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Farming and ranching in western Canada : Manitoba, Assiniboia, Alberta, Saskatchewan Canadian Pacific Railway Company 1892

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^D- U/esterr; Canada
How to Get There.
How to Select Lands.
How to Begin.
How to Make Money.  WESTERN CHNHDfl
IS   COfllPOSED   op
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Assiniboia, Alberta and Saskatchewan.
THOSE who doubted, and those who wished the public to disbelieve
. the reports concerning the fertility of the Canadian Northwest have
ceased to be heard ; the first have been converted into warm advocates
of the country's merits, the others are silent for very shame sake, and
because no one will now believe them.
The superior quality of the wheat and other cereals grown upon these
lands and the greater yield per acre, when compared with any other portions of ihe continent, is now universally acknowledged, and, while the
crops obtained are greater, the amount of labor required to produce them
owing to the nature of the soil is less than in any other country. The
climate and natural pasturage are both highly favorable to stock-raising,
and as a result no finer cattle are to-day shipped across the Atlantic to
the English market, than those which have matured upon the plains of
Manitoba and the North-West territories.
It is no longer a question whether it is a good thing to go to the Canadian North-West, but simply in what part of that great country it will be
best to make a home.
The following pages if carefully read will impart a sufficiently accurate
knowledge of the vast territory that is comprised in the words Western
Canada. The reader will learn what the general features of the several
divisions are, which localities are preferable for grain raising, for mixed
farming, and for ranching. He will learn from this book where to seek
that kind of land he thinks the best, which are the chief towns, markets,
etc., for each division, and will find general information concerning the
best way of getting to the west, and full particulars of government and
railway lands regulations, with other information bearing on the subject
of settling in Western Canada. HOW TO REACH THE WEST.
COLONISTS having arrived in Canada at Quebec or Montreal in
summer or Halifax in winter, travel to new homes in Ontario,
Manitoba, the North-West, or British Columbia by the Canadian
Pacific Railway in colonist sleeping cars which are taken upon the same
fast train with the first-class cars. These cars are convertible into sleeping
cars at night, having upper and lower berths, constructed on the same
principle as those of the first-class sleeping cars, and equally as comfortable as to ventilation, etc. They are taken through, without change, all the
way from Montreal to Manitoba. No other railway can do this. No extra
charge is made for the sleeping accommodation. Second-class passengers,
however, must provide their own bedding. If they do not bring it with
them, a complete outfit of mattrass, pillow, blanket and curtains will be
supplied by the agent of the Company at the point of starting, at a cost
of $2.50—ten shillings.^ The curtains may be hung around a berth, turning it into a little private room. In addition to this, men travelling
alone are cut off from families by a partition across the car near the middle ; and smoking is not permitted in that part of the car where the
women and children are.
The train stops at stations where meals are served in refreshment
rooms, and where hot coffee and tea, and well-cooked food may be
bought at very reasonable prices. The cars are not allowed to become
over-crowded, and the safety and welfare of passengers are carefully attended to- Every possible care is taken that the colonist does not go
astray, lose his property or suffer imposition. ' Where a large number of
colonists are going to the west together, special fast trains of colonist
sleeping cars are dispatched.
No other railway in America offers such good accommodation to colonist passengers, as does the Canadian Pacific.
The train is met upon its arrival at Winnipeg or before reaching that
city, by the agents of the Government and of the Canadian Pacific Railway Company, who give colonists all the assistance and advice they require in regard to their new home.
In cases where they have already fixed upon some locality for settlement, where friends are awaiting them, they are shown how to proceed
directly to that point. If they have not decided upon such a locality, but
intend to seek a home somewhere further west, every information can be
obtained at the Land Office in Winnipeg.
Most men wish to examine for themselves the section which seems
to them most suitable, and this is strongly recommended in every case.
They are assisted in doing this by officials appointed by the Government
for the purpose
Meanwhile, the family and baggage can remain at the Government
immigrant house in safety and comfort. Providing themselves with food
in the city markets, they can cook their own meals upon the stoves in the
house; and, with the bedding which has served them during their journey,
they can sleep in comfort in the bunk bedsteads with which the rooms are
fitted. Should they prefer, however, to stop at an hotel, they will find in
Winnipeg public houses of all grades, where the total cost for each person
varies from $1 (4s.) to $3 (12s.) a day, according to circumstances.
It sometimes happens that the intending settler has not much more
than sufficient money to carry him as far as Winnipeg. In that case he
will be anxious to begin immediately to earn some money. The Dominion
and Provincial Governments have each an agency in Winnipeg whose
business it is to be informed where labour is needed.     Societies repre-  senting almost all the nationalities of Europe have been formed in Winnipeg, and will welcome and see to the welfare of their respective
The arrival of a party of settlers is always announced in advance, so
that contractors who are employing men in building, railway construction, or in some other work in the city of Winnipeg or neighbourhood,
may take as many of the newcomers as choose to go to work with them.
Farmers are generally on the lookout for. able men and pay good wages.
The average wages paid are $20 (£5) per month aud board. The girls of
a family can always find employment in Winnipeg and, other towns, in
domestic service, in hotels, shops, factories and establishments, employing female labour. Good wages are paid to capable girls, and little time
is lost in getting a situation.
THE question "How much is necessary?" is a difficult one to answer. It depends upon circumstances. Very many men have gone
into the North-West without any capital and have prospered. A little
capital, however, makes the start easier and saves valuable time. Some
statements of what can be done upon a certain capital, say 500 dollars
(£100) or 1,000 dollars (£200) or 3,000 dollars (£600) may, nevertheless be
This information has been given by many writers, in tables of various kinds and for various localities ; but all amount to about the same
conclusion, namely :—
The 500 dollars (£100) will set a man down upon some western quarter-section, (100 acres) obtained as a free homestead or one chosen among
the cheaper lands belonging to the Railway Company, and enable him to
build a house and stay there until his farm becomes productive and self-
In this connection a practical farmer of some years residence in
Manitoba speaks as follows :
" Land can be purchased cheaply here, or it can be had for nothing
by homesteading. A single man can start on an outlay of $385, made up
as follows : One yoke of oxen and harness, $115 ; plow, harrow, etc.,
$40; stove and kitchen furnishings, $40 ; bedding, etc., $20; lumber,
doors, windows, etc., for log house, $50; provisions, $90 ; seed, $30. A
farmer with afamily of five would have to lay out $240 more, bringing
his outlay up to $625.
A farmer can come in about the middle of March, select his land and
build his shanty ; he can commence to plough about the fifth of April;
he can break ten acres and put it under crop on the sod; he can continue
breaking for two months after he puts the ten acres under crop, and can
break thirty acres, and backset the forty acres in the fall ready for crop
in the spring. He can raise enough on the ten acres to give him a start;
he can cut hay enough for his oxen and a cow in July, and it will cost
him about $60 additional to seed the forty acres in the spring.
Suppose he puts in 30 acres of wheat, and raises only 25 bushels to
the acre, at 80 cents per bushel, it will be worth $600 ; say 5 acres of
oats at 40 bushels per acre at 35 cents per bushel, $70; say 1 acre of
potatoes, 200 bushels at 40 cents, $80; 3 acres of barley, 40 bushels per
acre, worth 40 cents, $48; and 1 acre of garden stuff at $120; total $918
After deducting expenses of harvesting and the whole original outlay the farmer will still have something to the good to start with next
It must not be forgotten, however, that hundreds have arrived in Winnipeg without any money, and by first working on-wages have prospered and become substantial farmers-
These remarks are addressed to working colonists, not -to young men
of expensive habits, or others who expect to find situations as clerks,
bookkeepers, etc., in the cities and towns. Very few opportunities present themselves for employment of the kind referred to.
THE Provinces of the North-West have now been accurately surveyed
by the Dominion Government, and parcelled out into square and
uniform lots on the following plan:—The land is divided intc " townships " six miles square. Each township contains thirty-six " sections "
of 640 acres, or one square mile each section, and these are again subdivided into quarter-sections of 160 acres. A road allowance, one chain
wide, is provided for between each section running north and south, and
between every alternate section east and west.
The following is the plan of a township :—
Each section contains 640 acres ; each quarter section contains 160 acres.
6 Miles Square.
C N.W.
Open foe Homestead, (that is, for free settlement).—Section Nos. 2, 4,
6, 10,12,14,16, 18, 20, 22, 24, 28, 30, 32, 34, 36.
Canadian Pacific Railway Sections.—Section Nos. 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 13, 15, 17,
19, 21, 23, 25, 27, 31, 33, 35.
Section Nos. 1, 9, 13, 21, 25, 33, along  the main line, Winnipeg to Moose
Jaw, can be purchased from Canada North-West Land Company.
School   Sections.—Section   Nos. 11, 29, are   reserved  by  Government
solely for school purposes.
Hudson Bay Company's Sections.—Section Nos. 8 and 26. HOMESTEAD  REGULATIONS.
All even-numbered sections of Dominion Lands in Manitoba or the
North-West Territories, excepting 8 and 26, which have not been home-
steaded, reserved to provide wood lots for settlers, or other purposes,
may be homesteaded by any person who is the sole head of a family, or
any male over eighteen years of age, to the extent of one quarter-section
of 160 acres, more or less.
Entry may be made personally at the local land office in which the
land to be taken is situate, or if the homesteader desires he may, on
application to the Minister of the Interior, Ottawa, or the Commissioner
of Dominion Lands, Winnipeg, receive authority for some one to make
the entry for him. A fee of $10 is charged for an ordinary homestead
entry; but for lands which have been occupied an additional fee of $10
is chargeable to meet inspection and cancellation expenses.
Under the present law homestead duties may be performed in three
ways, and on making application for entry the settler must declare under
which of the following conditions he elects to hold his land :—
1. Three year's cultivation and residence, during which period the
settler may not be absent for more than six months in any one year
without forfeiting the entry.
2. Residence for two years and nine months anywhere within two
miles of the homestead quarter-section, and afterwards actual residence
in a habitable house upon the homestead for three months at any time
prior to application for patent. Under this system 10 acres must be
broken the first year after entry; 15 additional in the second, and 15 in
the third year; 10 acres to be in crop the second year, and 25 acres
the   third year.
3. The 5 years' system under which a settler may reside anywhere
for the first two years, (but must perfect his entry by commencing
cultivation within six months after the date thereof) breaking 5 acres
the first year, cropping these 5 acres and breaking 10 acres additional
the second year and also building a habitable house before the end of
the second year. The settler must commence actual residence on the
homestead at the expiration of two years from date of entry, and thereafter reside upon and cultivate his homestead for at least six months
in each of the three next succeeding years.
may be made before the local agent, or any homestead inspector. Before
making application for patent the settler must give six months' notice
in writing to the Commissioner of Dominion Lands of his intention to do
so. When, for convenience of the settler, application for patent is made
before a homestead inspector, a fee of $5 is chargeable.
may be taken by anyone who on the second day of June, 1889, had
received a homestead patent or a certificate of recommendation counter- 9
signed by the Commissioner of Dominion Lands upon application for
patent made by him, or who had earned title to his first homestead on,
or prior to, that date.
Newly arrived immigrants will receive at any Dominion Lands Office
in Manitoba or the North-West Territories information as to the lands
that are open for entry, and from the officers in charge, free of expense
advice and assistance in securing lands to suit them; and full information
respecting the land, timber, coal and mineral laws, and copies of these
Regulations, as well as those respecting Dominion Lands in the Railway
Belt in British Columbia, may be obtained upon application to the Secretary of the Department of the Interior, Ottawa; the Commissioner of
Dominion Lands, Winnipeg, Manitoba; or to any of the Dominion
Lands Agents in Manitoba or the North-West Territories.
For disposal of the public lands by free-grant, or sale, the Dominion
has established the following agencies, at which all the business in relation to lands within the district of each must be transacted:—
(Figures are Inclusive).
Winnipeg and Dufferin Districts Combined.—Includes all surveyed
townships, Nos. 1 to 25 north; ranges—all east of 1st meridian, and
ranges 1 to 8 west; also townships 1 to 4, ranges 9 to 14, and townships 5
to 7, ranges 9 to 12 west.    Agent.    Winnipeg.
Souris District.— Township 5, ranges 13 to 18, townships 6 and 7
ranges 13 to 2nd meridian, townships 8 to 12, ranges 9 to 2nd meridian
Agent, Brandon.
Turtle Mountain District.—Townships 1 to 4, ranges 15 to 2nd meridian, township 5, ranges 19 to 2nd meridian.   Agent, Deloraine,
Little Saskatchewan District.—Townships north of and including 13,
ranges 9 to 22 west.    Agent, Minnedosa.
Birtle District.—Townships north of and including 13, ranges 23 to
2nd meridian.    Agent, Birtle.
Coteau District.—Townships 1 to 9, ranges 1 to 30 west 2nd meridian.
Agent, Estevan.
Qu'Appelle District—Townships 10 to 23, ranges 1 to 30 west 2nd
meridian.   Agent, Regina.
Touchwood District.—Townships 24 to 31, ranges 1 to 30 west 2nd
meridian, townships 32 to 36, range 1 west 2nd meridian to range 6 west
3rd meridian, townships 37 and 38, 2nd meridian, to range 5 west 3rd
meridian.    Agent, Saltcoats.
Swift Current District.—Townships 1 to 30, ranges 1 to 30 west 3rd
meridian, township 31, ranges 1 to 6 west 3rd meridian. All business
transacted at Regina.
2 10
Calgary District.—Townships 13 to 18, range 24 west 4th toB. C.,and
townships 19 to 30, range 1 west 4th; townships 31 to 42, range 8 west
4th meridian to B. C. Agent, Calgary. A sub-agent is located at Red
Deer Station, who receives entries for lands in that district.
Edmonton District.—Township north and including 43, range 8 west
4th to B. C.    Agent, Edmonton.
Battleford District.—Townships 31 to 36, range 7 west 3rd meridian
to 7 west 4th meridian ; townships 37 to 38, range 6 west 3rd meridian to
range 7 west 4th meridian; township 34 northwards, range 11 west 3rd
meridian to 7 west 4th meridian.   Agent, Battleford.
Prince Albert District.—Township 39 northwards, range 13 west 2nd
meridian to 10 west 3rd meridian.   Agent, Prince Albert.
Lethbridge District.—Townships 1 to 18, ranges 1 to 24 west 4th
meridian, and townships 1 to 12 between westerly limit of range 24 and
boundary B. C.   Agent, Lethbridge, N. W. T.
From time to time the boundaries of the different agencies are liable
to alteration as the progress of settlement renders advisable. In every
case, however, ample notice is given to the public of any changes made
in the land districts, and in the case of colonists newly arriving in
Manitoba they can obtain the fullest possible information in regard to all
land matters by inquiring at the office of the Commissioner of Dominion
Lands iu Winnipeg.
At the offices in the districts, detailed maps will be found, showing
the exact homestead lands vacant. The agents are always ready
to give every assistance and information in their power. For the
convenience of applicants, information as to prices and terms of purchase of Railway lands may be obtaiued from all station agents along the
Company's main line and branches. In no case is an agent entitled to
receive money in payment for lands. All payments must be remitted
directly to the Land Commissioner at Winnipeg.
On the Bow Rivee—Alberta. 11
THE Canadian Pacific Railway Lands consist of the odd numbered
sections along the Main Line and Branches, and in the Saskatchewan, Battle and Red Deer River Districts. The Railway Lands are for
sale at the various Agencies of the Company in the United Kingdom,
Eastern Canada and the North-West Territories, at the following
prices :—
Lands in the Province of Manitoba average $3 to $6 an acre (12s. to £1.4).
Lands in the Province of Assiniboia, east of the 3rd Meridian, average
$3 to $4 an acre.
Lands West of the 3rd Meridian, including most of the valuable lands
in the Calgary District, $3 per acre.
Lands in the Saskatchewan, Battle and Red  Deer River Districts, $3
per acre.
For the convenience of investors the following maps, showing in detail
the lands and price, have been prepared and will be sent free to applicants :
A Central   Manitoba.
B Western Manitoba.
C Southern  Manitoba.
D Coal Fields and Oxbow.
E Between 2nd and 3rd Meridian.
F Cypress Hills District.
G Calgary  District.
H The Saskatchewan Valley.
The Lands shown on Maps A, F, G, H, are sold at the uniform price
of $3 an acre.
If paid in full at time of purchase, a Deed of conveyance will be
given; but the purchaser may pay one-tenth in cash, and the balance in
payments spread over nine years, with interest at six per cent, per
annum, payable at the end of the year with each instalment.
All sales are subject to the following general conditions :
1. All improvements placed upon land purchased to be maintained
thereon until final payment has been made.
2. All taxes and assessments lawfully imposed upon the land or improvements to be paid by the purchaser.
3. The Company reserves from sale, under the regulations, all mineral and coal lands ; and lands containing timber in quantities, stone, slate
and marble quarries, lands with water-power thereon, and tracts for
town sites and railway purposes. 12
4. Mineral, coal and timber lands and quarries, and lands controlling water-power, will be disposed of on very moderate terms to
persons giving satisfactory evidence of their intention and ability to
utilize the same.
Liberal rates for settlers and their effects will be granted by the Company over its Railway.
Land Commissioner, C. P. Ry. Co., Winnipeg.
MANITOBA, one of the seven Provinces of the Dominion of Canada,
contains 116,021 square milles, equal to about 74,000,000 acres.
It is the eastermost portion of the great prairie country of Canada and
extends about 300 miles from East to West, and the Southern boundary
is determined by the 49° parallel of latitude, the boundary line between
Canada and the United States. It will be observed that Manitoba lies
further south than England.
The general feature of the country is that of a broad rolling prairie,
relieved at intervals, by gently rising hills, and numerous bluffs and
For purposes of description it may be divided into the Red River and
Assiniboine River Valleys, and Southern Manitoba.
The Valleys of the Red and the Assiniboine Rivers are noted
throughout the American Continent for their fertility. In them is raised
the highest grade of wheat, that which fetches the best price in all markets, and a greater average yield of hard wheat than is produced in any
other country. Oats and barley, grow in equal profusion, roots generally grow to the largest attainable size and have carried off prize after
prize at agricultural exhibitions, and the native grasses of Manitoba are
equalled by those of few places in the world, and excelled by none. It is
a healthy country for stock of all kinds, and mixed farming, as distinguished from wheat growing, is found to be the most paying method.
The Red Biver and Assiniboine Valleys are served by the main line and
branches of the Canadian Pacific, the Manitoba and Northwestern and
other railways. Grain is marketed at every station, and at most of them
there is a grain elevator for storing wheat, and at many of them a flour
mill. Few stations are without an adjoining town or village where
churches of various denominations have been established, where the public school is open free to all, and where the several stores supply all the
requisites of an ordinary household or farm. In these two main valleys
are, for the present purpose, included those of smaller streams falling into the two rivers and the lakes north of the Canadian Pacific Railway.
There is now very little free land left in the best agricultural sections of
Manitoba, but there is some excellent grazing country intermixed with
farming land in the neighbourhood of Manitoba, Winnipeg and Shoal
Lakes, and a large quantity of railway land for sale at prices ranging
from three dollars (about 12s) to five dollars (£1). The country is much
diversified, some parts being open prairie, and others well wooded and
watered, having the appearance of English parks.  14
This district is penetrated by four branches of the Canadian Pacific
Railway, so that at no point is the farmer remote from markets. Excepting the wooded hills and hollows of the plateau called the Pembina
Mountain, through which the Pembina River has cut a ravine, which the
railway crosses, and some other limited spots, the whole of this vast
region is undulating prairie. There are many streams, and in the southern part several large lakes; one of which, Pelican, is the largest of a
chain of half-a-dozen or more strung together. This lake is thirteen
miles long, and bordered by steep and lofty cliffs, well wooded, and the
resort of deer and game birds. The lake contains fish and is a resort of
large quantities of wild fowl. In many spots, dry during all the summer
months, moisture enough gathers to promote a plentiful growth of forage,
so that the sowing of hay or other fodder is never thought of. Two tons
of this wild hay per acre is not an unusual amount to cut. There are
numerous towns and villages interspersed through this part of Manitoba
with the accompanying grain elevators, mills, schools, churches, etc.
Most of the free land in Southern Manitoba, desirable for wheat raising
has been taken up, but there is a large acreage of the best land still open
for purchase at from three to six dollars, and some tracts of free land suitable for grazing. Improved land can be bought near the railway at $5 to
$15 (£1 to £3) per acre. The soil is rich and deep, and water is reached
at a moderate depth. New coal mines on the Souris branch have recently been opened and settlers in Southern Manitoba will be supplied with
coal at a cost not exceeding $4 (16s) per ton.
WINNIPEG, at the junction of the Red River and the Assinibcme, is
the capital of Manitoba and the chief distributing city of the whole North-
West of Canada. It is situated about midway between Montreal, the
Atlantic Ocean summer terminus, and Vancouver the terminus of the
Canadian Pacific Railway on the Pacific. The American Land and Title
Register says of it:—
" It is the great mart of a country of nearly 2,000,000,000 acres of rich
territory ; the seat of government of the keystone province of the Dominion of Canada; the centre of the political, social, literary, monetary and
manufacturing world of the Dominion of the Canadian West, with its
suburb, St. Boniface, the fountain head of the educational institutions of
not only Manitoba, but the whole North-West.
Its positive pre-eminence is yearly becoming more pronounced and
commanding. Twenty years ago a small isolated settlement, then a
struggling village, then a town; when, on the advent of the first railway,
it rose, within a few years, to the proud position of one of the leading
trade centres of the continent. Ten railways, branching like spokes in a
wheel in all directions, gather the wealth of an inland empire to empty it
at her feet.
The navigation of the Red River, Lakes Winnipeg and Manitoba, the
great Saskatchewan and other navigable streams, make tributary to its
thousands of miles of important coast line. Seventy-five per cent, of the
wheat land of North America is directly tributary to it, while untold
wealth of iron, coal, salt, petroleum, gold, silver, lumber, fish, timber, furs,
horses, cattle, sheep, hogs, etc., go to swell resources and backing more
vast and varied than are possessed by any other city in the world.
To-day no other city in America is attracting so much the  attention 15
of capitalists, and no other city can offer such inducements to investors.
The most competent judges pronounce its real estate the cheapest on the
continent, while we look in vain elsewhere for a city of such natural advantages or such a bright and dazzling future."
The population of Winnipeg is about 29,000.
The next in importance are Portage La Prairie and Brandon, both on
the Assiniboine, the one 56 and the other 133 miles by rail west of Winnipeg. These are bright and progressive towns, each being a centre for a
considerable area of farming country, and a railway junction point.
Killarney, Morris, Deloraine and others including the new town of
Estevan at the Souris coal fields, are market towns for the business of
Southern Manitoba.
The seasons in Manitoba are well marked. The summer months
have bright, clear, and often very warm weather; but the nights are cool.
The days are very long on account of the high latitude, and grain has
some hours more each day for ripening than in southerly latitudes, thus
making up for the comparatively shorter season. Harvesting begins
about the middle of August and ends early in September, all the grain
coming pretty well together. The autumn months are considered the
finest of the year. The atmosphere is serene and free from moisture, frequently for periods of several weeks.
That the winter is cold, there is no doubt, but the atmosphere is
buoyant, the sun shines almost every day, and when it is very cold there
is seldom any wind ; the air is extremely bracing and health-giving.
The dryness of the air is the secret of the degree of comfort experienced even when the mercury is very low, for that sensation of penetrating chill which makes the cold weather of coast regions so severe, is
not felt. Snow never falls to a great depth, and the railway trains
across the plains have never been seriously impeded by it. As this
snow is perfectly dry, a person never has wet feet or soaked clothing
by it. Men travel with teams everywhere, taking their grain to market,
hauling fuel, building and fencing material, and doing all their work.
Stock will live out of doors, so far as the cold is concerned, but require to
be fed with hay. They should, however, be housed at night. Every
one unites in testifying to the healthfulness of the country. Ploughing
is generally in the early part" of April, though much of the land is
usually ploughed in the preceding autumn. The snow disappears rapidly
and the ground dries quickly. ■ Winter closes promptly and decisively.
Sowing is done during almost the whole of April, and is finished early
in May.
The following are a few extracts from a great number of letters
received, speaking of Western Canada and the several writers' experiences
in it:
Welland, Man., Oct. 2, 1892.
I am a native of Kincardinshire, Scotland, and earned my living there
by working on a farm, and the wages were so small I was hardly able to
earn a bare living for myself and family, and having ambition to better
my condition I made up my mind to go to Manitoba. I left Glasgow on
June 2nd, 1888, and went to Carberry, in Manitoba. I worked on a farm
the first year, and earned three hundred dollars.    I went to Wellwood, 16
twelve miles north of Carberry, where water and wood were bandy and
the soil good, and bought a farm of 160 acres, I paid $100 down and the
balance in annual instalments. I paid $150 for two oxen and a cow,
leaving $50 to keep house till the crops grew. All the farming implements I needed were willingly lent to me by kind neighbors. I have now
a good stock of farming implements of my own. I have also three good
horses and twelve good cattle, besides a good stock of poultry and. pigs,
all of which are paid for. I have never had a failure in crops, nor
have I suffered damage from any cause.
There are a few farmers in this country who have not been very
successful. There are always people in every country who are unsuccessful—some for the want of economy and others who are too lazy to
work,—but my experience is that any man who works hard and attends
to his business can soon make a good, comfortable home.
There are still homesteads to be got in some parts of the country, but
land can be bought from the C.P.R. or from private parties on so easy
terms that in most cases it is cheaper to buy land in a good and well-
settled district. I can, with confidence, recommend Manitoba to those who
intend to farm. It has good soil, it has good schools, it has a good self-
government and good churches.
Although the winters are cold they are clear and dry. I find them
far more agreeable and healthier than that of the Old Country. To the
young man I would say : Go to Manitaba, where work is plentiful and
wage's good, and to those who wish to make a free and independent
living, if you are able and willing to work, go to Manitoba.
1 am,
(Signed) Alex. R. Langmuie.
Hensall Faem, Oct. 29th, 1892.
Dear Sir,—I came to this province from the province of Ontario in
in the spring of 1884, and during the last eight and a half years I find
that my family and myself have enjoyed the best of health ; our children have had the benefit of school privileges equal to those of the older
province of Ontario, and we are better financially than we were there.
We have not hitherto done much in the way of stock-raising, ours
being especially an arable farm. We are now, however, going into
mixed farming, believing it to be a more satisfactory system.
During the past nine seasons our wheat has averaged 27 bushels per
acre and oats 53.
We have always kept from twenty-five to forty hogs, and have found
them to pay well. I think it is desirable for a settler to have about
$3,000 (£600) to make a satisfactory start in this country. Of course, more
would be better, but if he is possessed of a good constitution, energy, per-
severence and common sense he will succeed.
I would advise any young man who is not an experienced farmer to
engage for a year or two. at moderate wages, with a thoroughly practical
farmer, and make up his mind to take hold of everything as it comes, and
thus learn not only the principles but also the practice of farming.
Yours truly,
(Signed) James Elder,
Hensall Farm, Virden, Man., Canada.
P.S.—Whilst I say $3,000 to make a satisfactory start, of course a
man can get along with a good deal less, but would have drawbacks to
contend with.  18
In a letter to the Hon. Mr. Greenway, Minister of Agriculture for
the Province of Manitoba, Mr. H. C. Simpson, a farmer in the vicinity of
Virden, says:
" I will give the results of a venture I made in growing wheat,
which I think you will agree wras very successful. I bought a quarter
section of land, sandy soil, seven miles from Virden, during the spring
of 1889, and broke and backset 120 acres of it. It is very smooth and
level, so it was as easy to break as ploughing ordinary stubble. I sowed
it with Eureka wheat, and started cutting on the 7th of August last year.
I threshed 2,375 bushels off it. I have sold it now at 95 cents per bushel,
which comes to $2,256 (£451.4s) I paid $3.50 (14s) per acre for the land,
or say $560 (£112) ; my expenses, including seeding, threshing, etc.,
amounted to $485 ; so that I have the land for nothing, and a net profit
of $1,200. These figures are correct, because I have taken great care to
keep an accurate account of my expenses."
Beandon Sun : " As an instance of what can be done by pluck and
perseverance, together with careful management, the case of Mr. E.
Cleveland, of Routhwaite, Manitoba, is interesting. Last year Mr. Cleveland had 4,500 bushels of the very best grade of grain. The whole of this
crop was sown and harvested by himself with the aid of three small
horses. The only outlay for wages was about $37.50 (£7.10), during
harvest. He has sold 1,500 bushels and from this realized enough to
pay all his debts, leaving him a snug balance to pay current expenses.
The balance of his crop he is storing and will not sell until spring. Mr.
Cleveland started in 1881 with $14 (£2.16s.")
Melita December 14th, 1891.
Sie,—I obtained an entry for a homestead, S. West J 16-4-26 homestead, N. West i 16-4-26 purchased in 1888, and in the spring of 1889
rented sixty acres ready for crop, and seeded it to wheat. My capital
amounted to $800 (£160), which I invested as follows : team and harness
$300, cow $25, rent $180, seed and feed $125, wagon $50, plow $20, house
$75, store $25, which was the limit of my capital; however, by obtaining
a small amount of credit I managed to make both ends meet until fall.
The first season was occupied in building a sod stable and breaking and
backsetting fifty acres- The first season's crop when threashed and
marketed realized enough to pay all my bills, finish and paint my house
and make some additions to stock. The following year I seeded the
fifty acres to wheat, and rented some additional ground for oats. During this season I broke and backset sixty acres more. When threshed
and marketed my second crop paid all expenses and paid a third payment on another quarter section. In 1891 I seeded ninety-seven acres of
wheat, fourteen of oats and six of barley, besides half an acre each of
flax and millet, which I sowed on breaking from the above. I threshed
3,420 bushels of wheat, 900 bushels of oats, 600 bushels of barley, and
ten bushels each of flax and millet. The wheat I sold at 77c. per bushel,
hauling it from the separator direct to the elevator. My total outlay for
wages was $80, which leaves a snug sum to invest in more land and
pure bred stock, besides having 1,100 bushels of grain left for seed and
This is the result of three years on a homestead, and it has not been
accomplished by slavery or drudgery in any way, but like results may 19
be accomplished by anyone who has the energy to do a fair day's work
and the courage to stick to it.
Yours truly,
J. B. Clapp, Melita.
To L. A. Hamilton, Winnipeg.
Messrs. Blasson & Johnston are two young Englishmen who came
out to Manitoba in 1888. Mr. Blasson came out in May and worked out
first on Messrs. Bouverie & Routledge's farm at Virden and then on their
own ranche in the Riding Mountain.
After working out and gaining some colonial experience they bought
a farm of 320 acres one mile from Virden on the C. P. R. They bought
land from the Hudson's Bay Company without any improvements on it
and in the fall we find them with house, stable, wells, pasture fenced in,
and one hundred acres ready for the next years crop. Fortune favored
them and they made $1400.00 (£280) their first year's attempt at wheat
growing doing all tbeir own work and employing no hired help at all.
Besides the $1400.00 wrheat money they made $500.00 doing contract work
with their teams for neighboring farmers. Success encouraged them to
run a bigger crop and the following year they had 160 acres, 100 acres
in wheat and 60 in oats. This year again success crowned their
efforts and we saw in the papers in the fall " Messrs Blasson and Johnston
shipped the first three car loads of No. 1 hard Manitoba wheat'into Winnipeg from the west" and at the Fall show they took first prize for brood
mare and colt in the saddle and driving classes.
They are raising horses both Clydesdales and blood stock.
This year they bought another 160 acres and have broken up one
hundred acres. They now have over three hundred acres under cultivation
and one hundred fenced in for pasture with Gopher Creek running
through it. The whole of the work on this farm has been done by these
two young fellows themselves without any hired help at all except at
harvest time.
These are the sort of men wanted in a new country; men with a little
capital who know how and are willing to work and increase it. They
started with a capital of three thousand dollars each and made $1,900.00
their first crop and $2,200.00 the. second. Next year they will run 200
acres in wheat 50 oats and 40 timothy grass for hay. At a fair valuation
of their land buildings , horses and farm implements as they stand today
they are worth $11,000.00 a very fair increase on their capital outlay
$6000.00 three years ago.
They are thorough believers in working out for a while before starting and would strongly advise any intending purchasers to gain some
practical experience before investing their capital. They say that if a
young man is ever going to succeed in any colony he must work and
learn to do things himself and not pay a premium as a pupil to sit and
watch other men do them.
In addition to the foregoing I may say that I know both the parties
mentioned. That they are now considerdered by practical competent
Judges 1st class farmers and the work done on their farm has been admired by the very best of Canadian farmers.
(Signed)   T. ROUTLEDGE.
Virden, Manitoba.
Wbllwood, 11th Nov. 1892.
In complying with a request from resident farmers in this Province
I cheerfully give the following.   I have lived in Manitoba for the last 20
twenty-one years constantly on the farm, viz; nine years in Burnside
and twelve on my present farm in Wellwood and have no hesitation in
saying that any energetic pushing man would do well farming here.
So far as I am concerned I have no reason to regret coming nor yet
staying so long, as I do not know of any part of the Dominion or in fact
of America that I could of done any better.
To any intending settler I would just say if he is willing to use a
reasonable amount of labor, skill and patience he will be sure to succeed.
Reeve of North Cypress.
Deloeaine Times: " M. B. Wilson & Son raised'from 400 acres of,
land 14,470 bushels of No. 1 wheat, and from 75 acres of land 4,620 bushels
of oats, and off 12 acres of land 483 bushels of barley, making in all 19,
573 bushels of grain from 547 acres of land this year. Mitchell Bros,
threshed for Mr. N. Haggert, and turned out an average of 38 bushels an
acre on 90 acres of wheat, 50 acres of which was threshed from the stook."
Mr. Noble, the Secretary of the Interior Department of the United
States, travelled through the Canadian Western Territories and on being
asked for his opinion of the country said :—
" It is not necessary for me to give you a panegyric, the world is beginning to recognize what a country you have. As I travelled through
your grain fields, two epithets kept recurring to my mind,
' beautiful, magnificent.' You have the best material here for a country
that will make itself felt in the history of the world. The freedom of
your life has an irresistible charm, and in your great railway you have
the facilities for rapid and startling developments."
Messrs. C. M. Barnes, N. B. Blair, and other visiting farmers from the
State of Vermont, say in their report:—" We also visited and met Mr. San-
dison, the wheat king of Manitoba, who came here nine years ago as a farm
laborer, without capital, and now owns a farm of 7,000 acres, 3,000 of
which is under a high state of cultivation, the crop being principally
After bidding adieu to Brandon we next visited Regina, where teams
were kindly furnished the party by the land agent, who drove us through
a fine farming country, and we were highly pleased with the splendid
crop and the fertility of the soil.
Mr. Knechtel, of the State Michigan, went to examine Western
Canada in the interest of a number of Michigan farmers, desiring to improve their condition, and said in his report:
" I arrived in Winnipeg June 29, and on the following day proceeded
to Southern Manitoba. The country is very suitable for mixed farming.
The soil is a black, sandy loam, with clay subsoil, and gives evidence of
great fertility in the wonderful crops it produces. Many of the farmers
I visited expected the wheat to yield 35 bushels to the acre. Oats, barley and all kinds of garden vegetables were showing an excellant growth. r^= 22
I visited the Turtle Mountains along the South of Manitoba. They are
covered with timber, (poplar, scrub oak and ash), which yields a good
supply of firewood. A great many creeks run out of the mountains and
numerous marshes in the vicinity give abundauce of hay. There is a
beautiful lake of pure clear water at Killarney, and a larger one at Whitewater. Generally speaking the well-water is excellent. Near Deloraine
quite a productive coal mine has been opened up, and cheap coal is expected in the near future.
" I visited the Portage Plains and the Brandon district, and went as
far west as Regina. I venture to say that along the main line of the
Canadian Pacific, from High Bluff to Virden, there is one of the most
productive cereal-growing districts of the world. Some idea of the crops
can be gained from the fact that it was found necessary, this year, to import
1,700 farm laborers to assist the farmers to harvest their grain, and a great
many more are still required. A noticeable feature of the grain fields
is the evenness of surface showing the soil to be of uniform strength.
There are fields of hundreds of acres, in which the grain all stands about
the same height. I was informed that there was no midge, weavel, rust
or blight of any kind to injure the grain."
The Department of Agriculture in the Manitoba Government publishes annual reports showing the acreage under cultivation in the Province, and the harvest yielded. These reports show the following
figures :—
Average Yield.
1890. 1891.                    1892.
Bush. Bush.                  Bush.
Wheat              20.1 25.3                    22.7
Oats              41.3 48.3                    43.16
Barley              32.1 35.6                    32.19
Potatoes            235.0 180.4
Produce of—
Wheat     14,665,799 23,191,595          Peas 23.00
Oats       9,513,433 14,762,605
Barley       2,069,415 3,179,879           Flax 17.00
Potatoes       2,540,820 2,291,982
The District of Assiniboia lies between the Province of Manitoba and
the District of Alberta, and extends north from the International boundary to the 52nd parallel of latitude, and contains an area of thirty-four
million acres. It is divided into two great areas, Eastern Assiniboia
and Western Assiniboia. Each of these divisions has its own peculiar
characteristics; the eastern portion being essentially a wheat-growing
country, and the western better fitted for mixed farming and ranching. In
Eastern Assiniboia the great plain lying south of the Qu'Appelle river and
stretching south to the International boundary, is considered to have
the largest acreage of wheat land, possessing a uniform character of soil,
found in any one tract of fertile prairie land in the North-West. The
eastern part of the District is known as the Park Country of the Canadian
North-West.   At Regina is the junction of the Prince Albert branch with 23,
the main line of the C. P. R. This branch running north-west through
the Qu'Appelle District affords a large choice of land for mixed farming.
The Qu'Appelle District contains a large tract of excellent farming
country, watered by the Qu'Appelle River and the fishing lakes, a chain
of six lakes, in all about twenty miles long with an average breadth of
a little over a mile. The land is rolling prairie dotted with bluffs, the
soil is black loam and clay subsoil. The water of the lakes and river is
excellent and stocked with fish. It is a country renowned for wild fowl
and other game, of which settlers obtain an abundant supply for the
table- As in Manitoba, there are convenient markets for grain and farm
produce at the railway stations, with schools, churches and stores at the
several towns and settlements.
This division of Assiniboia, extending toKininvie, about forty miles
west, of Medicine Hat, a town on the south branch of the Saskatchewan
river, is at present more occupied by ranchers raising cattle and sheep
than by farmers. It is everywhere thickly covered with a good growth
of nutritious grasses (the grass is usually the short, crisp variety, known as
"Buffaloe Grass)," which becomes to all appearance dry about midsummer,
but is still green and growing at the roots, and forms excellent pasture
both in winter and summer. A heavy growth of grass suitable for hay
is found in many of the river bottoms and surrounding the numerous lakes
and sloughs. Professor Macoun, in his exploration of these hills, found
that the grasses of the Plateau were of the real pasturage species, and
produced abundance of leaves, and were so tall that for miles at a time
he had great difficulty in forcing his way through them. Although
their seeds were all ripe, August 14th their leaves were quite green. It
is amazing the rapidity with which poor emaciated animals brought from
the East get sleek and fat on the buffaloe grass of the plains.
The supply of timber on the hills is considerable. There is also an
abundance of fuel of a different kind in the coal seams that are exposed in
many of the valleys.
Settlers in this section of the Company's lands have thus at hand an
abundant supply of timber suitable for house logs and fencing, and both
coal and wood for fuel.
The principal settlements are in the district south of Maple Creek,
Dunmore and Medicine Hat. Parties in search of land, either for mixed
farming or stock-raising, might with advantage examine the country
south-west of Swift Current Station, a long the Swift Current Creek, south
and west of Gull Lake, south of Maple Creek, the valley of Mackay
Creek that flows north from the hills crossing the track at Walsh, and
south of Irvine and Dunmore.
The principal town of Eastern Assiniboia is Regina, the Capital of
the Northwest Territories. This is a railway centre and an active
business place. The Legislature meets at Regina, and it is the headquarters of the Mounted Police, the Indian Department in the Territories
and other public offices. A branch line runs north through the Qu'Appelle
district and on to Prince Albert, on the north branch of the Saskatchewan.
Moosejaw is another town, a hundred miles west. Medicine Hat, on the
south branch of the Saskatchewan, is the chief town of the Western
Assiniboine, and Dunmore is the junction of the Alberta Railway and
Coal Company, whose line runs southwest to the mines at Lethbridge. 24
The climate of Eastern Assiniboia is much the same as that of
Manitoba, but Western Assiniboia feels the effects of the Chinook winds,
which come from the Pacific Ocean and remove much of the snow that
falls during two or three months of the year. This circumstance,
together with the rich growth of grass, has of late brought parts of
Assiniboia into favor with cattle, sheep and horse raisers.
Of 22-18-27  W.  2,  one of the Directors  of the Moosejaw Agricultural
Society :—
"I came to the Moosejaw District in 1883 from the town of Clinton,
in the County of Huron, Ont., and then settled on the said land upon
which I have since resided. I am more than satisfied with my change.
The soil is first-class for farming and the prairie grass cannot be beaten
for stock raising. I have raised good crops except in 1886 when there
was a failure, and this year my crop will be over four thousand bushels
of grain, chiefly wheat- It is exceedingly good soil for garden produce,
all roots grow to an amazing size out here. Any one that is not afraid
of work and who is prudent and has some capital to start with is sure to
succeed out here.
John B. Beesley.
Marlborough P.O., Assiniboia.
I came to the North-West Territories of Canada in 1883 from
Chfster in England, and bought a half section of C. P. R. land
and since that time (in 1890) I bought another half section
adjoining the land first purchased by me. It requires energy,
perseverence and prudence to make a success of farming in this country.
But possessed of these and a little capital, one can scarcely fail to do well.
I have this year threshed out 10,500 bushels of grain, about 8,000 bushels
of which are wheat. The soil is excellent for agricultural purposes. It
could not be better. The country is wonderful for grazing. My stock
run out nearly the whole of the winter and thrive well doing so. If I
can make farming pay in this country after paying for all the labor required in it (as I do), surely an active, energetic, persevering prudent
man need not fail of success in this North-West.
Maeia Latham.
Moosejaw, Assiniboia.
Mr. Charles Dodd, of Broadview, Assiniboia, said on October 20th,
"I came from County Durham, England, in 18S2. When I reached
Winnipeg I had just $200 in my pocket. To-day I am worth $3,000.
This year I had forty acres under oats and got a fine crop of extra good
grain, which averaged 45 bushels to the acre. I had ten acres of wheat
which averaged 22 bushels per acre of first-class grain. I have done well
myself, mucb better than I could have done in England, and anyone
willing to work can do the same.
Chaeles Dodd."
Asked concerning this letter Mr Dodd replied :—
"Say I arrived in Winnipeg with $2 instead of $200 and you will be
nearer the right thing.   Our crops this year are beyond our highest 25
expectations. Wheat to 45 bushels per acre, oats to 75 bushels per acre,
and other yields in proportion. Our district is especially adapted to
mixed farming, having plenty of good hay land, wood and water, the
only thing we lack being settlers."
_ I came from the Parish of Holt, AVorcestershire, England, and in the
spring of 1883 settled upon my present location, where I have since that remained- I am well satisfied with my change from the Old Country to
this. The soil here is unquestionably Al. Any farm laborer, or farmer,
whatever be his means, will greatly benefit himself by coming to this
country from Great Britain or Eastern Canada if he is an energetic and
thrifty man. I myself began life here with one yoke of oxen and a plough.
I have now 480 acres of land, eight horses, fourteen head of cattle, a complete outfit of agricultural machinery, and about 7,000 bushels of grain,
(chiefly wheat), raised during the past season. I am well satisfied with
the progress made by me in the past and with my prospects for the
. future.
H. Doreell.
President of the Moosejaw Agricultural Society.
Moosejaw, Assiniboia.
In the spring of 1889 we came to the Moosejaw District from the
county of Huron, Ont., (that is, my wife and seven children and myself),
with the following outfit: A team of horses, one cow, some implements
and household goods, and about $50 cash, and all willing to work. We
rented a piece of land with a house, put in about 20 acres crop, which furnished seed for the next year. We then entered for a section of land
(640 acres). We have now a very comfortable house (frame), also a
granary 16 x 24, good stabling, although rude, three horses, four oxen,
two cows and some young stock, and all the implements necessary to
work our farm. Our second boy has also taken a half section, so that in all
we have 900 acres of land, the finest soil I ever saw under the sun. We
are situated near the Moosejaw creek, about two miles from Pasqua station, surrounded by all the conveniences known to eastern life. If you
desire to write me for pointers, address
Alex. Delgatty,
Pasqua, N.W.T.
Pasqua   Assiniboia.
Forbes, Assa., May. 10, 1892.
L. A. Hamilton, Esq.,  Winnipeg :
Deae Sir,—In reply to your enquiry I would say that I consider the
Cypress Hills to be one of the best cattle ranges in the country, especially
the range between Swift Current and Medicine Hat. My experience has
been mostly in tl.e part lying between Maple Creek and Forres, and I
consider this to be the best part of the range, being situated in the
Chinook belt, and sheltered by the Cypress Hills, together with the large
number of coulees and ravines, which afford splendid grazing ground and
shelter, and the large number of creeks and lakes that are in the district,
and the rich grazing lands, all tend toward the advantages possessed by
this distiict as a cattle range. 26
This district is also suitable for horse raising as the many large bands
will show, and after running at large all winter they come out in the
spring fat and in fine condition. I would advise anyone coming to this
country to start raising horses and cattle, and to settle somewhere in this
district, for as I said before I firmly believe we have the best range in the
Yours truly,
G. E. Nugent.
Mr. McNeil, manager of the coal mines at Canmoie and Anthracite,
Alberta, writing to the Oskaloosa Herald says:—
" My drive over this wheat belt was a revelation. Nowhere else in
any country on earth is there such an unbroken expanse of soil adapted
to wheat raising as this territory from Winnipeg to the foot-hills of the
Rocky Mountains. The crops uniformly grade No. 1 hard. They yield
30 to 50 bushels to the acre. The price of land from $2 to $5 an acre.
The cost of production, liberally figured, 20 cents per bushel. The value
this year at the station is 75 to 80 cents. Young men pay for a quarter
section of ground and improvements in one season with the crop they
raise. Single owners with little or no starting capital cropped last year
as high as 50,000 bushels of No. 1 hard wheat, and own the property they
raised it on. Thirty million bushels of grain went out of this stretch, of
country to the market last year. Canada, which has more area than all
Europe, could beyond any doubt, absorb the entire population'of Europe
and feed it out of this granary.
This division of Western Canada, comprising 114,000 square miles,
extends from the northern boundary of Assiniboia for several hundred
miles northwest, and contains large districts of excellent land for grain
culture and mixed farming. The principal town is Prince Albert, on the
north branch of the Saskatchewan River, which rises in the Rocky
Mountains and flows eastward in two branches through Alberta and the
Saskatchewan territory into Lake Winnipeg, in Manitoba. It is the
present terminus of the Prince Albert branch of the Canadian Pacific
Railway. It is watered by innumerable lakes and small streams, and is
of a very diversified topographical character. There are extensive
grazing plains through which the railway passes in the southern portion,
but the greater part of it is rolling prairie diversified by wood and lake-
In these parts, which are well adapted for mixed farming, the soil is
generally a rich loam with clay subsoil, in which grass grows luxuriantly
and grain ripens well. Settlement is at present chiefly in the Prince
Albert and the Battleford districts, in both of which there is a great
quantity of the best land open for selection free to Homesteaders, i. e.
settlers who take up Government land to cultivate and live upon it. In
great measure that which may be said of one district applies equally to
the other. The crops consist of wheat, oats, barley and potatoes. Turnips
and all kinds of vegetables are raised successfully. Normal yield of
wheat (Red Fyfe), about 30 bushels to the acre in favorable seasons; 1 to
1J bushels sown to the acre.   Oats about 60 bushels, from three sown to  28
the acre. Barley has not been grown extensively, there being no
demand for any quantity of this cereal in the district, but it has always
given a good yield in favorable seasons.
Prince Albert is the chief town of this territorial division. It is
beautifully situated on the south bank of the North Saskatchewan, and
is in the centre of an extensive farming district. A branch line runs
between it and Regina and another line from Portage La Prairie is in
course of construction. It is well supplied with stores, churches, schools,
mills, etc. Battleford is another well-situated town on the delta of the
Battle River, or a little west of Prince Albert; and there is a town destined
to be an important centre near the Qu'Appelle lakes.
The climate is healthy, and free from endemic or epidemic disease.
It is bracing and salubrious, and is undoubtedly the finest climate on
earth for constitutionally healthy people. Average summer temperature,
about 60°. The reason of the equability of the temperature in summer
has not yet been thoroughly investigated, but the water stretches may be
found to account for it. Spring opens about the beginning of April.
Seeding is generally completed in May. Third week in August is usually
the time when harvest begins. During winter settlers are generally
employed in getting out rails for fencing, logs for building purposes
and fuel, and in attending to cattle and doing work which cannot be
undertaken during busy seasons of spring or summer.
The country is well adapted for stock-raising on a moderate scale,
such as would be suitable for mixed farming. Cattle must be fed, and
should be sheltered three months to four months every winter. For
bands of from 300 to 500 it is unsurpassed. Horses winter out well, and
can, therefore, be kept in large bands. Sheep require the same care as
cattle, and are better in small flocks.
Any portion of this district will answer all the requirements for dairy
farming. In and on the slopes of the Eagle Hills or south of the Saskatchewan would be most suitable, owing to the luxuriance of the grass and
prevalence of springs. North of the Saskatchewan there is abundance of
grass in many places, particularly in the vicinity of Jackfish and Turtle
Mountain. Pure water in abundance everywhere. Nights are cool.
Home demand has always exceeded the supply, so that dairy products
have had to be imported. Fuel consists of wood, which can be had in
abundance in all parts of the districts, except in the extreme south.
Prince Albert, N.W.T., Nov. 8,1891.
Dear Sie,—In compliance with your request for my opinion of this
country generally and the district of Prince Albert in particular, I arrived
here from England about four months ago, and since then have made
several trips hither and thither for the purpose of seeing the country preparatory to taking up a homestead. I have never seen any country so
admirably adapted to the requirements of settlers who wish to " live by 29
the land," and especially for those who are desirous of engaging in
mixed farming or cattle breeding. The country between the rivers, with
its brusque undulations, numerous lakes and picturesque bluffs, the
broad slopes of the Birch Hills, and beyond the Carrot River, where the
wide prairie is studded with timber belts and intersected by rippling
brooks, seem to cry aloud for the settler. All are good; wood, water and
hay are in abundance. The exceeding fertility of the rich, dark soil is
evidenced by the luxuriant growth of the wild pea vine, natural grasses
and other beef-producing herbage, while garden vegetables of nearly
every description can be brought to perfection. The climate, in my
opinion, is without exception the most enjoyable I have ever met with.
During the hottest days of summer the heat is less oppressive than in
Europe, while the nights are cool and pleasant. Of the winter I cannot
yet speak from experience, but no one seems to complain of the low temperature, and some appear actually to consider winter the most pleasurable season of the year.
I am, Sir, yours faithfully,
S. H. Scroggs.
Delegates from the State of Vermont visited Western Canada with
the view of reporting upon the country for their friends in the Eastern
States.   The following are extracts from the several reports:
"I will only say that I saw the best wheat, oats, barley, potatoes,
cattle and land that I have ever seen. I think it is the place for a poor
man."—S. C. Pollard, Essex. Vt.
" The best wheat, oats, potatoes and barley I have seen are at Prince
Albert and Stony Creek."—Ezra Rinney, Jericho, Vt.
"It is the best place for a poor man to make a home for his children."— W. A. Pollard, Westford, Vt.
" I can most heartily recommend it to anyone who wants a cheap
home with a good living and money laid up for the future."—Arthur Ellis.
''The soil is wonderfully rich, producing a variety of luxuriant
grasses that make the finest hay in the world. There is no place in
America where a man can create a comfortable home in so short a time,
and my advice to every young and middle-aged man is not to allow this
land to be taken or given to railways without making a selection first,
as no doubt these fine farming lands that are given by the Canadian
Government to those who wish to become settlers will be very soon
taken and made 'homes plenty.'"—^, h. Ooff, Richford, Vt..
" I consider the country well adapted for mixed farming, and the
pioneers have little to contend with in making a home for themselves
and families compared to what the old pioneers of the New England
States had.—E. J. Wilder, Sheldon, Vt.
" I should say that the country would make a fine home for a
young or middle-aged man. The lands are so very low in price or free
to homestead that those who go there with the intention of getting a
home in earnest must succeed."—if. W. Rounds, Enosburgh Falls, Vt..
" After thorough inspection of the country between Prince Albert
and Stony Creek District, I think it one of the finest countries for stock
raising I ever saw, also grain raising, and am convinced that any industrious man can make a comfortable home inside of three years."— F. S.
Ransom, Jericho, Vt.
All the other delegates made similar reports. 30     .
A party of Delegates from the State of Maine, reporting upon Western
Canada as a field for settlement, say :—
"We started out to inspect the Carrot River and Stony Creek
districts, and we believe that this is without doubt one of the
finest, if not the finest, country on the continent of America, as all the
requisites for successful farming are found here in great abundance and
of a very fine class; the water is first-class, and there is just enough
timber for building purposes and fuel, without it being in the way for
. farming operations. We spent four days looking over this country and
stopped one night at Mr. Myers' place. We saw his cattle, and would
not believe our own eyes when he informed us that they had not had a
roof over their heads all winter, and had been fed on the hay made
from natural grass of the prairie; the cattle were all in first-class condition,
and most of them even fat. Everything bore evidence to prosperity in
this country. Mr. Myers grew 35 bushels of No. 1 hard to the acre, and
oats weighing 45 lbs. per bushel, with 90 bushels to the acre, and barley
with a yield of 60 bushels an acre- We then visited the Stony Creek
district, and had a look at Mr. Campbell's farm there. He raised 432
bushels of oats on 43 acres, weighing 42 pounds per bushel, and as fine a
lot of oats as was ever grown.
" We noticed that the prices paid for farm produce were such that, with
reasonable care and good management, a poor farmer in the Canadian
Northwest ought to become independent in a few years. The climate is
a very agreeable one, and although it certainly is cold here in the winter
time, still anybody does not seem to feel it as muc'i as in the eastern countries, it being extremely dry. During the most severe storm of the season
we drove all day, the driver without gloves of any kind, and not even an
overcoat on, while some of our party were very thinly dressed and had
no cover for our hands whatever, and we cannot say that we suffered
from the cold very much.
"In conclusion we wish to state that the best evidence we can give
of our entire satisfaction with the country is this : that as soon as we
possibly can we are going to sell out our property in the State of Maine
and move to the great Canadian Northwest, where we intend to take up
land and make our future home, and our advice to every man, woman
and child in the State of Maine particularly, and the United States generally, is : 'Go and do likewise.'
" A. H. Price, North Fryeling, Maine; C. Muephy, Maine, F. A.
Russell, Andover, Maine; E. Muephy, Maine-"
A delegate from the State of Michigan, reporting to the farmers in
his State, says :
"I was very much pleased with the appearance of the Prince Albert District. The country in the immediate vicinity is admirably
adapted for stock raising. It is hilly and contains numerous small lakes
and marshes, where the hay grows from two to three feet long. The
hills, too, are covered with a very luxuriant growth of grass, pea vine,
etc. There is an abundance of timber, (spruce, oak and poplar), for
fencing and firewood. About fifty miles from Prince Albert, along the
Stony Creek and Carrot River, there is a locality unsurpassed in the
Territorities for mixed farming. Homesteads (Free) can be had in this
locality, or land can be purchased for $2.50 an acre."
" People enjoy to live in a country where there is some good scenery.
Along this line, though the surface of the country is gently undulating,
yet in some places it is sufficiently broken to become delightfully pictur- «
o 32
esque. For a short distance we ran through a very beautiful valley, and
frequently we got glimses of delectable plains. Many of the villages that
are springing up along the line are very pleasantly situated, either in
some secluded dell or on a sheltered hillside."
"Sours very truly,
(Signed) A. Knkohtel,
(One of the delegates from Michigan.)
The most westerly of the several divisions of the Northwest Territories, which extends from the western limits of Assiniboia to the eastern
limits of British Columbia, within the range of the Rocky Mountains, is
divided into Northern Alberta and Southern Alberta. They are unlike
in essential particulars and are therefore occupied by different classes
of settlers.
This division of the territory contains a large extent of farming land
unexcelled for grain and root crops and vegetables by any on the continent of America. Live stock of all kinds is raised extensively, including horses of all grades, from heavy draught to Indian ponies, horned
cattle, sheep, pigs and poultry, including turkeys. Native horses do well
without stabling all the year round, but good stock of whatever kind
requires good treatment to bring it to its best, when it is most profitable.
There is a varied and nutritive pasture during a long season in summer;
there is an abundant supply of hay procurable for winter feeding, and an
abundant and universally distributed water supply. There are few
summer or winter storms. Building timber is easily procured. The
winter climate is less severe than that of the districts along the Saskatchewan further east on account of the chinook winds. As a consequence, a
better class of cattle can be raised more cheaply and with less danger of
loss in this district than in some other parts. The advantages which
tell so heavily in favor of the district for cattle raising tell as heavy in
iavor of dairying. There is a large flow of rich milk for a long
season, and the quality of the butter made here is unsurpassed.
The Macleod and Edmonton Railway, operated by the Canadian
Pacific Railway Company, passes through the two divisions from Macleod in the south to Edmonton in the north, affording market facilities at
a number of convenient points along the whole distance. There is a
flourishing town called Edmonton on the north bank of the Saskatchewan
in the vicinity of the old Hudson's Bay Company's post, of the same
name, and a new town called South Edmonton at the terminus of the
railway on the south bank. Land of the very best quality is found on
both sides of the river, as well as in the neighborhood of the railway
stations, for over a hundred miles south of it. Coal is mined in the
banks of the Saskatchewan, and on the bars of the river a small but
paying quantity of gold is taken out during the summer months. So good
is the reputation that this section of the country enjoys that settlement
was made at a number of points before the railway was complete and
in 1882, when the road was in full operation, a more regular stream of  34
settlement began. There is, however, such ample room for choice of
locations that thousands can find room for selection in the free
sections.    This, however, will not continue to be the case for many years.
To-day Southern Alberta stands unequalled among the cattle countries of the world ; and the unknown land of a few years ago is now
looked to as one of the greatest future supply depots of the British
Great herds of range cattle roam at will over these seemingly
boundless pastures. With proper management the profits to stockmen
are large, as can be readily imagined when it is shown that $42.00 per
head was paid for steers on the ranges this year, animals that cost their
owners only the interest on the original investment incurred in stocking
the ranche, and their share in the cost of the annual round ups. Yearlings are now being sent into this country all the way from Ontario to
fatten on the nutritious grasses of these western plains, and it is reckoned
that after paying cost of calf and freight for 2,000 miles, the profit will
be greater than if these cattle had been fattened by stall feeding in
There is now on the ranges of Alberta hundreds of herds of fat cattle,
which at any season are neither fed nor sheltered; cattle too, which in
point of breeding, size and general condition; are equal, if not superior,
to any range cattle in the world. Shorthorns, llerefords and Angus bulls
have been imported at great expense; but the interest on the outlay is
both satisfactory and encouraging, and the young cattle of the Alberta
ranges would compare favourably with the barnyard cattle of Great
Britain. The local market annually consumes from eighteen to twenty
thousand beeves, with a growing demand, whde the great market of the
world is within easy access. The number shipped jfor England is
annually increasing.
The chief towns of Alberta are Calgary, Edmonton, Macleod and
Calgaey is a bright and busy town of about 4,500 population. It is
situated at the confluence of the Bow and Elbow Rivers, about sixty
miles east of the Rocky Mountains. It is the centre of the ranching districts of Alberta, and supplies many of the smaller mining towns to the
West. It is built principally of white stone, and is the. junction of the
Macleod and Calgary branch with the main line of the Canadian Pacific
Railway. It is an important station of the Mounted Police, and in a
variety of ways does a large and increasing business. It has several
excellent hotels, several churches and schools and first-class stores.
Edmonton, on the north bank of the Saskatchewan, is the present
market town for the farmers, traders, miners, etc., on the north side of
the Saskatchewan, and is a prosperous and well laid-out town.
South Edmonton, on the south bank of the Saskatchewan, and the
present terminus of the Macleod and Edmonton Railway, is another
rising centre, where good hotel accommodation, stores, etc., are established.
Macleod, on the Old Man River, at the present southern terminus of
the Macleod and Edmonton Railway, is the chief centre of business for 35
that section  of country.    There is also a village with hotels, stores, etc.,
at Pinchers' Creek, about thirty miles west of Macleod.
Lethbeidge, the terminus of the Alberta Railway and Coal Co. from
Dunmore, on the line of the C P- R., situated about thirty .miles east of
Macleod, is a progressive town doing a good business.
The climate of Northern Alberta is much like that of Manitoba,
though not so cold in winter, and the winter is shorter. The Chinook
wind reaches the Edmonton country to some extent and tempers the
climate. No one finds fault with the winter, and no crops have ever
been touched with frost in that district. It is a mistake to suppose
that snow is regarded with dislike by settlers, except in the great ranching districts. There is, however, a good deal of complaint on those rare
occasions when the snow-fall was very light; and the new-comer should
not be anxious on the score of that which older hands all regard as a
benefit, facilitating as it does many operations for which there is hardly
time in the summer.
In Southern Alberta the conditions are different. The action of the
Chinook winds is more direct and stronger than in the north, with the
result that the snow-fall is much lighter and does not remain on the
ground for any length of time. The country is mainly composed of
extensive rolling prairie covered with the most nutritious grass, which,
being self-cured in the fall of the year, affords food for cattle and
horses during the winter. This endless supply of fodder, coupled
with the comparative mildness of the climate, makes Southern Alberta a
most valuable grazing country, and has led to the establishment of the
ranches already mentioned.
For the benefit of intending settlers an account of the cost of starting
a ranche is herewith given : Take as example a person bringing in
a band of 500 bead of good grade two-year old heifers, at say $25 (£5j;
also 20 bulls at $50 (£10). In the first place, he must locate a suitable
site for buildings, etc., in the vicinity of good water ; a running stream
is, of course, preferable. Then comes the erection of his buildings—a
log house, which will cost about $150 (£30) ; a horse stable to accommodate eight horses, $50 (£10); a shed 100x20 feet for weak cows and
calves during winter, say $75 (£15), and a pole corral for branding calves,
etc., about $15 (£3). These buildings will be sufficient for the first year,
and can be added to as his band increases Next comes the purchasing
of say fifteen saddle horses at about $60 (£12) per head ; one team of
work horses at $250 (£50); mower and rake, $125 (£25), and a wagon and
harness, $125 (£25). This will be the principal outlay ; in addition there
are the smaller tools, furniture, provisions, etc.
If it is the intention to embark in the business of raising cattle,
horses or sheep on a large scale, an extent of ground equal to the
rancher's requirements can be obtained under lease from the Dominion
Government on the following easy terms : 36
Settlers can obtain leases of public lands not exceeding four sections
(2,650 acres) in the vicinity of the settler's residence. The lease shall be
for a period not exceeding twenty-one years. The lessee shall pay an
annual rental of two cents an acre. The lessee shall within three years
place one head of cattle for every twenty acres of land covered by his lease
at least one-third of the number of cattle stipulated for.shall be placed on;
the range within each of the three years from the date of the order-in-
council granting the lease. Whether he be a lessee or not, no person
shall be allowed to place sheep upon lands in Manitoba and the Northwest without permission from ihe Minister of the Interior. Leases of
grazing lands to other than settlers, or in larger quantities than that
specified above, are granted only after public competition. Full particulars can be obtained on application to the Minister of the Interior,
Maps showing the lands now under lease can be seen at the Land
Commissioner's Office in Winnipeg.
Maps can be secured there free of cost, showing the lands open for
sale in the ranching districts and their prices.
As a horse breeding country, Alberta will be to Canada what Kentucky is to the United States. A country where the horse attains the
very height of perfection. Its high altitude, its invigorating and dry
atmosphere, short winters, with luxuriant grasses and plentiful supply
of purest water, combine to make it eminently adapted for breeding
horses. Although the industry is still very young, the Alberta horse has
become noted for endurance, lung power, and freedom from hereditary
or other diseases.
There are at present in Alberta several grades of horses, varying in
point of quality from the hardy Indian pony (Cayuse) to the beautiful,
well formed thoroughbred. Thoroughbreds from Great Britain and
Kentucky, Clydesdales from Scotland, Percherons from France, and
trotting stock from the United States, have been imported at great
expense, and the result is that the young horse of Alberta will compare
with any in Canada.
Capitalists coming to this country and wishing to engage in this
business, will find millions of acres of unoccupied meadow lands, possessing every attraction and advantage, from which to choose a location.
During the last five years many thousand cattle, sheep and horses
have been raised in the sourthtrn half of Alberta on the rich grasses
without any feeding or shelter other than the shelter found along the
hillsides or in clumps of trees. The cattle and sheep when taken off the
pasture are fat and fit for any butcher's shop in the world, and the
horses are rolling fat.
Alberta to-day offers what the Australian colonies had to offer thirty
years ago; millions of acres of rich grass lands, well watered and adapted
in every respect for first-class mutton and fine wool, where cold rains
and dust storms, so injurious to the fleeces, are almost unknown. It
also has a railway running through the centre of the grazing lands and  38
markets for mutton and wool within easy reach. The clear, dry bracing
air of the country suits sheep, which suffer from little or no disease.
Sheep mature early owing to the fine quality of the grass. To winter
them safely, good warm, roomy sheds, plenty of hay, (10 tons to the 100
head) and attention is all that is wanted.
Calgary, 20th January 1892.
My brother and I came from Peterboro' Ont., and settled in Alberta
20 miles south-east of Calgary, in September 1883—we had only sufficient
to bring us here—since which time we have been engaged in almost
exclusive grain raising, having no means to invest in stock until lately.
In 1884 we had no crop, except for potatoes ; in 1885 we sowed 4 acres
and raised 230 bushels; in 1886 we sowed 15 acres, and raised
1,000 bushels of oats; in 1887 we sowed 30 acres, weighing 42
pounds, and raised 2,500 bushels of wheat; in 1888 we sowed 60 acres,
raising 2,500 bushels of wheat; in 1889 we sowed 60 acres, raising 2,400
bushels of wheat; in 1890 we sowed 75 acres, and raised 3,500 bushels of
wheat; in 1891 we sowed 110 acres, and raised 3,900 bushels of wheat.
Each year our wheat would grade No. 1 hard, and yielded per acre
from 40 to 55 bushels. We have had better success in raising wheat than
any other crop. Barley and oats have always done well with us. We
have never had a failure in grain-raising.
Shield Brothers.
I came from Port Hope and settled on Sheep Creek, in Alberta
20th July, 1883. When I landed, all I had was $70. I paid $32 to have
four acres broken. This I sowed in 1884, and threshed 225 bushels of
wheat, part of my crop being spoiled.
In 1885  I  sowed   14 acres; threshed   500 bushels.
1,500     do
1,800    do
2,000    do
2,800     do
2,000     do (drought)
7,065 bushels.
I own 960 acres of land, all of which is fenced. I own 76 head of
cattle and 14 horses, 1 binder, 2 mowers, and implements needed for
cultivation of my land, and work 5 teams. I estimate the value of my
estate as follows —:
960 acres fenced at $10 $9,600 00
76 cattle  2,000 00
14  horses   2,0(j0 00
Implements   1,000 00
$14,600 00
27th January, 1892.
Joseph Peioe. 39
Bath, South Dakota, Oct. 26th, 1891.
I left Aberdeen for the purpose of examining the agricultural resources of the Canadian Northwest. We reached Winnipeg, a splendid
city, where the agricultural exhibition was then going on. Here we saw
the products of the country from Calgary to the Red River. The display
of grain, roots and stock was enough to gladden the heart of any farmer.
The horned stock was the best I ever saw in any country. From Winnipeg I went west to Qu'Appelle. and I wish to say that for wheat growing that valley is hard to beat. We pushed west to Calgary, a splendid
growing town, to the Red Deer, where we stopped two days looking over
the country. We pronounce this a first-class stock country. We went to
Edmonton over the country for 20 miles around, where every farmer
told us they were more than satisfied with the country and their success;
good soil, plenty of timber, first-class coal right on the surface, hay and
grass in abundance, stock of all kinds rolling fat. At all the points
mentioned there is plenty of free homestead land. Any person 18 years
old can file on a quarter section.
I tell my friends that I found the country much better than the
agents at Aberdeen described it to me. That farmers desiring homes
cannot do better than settle in the Canadian Northwest for the above
and other reasons too numerous to mention.
Nov. 23,1891.
Dear Sir,—Having been delegated by a number of my neighboring
farmers in Michigan to inspect the western territories of Canada, I
left Michigan late in August last, arriving in Edmonton on September
11th. From that time I remained in the Edmonton district to
acquaint myself as thoroughly as might be with the different localities
until the 18th inst. During these two months I travelled a good deal in
every direction from Edmonton, and speaking generally of that district
I may say that for the purposes of mixed farming it has no superior and
few equals under the sun. The sample of grain is first-class, and the
yield far exceeding the farmer's own expectations. Wheat went 40 to 50
bushels to the acre, averaging about 45 ; barley 45 to 50, and oats 80 to
100 bushels per acre, while vegetables and roots showed a still more
remarkable growth. I saw a farmer dig up 100 bushels of potatoes a day
with his manure fork, and so did each of his attendants, and Isaw many
a cabbage weighing 15 to 20 pounds. The soil is rich to an extraordinary degree, as the above mentioned products amply verify. Water is
plentiful and of first class quality, small lakes being found in many places,
as well as running streams. Timber is plentiful for farm use and building, besides a never failing supply of good coal, which a farmer can take
from the banks of the Saskatchewan and load his wagon free of charge.
All these properties combined make the district all that can be desired
for mixed farming. In conclusion, I may add that as soon as circumstances allow I shall return to the Edmonton district and settle.
H. Paigf,
Of Spencer Creek, Antrim County,
Michigan, U. S. A. 1
Fort Saskatchewan, Dec. 7th, 1891.
L. A. Hamilton, Esq.,
Land Commissioner, C.P.R.,
Winnipeg, Man.
Dear Sir,—I arrived here on the 18th of April, and found the
spring well advanced, and grain that was in early was up and looking-
fine. I rented land, put in 25 acres of oats and 12 acres of barley, and
one of potatoes, threshed 216 sacks of oats, weighed some of the sacks,
and they weighed from 106 to 110 lbs. Had 600 bushels barley and 500-
bushels potatoes. I consider that I had a good crop all round. I have
been threshing all fall and have seen some better and some not so good.
I feel sure that we can raise as good wheat as any place in America ; as
for oats and barley we are away ahead ; potatoes, cabbage, turnips,
onions, beans, peas, rhubarb are beyond description. No man would
believe it till he sees it. I have seen some fine fields of timothy. Have
seen the fattest cattle here I ever saw. Sheep do well, and there is lots of
money in hogs, as we can grow barley and not half try, and there is a
good market north for more pork than will ever be raised here. The
growth of grass is something wonderful on the high land ; it was three
feet high, mixed with pea-vine.   Better pasture a man could not ask for.
Any person wishing for more particulars can write me at Fort
Saskatchewan. I will answer all questions so far as my experience will
carry me-
I remain, yours truly,
John McLellan,
Fort Saskatchewan, Alberta.
Formerly of Rollette Co., N. Dakota, U.S.A. The : Canadian : Pacifie : t^aikjuay
; Is the Only Route to tlie Fertile Farm lands of
W E S. T E R N     CANADA,
The Mining, Lumbering and Farming Regions of
And is also the best Route to the States of WASHINGTON and OREGON
and all Points on Puget Sound and the Pacific Coast.
BE SURE and ask your Steamship Agent for passage by this Line of Railway.
Are supplied for all holders of 2nd class or Colonist Tickets FREE OF CHARGE. Passengers are
however required to provide their own bedding. If they do not bring this with them, sleeping car
outfit mny be purchased from the railway agent at the port of landing, at very reasonable prices.
For further information apply to Steamship Agent, or to
SPfflPP BliVUP  5 67 & 68 King William St., B.C., London, Ens.    7 James St., Liverpool, Eno.
anunun DHAIiR, \ i05 Market Street. Manchester. Eno. 67 St. Vincent Street, Glasgow.
C. E. McPIIERSON, Assistant Gen. lass. Agent, 197 Washington St.. Boston and St. John, N.B.
E. V. SKINNER, General Eastern Agent,353 Broadway, New York.
C. SIIEtliy, District Passenger Agent, 11 Fort Street West, Detroit.
3. F. LiK. District Freight and Passenger Agent, 232 South Clark Street, Chicago.
M. M. STERN. District freight and Passenger Agent. Chronicle Building San Francisco.
W. K. CALLAWAY, District Passenger Agent, 1 King Street East, Toronto.
ROBERT KERR, General Passenger Agent. Winnipeg.
C. E. I'LXON, Ticket, Agent, 183 East Third St, St. Paul, Minn., and Guaranty Loan Building,
Minneapolis, Minn.
G. McL. KROWN, District Passenger Agent, Vancouver. B.r.
C. E. E. USSHER, Assistant General Passenger Agent, Montreal.
General Passenger Agent, Montreal. General Trafno Manager, Montreal.  THE HIGHWAY II PACIFIC COAST
The Best, Cheapest and Quickest Way to
CQanitoba, flssiniboia, fllbefta     •   »   *
#   *   Saskateheuaan, and fifitish Columbia


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