commenced at Winnipeg and
pushed westward across the prairies, where one hundred and sixty miles of the
railway were completed before the end of the first year. During the second
year the rails advanced four hundred and fifty miles.    The end of the third
>■*■>!■  n.-fr  - .!.,,,.   ^-^-j^. ,    __ _____ ^^.^^>■■■.v-■■^^^.^---..^^-|g^^|1|j^|-^... ■■----.. ■  ■ -    -   ... _____ :         - THE   CANADIAN   PACIFIC   RAILWAY. 7
year found them at the summit of the Rocky Mountains, and the fourth in
the Selkirks. nearly a thousand and fifty miles from Winnipeg.
While such rapid progress was being made west of Winnipeg, the rails
advancing at an average rate of more than three miles each working; day,
for months in succession, and sometimes five and even six miles in a day,
armies of men with all modern appliances and thousands of tons of dynamite
were breaking down the barriers of hard and tough Laurentian and Huronian
rocks, and pushing.the line through the forests north and east of Lake Superior with such energy that eastern Canada and the Canadian Northwest were
united by a continuous railway early in 1885.
The government section from the Pacific coast eastward had meanwhile
reached Kamloops Lake, and there the company took up the work and carried
it on to a connection with the line advancing westward across the Rockies
and the Selkirks. The forces working towards each other met at Craigell-
achie, in Eagle Pass, in the Gold or Columbian range of mountains, and there,
on a wet morning, the 7th of November, 1885, the last rail was laid in the
main line of the Canadian Pacific Railway.
The energies of the company had not been confined to the mere fulfilment
of its contract with the Government. Much more was done in order that the
railway might fully serve its purpose as a commercial enterprise. Independent
connections with the Atlantic seaboard were secured by the purchase of lines
leading eastward to Montreal and Quebec; branch lines to the chief centres of
trade in eastern Canada were provided by purchase and construction, to collect
and distribute the traffic of the main line-; and other branch lines were built
in the Northwest for the development of the great prairies.
The close of 1885 found the company, not yet five years old, in possession
of no less than 4,315 miles of railway, including the longest continuous line in
the world, extending from Quebec and Montreal all the way across the continent to the Pacific Ocean, a distance of three thousand and fifty miles ; and by
the midsummer of 1886 all this vast system was fully equipped and fairly
working throughout. Villages and towns and even cities followed close upon
the heels of the line-builders; the forests were cleared away, the prairie's
soil was turned over, mines were opened, and even before the last rail was
in place the completed sections were carrying a large and profitable traffic.
The touch of this young Giant of the North was felt upon the world's
commerce almost before his existence was known; and, not content with the
trade of the golden shores of the Pacific from California to Alaska, his arms
have already stretched out across that broad ocean and grasped the teas and
silks of China and Japan to exchange them for the fabrics of Europe.
. 8
THE   CANADIAN  PACIFIC   RAILWAY.
With just pride in her work, the greatest perhaps that has ever been
accomplished by human hands, Canada presents it to the Empire as her contribution to its power and unity, — a new highway to Britain's possessions in
the East, guarded throughout by loyal hearts. But she will not rest with
this. Her new iron girdle has given a magnetic impulse to her fields, her
mines and her manufactories, and the modest colony of yesterday is to-day
an energetic nation, with great plans, and hopes, and aspirations.
mm
rAY I not tempt you, kind reader, to leave England
for a few short weeks and journey with me across
that broad land, the beauties and glories of which
Wm have only now been brought within our reach?
fy \j There will be no hardships to endure, no difficulties
to overcome, and no dangers or annoyances whatever.
You shall see mighty rivers, vast forests, boundless
plains, stupendous mountains and wonders innumerable ; and you shall see all in comfort, nay, in luxury.
If you are a jaded tourist, sick of Old World scenes
and smells, you will find everything here fresh and
novel. If you are a sportsman, you will meet with unlimited opportunities
and endless variety, and no one shall deny your right to shoot or fish
at your own sweet will. If you are a mountain climber, you shall have
cliffs and peaks and glaciers worthy of your alpenstock; and if you have
lived in India, and tiger hunting has lost its zest, a Rocky Mountain grizzly
bear will renew your interest in life.
We may choose between a Montreal and a New York steamship. The
former will take us directly up the noble St. Lawrence River to the old and
picturesque city of Quebec, the "Gibraltar of America," and the most interesting of all the cities of the New World. Its quaint buildings, crowding along
the water's edge and perching on the mountain-side, its massive walls and bat-
tlements rising tier upon tier to the famous citadel, crowning the mountain-top
and dominating the magnificent landscape for many miles around, plainly tell
of a place and a people with a history. All about this ancient stronghold, first
of the French and then of the English, every height and hill-side has been the
scene of desperately fought battles.    Here the French made their last fight for
--.
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9
empire in America, in the memorable battle in which Wolfe and Montcalm fell.
But peace has prevailed for many years ; the fortifications are giving place to
warehouses, manufactories, hotels and universities, and the great new docks of
massive masonry indicate that Quebec is about to re-enter the contest with
Montreal for commercial supremacy in Canada.
Here we find the easternmost extension of the Canadian Pacific Railway,
and one of its trains will take us in a few hours along the north bank of the
St. Lawrence, through a well-tilled country and a chain of quaint French
towns and villages, to Montreal, the commercial capital of the Dominion.
QUEBEC
Had we chosen a New York steamship our route would have brought us
from the American metropolis northward by railway along the banks of the
far-famed Hudson River to Albany, and thence through Saratoga and along the
shores of Lake George and Lake Champlain to Montreal, — a day or a night
from New York.
Here in Montreal, a hundred years before the British conquest of Canada,
the French bartered with the Indians, and from here their hardy soldiers,
priests, traders and voyageurs explored the vast wilderness beyond, building
forts, establishing missions and trading-posts, and planting settlements on .-ill
	
■ I   .     m -* ri—-     ■ rf
10
THE   CANADIAN  PACIFIC  RAILWAY
the great rivers and lakes.    From here, until long after the British occupation,
the wants of the Indians were supplied in exchange for furs and peltries, and
»
in this trade Montreal grew rich and important.
But finally a change came. The appearance of steam navigation on the
inland waters accelerated the settlement of the fertile country at the west,
towns and cities sprang up about the old outposts of the missionaries and fur-
traders, the Indians receded and disappeared, and agricultural products took
the place of furs in the commerce of Montreal. Then came the railways penetrating the interior in every direction, bringing still greater changes and giving
MONTREAL.
a wonderful impetus to the western country, and Montreal grew apace. And
now we find it rising from the broad St. Lawrence to the slopes of Mount
Royal, and looking out over a densely peopled country dotted with bright and
charming villages, —a large and beautiful city, half French, half English, half
ancient, half modern; with countless churches, imposing public buildings,
magnificent hotels, and tasteful and costly residences; with long lines of
massive warehouses, immense grain elevators and many-windowed factories;
and with miles of docks crowded with shipping of all descriptions, from the
smallest river craft to the largest ocean vessels.
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—>mm THE   CANADIAN  PACIFIC  RAILWAY.
11
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r#!t   -_*    VHICHEYER way we came, Montreal should be regarded
as the initial point of our transcontinental journey, for
it is the principal eastern terminus of the Canadian
Pacific Railway, and it is the terminus not only of the
main line, but of numerous other lines built and acquired
by the company to gather up and distribute its traffic.
From here for a thousand miles we have the choice of
two routes. We may go through the farms and orchards
of Ontario to Toronto, the second city of Canada in
importance, much younger than Montreal, but closely
following in the extent of its trade and industries, and hoping soon to surpass
its older rival in both,—a modern and handsomely built city, where the solidity
and culture of the older East is combined with the brightness and eager activity
of the newer West; Here, as at Montreal, many railway lines reach out, and
on all sides may be seen the evidences of extensive commerce and great prosperity. From here we may in a few hours visit Niagara, and then, resuming
our westward journey by one of the Canadian Pacific lines, four hours will
bring us to Owen Sound, on Georgian Bay, wjhence one of the trim Clyde-built
steel steamships of the railway company will take us in less than two days
across Lake Huron and through the straits of Sault Ste. Marie, where we will
be lifted by enormous locks to the level of Lake Superior, and then across this
greatest of fresh-water seas to Port Arthur, on Thunder Bay, where the
western section of the Canadian Pacific Railway begins.
But you are impatient to see the mountains, and if you will permit me to
choose, dear reader, we will start from Montreal by the main line of the railway, and in order that we may miss nothing we will return by the great lakes,
and see Toronto and the Falls of Niagara then.
Although the locomotive is hissing, as if impatient for the signal to go, we
have yet sa few minutes to spare, and if it is agreeable to you, we will look over
the train which is to carry us to the Pacific. Next to the engine we find a long
post-office van, in which a number of clerks are busily sorting letters and stowing away mail-sacks, then an express or parcels van, and then another, laden
with luggage.    Following these are two or three bright and cheerful colonist-
OO    O O cd
coaches, with seats which may be transformed into sleeping-bunks at night, and
with all sorts of novel contrivances for the comfort of the hardy and  good-
—— ^.. -, -. '    i "     -1
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12
THE   CANADIAN  PACIFIC  RAILWAY.
looking emigrants who have already secured their places for the long journey
to the prairies of the Northwest or the valleys of British Columbia. Next we
find two or three handsomely fitted' coaches for passengers making short trips
along the line, and finally come the sleeping-cars, or "Pullmans," in one of
which we are to live for some days and nights. The railway carriages to which
you are accustomed are dwarfed to meet Old World conditions, but these in
our train seem to
be proportioned
to the length and
breadth of the
land. Our sleep- |
ing-car is unlike
the I Pullmans "
you have
seen    in
England,
being
much
,< //^ffjllii____l__
MiiiiiiJiiiiijiiiMnSmiST
larger and far more
luxurious. With its
soft and rich cushions,
silken   curtains,    thick
jM/y;  carpets,   delicate   carv
ings and beautiful dec-
orations, and with its
numberless  and ingen-
CD
ious appliances for convenience and comfort
(even to the bathroom   so   dear   to   the
travelling
English
man),    it    gives    us
promise of a delightful
journey.
We glide out of the Montreal terminus, pass long, low
freight   sheds    and   plethoric
grain elevators, run along a terrace   above   the   wharves,   pass
the railway workshops and an extensive
cattle depot, and leave the city behind.
For a time we are still among the old
French  settlements,   as  is  evidenced   by  the
pretty  cottages  and   the  long  and   narrow  well-tilled
J. «/ o o
farms. There is an air of thrift and comfort everywhere. We have hills and distant mountains on the one hand and the
broad and beautiful Ottawa River on the other. Villages are passed in
close succession, and soon we are nearing Ottawa, the capital of the
Dominion. High up there, on a bold cliff overlooking the river, are the
Government  Buildings   and   the  Parliament  House of the  Dominion, with
NOOK IN SLEEPING CAR. THE   CANADIAN   PACIFIC   RAILWAY
1Q
O
their gothic towers and many pinnacles, making a magnificent group.
Away to the left is Rideau Hall, the residence of the Governor General, and
stretching far over the heights beyond, the city.
On the broad flats below are acres, perhaps miles, of great square piles of
deals, and the cloud that rises beyond comes from the Chaudiere Falls, where
the whole volume of the Ottawa River "takes a tumble," and is made to furnish
power to a host of saw-mills and manufactories.
It is no wonder that you have been so absorbed in the wide stretches
of the Ottawa River, since we left the capital behind, that you have quite
forgotten it is lunch-time. That white-aproned, white-jacketed boy will bring
you sandwiches, coffee, claret and what not.
TORONTO.
We are beyond the French country now; the farms are larger and the
modest cottages have given place to farm-houses, many of them of brick and
stone and all having a well-to-do air about them. The towns are larger, there
are more manufactories and there is more hurry and more noise. At frequent
intervals on the river bank are great saw-mills, surrounded by vast piles of
lumber. The logs are floated down from the forests on the Ottawa River and
its tributaries, and the,product is shipped to Europe, to the United States, and
everywhere.
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THE   CANADIAN   PACIFIC   RAILWAY.
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THE   CANADIAN   PACIFIC   RAILWAY. 15
Gradually the towns become smaller and the farms more scattered ; the valley contracts and deepens, and we are in the new country. We leave the Ottawa
River, and strike across towards Lake Superior. We are surprised at the thriving villages that have already sprung up here and there, and at the number of
hardy pioneers who are clearing away the timber and making homes for themselves. At intervals of four or five hours we come to the railway Divisional
Stations, where there are workshops, engine-sheds, and quite a collection of
neat cottages. At these places we change engines and then move on. It is a
long way from the Ottawa to Lake Superior, but the ever-recurring rocky
pine-clad hills, pretty lakes, dark forests, glistening streams and cascades, keep
our interest alive.    We are alert for the sight of a bear, a moose or a deer, and
O 7
we do not heed the time. Our only regret is that we cannot stop for even an
hour to cast a fly in one of the many tempting pools. A dining-car is attached
to our train, — a marvel of comfort and convenience, — and we experience a
new and delightful sensation in breakfasting and dining at our ease and in
luxury, as we fly along through such wonderful scenery.
At Sudbury, a new-looking town planted in the forest, we find a branch
line of railway leading off to the straits of Sault Ste. Marie, where it connects
with two American lines extending to Duluth, St. Paul and Minneapolis, and
beyond; and here at Sudbury we see long lines of cars laden with copper ore
from the deposits near by, which contain hundreds of millions of tons, and
we see furnaces building, which are soon to smelt the copper on the spot. We
move on through never-ending hills, meadows, forests and lakes, and now, the
second morning from Montreal, we catch glimpses of Lake Superior away to
our left, and soon we are running along its precipitous shore. ^ On our right
are tree-clad mountains, and there are rocks in plenty all about.
For many hours we look out upon the lake, its face just now still and
smooth, and dotted here and there with sails or streaked with the black smoke
of a steamer. At times we are back from the lake a mile or more, and high
above it; again we are running along the cliffs on the shore as low down as
the engineer dared venture. Hour after hour we glide through tunnels and
deep rock-cuttings, over immense embankments, bridges and viaducts, everywhere impressed by the extraordinary difficulties that had to be overcome by
the men who built the line.
We cross the Nepigon River, famed for its five-pound trout, run down the
shore of Thunder Bay and stop at the station at Port Arthur, a thousand miles
from Montreal. This place and Fort William, at the mouth of the Kaministiquia River, a short distance further down the bay, constitute together the lake
terminus of the western section of the railway.
J 16
THE   CANADIAN   PACIFIC   RAILWAY.
Si
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•A THE   CANADIAN  PACIFIC   RAILWAY.
17
On the way hither we have met numerous long trains laden with grain and
flour, cattle and other freight, but we have not until now begun to realize the
magnitude of the traffic of the Northwest. Here on every side we see the evidences of it. Long piers and wharves crowded with shipping, great piles of
lumber, coal and merchandise, with the railway grain elevators looming above
all.    One of these elevators at Fort William is a monster, holding twelve hun-
7 O
dred thousand bushels.    And everything is new,—the creation of a year !
The scenery here is more diversified and beautiful than any we have
yet seen.    The wide emerald-green waters of Thunder Bay are enclosed by
CABIN OF LAKE  STEAMER,  CANADIAN PACIFIC LINE.
abrupt black-and-purple basaltic cliffs on the one side, and by hills rising roll
upon roll on the other. Here the Kaministiquia River, broad, deep and placid,
emerges from a dark forest and joins the waters of Lake Superior, giving little
token that but a few miles back it has made a wild plunge from a height exceeding that of Niagara itself.
Our train is increased to provide for the passengers who have come up by
steamer and joined us here, and by a goodly number of pleasure-seekers who
have been fishing and shooting in the vicinity for a week or two, and who, like
ourselves, are bent on seeing the great mountains far to the west. We leave
the lake and again move westward, and for a night and part of the following 18
THE   CANADIAN   PACIFIC   RAILWAY.
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O
^__a__J THE   CANADIAN  PACIFIC  RAILWAY. 19
day we are in a wild, strange country. The rivers seem all in a hurry, and we
are seldom out of sight of dancing rapids or foaming cataracts. The deep,
rock-bound lakes grow larger as we move westward. Fires have swept
through the woods in places and the blackened stumps and the dead trees, with
their naked branches stretched out against the sky, are weird and ghost-like as
we glide through them in the moonlight. It was through this rough and broken
country, for a distance of more than four hundred miles, that Wolseley successfully led his army in 1870 to suppress a rebellion of the half-breeds on Red
River, and some of his abandoned boats are yet to be seen from the railway.
But wild and rough as it is this country is full of natural wealth. Valuable minerals and precious metals abound, and from here, mainly, is procured
the timber to supply the prairies beyond. As we draw nearer to the prairies,
great saw-mills begin to appear, with piles of lumber awaiting shipment; and
at all the stations are large accumulations of timber to be moved westward,—
firewood, fence-posts, and beams and blocks for all purposes. Many men find
employment in these forests, and villages are growing up at intervals. And,
strange as it may seem, hardy settlers are clearing the land and making farms
in this wilderness; but these are eastern Canadians who were born in the
woods, and who despise the cheap ready-made farms of the prairies.
We suddenly emerge from among the trees and enter the wide, level valley
of Red River, and in a little while we cross the river on a long iron bridge,
catch a glimpse of many strange-looking steamboats, and enter the magic city
of Winnipeg.
It will be well worth your while to stop here for a day. Notwithstanding
all you have been told about it, you can hardly be prepared to find the frontier
trading-post of yesterday transformed into a city of thirty thousand inhabitants, with miles of imposing structures, hotels, stores, banks and theatres,
with beautiful churches, schools and colleges, with tasteful and even splendid
residences, with immense mills and many manufactories, with a far-reaching
trade, and with all the evidences of wealth, comfort and cultivation to be found
in cities of a century's growth.
While you will find in Winnipeg the key to much that you will see
beyond, you must look beyond for the key to much you will see in Winnipeg.
Situated just where the forests end and the vast prairies begin, with thousands
of miles of river navigation to the north, south and west, and with railways
radiating in every direction like the spokes of a wheel, Winnipeg has become,
what it must always be, the commercial focus of the Canadian Northwest.
Looking at these long lines of warehouses, filled with goods, and these twenty
__/ 20
THE   CANADIAN  PACIFIC  RAILWAY.
V'',flj|
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	 ___i
1
THE   CANADIAN   PACIFIC   RAILWAY.
21
miles or more of railway tracks all crowded with cars, you begin to realize the
vastness of the country we are about to enter. From here the wants of the
people in the west are supplied, and this way come the products of their fields,
while from the far north are brought furs in great varietv and number.
CITY HALL,  WINNIPEG, 22
THE   CANADIAN  PACIFIC  RAILWAY.
( u~
ND now for the last stage of our journey. The
beautiful sleeping-car in which we came up from
Montreal kept on its way westward whilst we
were   "doing"   Winnipeg,   but   we   find  another
awaiting us, differing from the first only in name.
Looking  through the train, we find but  few of our
DO '
^^ fellow-passengers   of yesterday.     Nearly  everybody
X    stops at Winnipeg for a longer or shorter time, some
to remain permanently, others to visit the land offices of
the government or of the  Railway  Company: others to
I purchase supplies  or materials  for their new  prairie homes;
and still others only to see the town, as. we have done. We find among the
new passengers representatives of all grades of society, gentlemen travelling
for pleasure, sportsmen, merchants and commercial travellers, high-born young
men seeking fortunes in large farms or in ranching, sturdy English, Scotch,
German and Scandinavian immigrants, land-hunters in plenty, their pockets
stuffed with maps and with pamphlets full of land lore, gold and silver miners
for the mountains, coal miners for the Saskatchewan country, and professional
men of all descriptions. There is not a sorrowful visage in the party; every
face wears a bright and expectant look, and the wonderfully clear sky and
the brilliant sunshine add to the cheerfulness of the scene.
The Rocky Mountains are yet nearly a thousand miles away. A few short
years ago this was a six weeks' journey, under the most favorable circumstances, and it was counted a good trip when the old-time ox-trains, carrying
goods and supplies to the distant trading-posts, reached the mountains in three
months ; but our stages will be numbered by hours instead of days.
Leaving Winnipeg, we strike out at once upon a broad plain as level and
green as a billiard table, extending to the north and west apparently without
limit, and bordered at the south by a line of trees marking the course of the
Assiniboine River. This is not yet the prairie, but a great widening of the
valleys of the Red and Assiniboine rivers, which unite at Winnipeg. To the
left, and skirting the river, is a continuous line of well-tilled farms, with comfortable farm-houses peering out from among the trees. To the right is a vast
meadow, with countless cattle half hidden in the grass. The railway stretches
away before us without a curve or deflection as far as the eye can reach, and ■
the motion of the train is hardly felt as we fly along. THE   CANADIAN  PACIFIC  RAILWAY.
23
As we proceed westward, we imperceptibly reach higher ground, and the
country is checkered with fields of gtain, and dotted far into the distance with
farm-houses and grain-stacks.
Fifty-five miles from Winnipeg we reach Portage la Prairie, another city
of a day's growth, and the centre of a well-developed and prosperous farming
region. Its big grain elevators and flour mills, its busy streets and substantial
houses tell their own story. From here a new railway reaches away two hundred miles to the northwest, making more lands accessible (if more be needed),
bringing down grain and cattle, and before long to bring salt and petroleum
as well.
Crossing a low range of sand-hills,
O O 7
marking the shore of an ancient lake, we
pass through a beautifully undulating
country, fertile and well settled, as the
busy little towns and the ever-present
grain elevators bear evidence.
ISiiiliiiillil1
liwHIIlliilH
fililiifEiRl
111 IB
GRAIN ELEVATORS AND FLOUR MILL,  PORTAGE LA PRAIRIE,  MANITOBA.
One hundred and thirty miles from Winnipeg we cross the Assiniboine
River, and reach Brandon, next to Winnipeg the largest town in the Canadian
Northwest, a city in fact, although but five years old, with handsome buildings, well-made streets, and an unusual number of large grain elevators and
mills.
Leaving Brandon we have fairly reached the first of the great prairie
steppes, that rise one after the other at long intervals to the Rocky Mountains ;
and now we are on the real prairie, not the monotonous, uninteresting plain
, .-..■.-    __—; 24
THE   CANADIAN  PACIFIC   RAILWAY.
your imagination has pictured, but a great billowy ocean of grass and flowers,
now swelling into low hills, again dropping into broad basins with gleaming
ponds, and broken here and there by valleys and by. irregular lines of trees
marking the water-courses. The horizon only limits the view; and, as far as
the eye can reach, the prairie is dotted with newly-made farms, with great
black squares where the sod has just been turned by the plough, and with
herds of cattle. The short, sweet grass, studded with brilliant flowers, covers
the land as with a carpet, ever changing in colour as the flowers of the different seasons and places give to it their predominating hue.
The deep black soil of the valley we left in the morning has given place
to a soil of lighter colour, overlying a porous clay, less inviting to the inexperienced agriculturist, but nevertheless of the very highest value, for here
is produced, in the greatest  perfection, the most famous of all varieties of
wheat—that known as the "Hard
Fyfe wheat of Manitoba,"—and oats
I as well, and rye, barley and flax, and
A PRAIRIE STATION.
gigantic potatoes, and almost everything that can be grown in a temperate
climate. All these flourish here without appreciable drain upon the soil.
Once here, the English farmer soon forgets all about fertilizers. His children
may have to look to such things, but he will not.
•We pass station after station, nearly all alike, except as to the size of the
villages surrounding them, some of which are of considerable importance.
The railway buildings at these stations are uniform, and consist of an attractive
station-house for passengers and goods, a great round water-tank, cottages for
the section-men, and the never-ending grain elevators — tall solid structures,
/: • O   O "
always  telling the  same  story.    Every minute   or two we   see  coveys   of "^
THE   CANADIAN  PACIFIC   RAILWAY.
25
H x^s^
HHili_:iv.«.'-~:
"prairie chickens" (pinnated grouse) rising from the grass, startled by the
passing train. Ducks of many kinds are seen about the frequent ponds,
together with wild geese and cranes, and occasionally great white pelicans.
The sportsmen have nearly all dropped off at the different stations. Those
who remain are after larger game farther west, — antelope or caribou.
Three hundred miles from Winnipeg we  pass through the famous Bell
\   . farm, embracing one hundred square miles
of land.    This is a veritable nianufac-
i tory of wheat, where the work is
done   with  an  almost  military
organization,   ploughing   by
brigades   and   reaping   by
divisions.       Think   of   a
farm   where   the  furrows
are  ordinarily four miles
long, and of a country where
such a thing is possible !  There
are neat stone cottages and ample
barns  for  miles   around,   and   the
collection  of   buildings   about the
headquarters near the railway station  makes   a respectable  village,
there being among them a church,
O O *
a hotel, a flour-mill, and, of course,
a grain elevator, for in this country
these elevators appear wherever there
is wheat to.be handled or stored.
Soon we  reach Regina, the  capital
t    of the Province of  Assiniboia, situated
WtM^''''' 1 m ^ne   centre of an  apparently  boundless,
■Tm9
vfi'. tilt t\ <&&£lil'l IU
VI!.
0. but very fertile plain. The buildings here have
smoking-room in sleeping car. more of a frontier look than those of the larger
towns we have left behind; but it is a busy place, an important centre of trade,
and one of the cities of the future. From here a railway branches off to the
north, and is pushing away towards Battleford and Edmonton. As we leave
the station going westward, we see on our right the Governor's residence, and
a little beyond, the headquarters of the Northwest Mounted Police, a body of
men of whom Canada is justly proud.   This organization is composed of young
I
	 26
THE   CANADIAN   PACIFIC   RAILWAY. THE   CANADIAN  PACIFIC   RAILWAY. 27
and picked men, thoroughly drilled, and governed by the strictest military dis
cipline. Their firm and considerate rule won the respect and obedience of the
Indians long before the advent of the railway, and its coming was attended
by none of the lawlessness and violence which have darkly marked the opening of new districts elsewhere in America, so wholesome was the fame of
these red-coated guardians of the wide prairies.
Leaving Regina we soon pass Moosejaw, four hundred miles from Winnipeg, and commence the ascent of another prairie steppe.
We have now nearly reached the end of the continuous settlement, and
beyond to the mountains we shall only find the pioneer farmers in groups here
and there. The country, while retaining the chief characteristics of the
prairie, becomes more broken, and numerous lakes and ponds occur in the
depressions. We shall see no trees now for a hundred miles, and without them
the short buffalo-grass gives the country a desolate, barren look; but it
is far from barren, as the occasional farms testify through their wonderful growth of cereals and vegetables. There is a flutter of excitement
among the passengers, and a rush to the windows. Antelope ! We shall see
them often enough now. At Chaplin, we come to one of the Old Wives'
lakes, which are extensive bodies of water having no outlet, and consequently
alkaline.
We are now entering a very paradise for sportsmen. The lakes become
more frequent. Some are salt, some are alkaline, but most of them are clear
and fresh. Wild geese, cranes, ducks, — a dozen varieties, — snipe, plover and
curlew, all common enough throughout the prairies, are found here in myriads.
Water-fowl blacken the surface of the lakes and ponds, long white lines of pelicans disport themselves along the shores, and we hear the notes and cries of
many strange birds whose names I cannot tell you. "Prairie chickens" are
abundant on the high ground, and antelope are common in the hills.
The country is reticulated with buffalo trails, and pitted with their wallows. A buffalo is a rare sight now, and the last one will soon have disappeared ; but the hope of seeing one keeps all eyes straining. Hour after hour
we roll along, with little change in the aspect of the country.    The geese and
O7 O J- */ O
ducks have ceased to interest us, and even a coyote no longer attracts atten-
tion ; but the beautiful antelope has never-ending charms for us, and as, startled
by our approach, he bounds away, we watch, the white tuft which serves him
for a tail until it disappears in the distance.
We have crossed the high broken country, known here as the Coteau, and
far away to the southwest we see the Cypress Hills appearing as a deep blue
uj 28
THE   CANADIAN   PACIFIC   RAILWAY.
.'SHIHiII 111   8 THE   CANADIAN  PACIFIC   RAILWAY. 29
line, and, for want of anything else, we watch these gradually rising as we
draw near to them. The railway skirts their base for many miles, following what
seems to be a broad valley, and crossing many clear little streams making their
way from the hills northward to the Saskatchewan. At Maple Creek, a little town
with extensive yards for the shipment of cattle some of which are driven here
from Montana, feeding and fattening on the way, we see the red coats of the
mounted police who are looking after a large encampment of Indians near by.
The Indians are represented on the station platform by braves of high and low
degree, squaws and papooses, mostly bent on trading pipes and trinkets for
tobacco and silver; a picturesque looking lot, but dirty withal. Leaving the
station we catch sight of their encampment a mile or so away, tall, conical
"tepees" of well-smoked cloths or skins; Indians in blankets of brilliant
colours ; hundreds of ponies feeding in the rich grasses ; a line of graceful trees
in the background, seemingly more beautiful than ever because of their rarity;
— all making, with the dark Cypress Hills rising in the distance, a picture
most novel and striking.
Two hours later we descend to the valley of the South Saskatchewan and
soon arrive at Medicine Hat, a finely situated and rapidly growing town, a
thousand miles from Lake Superior. Hereabouts are extensive coal mines from
which came the coals we saw moving eastward on the railway; and from
near this place a railway extends to other coal mines more than a hundred
miles to the southwest. The broad and beautiful Saskatchewan River affords
steamboat navigation a long way above, and for a thousand' miles or more
below; and western enterprise has been quick to seize upon the advantages
offered here.
Crossing the river on a long iron bridge, we ascend again to the high
O O O    7 o o
prairie, now a rich pasture dotted with lakelets. Everywhere the flower-
sprinkled sward is marked by the deep narrow trails of the buffalo, and the
saucer-like hollows where the shaggy monsters used to wallow ; and strewing
the plain in all directions are the whitened skulls of these noble animals now
so nearly extinct. There are farms around many of the little stations even so
far west bM this, and the herds of cattle grazing on the knolls indicate the
"ranch country."
As we approach Crowfoot station all are alive for the first view of the
Rocky Mountains, yet more than a hundred miles away ; and soon we see them,
— a glorious line of snowy peaks rising straight from the plain and extending
the whole length of the western horizon, seemingly an impenetrable barrier.
As we speed on, peak rises behind peak, then dark bands of forest that reach  THE   CANADIAN  PACIFIC  RAILWAY. 31
up to the snow-line come into view; the snow-fields and glaciers glisten in the
sunlight, and over the rolling tops of the foothills the passes are seen, cleft
deep into the heart of the mountains. We are now in the country of the once
dreaded Blackfeet, the most handsome and warlike of all the Indian tribes, but
now peacefully settled on a reservation near by. We have been running
parallel to the tree-lined banks of the Bow River, and now, crossing its crystal
waters, we find ourselves on a beautiful hill-girt plateau in the centre of which
stands the new city of Calgary, at the base of the Rocky Mountains, 2,262
miles from Montreal and 3,416 feet above the ocean.
Before us, and on either side, the mountains rise in varied forms and in
endless change of aspect, as the lights and shadows play upon them. Behind
us is the great sea of open prairie. Northward is the wooded district of
Edmonton and the North Saskatchewan, full of moose, elk, bear, and all
manner of fur-bearing animals   and winged game.      Southward,  stretching
O O O O
away 150 miles to the United States boundary, is the Ranch Country.
You may be sure of a cordial welcome should you visit the ranchmen, and
it will be worth your while to do so. You will find them all along the foothills, their countless herds feeding far out on the plain. Cattle and horses
graze at will all  over the   country,  summer and winter alike.     The warm
O v   j
%. Chinook " winds from across the mountains keep the ground free from snow
in the winter, except for a day or two at a time, and the nutritious and naturally
cured grasses are always within reach of the cattle. In the spring and autumn
all the ranchmen join in a "round up," to collect and sort out the animals
according to the brands of the different owners; and then the "cow-boy"
appears in all his glory. To see these splendid riders "cutting out" or separating the animals from the common herd, lassoing and throwing them, that
they may be branded with the owner's mark, or herding a band of free-born
and unbroken horses, is well worth coming all this way. The ranchmen, fine
fellows from the best families in the East and in England, live here in a lordly
way. Admirable horsemen, with abundant leisure and unlimited opportunities
for sport, their intense love for this country is no matter of wonder, nor is it
surprising that every day brings more young men of the best class to join in
this free and joyous life.
All along the base of the mountains clear streams come down to the plain
at frequent intervals ; coal crops out on the water-courses, and there is timber
in plenty throughout the foothills. The soil is rich and deep, and the climate
matchless.    What more can one desire?
Leaving Calgary and going westward again, following up the valley of
	 r
32
THE   CANADIAN   PACIFIC  RAILWAY.
MOUNT  STEPHEN,  NEAR THE  SUMMIT  OF  THE ROCKIES. THE   CANADIAN  PACIFIC   RAILWAY. 33
the Bow, the gradually increasing river terraces and the rounded grassy foothills, on which innumerable horses, cattle and sheep are feeding, shut out the
mountains for an hour or two. Suddenly we come upon them, grand and stern
and close at hand. For more than six hundred miles and until we reach the
Pacific they will be constantly with us. We enter an almost hidden portal,
and find ourselves in a valley between two great mountain ranges. At every
turn of the valley, which is an alternation of precipitous gorges and wide parks,
a new picture presents itself. The beautiful river now roars through a narrow
defile, now spreads out into a placid lake, reflecting the forests, cliffs and snowy
summits. Serrated peaks, and vast pyramids of rock with curiously contorted
and folded strata, are followed by gigantic castellated masses down whose sides
«/     O   O
cascades fall thousands of feet. The marvellous clearness of the air brings out
the minutest detail of this Titanic sculpture. Through the gorges we catch
glimpses of glaciers and other strange and rare sights, and now and then of
wild goats and mountain sheep, grazing on the cliffs far above us near the snow
line. The mountains would be oppressive in their grandeur, their solemnity
and their solitude, but for an occasional mining town or a sportsman's tent,
which give a human interest to the scene.
Three hours after leaving Calgary we pass the famous anthracite mines
near the base of Cascade Mountain, and soon after stop at the station at Banff,
already famous for its hot and sulphurous springs, which possess wonderful
curative powers, and which have already attracted thousands of people, many
of them from great distances. The district for miles about has been reserved
by the Canadian government as a national park, and much has already been
done to add to its natural beauty, or rather, to make its beauties accessible ; for in this supremely beautiful place, the hands of man can add but little.
Everybody stops here for a day or two at least, and we should do likewise.
We will find luxurious quarters in a large and handsomely appointed hotel,
perched on a hill overlooking the beautiful valley of Bow River. The
river comes down from its glacier sources at the west, plunges over a precipice
beneath the hotel balconies, and, stretching away through the deep, forested
valley, disappears among the distant mountains at the east. Half a dozen
ranges of magnificent snow-tipped mountains centre here, each differing from
the others in form and colour; and the converging valleys separating them
afford matchless views in all directions. Well-made carriage roads and bridle
paths lead to the different springs and wind about among the mountains everywhere.
Resuming our journey, we are soon reminded by the increasing nearness of
i'
  -        ____.   - ; I i  , ■ ■—	 34
THE  CANADIAN  PACIFIC RAILWAY.
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THE   CANADIAN   PACIFIC   RAILWAY. 35
the fields of snow and ice on the mountain-slopes that we are reaching a great
elevation, and an hour from Banff our train stops at a little station, and we are
told that this is the summit of the Rocky Mountains, just a mile above the sea,
but it is the summit only in an engineering sense, for the mountains still lift
their white heads five thousand to seven thousand feet above us, and stretch
away to the northwest and the southeast like a great back-bone, as indeed they
are,—the "backbone of the continent."
Two little streams begin here almost from a common source. The waters of
one find their way down to the Saskatchewan and into Hudson's Bay and the
other joins the flood which the Columbia pours into the Pacific Ocean. Passing
three emerald lakes, deep set in the mountains, we follow the west-bound
stream down through a tortuous rock-ribbed canon, where the waters are dashed
to foam in incessant leaps and whirls. This is the Wapta or Kicking-Horse
pass. Ten miles below the summit we round the base of Mount Stephen, a
stupendous mountain rising directly from the railway to a height of more than
eight thousand feet, holding on one of its shoulders, and almost over our heads,
a glacier whose shining green ice, five hundred feet thick, is slowly crowded
over a sheer precipice of dizzy height, and crushed to atoms below. From the
railway, clinging to the mountain side, we look down upon the river valley,
which, suddenly widening, here holds between the dark pine-clad mountains a
mirror-like sheet of water, reflecting with startling fidelity each peak and
precipice.
Still following the river, now crossing deep ravines, now piercing projecting rocky spurs, now quietly gliding through level park-like expanses of
greensward, with beautiful trees, pretty lakelets and babbling brooks, we soon
enter a tremendous gorge whose frowning walls, thousands of feet high, seem
to overhang the boiling stream which frets and roars at their base, and this we
follow for miles, half shut in from the daylight.
Two hours from the summit and three thousand feet below it, the gorge
suddenly expands, and we see before us high up against the sky a jagged line
of snowy peaks of new forms and colours. A wide, deep, forest-covered valley
intervenes, holding a broad and rapid river. This is the Columbia. The new
mountains before us are the Selkirks, and we have now crossed the Rockies.
Sweeping" round into the Columbia valley we have a glorious mountain view.
To the north and south, as far as the eye can reach, we have the Rockies on
the one hand and the Selkirks on the other, widely differing in aspect, but each
indescribably grand. Both rise from the river in a succession of tree-clad
benches, and soon leaving the trees behind, shoot upwards to the regions of
J i_> JL. J_"S 36
THE   CANADIAN   PACIFIC   RAILWAY.
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37
perpetual snow and ice. The railway turns down the Columbia, following one
of the river-benches through gigantic trees for twenty miles to Donald, where
a number of our fellow-passengers leave us. Some of them are miners or
prospectors bound for the silver mines in the vicinity, or the gold " diggins "
further down the river; others are ambitious sportsmen, who are seeking
caribou or mountain sheep — the famous "big horns." They will not fail to
run upon a bear now and then, black or cinnamon, and perchance a grizzly.
Crossing the Columbia, and following it down through a great caiion,
*-"" O O O 7
through tunnels and deep rock-cuttings, we shortly enter the Beaver valley
and commence  the  ascent of the  Selkirks, and then for  twenty miles we
DINING-ROOM—GLACIER HOUSE.
climb along the mountain   sides, through  dense  forests  of enormous trees,
O O
until, near the summit, we find ourselves in the midst of a wonderful
group of peaks of fantastic shapes and many colours. At the summit
itself, four, thousand five hundred feet above tide-water, is a natural resting-
place,— a broad level area surrounded by mountain monarchs, all of them in
the deadly embrace of glaciers. Strange, under this warm summer's sky, to
see this battle going on between rocks and ice — a battle begun aeons ago and
to continue for teons to come ! To the north, and so near us that we imagine
that we hear the crackling of the ice, is a great glacier whose clear green
fissures we can plainly see.    To the south is another,   vastly larger, by the 38
THE   CANADIAN   PACIFIC   RAILWAY,
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THE   CANADIAN  PACIFIC  RAILWAY. 39
side of which the greatest of those of the Alps would be insignificant.    Smaller
O X o
glaciers find lodgment on all the mountain benches and slopes, whence innumerable sparkling cascades of icy water come leaping down.
Descending westerly from the summit we reach in a few minutes the
Glacier House, a delightful hotel situated almost in the face of the Great
Glacier and at the foot of the grandest of all the peaks of the Selkirks, — Sir
Donald, — an acute pyramid of naked rock shooting up nearly eight thousand
feet above us.    In the dark valley far below we see the glacier-fed Illicilliwaet
*/ O
glistening through the tree-tops, and beyond and everywhere the mountains
<D O O it/ \J
rise in maiesty and immensity beyond all comparison. To reach the deep
valley below, the engineers wound the railway in a series of great curves or
«/ 7 O v O
loops all about the mountain slopes, and as we move on this marvellous scene
is presented to us in every aspect. We plunge again for hours through precipitous gorges, deep and dark, and again cross the Columbia River, which
has made a great detour around the Selkirk Mountains while we have come
directly through them. The river is wider and deeper here, and navigable by
steamboats southward for nearly two hundred miles.
We are now confronted by the Gold range, another grand snow-clad series
of mountains, but broken directly across, and offering no obstacle to the
railway. The deep and narrow pass through this range takes us for forty miles
or more between parallel lines of almost vertical cliffs, into the faces of which
the line is frequently crowded by deep black lakes; and all the way the
bottom of the valley is thickly set with trees of many varieties and astonishing
size, exceeding even those of the Columbia.
A sudden flash of light indicates that we have emerged from the pass,
and we see stretching away before us the Shuswap lakes," whose crystal
waters are hemmed and broken in every way by abruptly rising mountains.
After playing hide-and-seek with these lovely lakes for an hour or two, the
valley of the South Thompson River is reached — a wide almost treeless valley,
already occupied from end to end by farms and cattle ranches ; and here for the
first time irrigating ditches appear. Flocks and herds are grazing everywhere,
and the ever present mountains look down upon us more kindly than has been
their wont.
The railway passes Kamloops Lake, shooting through tunnel after tunnel,
and then the valley shuts in and the scarred and rugged mountains frown
«/ OO
upon us again, and for hours we wind along their sides, looking down upon a
tumbling river, its waters sometimes almost within our reach and sometimes
lost below.    We suddenly cross the deep black gorge of the Fraser River on 40
THE   CANADIAN   PACIFIC   RAILWAY
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THE   CANADIAN  PACIFIC  RAILWAY. 41
a massive bridge of steel, seemingly constructed in mid-air, plunge through
a tunnel, and enter the famous canon of the Fraser.
The view here changes from the grand to the  terrible.    Through this
O O O
gorge, so deep and narrow in many places that the rays of the sun hardly
enter it, the black and ferocious waters of the great river force their way.
We are in the heart of the Cascade range, and above the walls of the canon
O     7
we occasionally see the mountain peaks gleaming against the sky. Hundreds
of feet above the river is the railway, notched into the face of the cliffs, now
and then crossing a great chasm by a tall viaduct or disappearing in a tunnel
O O */ J-   JL O
through a projecting spur of rock, but so well made, and so thoroughly protected  everywhere, that  we  feel  no   sense  of danger.     For  hours we are
*/ O
deafened by the roar of the waters below, and we pray for the broad sunshine
once more. The scene is fascinating in its terror, and we finally leave it
gladly, yet regretfully.
O «/  7   «/ O 1/
At Yale the canon ends and the river widens out, but we have mountains
yet in plenty, at times receding and then drawing near again. We see
Chinamen washing gold on the sand-bars and Indians herding cattle in the
meadows ; and the villages of the Indians, each with its little unpainted houses
and miniature chapel, alternate rapidly with the collection of huts where the
Chinamen congregate.    Salmon drying on poles near the river give brilliant
O       O «/ O i. o
touches of colour to the landscape, and here and there we see the curious
graveyards of the Indians, neatly enclosed and decorated with banners,
streamers, and all manner of carved "totems."
A gleaming white cone rises towards the southeast. It is Mount Baker,
sixty miles away and fourteen thousand feet above us. We cross large rivers
flowing  into  the   Fraser, all  moving slowly here  as if   resting after  their
O ' O *J o
tumultuous passage down between the mountain ranges.    As the valley widens
JL O -    O *J
out farms and orchards become more and more frequent, and our hearts are
gladdened with the sight of broom and  gorse and other shrubs and  plants
OOO JL
familiar to English eyes, for as we approach the coast we find a climate like
that of the south of England, but with more sunshine.    Touching the Fraser
O 7 o
River now and then, we see an occasional steamboat, and here in the lower
part the water is dotted with Indian canoes, all engaged in catching salmon,
J- J o    o o
which visit these rivers in astonishing numbers, and which when caught are
frozen and sent eastward by the railway, or canned in great quantities and
shipped to all parts of the world.
Passing through a forest of mammoth trees, some of them twelve feet or
more in diameter, and nearly three hundred feet high, we find ourselves on the 42
THE   CANADIAN   PACIFIC   RAILWAY,
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43
tidewaters of the Pacific at the eastern extremity of Burrard Inlet. Following
down the shore of this mountain-girt inlet for half an hour, our train rolls into
the station at Vancouver, the western terminus of the Canadian Pacific
Railway.
E soon find comfortable quarters in a fine hotel, equal
to any we have seen in the East, and its situation on
Jhi_rh ground affords us a most interesting and charming
view   of   the  new  city,   and  the  surrounding  country.
Far away at  the   southeast  Mount Baker  looms  up   all
* white and serene.    At the north, and rising directly from
Ithe sea, is a beautiful group of the Cascade Mountains, bathed
in a violet light and vividly reflected in the glassy waters of
phe inlet.    Looking towards the west, out over English Bay
3 and the Straits of Georgia, we see the dark-blue mountains of
Vancouver Island, and at the  southwest, beyond the broad delta of Fraser
River, is the Olympian range, —a long line of opalescent peaks fading into the
distance.
At our feet is a busy scene.    The city is new indeed; only one or two of
its many buildings were   here two   years ago, —a forest  stood  here then.
'The men who built the town could not wait for bricks and mortar, and all of
the earlier houses were built of wood ; but now many solid handsome structures
of brick and stone are going up, and there is more of a come-to-stay look
about it all. Down at the water's edge are long wharves where steamships
from China and Japan, from California, Puget Sound and Alaska, are dis-
char_rino- or taking in cargoes; and at the warehouses along the wharves
are lines of railway cars loading for the east with teas, silks, seal-skins, fish,
fruit and many other commodities. Here and there all around the inlet, are
great saw-mills, where steamships and sailing vessels are taking in timber and
deals for China and Australia, and even for England. A few miles away is
New Westminister, on the Fraser, one of the old towns of British Columbia,
now quickened into vigourous growth by the advent of the railway, and the
columns of smoke rising in that direction tell us of its extensive salmon canneries and saw-mills. There, too, ships are loading for all parts of the world.
And over against Vancouver Island are other columns of smoke, indicating 44
THE   CANADIAN  PACIFIC   RAILWAY.
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Mi THE   CANADIAN  PACIFIC  RAILWAY.
4&
the great coal mines from which nearly all of the steamships of the Pacific
are supplied.
Northward for twelve hundred miles through the Gulf of Georgia and the
wonderful fiords of Alaska, where the mountains are embraced in a thousand
arms of the sea, pleasure-steamers, crowded with tourists, ply frequently.
Southwestward the Straits of Fuca lead out past the entrance to Puget Sound
and past the city of Victoria, to the open Pacific. All these waters, from
Puget Sound to Alaska, hardly known a few years ago, are now dotted with
all kinds of craft, from the largest to the   smallest,  engaged in all manner
O 7 o   o
of trade.
No wonder that with all her magnificent resources in precious metals, her'
coal  and  iron, her inexhaustible   fisheries   and  vast forests,   her  delightful
7 J O
climate and rich valleys, her matchless harbours and her newly completed.
transcontinental railway, British Columbia expects a brilliant future; and no
wonder that everybody here is at work with all his might!
I ask your pardon, patient reader, for my persistence in showing you all
sorts of things as we came along, whether you wished to see them or not.
My anxiety that you should miss nothing you might wish to see is my only
excuse. You have been bored nearly to death, no doubt, and I have noticed
signs of impatience which lead me to suspect your desire for freedom to go-
and see as you like, and as you have found that no guide is necessary, I will,
with your permission, leave you here; but before releasing your hand, let
me advise you not to fail, now that you are so near, to visit. Victoria, the-
beautiful capital of British Columbia. A steamer will take you there in a few
hours, and you will be rewarded in finding a transplanted section of Old.
England, climate, people and all; and more vigourous, perhaps, because of
the transplanting. Near Victoria you will find Esquimalt, the North Pacific
naval station, and an iron-clad or two, and perchance some old friends from
home; and let me advise you, furthermore, to take all of your luggage with,
you to Victoria, for I am sure you will be in no hurry to come away.
—-!-"'': "3/_s??*si_p_si^_
.-.V----V--:. :-Z*y;-i--^-v_>>:--^ THE CANADIAN PACIFIC RAILWAY.
THE IMPERIAL HIGHWAY FROM THE ATLANTIC TO THE PACIFIC.
The Newest,  The   Most  Solidly  Constructed  and  the  Best  Equipped
Transcontinental   Route.
Particular attention
called to the
PARLOR AND SLEEPING-CAR
SERVICE,
So important an accessory upon
a railway whose cars are
run upwards of
THREE THOUSAND  MILES
without change.
These cars are of unusual
strength and size, with berths,
smoking and toilet accommodations c o r r e spondingly
roomy. The transcontinental
sleeping-cars are provided with
BATH   ROOMS,
and all are fitted with double
doors and windows to exclude
the dust in summer and the
cold in winter.
The seats are richly upholstered, with high backs and
arms, and the central sections
are made into luxurious sofas
during the day.
The upper berths are provided with windows and ventilators, and have curtains separate from those of the berths
beneath. The exteriors are of
polished red mahogany, and
the interiors are of white mahogany and satinwood, elabo"
rately carved; while the
lamps, brackets, berth-locks?
and other pieces of metal
work, are of old brass of antique design.
THE FIRST-CLASS DAY
COACHES are proportionately elaborate in their arrangement
for the comfort of the passenger; and, for those who desire
to travel at a cheaper rate, COLONIST SLEEPING CARS are
provided without additional charge. These cars are fitted
with upper and lower berths after the same general style as
other sleeping-cars, but are not upholstered, and the passenger may furnish his own bedding, or purchase it of the Company's agents at terminal stations at nominal rates. The
entire passenger equipment is matchless in elegance and comfort.
FIRST-CLASS   SLEEPING   AND   PARLOR   CAR   TARIFF.
FOR  ONE LOWER OR  ONE UPPER BERTH  IN SLEEPING  CAR BETWEEN
Vt. Arthur & Vancouver.$15.00
Toronto and Chicago 3.00
Toronto and   Detroit 2.00
Toronto and Winnipeg 8.00
Toronto and Vancouver... 18.50
Quebec and Montreal $1.50
Montreal and Toronto 2.00
Montreal and Winnipeg....8.00
Montreal and Vancouver. .20.00
Ottawa and  Toronto 2.00
Ottawa and Vancouver ...20.00
JBoston and Montreal $2.00
New YorU and Montreal... .2.00
Chicago and Sh Paul 2.00
St. Paul and Winnipeg 3.00
St9 Paul and Vancouver. ..13.50
Montreal and Toronto....$1.00
Ottawa and Toronto 1.00
Winnipeg and Vancouver. 12.00
FOR  ONE  SEAT IN PARLOR CAR BETWEEN
-Quebec and Montreal $0.75
Three Hi vers and Montreal   .50
JHontreal and  Ottawa 50     Peterboro' and Toronto	
Between other stations rates are in proportion.    Accommodation in First-Class Sleeping Cars and in Parlor Car
will be sold only to holders of First-Class transportation.
46
Toronto and Owen Sound.$0.50
Toronto and St. Thomas 50
Toronto and Detroit l.OO THE CAHADIAH PACIFIC \Ml
BININ
»\__
Excel in Elegance of Design and Furniture
AND IN THE
Quality, of Food and Attendance
ANYTHING HITHERTO  OFFERED TO
Transcontinental Travellers
The fare provided  is
the best procurable, and the
cooking has a wide reputation for excellence. Local
delicacies, such as trout,
prairie hens, antelope
steaks, Fraser River salmon,
succeed one another as the
train moves westward.
The wines are of the
Company's special importation, and are of the finest
quality.
These cars accompany
all transcontinental trains,
and are managed directly by
the Railway Company,
which seeks, as with its
hotels and sleeping cars, to
provide every comfort and
luxury without regard to
cost—looking to the general
SP^SETS
profit of the Railway rather than to the immediate returns from these branches of its service.
47
u -   -     - ■■ -—"-- 48 THE   CANADIAN  PACIFIC   RAILWAY.
N
While the perfect sleeping and dining-car service, peculiar to the Canadian Pacific Railway, provides every comfort and luxury for travellers making the continuous trip between
the Atlantic and Pacific coasts, the Railway was no sooner opened than it was found necessary
to provide places at the principal points of interest among the mountains, where tourists and
others might explore and enjoy, at their leisure, the magnificent scenery with which the line
abounds.
With this end in view, the Company have erected at convenient points, hotels which will
not only serve these purposes, but should, by their special excellence, add another to the many
elements of superiority for which the Railway is already famous.
Proceeding westward, the first point selected was Banff, about twenty miles within the
Rocky Mountains and forty miles east of their summit, where the natural attractions of the
place had already led the Government to set aside an extensive tract as a National Park.
TIB  S-klYFir  SFRIEf 68   MQ>TM%
is placed on a high mountain promontory, 4,500 feet above the sea.level, at the confluence of
the Bow and Spray rivers, and is a large, handsome and well-built structure, with every convenience that modern ingenuity can suggest, and costing about a quarter of a million dollars.
While it is not intended to be a sanitarium, in the usual sense, the needs and comforts of
invalids are fully provided for, and the hotel will be kept open throughout the year. The
hot sulphur springs, with which the region abounds, vary in temperature from 80 to 121
degrees, and in addition to the bathing facilities provided by the hotel, the Government has
protected, improved and beautified the springs, and constructed picturesque bathing-houses
and swimming baths. The springs are much like those of Arkansas, and the apparently
greater curative properties of the waters are no doubt clue, in part, to the cool, dry air of the
mountains incident to their elevation, The spring waters are specially efficacious for the cure
•of rheumatic, gouty and allied affections, and are very beneficial in affections of the liver,
diabetes, Brighfs disease and chronic dyspepsia.
A number of sub-ranges of the Rocky Mountains radiate from Banff, and looking up the
valleys between them, in every direction, long lines of white peaks are seen in grand perspective. A dozen mountain monarchs within view raise their heads a mile or more above
the hotel; and the Bow River, coming down from its glacier sources at the west, widens out
•as it approaches, then suddenly contracts and plunges over a precipice immediately at our
feet, and then widening out again, is finally lost among the snow-capped peaks toward the east.
Mountain sheep and goats abound in the neighboring hills, and Devil's Head Lake, not
far away, a deep glacier-fed body of water, a mile or two in width, and fifteen miles long,
-affords excellent sport in deep trolling for trout, which are here taken of extraordinary size.
The hotel rates are from three to four dollars per day, according to the rooms selected,
and special rates by the week or the month will be given on application to
George Holliday, Manager,
Banff, Alberta, N.W.T., Canada.
a pretty chalet-like hotel, is situated fifty miles west of Banff, in Kicking Horse Canon, at the
base of*Mount Stephen,— the chief peak of the Rockies in this latitude, whose stupendous
mass i? lifted abruptly 8,000 feet above. This is a favorite stopping-place for tourists and
mountain climbers, and there is good fly fishing for trout in a pretty lake near bv, and I bi_:
horns " and mountain goats are found in the vicinity. Looking down the valley from the
hotel, the Ottertail Mountains are seen on the left, and the Van Home rano-e on the right. In
the latter, the two most prominent peaks are Mts. Deville and King. This is a favorite region
for artists, the lights and shadows on the near and distant mountains giving especially inter-
•esting subjects for the brush.
I THE   CANADIAN  PACIFIC  RAIL.WAY. 49
l
* The hotel is noted for the excellence of its cuisine, and is fitted up with every attention
"to comfort.
The rates are three dollars per day, and for the engagement of special accommodation,
application should be made to Jas. Wharton, Manager,
Field, Alberta, N.W.T., Canada.
Q&ACH?-t   HOUSE,
the next resting-place, is situated in the heart of the Selkirks, at the foot of " Sir Donald,"
and in close proximity to the Great Glacier—r a sea of ice spreading among the mountains, and
■covering an area of about thirty-eight square miles.
The hotel is built beside the railway, in a beautiful amphitheatre surrounded by lofty
mountains, of which Sir Donald, rising 8,000 feet above the railway, is the most prominent.
Northward stand the summit poaks of the Selkirks in grand array, all clad in snow and ice,
and westward is the deep valley of the glacier-fed Illicilliwaet River, leading away to its
junction with the Columbia. The dense forests all about are filled with the music of restless
brooks, which will irresistibly attract the trout fisherman, and the hunter for large game can
have his choice of "bighorns," mountain goats, grizzly and mountain bears. The main
point of interest is the Great Glacier, which is only a short walk from the hotel by a pleasant
and easy path. One may safely climb upon its wrinkled surface, or penetrate its water-worn
caves, and think himself in grottos carved in emerald or sapphire. The glacier is about five
hundred feet thick at its forefoot, and is said to exceed in area all the glaciers of Switzerland
combined.
No tourist should fail to stop here for a day at least, and he need not be surprised to find
himself loth to leaye its attractions at the end of a week or month.
The hotel is similar in construction to the Mount Stephen House, and is first-class in
all respects.    The rates are three dollars per day, and correspondence should be addressed to
H. A. Perly, Manager,
Glacier House, British Columbia.
fHB IEASE1 ©jSlNOK; S©U1E;
(rates three dollars per day, E. J. Ermatinger, Manager), at North Bend, 130 miles east of
Vancouver, is situated in a park-like opening among the mountains on the Fraser River; its
construction is of the Swiss chalet style, similar to the Mount Stephen and Glacier Houses,
and it is managed with the same attention to the comfort of its patrons that pervades all
branches of the Company's service. The scenery all along the Fraser River is not only interesting, but startling. It has been well described as " ferocious," and the hotel is a comfortable base from which to explore the surrounding mountains and valleys.
BOTBEr V4l_XC@inrBB,
-at Vancouver, B.C., the Pacific coast terminus of the Railway. The Company have just completed this magnificent hotel, designed to accommodate the large commercial business of the
place, as well as the great number of tourists who will always find it profitable and interesting to make here a stop of a day or two, whether travelling east or west. It is situated on
high ground near the centre of the city, and from it there is a glorious outlook in every
direction. No effort has been spared in making its accommodations and service perfect in
every detail, and in the matters of cuisine, furnishings and sanitary arrangements it will compare favorably with the best hotels in eastern Canada or the United States.
Rates: three to five dollars per day, with special terms for a longer time.
E. M. Matthews, Manager,
Vancouver£_|l C£
Victoria, B.C. This hotel is so well known by all travellers to the North Pacific coast as to
require but little description in these pages. Its ownership and management are not connected with the Railway, and all communications should be addressed to Messrs. Hartnagle
& Redon, Managers. The house is large and well furnished, having undergone recent alternations and improvements, and it is conveniently situated near the business centre of the city.
The special elegance of its table d'hote has made the house widely famous.
 -	 U
i
GENERAL OFFICERS 8A#Ki» PACIFIC- RAILWAY,
HEAD   OFFICES:   MONTREAL,   CANADA.
Sir Geo. Stephen, Bart. .President Montreal.
W. C. Van Horne Vice-President	
Charles Drixkwater Secretary         "
T. G. Shaughnessy Assistant General Manager         "
George Olds General Traffic Manager f         "
Lucius Tuttle Passenger Traffic Manager        ■"
Henry Beatty Manager Steamship Lines and Lake Traffic Toronto.
I. G. Ogden Comptroller Montreal.
W. Sutherland Taylor • • Treasurer •         "
L. A. Hamilton Land Commissioner Winnipeg.
Wm. Whyte General Superintendent, Western Division         "
Harry Abbott General Superintendent, Pacific Division .Vancouver.
C. W. Spencer General Superintendent, Eastern Division Montreal,
T. A. Mackinnon.. General Superintendent, Ontario & Atlantic Division         "
Robert Kerr General Freight and Passenger Agent, W. & P. Divs.... .Winnipeg.
D. McNicoll General Passenger Agent, Eastern Division Montreal.
G. M. Bosworth Asst. Freight Traffic Manager, Eastern Division         "
J. N. Sutherland General Freight Agent, Ontario Division Toronto.
J. A. Sheffield Supt. Dining, Sleeping and Parlor Cars Montreal.
E. S. Anderson General Baggage Agent         1
-A-CBr-BIsrOI-BS.
Adej    jDE. So. Aus.. .Agents Oceanic Steamship Co	
R                                 M       j C E. McPherson, District Passenger Agent-...211   Washington St.
-KOhTO* " mass- IH. J. Colvin, City Passenger Agent   g
Brockville Ont. .. A. Caswell, Ticket Agent  145 Main Street.
Chicago, "• 111. • • J. Francis Lee, Commercial Agent 232 Clark Street.
Glasgow Scotland. .Archer Baker, European Traffic Agent 135 Buchanan St.
Halifax N.S".. .C. R. Barry, Ticket Agent 126 Hollis Street.
Hong Kong China. .Messrs. Adamson, Bell & Co., Agents for China.
Liverpool Eng.. .Archer Baker, European Traffic Agent  17 James Street.
London Eng.. .Archer Baker, European Traffic Agent 88 Cannon Street.
London Ont.. -T. R. Parker, Ticket Agent Richmond Street.
Montreal Que.. .A. B. Chaffee, Jr., City Passenger Agent 266 St. James St.
New York N.Y.. .E. V. Skinner, General Eastern Agent 337 Broadway.
Ottawa Ont... J. E. Parker, City Passenger Agent 12 Sparks Street.
Portland Ore... C G. McCorcl, Freight and Passenger Agent... 6 Washington St.
Quebec Que... J. W. Ryder, City Passenger Agent St. Louis Hotel.
U| John N.B. I .Messrs. Chubb & Co., Ticket Agents	
f Messrs. Gooclall,Perkins & Co., Agts. Pac. Coast 1   ,A ,r   .      ':M
! S+oamoliin Pn Y     10 MarKet St.
San Francisco, Cal.
j
Steamship Co }   10 Mark*
D. B. Jackson, Passenger Agent 214 Montgomery St.
M. M. Stern, Passenger Agent  222 Montgomery St.
Seattle Wash. Ter.. -E. W. MacGinnes, Freight ami Passenger Agent.
Shanghai China. .Messrs. Adamson, Bell & Co	
Tacoma Wash. Ter.. .E. E. Ellis, Freight and Passenger Agent	
Toronto Ont... W. R. Callaway, District Passenger Agent 110 King Street W.
Vancouver B.C. • -D. E. Brown, Dis. Freight and Pass. Agent	
Victoria B.C.. -Root. Irving, Freight and Passenger Agent Government Street.
Winn#eg Man... G. H. Campbell, City Ticket Agent 471 Main Street.
Yoi_o|g^?_ Japan. .Messrs. Frazer & Co., Agents for Japan	
A List of Tours over the Canadian Pacific Railway
will be forwarded to any address on application to the Company's Agencies
at London or Liverpool, Eng., New York, Boston and Chicago,
or to the Passenger Traffic Manager at Montreal. I " ' - If2! _*_F _T_T XWIF
^ * 1
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