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The Canadian Pacific : the new highway to the Orient across the mountains, prairies and rivers of Canada Canadian Pacific Railway Company 1980

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 Canad!
THE     B
ms
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ACROSS THE   .
-Mountains
Prairiesand ^
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.____ The Caqadian pacific ^ailwaij.
RAILWAY from the Atlantic to the Pacific, all
the way on British soil, was long the dream of
a few in Canada. This dream of the few
became, in time, the hope of the many, and
on the confederation of the British North
American provinces, in 1867, its realization
was found to be a political necessity. Then
the Government of the new Dominion of Canada set about the building of the Canadian
Pacific Railway, a work of such vast proportions that the richest empire of Europe might
well have hesitated before entering upon it.
Much of the country through which the railway must be built was unexplored.
Towards the east, all about Lake Superior, and beyond to Red River, was a vast rocky
region, where Nature in her younger days had run riot, and where deep lakes and
mighty rivers in every direction opposed the progress of the engineer. Beyond Red
River for a thousand miles stretched a great plain, known only to the wild Indian and the
fur trader; then came the mountains, range after range, in close succession, and all unexplored. Through all this, for a distance of nearly three thousand miles, the railway surveys
had first to be made. These consumed much time and money; people became impatient
and found fault and doubted. There were differences of opinion, and these differences
became questions of domestic politics, dividing parties, and it was not until 1875 that
the work of construction commenced in earnest.
But the machinery of Government is ill adapted, at best, to the carrying on of such
an enterprise, and in this case it was blocked or retarded by political jealousies and party
strife. Governments changed and delays occurred, until finally, in 1880, it was decided
almost by common consent to surrender the work to a private company.
The explorations and surveys for the railway had made known the character of the
country it was to traverse. In the wilderness east, north and west of Lake Superior forests
of pine and other timber, and mineral deposits of incalculable value, were found, and
millions of acres of agricultural land as well. The vast prairie district between Winnipeg
and the Rocky Mountains proved to be wonderfully rich in its agricultural resources. THE   CANADIAN   PACIFIC   RAILWAY
Towards the mountains great coal-fields were discovered, and British Columbia beyond
was known to contain almost every element of traffic and wealth. Thousands of people
had settled on the prairies of the Northwest, and their success had brought tens of thousands more. The political reasons for building the railway were lost sight of and commercial reasons took their place, and there was no difficulty in finding a party of capitalists
ready and willing to relieve the Government of the work and carry it on as a commercial
enterprise. The Canadian Pacific Railway Company was organized early in 1881, and
immediately entered into a contract with the Government to complete the line within ten
years.
The railway system of Eastern Canada nad already advanced far up the Ottawa Valley,
attracted mainly by the rapidly growing traffic from the pine forests, and it was from a
point of connection with this system that the Canadian Pacific Railway had to be carried through to the Pacific coast, a
distance of two thousand five hundred
and fifty miles. Of this, the Government
had under construction one section of
four hundred and twenty-five miles
between Lake Superior and Winnipeg, and another of two hundred
and thirteen miles from Burrard
Inlet, on the Pacific coast, eastward
to Kamloops Lake in British Columbia. The company undertook
the building of the remaining nineteen hundred and twenty miles, and
for this it was to receive from the
Government twenty - five million
dollars in money and twenty-five
million acres of agricultural land. The
two sections of railway already under
construction were to be finished by
the Government, and, together with a
branch line of sixty-five miles already in operation from Winnipeg southward to the
boundary of the United States, were to be given to the company, in addition to its
subsidies in money and lands; and the entire railway, when completed, was to remain the
property of the company.
The company set about its task most vigorously, and while the engineers were exploring the more difficult and less known section from the Ottawa River to and around Lake
Superior, and marking out a line for the navvies, work was commenced at Winnipeg, and
pushed westward across the prairies, where one hundred and thirty miles of the railway THE   NEW   HIGHWAY  TO  THE   ORIENT
were completed before the end of the first year. During the second year the rails advanced
four hundred and fifty miles. The end of the third year found them at the summit of the
Rocky Mountains, and the fourth in the Selkirks, nearly a thousand and fifty miles from
Winnipeg.
While such rapid progress was being made west of Winnipeg, the rails advancing at
an average rate of more than three miles each working day for months in succession, and
sometimes five and even six miles in a day, armies of men with all modern appliances and
CITY  OF  HALIFAX.
thousands of tons of dynamite were breaking down the barriers of hard and tough Laurentian and Huronian rocks, and pushing the line through the forests north and east of Lake
Superior with such energy that Eastern Canada and the Canadian Northwest were united
by a continuous railway early in 1885.
The Government section from the Pacific coast eastward had meanwhile reached
Kamloops Lake, and there the company took up the work and carried it on to a connection with the line advancing westward across the Rockies and the Selkirks. The forces
working towards each other met at Craigellachie, in Eagle Pass, in the Gold or Columbian
range of mountains, and there, on a wet morning, the 7th of November, 1885, the last rail
was laid in the main line of the Canadian Pacific Railway.
The energies of the company had not been confined to the mere fulfillment of its
contract with the Government. Much more was done in order that the railway might fully
serve its purpose as a commercial enterprise.    Independent connections with the Atlantic THE   CANADIAN   PACIFIC  RAILWAY
sea-board were secured by the purchase of lines leading eastward to Montreal and Quebec;
branch lines to the chief centres of trade in Eastern Canada were provided by purchase
and construction, to collect and distribute the traffic of the main line ; and other branch
lines were built in the Northwest for the development of the great prairies.
The close of 1885 found the company, not yet five years old, in possession of no less
than 4315 miles of railway, including the longest continuous line in the world, extending
from Quebec and Montreal all the way across the continent to the Pacific Ocean, a distance
of three thousand and fifty miles; and by the midsummer of 1886 all this vast system was
fully equipped and fairly working throughout. Villages and towns and even cities followed
close upon the heels of the line-builders; the forests were cleared away, the prairie's soil
was turned over, mines were opened, and even before the last rail was in place the completed sections were carrying a large and profitable traffic.    The touch of this young giant
CITY OP ST. JOHN, NEW BRUNSWICK.
of the North was felt upon the world's commerce almost before his existence was known ;
and, not content with the trade of the golden shores of the Pacific from California to
Alaska, his arms at once reached out across that broad ocean and grasped the teas and
silks of China and Japan to exchange them for the fabrics of Europe and North America.
The following years were marked by an enormous development of traffic and by the
addition of many lines of railway to the company's system, and by the establishment of
the company's magnificent steamship service to Japan and China. One line of railway
was extended eastward from Montreal across the State of Maine to a connection with the
railway system of the Maritime Provinces of Canada, affording connections with the
seaports of Halifax and St. John; another was completed from Sudbury, on the company's THE  NEW  HIGHWAY TO  THE  ORIENT.
-sT*** 8
THE  CANADIAN   PACIFIC   RAILWAY
mSm" line, to Sault Ste. Marie, at the outlet of Lake Superior, where a long steel bridge
carries the railway across to a connection with its two important American lines leading
westward — one to St. Paul and Minneapolis and thence continuing across Dakota to
Portal where it again connects with the Canadian Pacific Railway, the other through the
numberless iron mines of the Marquette and Gogebic districts to Duluth, at the western
extremity of Lake Superior; still another, the latest built, continues the company's lines
westward from Toronto to Detroit, connecting there with lines to Chicago, St. Louis, and
all of the great Mississippi Valley. And now, the company's lines embrace 6000 miles of
railway and spread out towards the West like the fingers of a gigantic hand, and the
question "Will it pay?" is answered with earnings for the past year of twenty million
dollars, and profits of more than eight and a half millions.
Canada's iron girdle has given a magnetic impulse to her fields, her mines, and her
manufactories, and the modest colony of yesterday is to-day an energetic nation with
great plans and hopes and aspirations.
CHATEAU FRONTENAC, DUFFERIN TERRACE, QUEBEC. THE  NEW  HIGHWAY  TO  THE  ORIENT
fAY I  not tempt you, kind reader, to leave England for a few
short weeks and journey with me across that broad land, the
beauties and glories of which have so recently been brought
within our reach?    There will be no hardships to endure, no
difficulties to overcome, and no dangers or annoyances whatever.    You shall see  mighty rivers, vast forests,  boundless
plains, stupendous mountains and wonders innumerable; and
you shall see all in comfort, nay, in luxury.    If you are a
jaded tourist, sick of Old World scenes and smells, you will
find everything here fresh and novel.    If you are a sportsman, you will meet with unlimited opportunities and endless
variety, and no one shall deny your right to shoot or fish at
your own sweet will.    If you are a mountain climber, you shall have cliffs and peaks and
glaciers worthy of your alpenstock; and if you have lived in India, and tiger hunting has
lost its zest, a Rocky Mountain grizzly bear will renew your interest in life.
We may choose between a Canadian and a New York steamship. The former will
take us, in summer, directly up the noble St. Lawrence River to the old and picturesque
city of Quebec, the "Gibraltar of America," and the most interesting of all the cities of
the New World. Its quaint buildings, crowding along the water's edge and perching on
the mountain side, its massive walls and battlements rising tier upon tier to the famous
citadel, crowning the mountain top and dominating the magnificent landscape for many
miles around, plainly tell of a place and a people with a history. All about this ancient
stronghold, first of the French and then of the English, every height and hill-side has
been the scene of desperately fought battles. Here the French made their last fight for
empire in America, in the memorable battle in which Wolfe and Montcalm fell. But
peace has prevailed for many years; the fortifications are giving place to warehouses,
manufactories, hotels, and universities, and the great new docks of massive masonry
indicate that Quebec is about to re-enter the contest with Montreal for commercial
supremacy in Canada, and the new hotel, the Chateau Frontenac, occupying on Dufferin
Terrace one of the most magnificent sites in the world, is the latest great step in this
direction.
Here we find the Canadian Pacific Railway, and one of its trains will take us in a
few hours along the north bank of the St. I„wrence, through a well-tilled country and a
chain of quaint French towns and villages, to Montreal, the commercial capital of the
Dominion.
In the winter the Canadian steamship will land us at the old city of Halifax, with its
magnificent harbor, its strong citadel garrisoned by British troops, its extensive cotton-
mills and sugar refineries, its beautiful parks and charming views. Here, too, a Canadian
Pacific  Railway train will be found ready to carry us westward to Montreal, passing on its IO
THE   CANADIAN   PACIFIC  RAILWAY
way through the low green hills of Nova Scotia to Moncton, then skirting along the Bay
of Fundy to St. John, the chief city of New Brunswick, a busy and handsome city, and
the largest in the Maritime Provinces — a seaport with an extensive trade inland as welt as
on the ocean; then following the glorious valley of the river St. John for an hour, turning
away from it to strike across the State of Maine, where the scenery is as wild and varied
as any lover of Nature could wish ; then crossing the boundary line back into Canada
again, where towns and villages reappear, increasing in size as we go along, until they
become cities — forests and saw mills giving place to highly cultivated fields; through
Lennoxville, Sherbrooke, Magog, Farnham, and St. Johns on the Richelieu; through the
broad level valley of the St. Lawrence, with isolated mountains lifting up here and there ;
and finally, crossing the St. Lawrence River by the famous cantilever bridge of the
Canadian Pacific Railway, at the head of Lachine Rapids, we will be brought within view
of the spires and chimneys of Montreal; and a few minutes later, rolling along over a
ST.  LAWRENCE  RIVER  BRIDGE.
viaduct of masonry arches, with the city spread out below us, we will enter the magnificent
passenger terminus of the Canadian Pacific Company.
Had we chosen a New York steamship our route would have brought us from the
American metropolis northward by railway along ihe banks of the far-famed Hudson
River to Troy or Albany, and thence along one bank or the other of Lake Champlain to
Montreal — a day or a night from New York.
Here in Montreal, a hundred years before the British conquest of Canada, the
French bartered with the Indians, and from here their hardy soldiers, priests, traders, and
voyageurs explored the vast wilderness beyond, building forts, establishing missions and
trading posts, and planting settlements on all the great rivers and lakes.    From here, until THE  NEW  HIGHWAY TO THE  ORIENT
II 12
THE   CANADIAN   PACIFIC   RAILWAY
long after the British occupation, the wants of the Indians were supplied in exchange for
furs and peltries, and in this trade Montreal grew rich and important.
But finally a change came. The appearance of steam navigation on the inland
waters accelerated the settlement of the fertile country at the west; towns and cities
sprang up about the old outposts of the missionaries and fur-traders; the Indians
receded and disappeared, and agricultural products took the place of furs in the commerce of Montreal. Then came the railways, penetrating the interior in every direction,
bringing still greater changes and giving a wonderful impetus to the western country, and
Montreal grew apace. And now we find it rising from the broad St. Lawrence to the
slopes of Mount Royal, and looking out over a densely peopled country dotted with bright
and charming villages — a large and beautiful city, half French, half English, half ancient,
half modern; with countless churches, imposing public buildings, magnificent hotels, and
tasteful and costly residences ; with long lines of massive warehouses, immense grain
elevators, and many-windowed factories; and with miles of docks crowded with shipping
of all descriptions, from the smallest river craft to the largest ocean vessels.
HICHEVER way we came, Montreal should be regarded as the initial point of our transcontinental
journey, for it is the principal eastern terminus of
the Canadian Pacific Railway, and it is the terminus
not only of the main line, but of numerous other
lines built and acquired by the company to gather up
and distribute its traffic. From here for a thousand
miles we have the choice of two routes. We may go
through the farms and orchards of Ontario to Toronto, the second city of Canada in importance, much
younger than Montreal, but closely growing in the
extent of its trade and industries, and hoping soon to surpass its older rival in both — a
modern and handsomely built city, where the solidity and culture of the older East is
combined with the brightness and eager activity of the newer West. Here, as at
Montreal, many railway lines reach out, and on all sides may be seen the evidences of
extensive commerce and great prosperity. From here we may in a few hours visit
Niagara, and then, resuming our westward journey by one of the Canadian Pacific lines,
four hours will bring us to Owen Sound, on Georgian Bay, whence one of the trim
Clyde-built steel steamships of the railway company will take us in less than two days
across Lake Huron and through the Straits of Sault Ste. Marie, where we will be lifted
by an enormous lock to the level of Lake Superior, and then across this greatest of THE   NEW   HIGHWAY  TO  THE   ORIENT
13 14
THE  CANADIAN   PACIFIC   RAILWAY
fresh-water seas to Fort William,  on Thunder Bay, where the western section of the
Canadian Pacific Railway begins.
But you are impatient to see the mountains, and if you will permit me to choose,
dear reader, we will start from Montreal by the main line of railway, and in order that we
may miss nothing we will return by the great lakes, and see Toronto and the Falls of
Niagara then.
Although the locomotive is hissing, as if htipatient for the signal to go, we have yet a
few minutes to spare, and, if it is agreeable to you, we will look over the train which
is to carry us to the  Pacific.    Next to  the engine we  find a long post-office van, in
which a number of clerks
are busily sorting letters
and stowing away mail-
sacks, then an express or
parcels van, and then
another laden with luggage. Following these are
two or three bright and
cheerful colonist coaches,
with seats which may be
transformed into sleeping
bunks at night, and with
all sorts of novel contrivances for the comfort of
the hardy and good-looking immigrants who have
already secured their
places for the long journey to the prairies of the
Northwest or the valleys
of British Columbia. Next
we find two or three
handsomely fitted coaches
for passengers making
short trips along the line,
and finally come the sleeping cars, in one of which
we are to live for some days and nights.
The railway carriages to which you are accustomed are dwarfed to meet Old World conditions, but these in our train seem to be proportioned to the length and breadth of
the land. Our sleeping car is unlike the " Pullman's " you have seen in England, being
much larger and far more luxurious.    With its soft and rich cushions, silken curtains, thick
SLEEPING CAR. THE   NEW   HIGHWAY  TO  THE   ORIENT
15 16 THE  CANADIAN  PACIFIC  RAILWAY
carpets, delicate carvings and beautiful decorations, and with its numberless and ingenious
appliances for convenience and comfort (even to the bath-rooms, so dear to the travelling
Englishman), it gives us promise of a delightful journey.
We glide out of the Montreal terminus, pass long, low freight sheds and plethoric
warehouses and grain elevators, run along a terrace above the wharves, pass the railway
workshops and an extensive cattle depot, and leave the city behind. For a time we are
still among the old French settlements, as is evidenced by the pretty cottages and the long
and narrow well-tilled farms. There is an air of thrift and comfort everywhere. We
have hills and distant mountains on the one hand and the broad and beautiful Ottawa River
on the other. Villages are passed in close succession, and soon we are Hearing Ottawa, the
capital of the Dominion. High up there, on a bold cliff overlooking the river, are the
Government Buildings and the Parliament House of the Dominion, with their Gothic
towers and many pinnacles, making a magnificent group. Away to the left is Rideau Hall,
the residence of the Governor-General, and stretching far over the heights beyond is the
city. On the broad flats below are acres, perhaps miles, of great square piles of deals,
and the cloud that rises beyond comes from the Chaudiere Falls, where the whole
volume of the Ottawa River takes a tumble, and is made to furnish power to a host of sawmills and manufactories.
It is no wonder that you have been so absorbed in the wide stretches of the Ottawa
River, since we left the capital behind, that you have quite forgotten it is lunch-time.
That white-aproned, white-jacketed boy will bring you sandwiches, coffee, claret, and
what not.
We are beyond the French country now; the farms are larger, and the modest
cottages have given place to farm houses, many of them of brick and stone, and all
having a well-to-do air about them. The towns are larger, there are more manufactories,
and there is more hurry and more noise. At frequent intervals on the river bank are great
saw-mills, surrounded by vast piles of lumber. The logs are floated down from the forests
on the Ottawa River and its tributaries, and the product is shipped to Europe, to the
United States, and everywhere.
Gradually the towns become smaller and the farms more scattered; the valley
contracts and deepens, and we are in the new country. We leave the Ottawa River, and
strike across toward Lake Superior. We are surprised at the thriving villages that have
already sprung up here and there, and at the number of hardy pioneers who are clearing
away the timber and making homes for themselves. At intervals of four or five hours we
come to the railway Divisional Stations, where there are workshops, engine-sheds, and
quite a collection of neat cottages. At these places we change engines and then move
on. It is a long way from the Ottawa to Lake Superior, but the ever-recurring rocky
pine-clad hills, pretty lakes, dark forests, glistening streams, and cascades keep our
interest alive. We are alert for the sight of a bear, a moose, or a deer, and we do not
heed the time. Our only regret is that we cannot stop for even an hour to cast a fly in
one of the many tempting pools. A dining car is attached to our train-—a marvel of
comfort and convenience —■ and we experience anew and delightful sensation in break- THE  NEW  HIGHWAY  TO  THE  ORIENT
l7
mi i8
THE   CANADIAN   PACIFIC  RAILWAY
fasting and dining at our ease and in luxury, as we fly along through such interesting
scenery.
At Sudbury, a new-looking town planted in the forest, we find a branch line of
railway leading off to the Straits of Sault Ste. Marie, where it connects with two American
lines, extending to Duluth, St. Paul, and Minneapolis, and beyond, and which brings this
way vast quantities of flour and grain on its way to the Atlantic sea-board; and here at
Sudbury we see long lines of cars heaped with the products of the mines and smelting
furnaces near by, for within a few miles are deposits of copper and nickel ores aggregating
millions of tons, and the numerous columns of smoke rising over the tree-tops indicate
the extent to which they are worked.
We move on through never-ending hills, meadows, forests, and lakes, and now, the
second morning from Montreal, we catch glimpses of Lake Superior away to our left, and
soon we are running along its precipitous shore. On our right are tree-clad mountains,
and there are rocks in plenty all about.
For many hours we look out upon the lake, its face just now still and smooth, and
dotted here and there with sails, or streaked with the black smoke of a steamer.    At
times we are back from the
lake a mile or more, and
high above it; again we are
running along the cliffs on
the shore as low down as
the engineer dared venture.
Hour after hour we glide
through tunnels and deep
rock-cuttings, over immense
embankments, bridges, and
viaducts, everywhere impressed by the extraordinary difficulties that had to
be overcome by the men
who built the line.
We cross Nepigon River,
famed for its five-pound
trout, run down the shore of
Thunder Bay, and stop at the station at
Port Arthur, a thousand miles from Montreal. This place and Fort William, at the
mouth of the Kaministiquia River, a short
distance farther down the bay, constitute
together the Lake Terminus of the
Western Section of the railway. THE  NEW  HIGHWAY TO THE  ORIENT
19
On the way hither we have met numerous long trains laden with grain and flour,
cattle and other freight, but we have not until now begun to realize the magnitude of the
traffic of the Northwest. Here on every side we see the evidences of it. Long piers
and wharves crowded with shipping, great piles of lumber, coal and merchandise, with the
railway grain elevators looming above all. Three of these elevators at Fort William
are monsters, holding twelve to fifteen hundred thousand bushels each. Not far away
are rich silver mines, and a railway has been made to these and to the iron deposits
beyond.
CABIN  OF CANADIAN  PACIFIC  LAKE STEAMSHIP.
The scenery here is more diversified and beautiful than any we have yet seen. The
wide emerald-green waters of Thunder Bay are enclosed by abrupt black-and-purple basaltic cliffs on the one side, and by hills rising roll upon roll on the other. Here the Kaministiquia River, broad, deep, and placid, emerges from a dark forest and joins the waters
of Lake Superior, giving little token that but a few miles back it has made a wild plunge
from a height exceeding that of Niagara itself.
Our train is increased to provide for the passengers who have come up by steamer and
joined us here, and by a goodly number of pleasure-seekers who have been fishing and
shooting in the vicinity, and who, like ourselves, are bent on seeing the great mountains
far to the west. We leave the lake and again move westward, and for a night and part of
the following day we are in a wild, strange country. The rivers seem all in a hurry, and
we ar« seldom out of sight of dancing rapids or foaming cataracts.   The deep, rock-bound 20
THE  CANADIAN   PACIFIC  RAILWAY
lakes grow larger as we move westward. Fires have swept through the woods in places,
and the blackened stumps and the dead trees, with their naked branches stretched out
against the sky, are weird and ghost-like as we glide through them in the moonlight. It
was through this rough and broken country, for a distance of more than four hundred miles,
that Wolseley successfully led his army in 1870 to suppress a rebellion of the half-breeds
on Red River, and some of his abandoned boats are yet to be seen from the railway.
But wild and rough as it is, this country is full of natural wealth.    Valuable minerals
and precious metals abound, and from here, mainly, is procured the timber to supply the
ELEVATORS AT  FORT WILLIAM.
prairies beyond. Right in the heart of this wilderness, at the outlet of the Lake of the
Woods, we suddenly come upon half a dozen busy saw-mills, their chimneys black against
the sky; and standing high above all these an immense flouring-mill, of granite, with a
cluster of grain elevators and warehouses about it.
As we draw nearer to the prairies we find great saw-mills begin to appear, with piles
of lumber awaiting shipment; and at the stations increasing accumulations of timber to be
moved westward ■—■ firewood, fence-posts, and beams and blocks for all purposes. Many
men find employment in these forests, and villages are growing up at intervals. And,
strange as it may seem, hardy settlers are clearing the land and making farms ; but these
are Eastern Canadians who were born in the woods, and who despise the cheap ready-
made farms of the prairies.
We suddenly emerge from among the trees and enter the wide, level valley of Red
River, and in a little while we cross the river on a long iron bridge, catch a glimpse of THE  NEW  HIGHWAY  TO  THE   ORIENT 21
many strange-looking steamboats, and enter the magic city of Winnipeg. It will be well
worth your while to stop here for a day. Notwithstanding all you have been told about
it, you can hardly be prepared to find the frontier trading-post of yesterday transformed
into a city of thirty thousand inhabitants, with miles of imposing structures, hotels, stores,
banks, and theatres, with beautiful churches, schools, and colleges, with tasteful and even
splendid residences, with immense mills and many manufactories, with a far-reaching
trade, and with all the evidences of wealth, comfort, and cultivation to be found in cities
of a century's growth.
While you will find in Winnipeg the key to much that you will see beyond, you
must look beyond for the key to much you will see in Winnipeg. Situated just where the
forests end and the vast prairies begin, with thousands of miles of river navigation to the
north, south, and west, and with railways radiating in every direction like the spokes of a
-^«_-
KEEWATIN  FLOUR  MILLS — RAT  PORTAGE.     CAPACITY,  2000  BBLS.  PER  DAY.
wheel, Winnipeg has become, what it must always be, the commercial focus of the
Canadian Northwest. Looking at these long lines of warehouses filled with goods, and
these twenty miles or more of railway tracks all crowded with cars, you begin to realize
the vastness of the country we are about to enter. From here the wants of the people
in the West are supplied, and this way come the products of their fields, while from the
far North are brought furs in £reat variety and number. THE   CANADIAN   PACIFIC   RAILWAY
I ND now for the last stage of our journey. The beautiful
sleeping car in which we came up from Montreal kept on
its way westward whilst we were " doing " Winnipeg, but
we find another awaiting us, differing from the first only
in name. Looking through the train, we find but few of
our fellow passengers of yesterday. Nearly everybody
stops at Winnipeg for a longer or shorter time, some to
remain permanently, others to visit the land offices of the
Government or of the railway company; others to purchase supplies or materials for their new prairie homes;
and still others only to see the town, as we have done.
We find among the new passengers representatives of all
grades of society — gentlemen travelling for pleasure, sportsmen, merchants and commercial travellers, high-born young men seeking fortunes in large farms or in ranching,
keen-looking Japanese, pig-tailed Chinamen, sturdy English, Scotch, German and Scandinavian immigrants, land-hunters in plenty, their pockets stuffed with maps and with
pamphlets full of land lore, gold and silver miners for the mountains, coal miners for
the Saskatchewan country, and professional men of all descriptions. There is not a
sorrowful visage in the party; every face wears a bright and expectant look, and the
wonderfully clear sky and the brilliant sunshine add to the cheerfulness of the scene.
The Rocky Mountains are yet nearly a thousand miles away. A few short years ago
this was a six-weeks' journey, under the most favorable circumstances, and it was counted
a good trip when the old-time ox-trains, carrying goods and supplies to the distant
trading-posts, reached the mountains in three months; but our stages will be numbered
by hours instead of days.
Leaving Winnipeg, we strike out at once upon a broad plain as level and green as
a billiard table, extending to the north and west apparently without limit, and bordered
at the south by a line of trees marking the course of the Assiniboine River. This is not
yet the prairie, but a great widening of the valleys of the Red and Assiniboine Rivers,
which unite at Winnipeg. To the left, and skirting the river, is a continuous line of
well-tilled farms, with comfortable farm houses peering out from among the trees. To
the right is a vast meadow, with countless cattle half hidden in the grass. The railway
stretches away before us without curve or deflection as far as the eye can reach, and the
motion of the train is hardly felt as we fly along. As we proceed westward we imperceptibly reach higher ground, and the country is checkered with fields of grain, and
dotted far into the distance with farm houses and grain-stacks. THE   NEW   HIGHWAY  TO  THE   ORIENT
23
Fifty-five miles from Winnipeg we reach Portage-la-Prairie, another city of a day's
growth, and the centre of a well-developed and prosperous farming region. Its big
elevators and flour-mills, its busy streets and substantial houses, tell their own story.
From here a new railway reaches away two hundred miles or more to the northwest, making
more lands accessible (if more be needed), bringing down grain and cattle, and before
long to bring salt and petroleum as well. Crossing a low range of sand-hills, marking
the shore of an ancient lake, we pass through a beautifully undulating country, fertile and
well settled, as the busy little towns and the ever-present grain elevators bear evidence.
One hundred and thirty miles from Winnipeg we cross the Assiniboine River and
reach  Brandon, next to Winnipeg
the largest town in the   Canadian
Northwest, a city in fact, although
but  a few  years  old, with  handsome buildings, well-made streets,
and an unusual number
of large grain elevators
and   mills;   and  here
again   railways   lead
away, one to the northwest and another to the
southwest to the Souris
coal fields.
Leaving   Brandon   we    have    '
fairly reached the   iy'.
___•«. ■£=". >e—»-
CITY   HALL,   WINNIPEG. 24
THE  CANADIAN   PACIFIC  RAILWAY
first of the great prairie steppes, that rise one after the other at long intervals to the
Rocky Mountains ; and now we are on the real prairie, not the monotonous, uninteresting
plain your imagination has pictured, but a great billowy ocean of grass and flowers, now
swelling into low hills, again dropping into broad basins with gleaming ponds, and broken
here and there by valleys and by irregular lines of trees marking the water-courses
The horizon only limits the view; and, as far as the eye can reach, the prairie is dotted
with newly made farms, with great black squares where the sod has just been turned by
the plough, and with herds of cattle. The short, sweet grass, studded with brilliant
flowers, covers the land as with a carpet, ever changing in color as the flowers of the
different seasons and places give to it their predominating hue.
The deep black soil of the valley we left in the morning has given place to a soil of
lighter color, overlying a porous clay, less inviting to the inexperienced agriculturist, but
nevertheless of the very highest value, for here is produced in the greatest perfection the
most famous of all varieties of wheat—-that known as the "Hard Fyfe wheat Manitoba."
JSSS0Z
FARM   SCENE  NEAR  BRANDON,   MANITOBA.
— and oats as well, and rye, barley, and flax, and gigantic potatoes, and almost everything
that can be grown in a temperate climate. All these flourish here without appreciable
drain upon the soil. Once here, the British farmer soon forgets all about fertilizers. His
children may have to look to such things, but he will not.
We pass station after station, nearly all alike, except as to the size of the villages
surrounding them, some of which are of considerable importance. The railway buildings
at these stations are uniform, and consist of an attractive station-house for passengers and
goods, a great round water-tank, cottages for the section-men, and the never-ending grain
elevators — tall, solid structures, always telling the same story. Every minute or two we
see coveys of "prairie chickens" rising from the grass, startled by the passing train.
Ducks of many kinds are seen about the frequent ponds, together with wild geese and
cranes, and occasionally great white pelicans. The sportsmen have nearly all dropped
off at the different stations. Those who remain are after larger game further west —
antelope or caribou, or the bear, sheep, or goat, of the mountains. THE   NEW   HIGHWAY  TO  THE   ORIENT
25 26 THE  CANADIAN  PACIFIC RAILWAY
Three hundred miles from Winnipeg we pass through the famous Bell farm, embracing
one hundred square miles of land. This is a veritable manufactory of wheat, where the
work is done with an almost military organization, ploughing by brigades and reaping by
divisions. Think of a farm where the furrows are ordinarily four miles long, and of a
country where such a thing is possible 1 There are neat stone cottages and ample barns
for miles around, and the collection of buildings about the headquarters near the railway
station makes a respectable village, there being among them a church, a hotel, a flour-
mill, and of course a grain elevator, for in this country these elevators appear wherever
there is wheat to be handled or stored.
Soon we reach Regina, the capital of the Province of Assiniboia, situated in the
centre of an apparently boundless but very fertile plain. The buildings here have more
of a frontier look than those of the larger towns we have left behind; but it is a busy
place, an important centre of trade, and one of the cities of the future. From here a
railway branches off to the north, crossing the South Saskatchewan River at Saskatoon,
and continuing on to Prince Albert on the North Saskatchewan. As we leave the station
going westward, we see on our right the Governor's residence, and a little beyond, the
headquarters of the Northwest Mounted Police, a body of men of whom Canada is
justly proud. This organization is composed of young and picked men, thoroughly
drilled, and governed by the strictest military discipline. Their firm and considerate rule
won the respect and obedience of the Indians long before the advent of the railway, and
its coming was attended by none of the lawlessness and violence which have darkly
marked the opening of new districts elsewhere in America, so wholesome was the fame
of these red-coated guardians of the prairies. At Pasqua, twenty-three miles beyond
Regina, the main line is joined by another from St. Paul and Minneapolis — a line belonging to the Canadian Pacific Railway Co. — which now affords the shortest route between
the Mississippi valley and the Pacific Coast.
Leaving Pasqua we soon pass Moosejaw, four hundred miles from Winnipeg, and
commence the ascent of another prairie steppe.
We have now nearly reached the end of the continuous settlement, and beyond to
the mountains we shall only find the pioneer farmers in groups here and there, and, at
intervals of two hours or so, the dozen establishments of an English company, where
wheat-growing and cattle raising are carried on together in a large and systematic way —
each establishment embracing twenty thousand or more acres. The country, while
retaining the chief characteristics of the prairie, becomes more broken, and numerous
lakes and ponds occur in the depressions. We shall see no trees now for a hundred
miles, and without them the short buffalo-grass gives the country a desolate, barren look;
but it is far from barren, as the occasional farms and station gardens testify, with their
wonderful growth of cereals and vegetables. There is a flutter of excitement among the
passengers, and a rush to the windows. Antelope ! We shall see them often enough
now. At Chaplin, we come to one of the Old Wives' lakes, which are extensive bodies
of water having no outlet, and are consequently alkaline. THE   NEW   HIGHWAY  TO  THE   ORIENT
27 28 THE   CANADIAN   PACIFIC   RAILWAY
We are now entering a very paradise for sportsmen. The lakes become more frequent.
Some are salt, some are alkaline, but most of them are clear and fresh. Wild geese, cranes,
ducks — a dozen varieties —■ snipe, plover, and curlew all common enough throughout the
prairies, are found here in myriads. Water fowl blacken the surface of the lakes and
ponds, long white lines of pelicans disport themselves along the shores, and we hear
the notes and cries of many strange birds whose names I cannot tell you. " Prairie
chickens" are abundant on the high ground, and antelopes are common in the hills.
The country is reticulated with buffalo trails, and pitted with their wallows; but
the buffalo must now be looked for farther north, where he is known as the "wood
buffalo." Hour after hour we roll along, with little change in the aspect of the country.
The geese and ducks have ceased to interest us, and even a coyote no longer attracts
attention; but the beautiful antelope has never-ending charms for us, and as, startled by
our approach, he bounds away, we watch the White tuft which serves him for a tail until
it disappears in the distance.
We have crossed the high broken country known here as the Coteau, and far away to
the southwest we see the Cypress Hills appearing as a deep blue line, and, for want of anything else, we watch these gradually rising as we draw near to them. The railway skirts
their base for many miles, following what seems to be a broad valley, and crossing many
clear little streams making their way from the hills northward to the Saskatchewan. At
Maple Creek, a little town with extensive yards for the shipment of cattle, we see the red
coats of the mounted police, who are looking after a large encampment of Indians near
by. The Indians are represented on the station platform by braves of high and low
degree, squaws and pappooses, mostly bent on trading pipes and trinkets for tobacco and
silver — a picturesque looking lot, but dirty withal. Leaving the station we catch sight
of their encampment, a mile or so away — tall, conical "tepees" of well-smoked cloths
or skins; Indians in blankets of brilliant colors; hundreds of ponies feeding in the rich
grasses; a line of graceful trees in the background, seemingly more beautiful than ever
because of their rarity; — all making, with the dark Cypress Hilis rising in the distance,
a picture most novel and striking.
Two hours later we descend to the valley of the South Saskatchewan, and soon
arrive at Medicine Hat, a finely situated and rapidly-growing town, a thousand miles from
Lake Superior, Hereabouts are extensive coal mines, from which came the coals we saw
moving eastward on the railway; and from near this place a branch line extends
to the Lethbridge coal mines, more than a hundred miles to the southwest, and from
there southward into Montana to the head-waters of the Missouri. The broad and
beautiful Saskatchewan River affords steamboat navigation a long way above, and for a
thousand miles or more below; and Western enterprise has been quick to seize upon the
advantages offered here.
Crossing the river on a long iron bridge, we ascend again to the high prairie, now a
rich pasture dotted with lakelets. Everywhere the flower-sprinkled sward is marked by
the deep narrow trails of the  buffalo, and  the  saucer-like   hollows where   the  shaggy THE  NEW  HIGHWAY  TO  THE  ORIENT
29 30 THE   CANADIAN   PACIFIC   RAILWAY
monsters used to wallow; and strewing the plain in all directions are the whitened skulls
of these noble animals, now so nearly extinct. There are farms around many of the
little stations even so far west as this, and the herds of cattle grazing on the knolls
indicate the " ranch country"; and here Nature seems to have atoned in part for trie-
scarcity of timber by providing beneath the surface a reservoir of natural gas, which has
been tapped at some of the stations and made to afford power for pumping water, and
light and heat for the station houses, and which will soon be utilized in reducing the silver
ores from the mountains not far away.
As we approach Crowfoot Station, all are alive for the first view of the Rocky
Mountains, yet more than a hundred miles away; and soon we see them — a glorious
line of snowy peaks, rising straight from the plain, and extending the whole length of the
western horizon, seemingly an impenetrable barrier. As we speed on, peak rises behind
peak, then dark bands of forest that reach up to the snow-line come into view; the
snow-fields and glaciers glisten in the sunlight, and over the rolling tops of the foot-hills
the passes are seen, cleft deep into the heart of the mountains. We are now in the
country of the once dreaded Blackfeet, the most handsome and warlike of all the Indian
tribes, but now peacefully settled on a reservation near by. We have been running
parallel to the tree-lined banks of the Bow River, and now, crossing its crystal waters,
we find ourselves on a beautiful hill-girt plateau, in the centre of which stands the new
city of Calgary, at the base of the Rocky Mountains, two thousand two hundred and
sixty-two miles from Montreal and three thousand four hundred and sixteen feet above
the ocean.
Before us, and on either side, the mountains rise in varied forms and in endless
change of aspect, as the lights and shadows play upon them. Behind us is the great sea
of open prairie. Northward is the wooded district of Edmonton and the North Saskatchewan, full of moose, elk, bear, and all manner of fur-bearing animals and winged
game, and a most attractive agricultural country as well. Stretching away one hundred
and fifty miles to the United States boundary southward, is the Ranch Country; and both
these districts have recently been made accessible by a railway extending northward from
Calgary to Edmonton, and southward to Macleod.
You may be sure of a cordial welcome should you visit the ranchmen, and it will be
worth your while to do so. You will find them all along the foot-hills, their countless
herds feeding far out on the plain. Cattle and horses graze at will all over the country,
summer and winter alike. The warm " Chinook " winds from across the mountains keep
the ground free from snow in the winter, except for a day or two at a time, and the
nutritious and naturally cured grasses are always within reach of the cattle. In the spring
and autumn all the ranchmen join in a " round up " to collect and sort out the animals
according to the brands of the different owners, and then the " cow-boy " appears in all
his glory. To see these splendid riders " cutting out" or separating the animals from the
common herd, lassoing and throwing them, that they may be branded with the owner's
mark, or herding a band of free-born and unbroken horses, is well worth coming all this
way.   The ranchmen, fine fellows from the best families in the East and in England, THE   NEW   HIGHWAY  TO   THE   ORIENT
31 32 THE   CANADIAN   PACIFIC   RAILWAY
live here in a lordly way. Admirable horsemen, with abundant leisure and unlimited
opportunities for sport, their intense love for this country is no matter of wonder, nor is
it surprising that every day brings more young men of the best class to join in this free
and joyous life. All along the base of the mountains clear streams come down to the
plain at frequent intervals; coal crops out on the water courses, and there is timber in
plenty throughout the foot-hills. The soil is rich and deep, game is abundant, and the
climate is matchless.    What more can one desire ?
Leaving Calgary and going westward again, following up the valley of the Bow, the
gradually increasing river terraces and the rounded grassy foot-hills, on which innumerable
horses, cattle, and sheep are feeding, shut out the mountains for an hour or two.
Suddenly we come upon them grand and stern and close at hand. For more than six
hundred miles and until we reach the Pacific they will be constantly with us. We enter
an almost hidden portal, and find ourselves in a valley between two great mountain
ranges. At every turn of the valley, which is an alternation of precipitous gorges and
wide parks, a new picture presents itself—seen in all its completeness from the observation car now attached to the rear of the train. The beautiful river now roars through a
narrow defile, now spreads out into a placid lake, reflecting the forests, cliffs, and snowy
summits. Serrated peaks, and vast pyramids of rock with curiously contorted and folded
strata, are followed by gigantic castellated masses, down whose sides cascades fall
thousands of feet. The marvellous clearness of the air brings out the minutest detail
of this Titanic sculpture. Through the gorges we catch glimpses of glaciers and other
strange and rare sights, and now and then of wild goats and mountain sheep, grazing
on the cliffs far above us near the snow-line. The mountains would be oppressive in their
grandeur, their solemnity, and their solitude, but for an occasional mining town or a
sportsman's tent, which give a human interest to the scene.
Three hours after leaving Calgary we begin at Canmore to see coal mines, both anthracite and bituminous, and soon after stop at the station at Banff, already famous for its hot
and sulphurous springs, which possess wonderful curative powers, and which have already
attracted thousands of people, many of them from great distances. The district for miles
about has been reserved by the Canadian Government as a national park, and much has
already been done to add to its natural beauty, or, rather, to make its beauties accessible ;
for in this supremely beautiful place the hands of man can add but little. Everybody
stops here for a day or two at least, and we should do likewise. We will find luxurious
quarters in a large and handsomely appointed hotel, perched on a hill overlooking the
beautiful valley of Bow River. The river comes down from its glacier sources at the
west, plunges over a precipice beneath the hotel balconies, and, stretching away through
the deep, forested valley, disappears among the distant mountains at the east. Half a
dozen ranges of magnificent snow-tipped mountains centre here, each differing from the
others in form and color; and the converging valleys separating them afford matchless
views in all directions. Well-made carriage roads and bridle paths lead to the different
springs and wind about among the mountains everywhere.
Resuming our journey, we are soon reminded by the increasing nearness of the fields THE  NEW  HIGHWAY TO  THE  ORIENT
33 34 THE   CANADIAN  PACIFIC  RAILWAY
of snow and ice on the mountain-slopes that we are reaching a great elevation. Thirty-
four miles west of Banff is Laggan, the station for the " Lakes in the Clouds." We must
not fail to visit these lakes which are of singular beauty, and are situated one above the
other among the mountains, within easy reach of the station. On the margin of Lake
Louise, the first reached, is a picturesque chalet where tourists lunch and remain over
night. Two hours from Banff our train stops at a little station, and we are told that this is
the summit of the Rocky Mountains, just a mile above the sea; but it is the summit only
in an engineering sense, for the mountains still lift their white heads five thousand to
seven thousand feet above us, and stretch away to the northwest and the southeast like a
great backbone, as indeed they are — the " backbone of the continent."
Two little streams begin here from a common source. The waters of one find their
way down to the Saskatchewan and into Hudson's Bay, and the other joins the flood
which the Columbia pours into the Pacific Ocean. Passing three emerald lakes, deep
set in the mountains, we follow the west-bound stream down through a tortuous rock-
ribbed cafion, where the waters are dashed to foam in incessant leaps and whirls. This
is the Wapta or Kicking-Horse Pass. Ten miles below the summit we round the base
of Mount Stephen, a stupendous mountain rising directly from the railway to a height of
more than eight thousand feet, holding on one of its shoulders, and almost over our
heads, a glacier whose shining green ice, five hundred feet thick, is slowly crowded over
a sheer precipice of dizzy height, and crushed to atoms below. On the broad front of
the mountain we trace the zig-zag lines of a tramway coming down from a silver mine
somewhere among the clouds. From the railway, clinging to the mountain side, we look
down upon the river valley, which, suddenly widening, here holds between the dark
pine-clad mountains a mirror-like sheet of water, reflecting with startling fidelity each
peak and precipice.
Still following the river, now crossing deep ravines, now piercing projecting rocky
spurs, now quietly gliding through level park-like expanses of greensward, with beautiful
trees, pretty lakelets and babbling brooks, with here and there a saw-mill, a slate-quarry
or some other new industry, we soon enter a tremendous gorge, whose frowning walls,
thousands of feet high, seem to overhang the boiling stream which frets and roars at
their base, and this we follow for miles, half shut in from the daylight.
Two hours from the summit and three thousand feet below it, the gorge suddenly
expands, and we see before us high up against the sky a jagged line of snowy peaks of
new forms and colors. A wide, deep, forest-covered valley intervenes, holding a broad
and rapid river. This is the Columbia. The new mountains before us are the Selkirks,
and we have now crossed the Rockies. Sweeping round into the Columbia Valley we
have a glorious mountain view. To the north and south, as far as the eye. can reach,
we have the Rockies on the one hand and the Selkirks on the other, widely differing in
aspect, but each indescribably grand. Both rise from the river in a succession of tree-
clad benches, and soon leaving the trees behind, shoot upward to the regions of perpetual
snow and ice. Here is the new town of Golden, with smelting works, river steamers, and
choice corner lots. The railway turns down the Columbia, following one of the river
benches through gigantic trees for twenty miles to Donald, where a number of our fellow THE  NEW   HIGHWAY  TO  THE  ORIENT
35 36 THE   CANADIAN   PACIFIC   RAILWAY
passengers leave us. Some of them are miners or prospectors bound for the silver
mines in the vicinity, or the gold " diggin's " farther down the river; others are ambitious
sportsmen, who are seeking mountain goat, or caribou, or mountain sheep — the famous
" big horn." They will not fail to run upon a bear now and then, black or cinnamon,
and perchance a grizzly.
Crossing the Columbia, and following it down through a great canon, through
tunnels and deep rock-cuttings, we shortly enter the Beaver Valley and commence the
ascent of the Selkirks, and then for twenty miles we climb along the mountain sides,
through dense forests of enormous trees, until, near the summit, we find ourselves in the
midst of a wonderful group of peaks of fantastic shapes and many colors. At the summit
itself, four thousand five hundred feet above tide-water, is a natural resting-place — a
broad level area surrounded by mountain monarchs, all of them in the deadly embrace
of glaciers. Strange, under this warm summer's sky, to see this battle going on between
rocks and ice — a battle begun aeons ago and to continue for aeons to come ! To the
north, and so near us that we imagine that we hear the crackling of the ice, is a great
glacier whose clear green fissures we can plainly see. To the south is another, vastly
larger, by the side of which the greatest of those of the Alps would be insignificant.
Smaller glaciers find lodgment on all the mountain benches and slopes, whence innumerable sparkling cascades of icy water come leaping down.
Descending westerly from the summit we reach in a few minutes the Glacier House,
a delightful hotel situated almost in the face of the Great Glacier and at the foot of the
grandest of all peaks of the Selkirks — Sir Donald —■ an acute pyramid of naked rock
shooting up nearly eight thousand feet above us. In the dark valley far below we see
the glacier-fed Illicilliwaet glistening through the tree-tops, and beyond and everywhere
the mountains rise in majesty and immensity beyond all comparison. To reach the deep
valley below, the engineers wound the railway in a series of great curves or loops all about
the mountain slopes, and as we move on, this marvellous scene is presented to us in every
aspect. We plunge again for hours through precipitous gorges, deep and dark, and again
cross the Columbia River, which has made a great detour around the Selkirk Mountains
while we have come directly through them. The river is wider and deeper here, and
navigated by steamboats southward for nearly two hundred miles.
On its east bank stands Revelstoke, the supply point for the mining districts up and
down the river, and here are works for smelting silver ores which are brought from the
mines by the railway and by steamboats.
And here it will be well worth our while to turn away for a few days and visit the
Kootenay country. A branch line will take us down to the head of the Upper Arrow
Lake, and from thence a comfortable steamboat through the long and beautiful stretch
of the lake, with the Selkirks on one hand and the Gold Range on the other, to Nakusp,
from which a railway just being finished will convey us to the heart of the mining regions
of the Kootenay; or the journey can be continued by steamboat to the mouth of the
Kootenay Canon, and through this grand canon, down which the mighty Kootenay River
dashes on its way to the Columbia, a railway will carry us to the great Kootenay Lake, THE   NEW   HIGHWAY  TO   THE   ORIENT
37 3«
THE   CANADIAN   PACIFIC   RAILWAY
where we may again take a steamboat and visit silver and gold and copper mines without
number, or enjoy the most superb combination of lake and mountain scenery that can be
found anywhere.
But, if we continue on our journey to the Pacific, we are at once confronted by the Gold
Range, another grand snow-clad series of mountains, but broken directly across, and offering no obstacle to the railway. The deep and narrow pass through this range takes us for
forty miles or more between parallel lines of almost vertical cliffs, into the faces of which
the line is frequently crowded by deep
black lakes ; and all the way the bottom
of the valley is thickly set with trees
of many varieties and astonishing size,
exceeding even those of the Columbia.
A  sudden flash of light indicates
ROSS  PEAK  GLACIER. THE   NEW   HIGHWAY  TO  THE   ORIENT
39
~.   i   II H;-,;v-.".-. V-:--!-. c~-.llV:yy:U 40 THE   CANADIAN   PACIFIC  RAILWAY
that we have emerged from the pass, and we see stretching away before us the Shuswap
Lakes, whose crystal waters are hemmed and broken in every way by abruptly rising
mountains. And here again we may turn aside and visit the Okanagan Lake, two hours
distant by a branch line of railway — another mountain-hemmed lake extending many
miles to the south. Going on again, and after playing hide-and-seek with these lovely
lakes for an hour or two, the valley of the South Thompson River is reached — a wide,
almost treeless valley, already occupied from end to end by farms and cattle ranches; and
here for the first time irrigating ditches appear. Flocks and herds are grazing everywhere,
and the ever present mountains look down upon us more kindly than has been their wont.
Then comes Kamloops, the principal town in the interior of British Columbia, and
just beyond we follow for an hour the shore of Kamloops Lake, shooting through tunnel
after tunnel, and then the valley shuts in and the scarred and rugged mountains frown
upon us again, and for hours we wind along their sides, looking down upon a tumbling
river, its waters sometimes almost within our reach and sometimes lost below. We
suddenly cross the deep black gorge of the Fraser River on a massive bridge of steel,
seemingly constructed in mid-air, plunge through a tunnel, and enter the famous canon
of the Fraser.
The view here changes from the grand to the terrible. Through this gorge, so deep
and narrow in many places that the rays of the sun hardly enter it, the black and
ferocious waters of the great river force their way. We are in the heart of the Cascade
Range, and above the walls of the canon we occasionally see the mountain peaks gleaming
against the sky. Hundreds of feet above the river is the railway, notched into the face
of the cliffs, now and then crossing a great chasm by a tall viaduct or disappearing in a
tunnel through a projecting spur of rock, but so well made, and so thoroughly protected
everywhere, that we feel no sense of danger. For hours we are deafened by the roar of
the waters below, and we pray for the broad sunshine once more. The scene is
fascinating in its terror, and we finally leave it gladly, yet regretfully.
At Yale the canon ends and the river widens out, but we have mountains yet in
plenty, at times receding and then drawing near again. We see Chinamen washing gold
on the sand-bars and Indians herding cattle in the meadows; and the villages of the
Indians, each with its little unpainted houses and miniature chapel, alternate rapidly with
the collection of huts where the Chinamen congregate. Salmon drying on poles near the
river give brilliant touches of color to the landscape, and here and there we see the
curious graveyards of the Indians, neatly enclosed and decorated with banners, streamers,
and all manner of carved " totems."
A gleaming white cone rises toward the southeast. It is Mount Baker, sixty miles
away and fourteen thousand feet above us. We cross large rivers flowing into the Fraser,
all moving slowly here as if resting after their tumultuous passage down between the
mountain ranges. As the valley widens out farms and orchards become more and more
frequent, and our hearts are gladdened with the sight of broom and other shrubs and
plants familiar to English eyes, for as we approach the coast we find a climate like that of
the South of England, but with more sunshine.    Touching the   Fraser River now and THE   NEW  HIGHWAY  TO  THE   ORIENT
41
then, we see an occasional steamboat, and here in the lower part the water is dotted with
Indian canoes, all engaged in catching salmon, which visit these rivers in astonishing
numbers, and which when caught are frozen and sent eastward by the railway, or canned
in great quantities and shipped to all parts of the world.
At Mission a branch line turns off to the south, crossing the Fraser River immediately and connecting at the international boundry with railways extending along Puget
Sound to Seattle, Tacoma, Portland, and San Francisco, and all the way to the Gulf of
California, passing in turn those glorious isolated mountain peaks that stud the Pacific
coast — Baker, Tacoma, Hood, and Shasta.
Passing through a forest of mammoth trees, some of them twelve feet or more in
diameter, and nearly three hundred feet high, we find ourselves on the tide-waters of the
Pacific at the eastern extremity of Burrard Inlet. Following down the shore of this
mountain-girt inlet for half an hour, our train rolls into the station of Vancouver, the
western terminus of the Canadian Pacific Railway.
FRASER   RIVER  AT YALE,   BRITISH   COLUMBIA.
"' < £^5=^       "TJl" 42
THE   CANADIAN   PACIFIC   RAILWAY
E soon find comfortable quarters in a fine hotel, equal to
any we have seen in the East, and its situation on high
ground affords us a most interesting and charming view ot
the new city and the surrounding country. Far away at
the southeast Mount Baker looms up all white and serene.
At the north, and rising directly from the sea, is a. beautiful group of the Cascade Mountains, bathed in a violet
light and vividly reflected ih the glassy waters of the inlet.
Looking towards the west, out over English Bay and the
Straits of Georgia, we see the dark-blue mountains of
Vancouver Island, and at the southwest, beyond the
y broad delta of Fraser River, is the Olympian range — a
long line of opalescent peaks fading into the distance. At our feet is a busy scene.
The city is new indeed; only one or two of its many buildings were here six years
ago — a forest stood here then. The men who built the town could not wait for
bricks and mortar, and all the earlier houses were built of wood; but fire swept all of
these away, and solid handsome structures of brick and granite took their place. Down
at the water's edge are long wharves where steamships from China and Japan, Australia,
the Hawaiian Islands, from California, Puget Sound and Alaska, are discharging or taking
in cargoes; and at the warehouses along the wharves are lines of railway cars loading for
the Atlantic sea-board with teas, sugar, silk, seal-skins, fish, fruit and many other commodities. Here and there all around the inlet are great saw-mills where steamships and
sailing vessels are taking in timber and deals for China and Australia, South America, and
even for England. The great white steamship that catches the eye first among all the
shipping in the harbor is the " Empress of India," one of the three swift and magnificent
twin screw steamships recently placed on the route between Vancouver and Japan and
China, by the Canadian Pacific Railway Company, the like of which has never been seen
in Pacific waters — great steel steamships like the best of the Atlantic liners, but more
perfect and luxurious in their appointments. Think of it. We are within ten days of
Yokohama — of wonderful Japan ! Near by is another fine steamship of the first-class; one
of the new line to Honolulu, Suva (Fiji), and Sydney, Australia. A few miles away is New
Westminster, on the Fraser, one of the old towns of British Columbia, now quickened into
vigorous growth by the advent of the railway, and the columns of smoke rising in that
direction tell us of its extensive salmon canneries and saw mills. There, too, ships are
loading for all parts of the world. And over against Vancouver Island are other columns
of smoke, indicating the great coal mines from which nearly all of the steamships of the
Pacific are supplied.
Northward for twelve hundred miles through the Gulf of Georgia and the wonderful
fiords of Alaska, where the  mountains are  embraced in a thousand arms of the sea, THE  NEW  HIGHWAY TO THE  ORIENT
43
pleasure steamers, crowded with tourists, ply frequently. Southwestward the Straits of
Fuca lead out past the entrance to Puget Sound and past the city of Victoria, to the
open Pacific. All these waters, from Puget Sound to Alaska, hardly known a few years
ago, are now dotted with all kinds of craft, from the largest to the smallest, engaged in
all manner of trade.
No wonder that, with all her magnificent resources in precious metals, her coal and
iron, her inexhaustible fisheries and vast forests, her delightful climate and rich valleys,
her matchless harbors and her newly completed transcontinental railway, British Columbia
expects a brilliant future; and no wonder that everybody here is at work with all
his might!
I ask your pardon, patient reader, for my persistence in showing you all sorts of
things as we came along, whether you wished to see them or not. My anxiety that you
should miss nothing you might wish to see is my only excuse. You have been bored
nearly to death, no doubt, and I have noticed signs of impatience which lead me to
suspect your desire for freedom to go and see as you like, and as you have found that
no guide is necessary, I will, with your permission, leave you here; but before releasing
your hand, let me advise you not to fail, now that you are so near, to visit Victoria,
the beautiful capital of British Columbia. A steamer will take you there in a few
hours, and you will be rewarded in finding a transplanted section of Old England,
climate, people, and all; and more vigorous, perhaps, because of the transplanting.
The city stands on the southern extremity of Vancouver Island, overlooking the Straits
HOTEL  VANCOUVER. 44
THE   CANADIAN   PACIFIC  RAILWAY
of Fuca and the entrance to Puget Sound. The wealth of the Province is chiefly
centred here, and the great warehouses and busy wharves testify to the extensive
trade of the city, and the tasteful and in many cases splendid residences testify to a
more than colonial refinement.
Near Victoria you will find Esquimalt, Britain's North Pacific naval station, and an
iron-clad or two, and perchance some old friends from home; and let me advise you,
furthermore, to take all of your luggage with you to Victoria, for I am sure you will be
in no hurry to come away.
SALMON  ARM,  SHUSWAP LAKE. THE   NEW   HIGHWAY   TO   THE   ORIENT
45
CANADIAN PACIFIC RAILWAY CO.'S
TWIN   SCREW   STEAMSHIPS
ROYAL  MAIL ROUTE   TO
JJS__F»__\._V    __\__VJ3    CHINA.
STEAMSHIPS
EMPRESS    OF    INDIA. EMPRESS    OF   JAPAN. EMPRESS    OF    CHINA.
They arc alike in eveiy detail, 485 ft. long, 51 ft. beam, 36 ft. depth and 6000 tons register, twin screws, triple expansion
engines 10000 horse power, speed 19 knots. They run between VANCOUVER and VICTORIA, B.C., and YOKOHAMA, KOBE,. NAGASAKI, SHANGHAI and HONG KONG.
Of these magnificent vessels constructed under supervision of the English Admiralty, with numerous water-tight compartments, insuring perfect safety, and equipped with all the most improved appliances devised by modern marine engineering for
obtaining speed, comfort and luxury, one will sail from Vancouver, B.C., subject to unavoidable changes, ONCE IN EVE BY
THREE OR FOUR WEEKS.
These vessels are in every respect superior to any ships that have as yet sailed the Pacific Ocean. Their route is 300
miles shorter than that of any other trans-Pacific line.
Canadian and Australian Steamship Line.
S.S.   MIOWERA,   S.S.   WARRIMOO   and   S.S.   ARAWA.
Monthly sailings between VANCOUVER, B.C., VICTORIA, B.C., and HONOLULU, HAWAIIAN
ISLANDS, SUVA, FIJI ISLANDS, and SYDNEY, AUSTRALIA.
Passengers booked FROM LONDON OR LIVERPOOL, NEAV YORK, BOSTON, MONTREAL,.
TORONTO, or any of the principal cities of CANADA and the UNITED STATES.
AROUND THE WORLD booking in connection with the P. & O. and fast trans-Ailantic lines a specialty.
For freight or passage, handbooks of information. Round the World Folder, or a copy of " Westward lo the Far East," a
Guide-book to the Principal Cities of Japan and China, apply to
C. E. McPHERSON, Assistant General Passenger Agent       . . 197 Washington Street, Boston, and St. John, N.B.
E. V. SKINNER, General Eastern Agent 353 Broadway, New York.
C. SHEEHV, District Passenger Agent ....... n Fort Street West, Detroit.
i, F. LEE, District Passenger Agent . ..... 232 South Clark Street, Chicago.
1. M. STERN, District Passenger Agent     .    . . . . . . .   Chronicle Building, San Francisco.
W. R. CALLAWAY, District Passenger Agent      ....... 1 King Street East, Toronto.
G. McL. BROWN, District Passenger Agent   ..........       Vancouver.
ROBT. KERR, General Passenger Agent Winnipeg.
C. E. E. USSHER, Assistant General Passenger Agent ........ Montreal.
D. E. BROWN, ARCHER BAKER,
General Agent China and Japan, India, &c. European Traffic Agent^
Hong Kong, Shanghai and Yokohama. 67 & 68 King William St. E.C., ana 30 Cockspur St. S.W., London.
£ James Street, Liverpool.
L, General Passenger Agent, Montreal. 46 THE   CANADIAN   PACIFIC   RAILWAY
CANADIAN   PACIFIC   HOTELS.
While the perfect sleeping and dining car service ot the Canadian Pacific Railway provides every comfort and luxury
for travellers making the continuous overland through trip, it has been found necessary to provide places at the principal points
of interest among the mountains where tourists and others might explore and enjoy the magnificent scenery.
The  Company have erected at convenient points hotels, which,   by their special excellence, add  another to the many
elements of superiority for which the Railway is famous.
THE CHATEAU  FRONTENAC,
at Quebec, the quaintest and historically the most interesting city in America, is one of the finest hotels on the continent. It
occupies a commanding position overlooking the St. Lawrence, its site being, perhaps, the grandest in the world. The Chateau
Frontenac was erected in 1893, at a cost of nearly three-quarters of a million of dollars; and great taste marks the furnishing,
fitting and decorating of this imposing structure, in which comfort and elegance are combined to an unequalled extent.
Rates, three dollars and fifty cents to five dollars per day, with special arrangements with large parties and those making
prolonged visits.    Address,
" Manager, Chateau Frontenac, Quebec, Canada."
For view of Chateau Frontenac, see page 8.
THE  BANFF  HOT SPRINGS  HOTEL
at Banff, in the Canadian National Park, on the eastern slope ol the Rocky Mountains, is placed on a high mountain promontory 4500 feet above the sea level, at the confluence of the Bow and Spray Rivers, and is a large and handsome structure,
with every convenience that modern ingenuity can suggest, and costing over a quarter of a million dollars. While it is
not intended to be a sanitarium, in the usual sense, the needs and comforts of invalids are fully provided for. The hot
Sulphur Springs, with which the region abounds, vary in temperature from 80 to 121 degrees, and bathing facilities are
provided by the hotel. The springs are much like those of Arkansas, and the apparently greater curative properties of the
water are no doubt due to the cool, dry air of the mountains.
A number of sub-ranges of the  Rocky Mountains  radiate  from   Banff,  and a  dozen  mountain  monarchs  within view
raise their heads a mile or more above the hotel.
Game is plentiful, and Devil's Head Lake, not far away, a mile or two in width and fifteen miles long, affords excellent
sport in deep trolling for trout.
The hotel rates arc from three dollars and fifty cents  to five  dollars  per day, according to the rooms.    Special rates by
the week or month will be given on application to
"Manager, Banff Springs Hotel, Banff, Alberta, N. W. T., Canada."
THE  LAKE  LOUISE CHALET.
This quiet resting place in the mountains is situated on the margin of Lake Louise, about two miles distant from the
station at Laggan, from which there is a good carriage drive, and is an excellent vantage point for tourists and explorers
desiring to see the lakes and the adjacent scenery at their leisure.
Although comfortable beds and good plain meals are at the command of travellers, it is not exactly like the other
chalet hotels, being rather intended as a resting place affording meals, etc., to the tourist parties visiting the Lakes in the
Clouds. THE   NEW   HIGHWAY   TO   THE   ORIENT 47
THE  MOUNT STEPHEN   HOUSE
is a pretty chalet-like hotel, fifty miles west of Banff, in Kicking Horse Canon, at the base of Mount Stephen — the chief
peak of the Rockies, towering 8000 feet above. This is a favorite place for tourists, mountain climbers and artists, and
sport is plentiful. Looking down the valley from the hotel, the Ottertail Mountains are seen on the left, and the Van Home
range on the right.
The rates are three dollars per day for accommodation.    Apply to
"Manager, Mount Stephen House, Field, B. C, Canada."
GLACIER   HOUSE
is situated in the heart of the  Selkirks, within fifteen minutes' walk ot  the  Great  Glacier, which covers an area of about
thirty-eight square miles.
The hotel, which has recently been enlarged to accommodate the ever-increasing travel, is in a beautiful amphitheatre
surrounded by lofty mountains, of which Sir Donald, rising Sooo feet above the railway, is the most prominent. The dense
forests all about are filled with the music of restless brooks, which will irresistibly attract the trout fisherman, and the hunter
for large game can have his choice of "big-horns," mountain goats, grizzly and mountain bears. The main point of interest,
however, is the Great Glacier. One may safely climb upon its wrinkled surface or penetrate its water-worn caves. It is
about five hundred feet thick at its forefoot, and is said to exceed in area all the Glaciers of Switzerland combined.
No tourist should fail to stop here for a day at least.    He will be loth to leave it at the end of a week.
The rates are three dollars per day.    Address correspondence to
" Manager, Glacier House, British Columbia."
THE  FRASER CANON   HOUSE,
at North Bend, 130 miles east of Vancouver, is situated on the Fraser River, and is managed with the same attention to
the comfort of its patrons that pervades all branches of the  Company's service.    The scenery along the  Fraser   River is
well described as " ferocious," and the hotel is a comfortable base from which to explore.
Rates three dollars per day.    Address
" Manager, Fraser Canon House, British Columbia."
HOTEL  VANCOUVER,
at Vancouver, B. C, is the Pacific coast terminus of the Railway. This magnificent hotel is designed to accommodate
the large commercial business of the place, as well as the great number of tourists who always find it profitable and interesting
to make here a stop of a day or two. It is situated near the centre of the city, and from it there is a glorious outlook in
every direction. Its accommodations and service are perfect in every detail, and excel that of the best hotels in Eastern
Canada or the United States.
Rates, three to four dollars and fifty cents per day, with special terms for a longer time.    Address
" Manager, Hotel Vancouver, Vancouver, B. C." 48
THE   CANADIAN   PACIFIC   RAILWAY
THE
CANADIAN PACIFIC RAILWAY
THE   WORLD'S   HIGHWAY   FROM   THE   ATLANTIC   TO   THE   PACIFIC.
The Most Solidly Constructed and  the  Best Equipped Transcontinental  Route.
SPECIAL    ATTENTION    IS    CALLED    to    the    PARLOR,    SLEEPING    and    DINING    CAR
SERVICE—so particular an  accessory upon  a railway whose cars run upwards of
THREE   THOUSAND   MILKS   WITHOUT   CHANGE.
, and the central sections are made into luxurious sofas
md have curtains separate from those of the berths beneath.
ire of white
THESE cars are of unusual strength and size, with berths, smoking and toilet accommodations correspondingly roomy.
The transcontinental sleeping cars are provided with BATH  ROOMS, and all are fitted with double doors and windows to exclude the dust in summer and the cold in winter.
The seats are richly upholstered, with high backs and ai
during the day.
The upper berths are provided with windows and ventilators,;
The exteriors are  of polished red mahogany and the  interiors «
mahogany and satinwood elaborately carved;  while all useful and decorative
pieces of metal work are of old brass of antique design.
No expense is spared in providing the DINING CARS with the choicest
viands and seasonable delicacies, and the bill of fare and wine list will compare
favorably with those of the most prominent hotels.
OBSERVATION CARS, specially designed to allow an unbroken view
of the wonderful mountain scenery, are run on all transcontinental trains
during the Summer Season in the mountains.
THE FIRST-CLASS DAY COACHES are proportionately elaborate in their arrangement for the comfort of the passenger; and for those who
desire to travel  at a  cheaper rate,  COLONIST SLEEPING O-.
CARS  are provided without additional charge.     These cars are "\\
fitted with upper and lower berths after the same general style as
other sleeping cars, but are not upholstered, and the passenger may
furnish his own bedding, or purchase it of the Company's agents at
terminal stations at nominal rates.
The entire passenger equipment is MATCH LESS in elegance
and comfort.	
First-Class  Sleeping ,_
and Parlor  Car Tariff.
for one lower or one upper
berth in sleeping car
BETWEEN
Halifax and Montreal   -   -      $4 00
Quebec and Montreal -   -   -      1 50
Montreal and Toronto -   - 2 00
Montreal and Chicago -   -   -     5 00
Montreal and Winnipeg   • 8 00
Montreal and Vancouver -   -   20 00
Ottawa and Toronto     -   - 2 00
Ottawa and Vancouver   -   -   20 00
Fort William and Vancouver      15 00
Toronto and Chicago -   -   -     3 00
Toronto and Winnipeg    - 8 00
Toronto and Vancouver -   -    18 50
Boston and Montreal   -   -        2 00
New York and Montreal-   -     2 00
Boston and St. Paul   -   -        7 00
Boston and Chicago -   -   -     5 50
Montreal and St. Paul     -        6 00
St, Paul and Winnipeg -    -     3 00
St. Paul and Vancouver -       13 50
Winnipeg and Vancouver - 12 00
Between other stations rates Mia
in proportion.
Accommodation in First-class Sleeping Cars and in Parlor Cars will be
sold only to holders of First-class
transportation	
;;'.■$?/■   -
INTERIOR  VIEW  This publication is a reproduction of the original.
Published by Canadian Railroad Historical Association,
Box 22, Station B, Montreal 2, Canada.
Printed in Canada on Canadian Paper

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