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Get your farm home from the Canadian Pacific : a handbook of information regarding Alberta, Saskatchewan… Canadian Pacific Railway Company. Department of Natural Resources Mar 31, 1915

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 GET YOUR FARM HOME
FROM
The Canadian Pacific
A HANDBOOK OF INFORMATION
REGARDING
ALBERTA
SASKATCHEWAN
and MANITOBA
AND THE OPPORTUNITIES OFFERED YOU BY
THE CANADIAN PACIFIC RAILWAY
IN THESE PROVINCES
Presented by
THE   CANADIAN   PACIFIC   RAILWAY
Department of Natural Resources
CALGARY, ALBERTA
CANADA
1915 I
Alberta, Saskatchewan and
Manitoba
WHAT THE CANADIAN PACIFIC WILL DO FOR YOU
THE Canadian Provinces of Alberta, Saskatchewan
and Manitoba are commonly called "The Prairie
Provinces" on account of the great area oiTertile
prairie land within their borders. They are by no
means all prairie, as their territory includes mighty lakes
and rivers, vast stretches of forest and towering mountains, but it is for their prairies they have become jaKnous
throughout the world. The prairie region sjjieftheB,
roughly, from the Red River in Manitoba to theffp>tf|lf!Ms
of the Rocky Mountains in Southern Alberta, a distance
of approximately 800 miles. It extends northward from
the International Boundary between Canadaf^tftitFthe
United States a distance varying from fifty to twp h\fnc|reft£
miles. At its northern edge it merges into a park like
.country, part prairie and part light timber, which gradually becomes thicker and heavier until it is unfafcken
forest. The area of these three provinces is 756,05^pq^ire
jmiles, which is more than the combined area of t\W states
^df Ohio, Illinois, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Iowa£?|j||jJterth
Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, Montana and|^pSio.
According to a Dominion Government estimate tjiere fire
in these three provinces 272,892,000 acres of land suitable
for agriculture, without taking into account forestykind
that may ultimately be tilled. Of this vast acreage-There
were in 1914 only 16,732,460 acres under crop.
The object of this folder is to give you information
concerning the climate, productiveness, and conditions of
life in these provinces, with the possibilities affordedgto
farmers to make good homes and good livings from thfse
cheap, fertile lands. The liberal terms and generous assistance offered by the Canadian Pacific Railway £tace
these lands within the  reach  of ambitious  home-makers
even though their capital be somewhat limited. TW
Canadian Pacific Railway Company is not a land-sellim
organization in the ordinary sense of the word. Its chie
business is to handle traffic, and in order to produce traffi
it desires industrious, successful settlers located along it
lines. For that reason it absolutely refuses to sell its land
to speculators under any circumstances, but to actus
home-makers, men who will go on the lands and devefoj
them, it offers terms unequalled in the history of colon!
zation.
TWENTY YEARS TO PAY; $2,000.00 LOAN
FOR IMPROVEMENTS.
The Company's general  terms of sale provide for i
small cash payment by the  settler and the balance ex
tended over twenty years with interest at six per cent, oi
the amounts  remaining unpaid.    Purchasers  of lands ii
the Company's Irrigation Block in Southern Alberta, or o
irrigable lands in the Lethbridge Irrigation  District, art
provided  with  a loan,  if  they want  it,  to  the  value d
$2,000.00, which is expended, under the Company's sups
vision, in erecting a house and barn, sinking a well, an«
fencing the farm.    This loan is also repayable in twentj
years with interest at six per cent.    In order to quaffl|
for it the settler must be a married man with agricultura
experience,  must have  his  own implements  and  horses
or the means to buy them, and have  sufficient cashj|
make his first payment and care for his family during theii
first year's occupation of the land.   This loan is the mosi
positive evidence of the Company's faith in its own proposition.   No security is required except the land itself, anc
the  first payment   (which is made  in  advance)   and  the
£%*^S*.    . chance of the Company getting its money back depends
pn the success of the farmer. That it is willing to make
the loan on these terms is proof that the Company is
sincere in its belief that the farmer can -not only make
a living but can pay for the land and for the loan out of
the proceeds of his farm.
In certain districts the Company has for sale "Ready-
Made Farms"—that is, farms on which improvements have
been made in the form of house, barn, well, fencing,
cultivating a certain area and placing it under crop at the
proper season of the year. The great advantage of the
ready-made farm is that the home-maker with his family
pan enter immediately into a home without the pioneering
experiences otherwise connected with settlement in a new
country, and settlers arriving during the growing season
:can take off a crop the first year. These farms are sold
pn terms extended over 20 years.
A.DVANCE   OF   LIVE   STOCK   ON   LOAN   BASIS.
To settlers in certain specified areas who have been
:one year in occupation of their land, who have the neces-
isary feed and shelter and can satisfy the Superintendent
of Agriculture and Animal Industry that they are possessed of practical experience in the care  and handling
of live-stock, cattle, and in some cases sheep, to a value
not exceeding one thousand dollars, may be advanced
under easy terms.
The Company's Agricultural and Animal Industry
experts are glad to give the benefit of their practical
advice to settlers, and to assist them in every way possible
toward making a success of their farm undertakings.
Although these Prairie Provinces have become world--
famous for the quality of their wheat production, it is
generally recognized that the settler's greatest success
requires him to go into mixed farming, producing horses,
cattle, sheep, hogs, poultry, dairy products and fodder
and root crops. To improve the quality of the live stock,
the Company places "at central points, pure bred bulls
for service, the only fee being a nominal one which goes
to remunerate the caretaker. The Company maintains
Demonstration Farms in a number of localities where free
advice is given to all settlers asking it. At some of its
farms the Company has installed creameries paying the
highest cash prices for cream brought in by farmers who
retain the skimmed milk for feeding purposes. The
Company has also established at certain points, egg circles,
taking all eggs brought in by farmers, and paying cash
for them.    In these and other ways the Company at all
Western Canada Plow Teams   at the Barn and in the Field. times seeks to advance the settler's interests and by so
doing increase production along its lines of railway.
through dishonesty, unfairness, or financial embarrassment
of the dealer:
To sum up, the Canadian Pacific Railway has no land
for sale to speculators, but to actual home-makers it offers
fertile lands at low prices on twenty-year terms of payment, interest at six per cent, per annum. The Company
will extend aid along the lines above mentioned and assist
the settler in every possible way. The Company has never
yet foreclosed on a farmer making an honest effort to
get on his feet. To the progressive farmer, Western
Canada offers greater opportunity for advancement than
any other district on the face of the earth.
The following pages take up in detail the various
branches of agriculture, showing exactly what the Western Canadian provinces have to offer. Soil, climate, crops
and kindred topics are discussed, and schools, churches,
taxation—in fact, all items of interest to the intending
settler are treated.
WESTERN CANADA'S GRAIN TRADE.
Although the farmers of Western Canada are going
more extensively into mixed farming and dairying every
year, the grain production of the country also continues
to increase, and now represents an annual value of hundreds of millions of dollars. The intending settler will be
interested in the class of grain produced in the country,
the average yields, the prices paid, and the conditions
under which the grain trade is handled.
In Canada the practice is to sell all grain according to
grades established by law. Inspectors, who are appointed
by the Government, decide*-the grade of the grain passing
out of the country. The Board of Grain Commissioners,
whose headquarters is at Fort William, Ontario, have
general charge of the grain business of the country. They
are Government appointees, and in the performance of
their duties must themselves comply with the rules governing the grain trade generally, and must see that the law
is observed by all concerned in the grain business of the
country. •
Most of the grain of Manitoba, Saskatchewan and
Alberta is handled through elevators located at railway
stations in the grain-producing country. Some of these
elevators are owned by farmers, some by farmers' organizations assisted by the Government, and some by grain
dealers and milling companies. In addition to the ordinary
elevators at country points, are terminal elevators maintained at Fort William and Port Arthur, and large
Government storage elevators located at Moose Jaw,
Saskatoon, and Calgary. All grain dealers must be licensed
and bonded,  thus  securing the  farmer  from  loss  either
The farmer may deliver his wheat to the elevator andi
receive cash for it, or, if he thinks the market is likely to
rise, he may store his wheat in the elevator and secure a|
storage ticket showing that he is entitled to a stated]
number of bushels of wheat of a certain grade. This
enables him to sell his wheat when the market is most]
favorable. Or, if he prefers to load his grain into a car|
without dealing with the elevator, he may do so over the]
loading platforms which are provided at grain shipping?
points. The railways are compelled by law to erect these!
platforms at stations from which wheat in carload lots is]
shipped.
Some idea of the increase in grain production in the]
three Prairie Provinces may be gained from the following)
approximate figures for the years 1903 and 1914, showing*
the development in that period,
bushels:
Figures   shown   are;
Year Wheat Oats Barley
1903       56,147,021       47,215,479       10,448,461
♦1914     138,380,000     147,383,000       18,009,000
* Figures for 1914 are estimated only.
Flax
884,000
7,445,000
STORAGE CAPACITY;
Remarkable as has been the increase in its crops, the
storage capacity of the country has kept pace with its
agricultural development. In addition to the elevators
owned by the railways, by grain firms, and by private
companies, both Provincial and Dominion Governments,
recognizing the importance of adequate storage facilities,
have encouraged elevator construction, the Dominion Government by a policy of large terminal and interior elevators, and the Provincial Governments by assisting
farmers' organizations with the financing of elevators
managed by the farmers themselves. The following table
shows the increase in elevator capacity in Western Canada
from 1900 to the present date:
Year Bushels
1900     20,908,000
21,000,000
1901
1902
1903
1904
1905
1906
1907
21,298,000
30,356,400
41,186,000
46,640,630
50,453,200
55,600,000
Year Bushels
1908     60,808,600
1909     63,190,100
1910     77,901,100^
1911    84,917,700
1912    85,514,900^
1913  102,003,650s
1914  124,915,0001
Flour milling daily capacity has increased from 41,530
bbls. in 1910 to 55,685 in 1914, and the daily capacity of i
oatmeal mills has  increased from  1,425  bbls. in  1910 to!
3,755 bbls. in 1914. GRAIN PRICES.
The following tables show the average price paid for
different grains on the Winnipeg Grain Exchange for the
years mentioned. The Grain Exchange year is from September 1st to August 31st, and the prices quoted are for
the grain in store at Fort William. These prices are for
No. 1 Northern Wheat, No. 2 Canadian West Oats, and
No. 1 Northwestern Flax.
ALBERTA
Year                                              Wheat Oats .
1910  $1.00% $0.35
1911  94y2 .34
1912    1.00% .41%
1913  89% .35
1914  887s .377/8
Last 4 mos. of 1914   1.14 < .56
Flax
2.28%
1.93&
1.2154
1.30%
1.24
In the following pages the agricultural opportunities
afforded by the Prairie Provinces are dealt with in as
great detail as the limited space in this booklet will permit.
The thoughtful reader cannot fail to be impressed with
the advantages that are here offered to the farmer, especially the all-round farmer who produces not only wheat,
but fodder grains, grasses, roots, vegetables and small
fruits and combines  with   j	
his tillage of the soil, the
raising of live stock and
poultry and the production
of milk, butter, cream and
cheese. The constantly increasing cost of farm land
in older countries, and the
difficulty of getting land
which has not been robbed
of its fertility, are very
serious problems to the
farmer, especially the
farmer on a rented farm,
or the farmer with a family of boys coming up and
needing land of their own.
This problem can be
solved by moving to the
prairie provinces, where there is still an abundance of soil
in all its virgin richness, available to the settler at moderate cost and on easy terms of payment. With the liberal
terms upon which lands of the Canadian Pacific Railway
Company can be bought, and the generous assistance given
by the Company to bona fide home-makers, a means is
afforded the ambitious farmer, even though his capital
be limited, to make a good start in Western Canada, and
give himself and his family the prospect of a fair return
for their labor, and comfort and competence in their later
years.
8
- Alberta is the most westerly of the Canadian Prairie
Provinces. Its southern boundary adjoins the State of
Montana; its western boundary is the crest of the Rocky
Mountains, which it follows in a north-westerly direction
to a point on about the -same parallel as Edmonton, when
the boundary leaves the mountains and continues due
north to the sixtieth parallel, which is the northern boundary of the province. Its eastern boundary is the 110th
meridian west from Greenwich, which is also the western
boundary of the sister'Province of Saskatchewan. The
Province of Alberta comprises an area greater than that
of any country in Europe save Russia, and more than
twice the combined areas of Great Britain and Ireland.
Its northern boundary, the 60th parallel of latitude, passes
through the Shetland Islands and north of Petrograd; and
its southern boundary, the 49th parallel of latitude, passes
south of the English Channel, through France a few miles
north of Paris, through the southern portion of the German
Empire, and through the middle of Austria-Hungary.
The province embraces
162,765,200 acres. Of this
1,510,400 acres is the estimated area contained in
rivers and lakes, leaving
161,254,800 acres of land.
Allowingtheodd 60,000,000
acres for the rough land
of the eastern slope of the
Rocky Mountains, other
mountains and hills, together with waste places
that will not likely be suitable for cultivation, there
still remains the enormous
area of 100,000,000 acres
available for settlement.
Of this less than 4,000,000
acres were actually in
crop during 1914. In
other words, only about
four per cent, of
land    available
Breaking the Fertile Prairie Sod
the
for    cultivation in  the province  has as yet been  brought under
the plow.
None of the other Prairie Provinces presents the
variety of climatic and geographical features to be found
in Alberta. The topography of the country ranges from
the vast, level, treeless plain to the wildest and grandest
mountain scenery. The climate of the southern and southwestern portion of the province is the mildest in Canada
with the exception of some parts of British Columbia.
In.the district lying southward from Calgary the snow
fall is so limited that sleighs are seldom used. The Eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains, including
the great foothill country which extends towards the
plains some fifty miles further than the mountains proper,
and which-has become famous as the home of the ranching industry, are included in Alberta for nearly 400 m.iles
in a north-westerly direction. The slopes of these mountains, as well as many of the foothill valleys, are heavily
covered with timber, and a great forest reserve has been
created by the Dominion Government to guarantee the
preservation of these forests. The policy of the Government is to maintain for all time a vast forest reserve which
will afford a permanent supply of building material to the
settlers of Alberta, and at the same time constitute a reservoir storing up the heavy snowfall of the mountain
region to be distributed over the plains by the natural
agency of wind and rain, or by the artificial means of
irrigation. Many mountain rivers come down from these
wooded slopes, and exert a very great influence upon the
country which they traverse. They water fertile valleys
which are rapidly becoming centres of close population.
They bring down the logs of the lumberman to railway
connections, where towns spring up and sawmills provide
labor for the working man, and fuel and lumber for the
Cattle in Alfalfa Fields, Western Canada.
settler. They make available an enormous supply of water
for irrigation purposes. They provide beautiful sites and
ample water supply for cities and towns, and it is worthy
of note that all the larger cities in Alberta are located on
fine rivers. And these rivers, with their scores of mountain tributaries, afford a region of unmixed delight for the
sportsman and angler.
ALBERTA'S PROGRESS.
The greatest natural resource of the province is, of
course, its immense area of fertile farm land; but aside
from this there are resources which in themselves are
capable of supporting a very large population, and which
are of prime interest to the intending home-maker. The
province has forests of great value and extent, which support an important lumber industry.    Great coal properties
10
have been opened up; in 1913 the coal production of the
province exceeded 4,300,000 tons, and is steadily increasing; hitherto unexploited deposits of natural gas have been
tapped; the existence of oil of altogether exceptional
quality has been established; great beds of merchantable
clays and shales have been uncovered and factories erected
for their manufacture; and the development of all these
natural resources means not only a convenient supply of
the various commodities used by the farmer, but also a
large and profitable market at his door for his grain, hay,
cattle, hogs, mutton, poultry, butter, milk, eggs, roots,
vegetables and small fruits—in fact everything capable of
being produced on the Alberta farm.
Alberta's history is a record of wonderful advancement. In 1902 the population was well under the 100,000
mark; by the census of 1911 it was 374,663, and it is now;
estimated at fully 500,000. Railway mileage in Alberta
increased from 946 miles in 1905 to 4,200 miles in 1914.
In 1914, 950 miles were added to the railways of Alberta.'
FERTILE FARM LANDS.
Although Alberta's resources are the most varied of
any of the Prairie Prov-S
inces, it is her fertile farm?
lands which are the basis!
of her present and future!
prosperity. They varyj
from open prairie to morej
or less heavily wooded districts, and the soil, which!
is very rich and deep!
ranges from a light chocolate to a heavy loam. Itsl
fertility is evidenced b]|
the record of crops shown!
below, extending over a
period of fifteen years.
Summary of the A
creage and
Yields of the Leading
Grains in Alberta During
the Last 15 Years.
Crop area
Total yield
Aver.
Averi
Year
in acres
in bushels
per acre
yield
1900
30,361
583,806
19.22
1901
34,890
857,714
24.58
1902
• 45,064
850,122
18.86
1903
59,951
1,118,180
18.65
1904
47,411
786,075
16.58
1905
75,353
1,617,505
21.46
1906
115,502
2,664,661
23.07
ring  Wheat   1907
123,935
2,261,610
18.25
19.83
1908
212,677
4,001,503
18.81
1909
324,472
6,155,455
18.97
1910
450,493
5,697,956
12.65
1911
1,299,989
28,132,000
21.64
1912
1,256,200
27,059,000
21.54
1913
1,310,000
30,130,000
23.00
1914
1,150,000
11
23,219,000
20.19 Crop area   Total yield    Aver.   Aver.
Year      in acres      in bushels per acre yield
Winter Wheat
Oats
Barley
Flax
1903
1904
1905
1906
1907
1908
1909
1910
1911
1912
1913
1914
1900
1901
1902
1903
1904
1905
1906
1907
1908
1909
1910
1911
1912
1913
1914
1900
1901
1902
1903
1904
1905
1906
1907
1908
1909
1910
1911
1912
1913
1914
1902
1903
1904
1905
1906
1907
1908
1909
1910
1911
1912
1913
1914
3,440
8,296
32,174
61,625
83,965
104,956
102,167
142,467
316,910
161,000
202,000
221,100
77,616
104,533
118,997
162,314
180,698
242,801
335,728
307,093
431,145
693,901
492,589
1,178,300
1,359,300
1,639,000
1,502,000
9,256
13,483
22,201
42,219
61,549
64,830
73,588
54,698
77,867
107,764
90,901
156,418
174,900
197,000
178,000
373
830
367
581
3,647
6,488
9,262
12,479
14,300
40,275
111,400
105,000
82,418
152,125
689,019
1,301,359
1,932,925
3,093,422
2,312,344
2,206,564
9,011,000
3,515,000
4,242,000
4,252,000
2,625,581
4,253,284
3,776,976
5,187,511
5,609,496
9,514,180
13,136,913
9,274,914
15,922,974
24,819,661
12,158,530
56,964,000
62,936,000
71,542,000
54,523,000
234,971
442,381
473,108
1,077,274
1,608,241
1,773,914
2,157,957
1,082,460
1,949,164
3,310,332
1,889,509
4,151,000
5,780,000
6,334,000
4,681,000
7,753
5,003
8,337
38,491
50,002
73,762
131,531
64,000
418,000
1,429,000
1,155,000
23.95
18.33
21.41
21.11
20.66
29.47
22.63
15.48
25.28
21.83
21.00
19.23
33.82
40.68
31.74
31.95
31.04
39.18
39.12
30.11
36.93
35.76
24.68
48.34
46.30
43.65
36.30
25.37
32.81
21.31
25.51
26.12
27.36
29.32
19.78
25.03
30.72
20.79
26.54
32.87
32.15
26.30
4,476     12.00
9.34
13.63
14.34
10.65
7.87
7.96
10.54
4.48
10.39
12.83
11.00
21.69
36.64
26.80
10.42
Figures   not   complete   at   time   of
compilation.
A comparison of Alberta yields for a period of ten
years with leading grain-showing states is very instructive:
12
Wheat Oats Barley Flax
All  Canada     18.88 34.60 28.07 11.72
♦United States     13.40 29.90 25.20 9.00
Alberta     20.19 36.30 26.20 10.72
Minnesota     13.70 32.00 24.70 10.00
Iowa     15.20 31.80 26.40 10.70
North  Dakota     11.60 28.60 21.60 8.70
South Dakota    11.50    "   28.30 22.30 9.10
Kansas     10.00 23.40 16.90 6.90
Nebraska     12.80 25.10 21.70 8.90
Wisconsin     16.70 33.30 27.70 13.10
Note:—The yields of the various states quoted in this
folder are taken from "The Farmer's Bulletin" published
by the United States Department of Agriculture.
Wheat.—Alberta's fame for wheat producing dates
back to the World's Columbian Exposition at Chicago, over
20 years ago, when the prize winning wheat came from the
Peace River Valley in Northern Alberta. In 1912 first prize
for the world's best wheat was awarded by the International Dry-Farming Congress to grain growers in Southern
Alberta. Wherever shown, Alberta wheat has proved its
superiority, its only serious competitors being the grain
from the neighboring Prairie Provinces of Saskatchewan
and Manitoba, with which the awards usually alternate.
The yield of Alberta spring wheat for the last fifteen years
has averaged over 19 bushels to the acre, and only once
in that period has the yield for the province dropped
below 15 bushels per acre. The poorest crop in 15 years
averaged 12.65 bushels and, for the sake of comparison it
is worth noting that the average crop of such grain-growing states - as the Dakotas and Kansas for the last ten
years has been less than the poorest crop, in Alberta during the same period. Most of Alberta's wheat crop is sown
in the spring, but this province has also an important
winter wheat crop, occupying over 200,000 acres, and
yielding in 1914 an average production of 19.23 bushels
per acre, while the average for the last 12 years has been
21.69 bushels per acre. The foregoing figures show the
average yield of spring wheat in Alberta compared with
wheat yields of Canada as a whole, the United States as
a whole, and a number of the leading wheat producing
states.
Oats.-—There is no section of Alberta where oats of the
very highest quality cannot be produced successfully. There
are frequent yields of over 100 bushels to the acre, and
from 50 to 60 bushels is a common yield. While 34 pounds
is the standard Canadian weight for a bushel of oats,
Alberta oats are on record which weighed 48 pounds to
the measured bushel, and the statement was made by the
Dominion Grain Inspector for the province that 85% of
Alberta oats examined by him would weigh over 42 pounds
to the measured bushel. The triumphs of Alberta oats
have been many at the great shows of Canada and the
13 United States. At the International Dry-Farming Congress in 1912, Alberta won first prize for medium white
oats, and 14 other prizes in the oat class, and again at
the International Dry-Farming Congress in 1913 Alberta
captured first for black oats and third for white oats, the
first prize for white oats having in this case gone to Saskatchewan. The excellent quality of Alberta oats, and
the large yield secured, have led to the establishment of
important oatmeal mills. There is a large home demand
for oats, in addition to the excellent market afforded by
British Columbia, the Yukon territories, and exportation
to other countries.
Great Britain for the manufacture of malt by some of]
the largest maltsters there. Much prize winning barley
has been grown in Alberta, but it remained for Nick^
Taitinger, a farmer of the Claresholm district, in Southern^
Alberta, to establish a unique record by capturing first!
prize for his barley three years in succession at the Inter-3
national Dry-Farming Congress. The Congress for these"
three years was held at Lethbridge, Alberta, Tulsa, Okla-'
homa, and Wichita, Kansas, respectively, and it may safelyi
be said that the finest barley on the American continent-;
competed. Alberta's triumph in capturing the first prize
three times in succession tells its own story.
Cattle Fatten on the Native Grasses of Alberta.   The Upper Scene Shows Cattle Feeding Out of Doors in Midwinter.
Barley.—There are two varieties of barley produced in
the province; the six-rowed barley, used for both malting
and feeding purposes, and the two-rowed barley, in demand by British maltsters. The six-rowed is the principal
barley crop, although the production of a high-grade
two-rowed barley in Southern Alberta is rapidly coming
to the front. Barley is a heavy yielder in Alberta, as
the accompanying tables show. The quality, also, is first-
class. It is used extensively for malting purposes, and
the    two-rowed    variety    has   been    shipped    direct    to
Flax.—Although not grown in such great quantities as|
wheat,  oats  or barley,  flax is  an  important product  of
Alberta.    The  soil and  climate  of Western  Canada are^
well suited to this crop.   A good average yield is secured^
and some very heavy crops are on record.   Premost flax,
a  variety  which  has  been  developed  by  the   Canadian
Department of Agriculture, is on record as having yielded!
29.63  bushels per acre  on  a  large field of breaking inf
Southern Alberta.    The crop in question was practically!
all sold for seed, and commanded $3.00 a bushel.
14
15 CLIMATE CfF ALBERTA.
The figures of crop returns, both general and specific,
which have been presented, are in themselves the best
tribute to the climate of Alberta. If the climate were not
one exceptionally favorable to farming operations, such
yields, extending over a representative period of years,
would be impossible. It is not denied that at times and
places there is severe winter weather in Alberta. In
January and February short periods of cold, sharp weather
are to be expected, but at such times the sky is almost
always bright and cloudless, and the dry, pure air renders
the cold more bearable than temperatures many degrees
higher in damp climates. These cold periods are generally
of short duration. During the 151 days in the months of
November, December, 1913, and January, February and
March, 1914, there were 104 days in which the mid-day
temperature at Calgary varied from 30 to 69 degrees above
zero; 40 days in which it ran from zero to 29 degrees
above, and only 7 days on which it ran below zero, the
lowest point registered being 19 degrees below. The
snowfall is scantyt the precipitation being practically all
in the summer months.   There is no rain in winter.
The winter generally breaks up in February with a
warm wind from the west, followed by a period of from
one to three weeks of warm, bright weather, the beginning of Southern Alberta's spring. The earliest spring
flowers appear in March. May is generally fine, warm and
bright, June and the earlier part of July rainy, the remainder of July, August, September, October and generally
November warm and dry. The summer, July to September,
is characterized by warm days, relieved by a never-failing
breeze, and cool nights, but the warm golden days of
autumn, often lasting well into December, are the glory
of the year. The grand characteristic of the climate as a
whole, and the one on which the weather hinges, is the
chinook wind, so called because it blows from the region
formerly inhabited by the Chinook Indians, on the banks
of the lower Columbia River. It is a warm, dry, balmy
wind, blowing from the mountains across the plains, and
its effect in winter may be described as little short of
miraculous in maintaining a temperature milder than prevails in latitudes much further south.
Temperatures:—The equable nature of Alberta's
climate is shown by the following table, which gives the
mean temperature for a period of six years. Temperatures
naturally vary considerably over an area as large as
Alberta, but these figures give a fair average for the
Southern part of the province. Not only has Alberta a
very moderate winter clirrfate, but a very pleasant summer, excessive heat being unknown.
16
1908
January .... 25.34
February   ... 21.9
March     21.6
April    42.50
May    49.80
June     54.60
July    63.42
August     57.55
September .. 52.93
October .... 39.03
November .. 33.10
December   .. 22.04
1909     1910    1911     1912    1913   1914
4.11
19.74
18.91
12.83
1.52
16.3
12.17
18.89
21.10
26.39
10.92
16.5
30.22
39.85
34.60
21.96
18.58
31.0
32.10
46.00
36.28
41.25
42.31
42.8
47.01
50.48
47.25
50.03
46.15
50.8
57.06
59.96
57.58
59.81
57.65
57.7
61.30
62.20
58.00
56.32
58.29
66.5
59.05
55.06
54.35
57.38
59.65
61.8
55.00
49.73
47.38
46.48
48.48
53.3
40.48
43.52
40.33
40.00
36.20
44.6
19.65
26.70
18.56
31.60
27.91
32.0
13.45
22.90
20.90
28.10
22.26
14.1
Precipitation by Years for 18 Years.
Year
Inches
Year
1906
1907
1908
1909
1910
1911
1912
1913
Inches
.. 16.14
.. 16.45
1 17.96
.. 16.15
.. 11.89
.. 20.04
.. 21.30
.. 17.38
1897   20.58
1898   16.79
1899   23.01
1900   15.41
1901   21.31
1902   35.71
1903   21.98
1904   11.16
1905   16.51
Average precipitation for 18 years, 18.17.
It is important to note that the precipitation in
Alberta falls almost exclusively during the months in
which it is of value to growing crops. The following table
shows the amount of moisture which fell at Calgary each
month of the year 1914. Note the almost total absence of
moisture from September to May. It is the dryness in
the winter months which contributes largely to the enjoy-
ability and healthfulness of Alberta's climate.
January 93
February ... .1.15
March 76
April 60
May    52
June    2.64
July     2.52
August 2.18
September .
..1.11
October ...
1 82
November .
..2.73
December .
..  .40
Total precipitation for the year, 17.36.
It is true that there are large areas in Southern Alberta where the rainfall drops below the average above
quoted* These areas of light rainfall have called into
existence a number of irrigation enterprises, notably those
of the Canadian Pacific Railway Company along the main
line of the railway between Calgary and Medicine Hat,
and in the Lethbridge district. These irrigation areas are
districts of delightful climate and great fertility of soil,
awaiting only the application of water, which engineering
skill has now made possible. They promise to become
the greatest alfalfa-growing and stock-producing territory
of Western Canada, and are well adapted to all forms of
intensive farming.
Healthfulness.—The open character of the country in
the  Province  of Alberta,  its  clear,  dry atmosphere,  the
17 abundance of sunshiny days, its elevation (from 1,400 to
4,000 feet above sea level), and the fresh breezes that blow
across the plains, all tend to make it one of the most
healthful countries in the world. There is an entire absence
of malaria, and there are no diseases peculiar to the
country. The Central and Southern parts of the province
have a continental reputation for healthfulness. Government records show that in Southern Alberta in 1913 there
were 2,400 hours of sunshine—a very high percentage of
bright weather. The death rate in Calgary for the same
year was 12 per 1,000, and when figures are complete it
will probably be found to be still lower in 1914. The
death rate in the United States is 16 per thousand.
FORAGE AND ROOT CROPS.
It may be stated safely that no country can grow
better fodder crops than Alberta. The rich native grasses
of the prairie sustained immense herds of cattle in the
days of the open range, and are still a very important
factor in the production of Alberta beef and mutton and
the support of horses and cows. Many farmers pasture
horses, cattle, and, in increasing numbers, sheep, on the
native prairie grass on or adjacent to their farms, and a
very  nutritious natural  hay  is cut  on  the  open  prairie.
Alfalfa.—Alfalfa is now recognized as one of the
important crops of Alberta; it has long passed the experimental stage and is being cultivated more and more
extensively every year. Its greatest success has been
attained under irrigation in the Southern part of the
province, but it is also grown to some extent in districts
where irrigation is not employed. Alfalfa gives two and
three cuttings per season, and yields three to five tons
per acre, after the crop has been properly started. The
success which has attended this crop opens a great field
Settlers Arriving in Alberta in Solid Train Loads.
18
before the mixed farmers of Alberta. *The value of|
alfalfa as a fodder crop is too well known by practical\
farmers to call for discussion in these pages. It is suffi-j
cient to say that wherever alfalfa is successfully grown an|
important mixed farming industry is assured.
Timothy is another crop which is grown successfully
and proves very profitable to the farmer.    In addition tol
the local demand, the Province of British Columbia, lying;
immediately alongside of Alberta, is a big consumer of.
timothy,  which  is  imported  for  use   in   the  mining  and1
lumbering districts.    From two to three tons of timothy"
per acre can be raised, and crops as heavy as four tons;
per acre have been recorded.    Farmers in certain districts!
in Southern Alberta have built up a very profitable business
m the shipping of timothy and other hay crops to British!
Columbia.   The farmer has also at his command a number
of other valuable fodders which are held in high esteem\
by   stock-raisers  and   dairymen.      Oats   and  barley   give
heavy  yields,  and  are  frequently  cut   green   for   fodder. I
Field peas and clovers of all varieties thrive well and are|
very productive.
Canadian Barley and  Oats vs. Corn.—Among many]
stockmen from corn growing countries the opinion pre-;
vails that corn is necessary in order to bring cattle, or^
even  hogs, to  their  highest market value.    To all who
entertain such ideas of stock feeding, a trip through West—
ern Canada is a veritable revelation.   Here they find cattle
running at large,  grazing on  the prairie  grass,  supple-;
mented, perhaps, with a small ration of oat or barley chop,"
in a state of fitness which the corn farmer, until he has;
seen it with his own eyes, simply cannot credit.   The old:
theory that corn is an essential food for stock dies hard
among those who have been brought up to that belief, but]
it can no longer be maintained by any who keep pace withj
the knowledge of the times. For)
two  years   in   succession   (19121
and 1913) Canadian steers which^
never ate a mouthful of corn in:
their   lives   have   captured   the;
Grand     Championship     sweep-^
stakes at the International Live]
Stock Show at Chicago in com-i
petition with the best corn-fed 1
stock  produced   in   the   United;
States.      This    double    victory!
surely establishes the superiority of Canadian oats and barley
over American corn as a food
for beef animals. Experience has;
established beyond all question
—anld   the   International   Live
Stock Show at Chicago corrobo-
19 rates this—that the grains and fodders of Western Canada,
fed under Western Canadian conditions, combine to produce a finer beef animal than is possible by any means
known to stockmen in any other part of the continent.
Roots and Vegetables.—All varieties of roots and vegetables usually grown in temperate climates are profitable
crops in Alberta, and there is scarcely a farm without its
garden, some only large enough to supply the needs of
the family, others large enough to give a surplus for
marketing. There is a big field before the farmer who
gives proper attention to his vegetable garden. The settlement of Alberta has been very rapid; cities of considerable
importance have sprung up in a few years, and the farmers themselves have, as a rule, been more interested in
their grain crops than in supplying the local market with
vegetables. The result has been that in recent years
potatoes have been brought to Alberta right across the
continent, from Prince Edward Island, and potatoes and
.other vegetables are continually being imported from
British Columbia and some of the Western States. Every
pound of these products can be produced in Alberta. The
soil and climate are favorable, and all kinds of root crops
give large yields. There are no potato bugs or similar
pests. The potato crop of Alberta for 1914, according to
a Dominion Government return, amounted to 3,652,000
bushels, and the average price was 65 cents per bushel.
The average yield of potatoes per acre secured at Lethbridge Experimental Farm for the last seven years was
233 bushels without irrigation and 492 bushels with irrigation. Turnips and other roots do equally well. The
Alberta farmer can produce everything of this kind he
needs for his own uses, and sell the surplus at good
prices.
Sugar beets are successfully grown in Alberta, and
already only one province in Canada produces greater
quantities. As the facilities for handling beets increase
the crop promises to be one of great importance.
Fruit Raising.—Fruit raising in Alberta has not been
followed to any great extent, perhaps because farmers
have in .the past been so occupied with their grain and
Stock interests. But those who have devoted some attention to fruit culture have established the fact that the
smaller fruits can be grown successfully on a commercial
scale in this province, and as the cities are dependent for
their supply upon outside sources, a profitable local market is always available.
Currants, raspberries, strawberries, saskatoons, gooseberries and similar fruits grow wild in Alberta, and when
placed under cultivation yield very profitable crops. Many
farmers now have fruit gardens sufficient for their own
requirements, and some are making a business of supply-
20
ing nearby markets. Instances are on record of Alberta
raspberries yielding a net profit at a rate of over $800.00
an acre.
The Canadian Pacific Railway Company's supply farm
at Strathmore, Alberta, has been producing small fruits
for some years, and the quality of the fruit is attested by
the fact that it is used extensively on the Company's dining
cars and in their hotel system. In 1914, from an area of
1% acres, *L,100 quarts of excellent strawberries were sold,
besides a considerable quantity not offered for sale.
LIVE STOCK IN ALBERTA.
HORSES.—Alberta is pre-eminently noted for her
horses, which have become famous for their endurance,
lung power, clean bone, and freedom from hereditary and other diseases. With the outbreak of the
European war in August, 1914, the British Government at
once turned to Alberta for a supply of army horses, and
Thoroughbred Mares on an Alberta Ranch.
large purchases were made in this province. The drain
upon the horse supply of the world which the war has
occasioned assures high prices for horses for years to
come, and the Alberta farmer, who includes horse-raising
with his agriculture, will undoubtedly find it very profitable. The horses in Alberta at the beginning of 1914
were valued by the Dominion Government at $67,199,375.
The following table shows very clearly the steadily
increasing importance of the live stock industry in Alberta:
COMPARISON OF LIVE STOCK IN ALBERTA
FOR FOUR YEARS.   . lp|*
1911 1912            1913            1914
Horses      407,153 451,573 484,809 609,126
Milch Cows ....    147,687 .   157,922 168,376 192,203
Other Cattle ....    592,163 ;587,307 610.917 898,978
Sheep     133,592 135,075 178,015 501,188
Swine      237,510 278,747 350,692 750,789
21 1
CATTLE.—Southern and Central Alberta have long
been the recognized home of beef cattle of exceptional
quality. The peculiar nutrition of the prairie and foothill
grasses, the pure water and moderate climate, combine
to favor the live stock industry.
The scarcity of beef is not a local but a world-wide
condition. It is significant that the number of cattle,
exclusive of dairy cows, in the United States, decreased
over 16,000,000 from 1907 to 1913, although the population
of the country increased nearly 10,000,000 in the same
period. With beef supplies growing smaller and population
increasing, beef prices are high and must remain high
for years, if not permanently, and the Alberta mixed
farmers will reap the benefit. That they are already
doing so is indicated by the following figures showing the
number of cattle handled by two leading firms at Calgary
during a period of years:
1905 1909 1911 1912 1913 1914
3,417       10,820       25,862       32,250       70,416       83,513
The value of live stock handled through the Calgary
yards in 1913 has been carefully computed at $14,405,900.
It is an interesting fact that Calgary is the home of the
largest individual pure-bred cattle auction in the world,
which takes place in April of each year, and has an important effect in improving the quality and increasing the
distribution of the  best breeds  throughout  Alberta.
The Provincial Government has conducted extensive
experiments to ascertain profits which may be made by
farmers winter-feeding steers. The steers are bought in
the fall at the market price, fed through the winter, and
sold in the spring. The feed used is green feed, oats,
barley, and, in some instances, wheat. After paying for
all the feed used at market prices, allowing interest on
the money invested in the stock, and paying for the labor
employed, the net profit on a lot of 104 steers with which
the experiment was tried amounted to $1,820.58, or $17.50
per head. Many farmers employ for feeding purposes
straw and other by-products which would otherwise be
of no value, and are thus able to make even a better
showing than th© Government experiment.
Live Stock Abound on the Home-Maker's Farm.
22
SHEEP.—In common with other stock, sheep thrive
to great advantage in Alberta, and their importance as an
adjunct to mixed farming is. being gradually more and,;
more recognized. Mutton commands a good price, local
markets being supplied to a considerable extent by importations, notably from New Zealand. The wool industry
is also growing in importance. During 1913 a shipment
of Alberta wool was made to Great Britain, and the fact
that it was eagerly bought by the woolen manufacturers
there is sufficient evidence of its quality. The removal
of the duty on wool entering the United States from
Canada has resulted in a big demand from the wool firms
of the Republic, and the Alberta clip of 1914 was largely
absorbed by Boston firms.
The climate of Alberta is very favorable to sheep
raising, the total absence of winter rains being an important factor. According to an estimate of the Alberta
Department of Agriculture, the sheep in the province
increased 25% during the year 1913, and reached a total
of over 500,000 in 1914. Sheep raising in Alberta is
decidedly profitable, and promises to become an important
branch of the live stock industry of the province.
DAIRYING.—Probably nowhere are greater opportunities afforded the dairy farmer than are to be found
in Alberta. Conditions of climate and fodder are ideal, as
is evidenced by the fact that an Alberta cow holds the
dairy championship of the British Empire. The cities and
towns afford a large market for milk and cream, and the
price paid is usually higher than in older districts, where
the dearer lands make the cost of producing milk considerably greater. The Carlyle Dairy Company, of Calgary, Alberta, reports that during the year 1914 the lowest
price paid at any time for milk was $1.60 per hundred
pounds, and from that it varied up to $2.20 per hundred
pounds. Comparison of these figures with the prices paid
in dairy districts of Eastern Canada and the United States
leaves no doubt as to the profit available to the Alberta
dairy farmer.
The local demand for butter frequently exceeds the
supply, and butter of good quality commands good prices <
at all seasons of the year.    The  Provincial Government
gives much active assistance to the dairy interests.    The
preference of consumers is for creamery butter, owing to
its   uniform   quality,   and  the   Government   gives   liberal ?
assistance toward the establishment and management of
creameries throughout the country.    Creameries are sub-;
ject to the control of patrons, but are under Government^
direction.    At the end of every month each patron gets?
credit for the equivalent of his cream in butter, a cash;
advance being paid to him at once and the balance as the
product is sold.    Co-operation of creameries under Gov-,
23 Native Hay in Stack on the Prairies.
}ernment supervision has resulted in the production of
butter of high uniform quality and the obtaining of good
prices.
During the last year covered by Government reports
49 creameries and 7 cheese factories were operated in
Alberta. The average price received for butter at the
creameries during the summer was 26J4 cents per pound,
and the average for the winter months was a little-over
30 cents per pound. The proximity of the British Columbia market assures the Alberta producer of an ample
demand for all his surplus butter, and the cheese production of the province as yet falls far below the local
consumption.
SWINE.—In no other branch of mixed farming has
such great progress been made within the last few years
as in the hog industry. Farmers have found that hogs
do well in Alberta; that there is almost a total absence of
disease; that the necessary feed can be cheaply produced,
and in many cases was going to waste on their farms,
and that hogs command good prices. The following
figures, showing the hogs handled by two leading Calgary
firms during the years stated, show conclusively the increasing importance of hog-raising in Alberta:
1905 1909 1911 1912 1913
. 16,512       26,597       15,520       28,770     128,593
The fact that Canadian hogs now enter the
United States free of duty has opened a very
large market to the hog-producer in Alberta, and
during 1914 heavy shipments were made from
Calgary to United States coast points, mainly
Seattle. Some idea of the volume of this trade
is gained from the fact that in seven months of
1914 a single Seattle firm bought 112,544 hogs on
the Calgary market, paying for them an average
price of $7.81 per hundred pounds, their highest
price being $8.27j^ and the lowest $7.15.
Alfalfa, the king of hog fodders, is produced
with great success in the irrigated area of Southern Alberta, and oats and barley are among the
chief grain products of the province.    So long as
24
1914
353,910
beef prices remain high, pork, which is to some
extent a substitute food, cannot become very
cheap. Alberta farmers who have turned their attention to hog raising have prospered greatly as a-
result, and even with the present prospect of very
high prices for grain, those who prefer to convert
it into pork will no doubt continue to reap a
handsome profit by so doing.
POULTRY.—'There is a large and profitable
field in Alberta for the poultry-raiser.   With eggs
never lower than 25c, and ranging from 35c to
60c per dozen on the Calgary market, little further
need be said regarding this valuable branch of the
farm.    It is generally conceded that the primary
conditions  for   successful  poultry-raising  are   reasonable
mildness of climate, abundance of sunshine and dryness
of   atmosphere.     These   conditions   are   all   present   in
the  highest  degree  in Alberta.    The  climate  offers  exceptional inducements to engage in poultry-raising.   There
is  abundance  of  sunshine  throughout the year;   in  fact,
there are few days, either in winter or summer, that the
birds   cannot   take   exercise   out-of-doors   at   some   time
during the  day.    During March, April and part of May
there   is   practically   no   rainfall,   making   conditions   for
rearing the very best for all kinds  of poultry.    As this
is the hatching season, the poultryman has ample opportunity  to  get  the  young  stock  past  the  danger  period
before the wet weather, which is so injurious to the young
stock.    With  dry weather and  from  14 to  18  hours  of
daylight, they have every chance to mature.   .Many have
discarded the heat brooders and are rearing chicks most
successfully in the cold brooders.   There is a good local
market  for   all  kinds   of  poultry,   and  British   Columbia
stands ready at all times to consume the surplus.    Turkeys, which do exceptionally well in Alberta, are exported
in large quantities to  Coast cities.    Alberta turkeys are
favorably known on the markets wherever they have been
introduced.
Sheep Show Big Profits in Western Canada.
25 SOIL IS  FAR SUPERIOR TO MINNESOTA.
I have lived in this district for a period of fourteen years, having
dome here from Minnesota. I think this country the best I have ever
seen for a man with small means to make a start.
The winters here are much more moderate than where I came
from. I never stable the cattle and horses are never stalled or fed,
except work horses.
The soil is far superior to Minnesota. I have never had a crop
failure and have never raised less than 40 bushels of oats per acre
and up as high as 70 bushels of oats per acre. My wheat went 34
bushels per acre this year.    All kinds of root crops do well.
We have good roads, rural telephone, good schools, etc. I am
well satisfied here and will never go back for any ™0j^a*s^!£*-
Ferry Point, Alberta, December 18th, 1914.
NO CROP FAILURE IN 13 YEARS.
I came from the State of Nebraska in 1901 and took up C. P. R.
land in this district. I have cropped my land every year and have
always had a good crop. I find the climate here equally as good as
Nebraska and like it better on account not so much wind. We have
never had a crop failure since starting farming and could recommend
any men to come to this country. I threshed this year 6,000 bushels
of wheat, oats and barley from 195 acres under cultivation in addition
to this have 200 tons of timothy hay from 100 acres, besides all kinds
of roots and vegetables. I consider this district as good for mixed
farming as any country I know of. I would be glad to correspond
with any one wanting information. FITCH
Evarts P. O., Alberta, December 22nd, 1914.
LIKES THE WINTERS BETTER THAN THOSE OF IOWA.
I came to Alberta from Oklahoma, eleven years ago, after living
in thirteen different States, and own a section of land here. I consider
this is a country second to none for mixed farming and dairying. I
.threshed 6,000 bushels of grain this year, which averaged about 50
bushels to the acre. I like the winter weather here very much better
than in Iowa, I consider that this is a country of splendid opportunities for a man of small means. I will be glad to answer any enquiries concerning conditions here.
(SgJJ  A.  F.  COWITZ.
Didsbury, Alberta, December 15th, 1914.
JSTEVER HAD A  CROP  FAILURE IN ALBERTA.
I came here ten years ago from Oberon P.O., North Dakota, and
farmed there ten years previous to coming here, and have been engaged
in mixed farming ever since I came. I much prefer living here than
in North Dakota; we escape the bad blizzards and awful storms we
used to have in North Dakota. In my experience farming west of
Crossfield, I may add that I never had a failure of crops in all that
time, and land properly tilled will produce larger yields than any
country I have ever seen. Anyone wishing to come to a new country
cannot make a mistake by coming here.
(Sgd.)    F. T. WILLIAMS..
Crossfield, Alberta, January 8th,  1915.
MORTGAGED HIS LAND  IN UNITED  STATES TO  COME TO
CANADA.
In March, 1904, I mortgaged my 150 acre farm in Gallatin Co.,
Montana, and came to Alberta the same month and took up a homestead. About three years later I sold the "Tarm in Montana and with
the proceeds bought two more quarters of land. I have added to my
holdings from time to time and now have 1,120 acres of land nearly all
in cultivation.
Although the season of 1914 was considered a dry season I sold
about $7,000.00 worth of grain. When I came here my total assets
were between $4,500 and $5,000, and now outside of my indebtedness
(which the most of us have) I figure my net worth about $28,000.00,
so you will always find me boosting for "Sunny Alberta".
(Sgd.) A. A. DAWES.
Blackie, Alberta.
26
SASKATCHEWAN
Saskatchewan lies between the 49th and 60th parallels
of north latitude, and between the meridians of 102 and
110 degrees west from Greenwich. The southern border
is the International boundary, the dividing line between
Canada and the United States. South of Saskatchewan
are the States of North Dakota and Montana; east of it is
the Province of Manitoba; west of it is the Province of
Alberta, and on the north it is bounded by the unorganized
North West Territories. Its greatest length is 760 miles
and its width on the south is 393 miles. In the middle it
is 300 miles wide; at the northern boundary it has a width
of 277 miles. The area of this great quadrangle is 250,650
square miles, of which 8,318 square miles is water. The
land surface contains 155,092,480 acres. Of this immense
acreage, less than 10,000,000 acres, or six per cent., was
under cultivation in 1914.
The history of agriculture in Saskatchewan, in a general way, is embraced in the last 25 years, and mainly
within the latter half of that period. The Canadian
Pacific Railway first opened the country to settlement 29
years ago, and the movement of farmers, commencing with
a few adventurous settlers, has steadily grown until Saskatchewan is now the greatest grain producing province
of the Dominion. Railway development has kept pace
with the needs of the settlers, the mileage of railways in
the province having increased from 1,552 miles in 1905
to 4,894 miles in 1912, and 5,817 miles in 1914. Important
cities and towns have sprung into being, .and all phases
of industrial life have shown great development.
SOIL.
Many scientific investigations of Saskatchewan's soil
have been made, and all have resulted in the pronouncement that for grains, fodder crops, roots and vegetables it
could hardly be better. As in all areas of the extent of this
province, there is a great variety in the class of soil, though
practically all districts are very desirable for agriculture.
The color ranges all the way from a light chocolate to
deep, black loam, and the texture from a heavy to a rather
light loam with a slight mixture of sand. There are few
farmers who agree upon which soil is the most desirable;
large and profitable crops are grown on all classes. The
subsoil is clay, underlaid and mixed with grivel. Almost
without exception the soil is rich, deep, and fertile.
27 Hogs, Sheep, and Dairy Cows Mean Money to the Home-Maker.
GRAIN  GROWING IN  SASKATCHEWAN.
Although it is only in recent years that Saskatchewan
has risen to be a world factor in wheat production, the
cereal has been successfully cultivated in the province since
its early settlement. The rich Indian Head district was
famous for its wheat crops long before other and newer
parts of the province began to attract attention, but it is
only during the last few years that the almost unlimited
agricultural possibilities of Saskatchewan have begun to
be properly appreciated. The success of the farmers who
have located in this province, both as regards yields and
quality of their crops, has, however, in recent years
attracted very wide attention, Saskatchewan grains having
been awarded the premier place in the most important
world exhibitions.
At the great Land and Irrigation Show, held in
Madison Square Garden, New York, in November, 1911,
Mr. Seager Wheeler, of Rosthern, Saskatchewan, entered
a sample 100 pounds of Marquis wheat and captured
the thousand-dollar gold prize offered by Sir Thomas
Shaughnessy.  Mr. Wheeler's prize-winning wheat weighed
28
66Y2 pounds to the measured bushel and yielded over 70
bushels to the acre. At the International Dry Farming
Congress, at Wichita, Kansas, in 1914—-to mention only
two of the important events at which Saskatchewan wheat
has excelled all competitors—Mr. Wheeler again won the
sweepstakes for all wheat, and also captured the first
prize for the best bushel of red spring wheat; while William Henley, of Qu'Appelle, Saskatchewan, was awarded
the first prize for the best bushel of Marquis wheat.
In oat production also Saskatchewan has established
an enviable record. Messrs. J. C. Hill & Sons, of Lloyd-
minster, have achieved the distinction of winning three
times in succession the $1,500 trophy presented by the
State of Colorado at- the National Corn Exposition, which
thus becomes their property. The oats with which Messrs.
Hill & Sons captured this coveted trophy were of the
variety known as "Abundance," and weighed 52 pounds to
the measured bushel.
The following tables show Saskatchewan crops for
ten years up to and including 1913. Figures for 1914 were
not complete at the time of this compilation:
29 Crop area   Total yield    Aver.    Aver.
Year       in acres      in bushels per acre   yield
1904 910,359     15,944,730     17.51
1905 1,130,084 26,107,286 23.09
1906 1,730,586 37,040,098 21.40
1907 2,047,724 27,691,601 13.52
Wheat    1908 3,703,563 50,654,629 13.68      18.81
1909 4,085,000 90,215,000 22.1
1910 4,664,834 72,666,399 15.58
1911 4,704,660 97,665,000 20.76
1912 4,838,500 92,706,000 19.16
1913 5,720,000 121,559,000 21.35
1904 346,530 10,756,350 31.04
1905 449,936 19,213,055 42.70
1906 369,873 23,965,528 37.45
1907 801,810 23,324,903 29.09
Oats   1908 1,772,976 48,378,838 27.29     37.86
1909 2,240,000 105,465,000 47.1
1910 2,082,607 63,315,295 30.40
1911 2,124,057 97,962,000 46.12
1912 2,285,600 105,115,000 45.99
1913 2,755,000 114,112,000 41.42
1905 32,946 893,396 27.11
1906 53,565 1,316,415 24.57
1907 79,339 1,350,265 17.02
Barley  1908 229,574 3,965,724 17.28  26.31
1909 244,000 8,833,000 32.1
1910 238,394 5,859,018 24.85
1911 172,253 5,445,000 31.61
1912 180,300 5,926,000 32.87
1913 292,000 10,421,000 31.39
1904 15,917    166,434  10.45
1905 25,315    398,399  15.73
1906 76,005    710,689  9.35
1907 128,528   1,364,716  10.62
Flax    1908 264,728 2,589,352 9.78      11.09
1909- 319,100 4,448,700 11.9
1910 396,230 3,044,318 7.68
1911 570,000 6,413,000 11.25
1912 1,463,000     18,931,000      12.94
1913 1,386,000     15,579,000     11.24
The story told by the foregoing figures is rendered
more striking by comparison with the ten-year averages
in the leading grain growing states of the United States:
Wheat Oats Barley Flax
All  Canada     18.88 34.60 28.07 11.72
United States     13.40 29.90 25.20 9.00
Saskatchewan     18.81 37.86 26.31 11.09
Minnesota      13.70 32.00 24.70 10.00
Iowa      15.20 31.80 26.40 10.70
North Dakota   11.60 28.60 21.60 8.70
South Dakota    11.50 28.30 22.30 9.10
Kansas     10.00 23.40 16.90 6.90
Nebraska     12.80 25.10 21.70 8.90
Wisconsin     16.70 33.30 27.70 13.10
Raising Quality Grain.—The general quality of all
Saskatchewan grains is attested, not only by the successes
at international exhibitions, as already briefly referred to,
but by the demand for cereals grown in Saskatchewan by
the milling trade. The province is the home of a considerable flour milling industry, attracted by the excellence
30
A Western Canada Oat Crop.
of Saskatchewan wheat, and when the largest producers
of rolled oats on the continent were looking for a Western
Canadian location their choice fell on Saskatchewan. The
fact that barley can be so successfully raised in the prov-l
ince means much to the farmer who is looking for a
district in which he can practice mixed agriculture; the
barley-fed hog outrivals the old corn-fed standby. The;
location of a number of malting plants in the Western,
provinces also assures him of a good local market for
his malting barley. Flax raising is an industry of great
importance, the province's crop in 1913 having exceeded;
the fifteen million bushel mark, amounting to about forty
per cent of the total flax production of the United States
and Canada combined. Saskatchewan is exceptionally
adapted to the production of these four staple cereal
crops, and although only a fraction of the available land
is  under  cultivation,  the  production  of this  province  is
already a considerable factor in
the world's supply.
CLIMATE.
The climate of Saskatchewan
is pleasant and exceedingly
healthy. The temperature during the summer frequently
rises to between 90 and 100
degrees; but the heat is tempered by a never-failing breeze,
and the nights are cool and refreshing, even after the hottest
days. The number of hours of
sunlight is greater here during
the summer months than in
more southern latitudes, and
the clear, healthful atmosphere
is particularly refreshing and
invigorating. The autumn season in Saskatchewan is probably unsurpassed in any part of
the world.
31
$1,600.00   Colorado   Trophy
won   three   times   in   succession   by   Saskatchewan
oats. The winter, which usually begins about or shortly
before the 1st of December, and continues without interruption until the middle or end of March, is undoubtedly
cold, but thanks to the aid of comfortable houses and
suitable clothing, it inspires no dread, and, indeed, is
altogether pleasant and healthful. The infrequent occurrence during that time of thaws or rain, the absence of
humidity, the large proportion of bright sunshine and
the stillness of the atmosphere when the weather is
coldest, all tend to make the Saskatchewan winter weather
invigorating and enjoyable. Severe snowstorms occasionally occur, but they are not, as a rule, accompanied by
extreme temperatures. The infrequency of thaws and
equability of the temperature causes a* noticeable absence
of pneumonia and those kindred troubles that are so much
dreaded in more moist and changeable climates. In an
ordinary season, the winter ends about the middle or end
of March and in a few of the past 20 years the snow has
disappeared before the end of February. In some seasons
grain has been sown about the middle of March, but that
is exceptional. Usually seeding is not in full swing until
April.
Cattle Wintering in Straw Piles and Natural Shelter.
In the ranching district, west and south of Swift
Current, the Chinook winds occur at intervals during the
winter. These warm, dry winds blowing from the southwest cause the snow to disappear rapidly. It is the
occurrence of this wind that makes the southwestern part
of the province such an ideal ranching district; the live
stock winters well on the open range.
Temperature.—The following table has been carefully
compiled from the records of the Government weather
observation stations. They extend over a period of years
sufficient to present a fair average, and are worth the
careful consideration  of any reader who may have  had
32
exaggerated ideas of the extremes of temperature in
Saskatchewan. They show that only in the month of
January does the average fall below the zero point, and
even for January an average as high as ten above zero
is recorded. The summer climate shows an average, in
the hottest month, of about sixty degrees. Visitors to
Saskatchewan in the summer months,-coming from regions
sweltering in close, oppressive heat, find the climate of this
province one of its great attractions.
Average Monthly Temperatures in Saskatchewan.
Month 1914 1913 1912 1911 1910 1909 1908 1907 1906
January     1.1 -7.8 8.3 -8.8 5.6 -5.5 10.0-14.6 6.6
February     3.3 2.6' 6.9 1.3 1.7 0.6 8.9 6.2 6.5
March      21.0 8.9 18.1 22.4 33.2 17.2 10.3 14.9 15.9
April      37.7 41.7 30.9 36.6 43.9 25.8 38.2 24.9 44.4
May     50.5 47.2 49.2 48.8 47.6 49.2 50.7 39.7 47.2
June     58.2 59.2 61.3 60.5 60.8 58.9 56.8 59.4 59.4
July      68.5 61.1 59.7 57.8 64.6 64.3 64.5 61.6 65.6
August      59.6 60.8 59.4 56.9 56.8 62.6 58.2 57.7 62.7
September     52.6 52.1 56.0 47.7 49.0 52.7 47.8 55.8 55.8
October     44.0 33.3 39.2 40.4 41.4 37.8 37.3 42.1 42.1
November     25.3 26.8 28.3 11.7 17.0 17.1 27.0 26.3 21.9
December      3.3 17.7 13.3 9.1 8.4 2.5 9.9 14.7 3.3
Annual   mean 34.9    33.6    35.0    32.0    35.5    32.2    35.4    31.4    39.9
Rainfall.—A matter of very great importance in connection with successful agriculture is the amount of the
annual precipitation. A pleasing feature of the climate of
Saskatchewan is that the greatest rainfall occurs during
the months in which it is required for the successful
growth of ihe crops. The snowfall is comparatively light
and the aggregate precipitation for the year is less than
in many other countries. Precipitation occurs principally
during the summer months. June and July are the wettest months in the year, although May and August are
only moderately dry. Two-thirds of the annual precipitation occurs in the form of rain between April and September.
Precipitation by Months for 7 Years.
Average
precipitation for
10 years
Month 1914   1913   1912   1911   1910  1909   1908 by months.
January    00      .70      .34    1.36      .38     .62      .29 .63
February    28      .64      .26      .44      .46      .36    1.14 .62
March     70      .65      .37      .35      .84      .53      .99 1.00
April     71      .31      .52   . .77      .55      .69      .84 .72
May      154    1.00    2.92   2.73    2.07    2.46    1.13 2.04
June      L.'.47   3.00    2,37   4.06   2.63   2.64   4.84 3.39
July        1.49    3.18   3.63    2.68   1.50    5136    1.27 2.20
August       3.35    2.80    2.36    2.55    2.12    1.41    2.06 2.30
September       139      .88    -12    1.35      .97      .72      .62 1.62
October       1.71       .89      .42    1.04      .29      .61    1.31 .79
November    84      .35      .33    1.13      .71      .99      .54 .63
December     50     .04     .44      .50     .96   1.62      .45 .59
Total     12.98 14.21 16.08 18.96 13.48 18.01 15.43 16.53
April-Sept 8.93 11.17 13.92 14.68   9.84 13.28 10.76 12.27
33 The preceding table is a compilation, averaged of all
the available data, respecting precipitation at all the
meteorological stations in the province in each year.
Snowfall is reduced to its "water equivalent," 10 inches of
snow being stated as 1 inch of rain.
FORAGE AND ROOT CROPS.
Certain parts of Saskatchewan are especially adapteds
for the culture of fodders and roots; practically all
sections will grow satisfactory crops of this nature. Many
farmers are content to rely upon the rich, native grasses
to feed their stock; these are found in great variety and
abundance. However, the progressive farmers who are
more and more going into the practice of diversified agriculture, are raising tame fodders in greater areas each
year and are attaining very satisfactory results.
Alfalfa.—Alfalfa growing in Saskatchewan has emerged
from the experimental stages and the results have been
very gratifying to those interested in the advancement
of mixed farming in the province. The interest in the
cultivation of this fodder is continually growing, and there
is every reason to expect that it will in time rank as one
of the country's most important crops. There is no doubt
that the wonderful opportunities for mixed and dairy
farming in Saskatchewan are attracting wider and wider
attention, and if any further guarantee of the success of
such industries were needed, it is found in the fact that
alfalfa is already being successfully cultivated in many
widely separated portions of the province.
Many districts would dispute the claim of any other
to be regarded as the banner alfalfa section of the province, but in 1914 the first prize of $500.00 awarded by the
Government of Saskatchewan for the best alfalfa crop in
Some Saskatchewan Vegetables.
34
the province was won by S. E. Shaw, of Biggar. Of his
experience in raising the prize-winning field Mr. Shaw
writes in part: "No one here knew how to grow alfalfa l
(myself included) and it was a problem as to whether it
would grow here and the yield it would give. Moreover,
few knew of its feeding value and the important place it
would fill in that respect. I sowed ten acres on the lights!
est land I had. The alfalfa came on well the first year,
and I clipped it back in August as recommended by the
literature I had on the subject. The second year I took
IY2 tons to the acre the first cutting. This year—1914—I
had the first prize and about three tons to the acre on the
first cutting. During the winter of 1913-14 I fed alfalJB
hay to some 200 hogs I had, together with a little damaged
grain, and got splendid results. All stock from hens to
horses relish it. It has about four times the feeding value
of timothy hay, and is about equal to bran as a food.
Mixed farming is the coming industry of the West, and
alfalfa the food par excellence for the stock. There is no
doubt that it can be profitably and successfully grown
here, as has been abundantly demonstrated by the results
of this contest. Alfalfa land, that is, land on which alfalfa
can be grown, is worth $150.00 an acre in the Western
United States, and here the same land, or even better, can
be had for from $20 to $30 an acre, and that on very easy
payments. Within five years this alfalfa crop will be more
important than the grain crop is today. The land here is
admirably suited to its growth."
Other Fodders.—Timothy and clovers give satisfactory
results in most sections of the province, and those who
have grown fodder corn have obtained excellent results.
At the Indian Head experimental farm, crops of the latter
averaging from 17 to 26 tons per acre have been secured.
Field peas give as large yields as anywhere, and brome
and Western rye grass
are sure crops. In fact,
the farmer who wishes
to practice mixed agriculture in Saskatchewan, will find at his
service an abundance of
feed of every description.
Roots and Vegetables. — All varieties
of roots and vegetables
indigenous to temperate climates are successfully grown in
Saskatchewan. There is
scarcely a farm without its small garden for
35 home use, but there are very few market gardens. Plots
Kofc vegetable raising in the vicinity of the towns and
cities of the province offer the small farmer an excellent
means of livelihood. There is a large demand at good
prices, as under present conditions large quantities of
vegetables are shipped into the province, and these could
quite as well be produced at home. The Canadian Pacific
Railway has land suitable for this purpose in some localities.
Experimental work at the Indian Head farm has
shown what can be done with roots, some of the yields
following: Turnips gave from 26 to 39 tons per acre;
mangels, 26 to 34 tons; sugar beets, 11 to 21 tons; carrots,
16 to 22 tons; potatoes, 300 to 800 bushels per acre. Of
course, these returns were from small plots that received
much better attention than the ordinary farmer would
bestow upon them, but they show the results that can be
attained. The experimental farms have also raised all the
following and individuals a greater part of them: Asparagus, beans, beets, early and late cabbage, cauliflower,
cucumbers, sweet corn, celery, lettuce, parsnips, garden
peas, radishes, tomatoes,
pumpkins and squash.
Fruit Culture.—The farmers of Saskatchewan have
been so fully occupied with
grain growing, and, of later
years, in laying the foundation of their live stock and
dairy industries, that it is but
natural that comparatively
little attention has been paid
to the possibilities of fruit
culture. But as the farmers
more  and more  are  coming
to the conclusion that Saskatchewan is not only a good
place to make money, but is also a good place to make
a home, more attention is being paid to gardening, the
setting out of trees, shrubs, and fruits, and the beautifica-
tion of the farm premises.
Among the fruits which grow most successfully in
Saskatchewan are red, white, and black currants, gooseberries, raspberries, strawberries, saskatoons, plums and
crab apples. The present supply of fruit for the residents
of the cities and towns and also for many of the farmers
themselves, is imported from British Columbia, Ontario,
or the United States. The farmer who will apply part of
his attention to fruit culture can therefore not only supply
his own requirements, but can dispose of the surplus'on
local markets at prices based on the cost of importation.
36
Typical Farm Home and Harvest Scene
LIVE STOCK.
The raising of live stock, especially beef animals,
was an important industry in Saskatchewan long before the possibilities of the province as a grain-growing,
territory were generally recognized: The discovery
that Saskatchewan was wonderfully adapted by nature to the raising of such staple cereals as wheat,
oats, barley, and flax, resulted in a rush of farmers
anxious to settle on the low-priced lands. There was
naturally a sudden, great increase in the total of
grain production, and the stock industry of the
province was for the time eclipsed. But Saskatchewan is just ' as well adapted to stock-raising as to
grain-raising, and high prices for beef, hogs, wool,
mutton and dairy products are leading even those farmers who at first devoted themselves exclusively to
grain-growing to give more and more attention to their
live-stock interests. The immense ranges of the past
have become, to a large extent, a matter of history, but
they have been succeeded
by thousands of farmers
each with his own little herd,
with the result that the
aggregate stock interests of
the province arc now very
much greater than in the
days of almost exclusive
ranching. The growth of
the live stock industry is
shown in the fact that in
the fourteen years following 1900, horses in the
province increased from
83,461 to 640,035; milch cows
increased from 56,440 to
322,790; ether cattle increased from 160,613 to 541,504;
sheep increased from 73,079 to 177,752, and swine increased
from 27,753 to 477,360.
The  Government fully recognizes the importance  of
the live stock industry, which makes for
greater permanency
and greater eventual
profits than exclusive grain growing,
and is giving encouragement in every
practical way to
farmers. The Canadian Pacific Rail-
Trees Thrive on the Prairie with a . „„ t,„„ „1„~ w„„..
Little   Attention.                              way    has    also   been
37 an important factor in directing the attention of the
farmer to the importance of live stock raising, and in
assisting him to make a proper start in that direction.
Other organizations—agricultural societies, boards of
trade, and, in some cases, organizations formed expressly
for the purpose, have been and are active in encouraging
increased live stock production.
Horses.—-With the cultivation of great areas of land,
the building of extensive public works and the carrying
out of the great railway undertakings, the draft horse has
for some years been one of the greatest assets of the
Saskatchewan farmer. Breeders who had horses of good
agricultural type for sale were always assured of an ample
market at good prices. And just as the supply of horses
for the above purposes began to overtake the requirements, the outbreak of the European war created another
huge market for horses, with the prospect of high prices
for several years to come. Recognizing the fact that Saskatchewan was a natural source of supply for horses for
the British Empire, the Government of the province made
a gift of horses to the British authorities. In addition,
the British Government sent officers through Saskatchewan, as well as through Alberta and Manitoba, buying
horses direct from the farmers and ranchers. These conditions practically assure high prices, not only temporarily,
but for a considerable number of years, and the Saskatchewan farmer who makes a point of having a few horses
for sale each year has every reason to be pleased with the
prospect.
Beef Cattle.—The visitor or new settler in Saskatchewan    is    invariably    struck' with    the    high    quality    of
Not   Many   Years   Ago   this   Farm   was  a
Bare Homestead.
A River Scene in Western Canada.
Saskatchewan cattle. One reason
for this is the policy which the
Government has
followed of introducing pure - bred
breeding stock to
raise the general
quality of the
herds, and another
is the education
and encouragement
afforded by the system of Government
supported annual fairs held in many parts of the province.
These forms of encouragement, however, could have
availed little had not Saskatchewan been blessed with
a healthful climate, nutritious grasses, abundant fodder
crops, pure water—the prime conditions which constitute the basis of the stock-raising industry in Saskatchewan. And of later years the farmer has had the added
inducement of a market for his by-product. The grain
farm produces immense crops of straw, with considerable
quantities of screenings and mixed products which have
no market value but which are excellent feed for cattle,
sheep, hogs and poultry.
Dairying.—While there is a most profitable market
for beef, pork and mutton, there is a still better one
for the products of the dairy. Even in mid-summer
milk retails as high as 10 cents per quart, butter above 35
cents per pound, and cream 40 cents per quart in many of
Saskatchewan's towns and cities. The cause is obvious,
when it is stated that the local production of these commodities takes care of but a'fraction of the demand. At
times   it   has   been   found   necessary   to   bring   milk   and
cream in from as far away as points
in Minnesota, while a great part of
the butter consumed is brought in
from Eastern Ontario. Not for a
great many years can the production possibly catch up with the
consumption.
By the Dairymen's Act of 1906, the
Provincial Government provides
for the substantial encouragement
of the industry in Saskatchewan.
When a company guarantees the
cream from at least 400 cows within a radius of 15 miles of the place
where it is proposed to erect a
creamery, and upon satisfactory
evidence that the undertaking warrants support, a government loan,
38
39 at a low rate of interest repayable usually in five years,
may be obtained. The government at all times' looks to
the well-being of the creameries and, when necessary, in
order to keep one working at capacity, ships in cream
from outside points. This method of operation insures
production at the least possible expense. The department engages managers and assistants, purchases all
supplies, markets the butter and makes semi-monthly payments to the patrons on account of cream supplied. The
local authorities look after the smaller details of operation.
Weekly shipments are made from all creameries to
cold-storage, where the quality of the goods is preserved
until the market warrants its sale. Considerable advantage
is gained by disposing of butter in large quantities, as
shipments can be made in carload lots, thus securing the
advantage of the lowest transportation rate. A similar
advantage is obtained in purchasing supplies and in addition a closer price on large orders is secured.
lard type is also coming into prominence and breeders
are proving that this latter kind can be profitably raised
in the wheat belt of Saskatchewan as well as the corn
belt of the United States. Yorkshires, Tamworths, Duroc-
Jerseys, Chester Whites and Poland-Chinas are also all
found to be making money for their owners. The large
Western packing plants, the constant local demand, and
the fact that dealers and packers in Eastern Canada and
the United States are looking more and more to Western
Canada for their hogs, assure the Saskatchewan farmer
of good prices for everything he has to offer in this class
of stock.
Sheep.—The profit derived from sheep will eventually
far more than repay the owner for his original outlay of
money, time and trouble. The demand for mutton is
constantly increasing, and the home-grown article is immeasurably superior to that brought from the Antipodes,
and always commands a remunerative figure on the local
market. There is always, in addition, the keen demand of
the Eastern centres of population on both sides of the
International Boundary, while it should not be forgotten
that the only reason why Canada has ceased to ship mutton to Britain is that she no longer has any to spare.
During 1914 a considerable business in wool was done with
manufacturers and dealers in the United States. The
good prices realized are encouraging farmers to go more
extensively into sheep raising. All the well-known breeds
of sheep suited to the temperate zone do well in Saskatchewan.
Hogs are Money-makers for Saskatchewan Farmers.
Swine.—The raising of hogs is a profitable and rapidly
growing industry in Saskatchewan. According to figures
compiled by the Government of Saskatchewan, the
average price for hogs in that province for the year 1913
: was $8.48 per hundred weight. The government report
for 1914 was not available at the time this booklet went
to press, but during 1914 the average price paid for hogs
on the Winnipeg market was $7.65% per hundred weight.
Considering that this class of stock can be raised as
economically in Saskatchewan as anywhere in North
America, there should be, and is, good money in hog
raising. Saskatchewan has demonstrated that her fields
can grow alfalfa, roots of all kinds, rape and barley as
well as any place on the continent, and experts all agree
that in order to make a success of hog raising it is necessary that roughage can be raised cheaply and in abundance. There is also a practical absence of disease in
Saskatchewan, a healthful climate, and, as a rule, abundance of good water.
The   bacon   type   of   hog   is   preferred,   the   English
Berkshire being probably the  greatest favorite; but the
40
Poultry.—Poultry raising offers good returns to the
Saskatchewan farmer. While the profits to be made in
the business would tempt the specialist to engage in
poultry raising exclusively, the greatest development of
the poultry industry in the province will no doubt be
among the mixed farmers. Screenings and other waste
products from the grain crops can be turned into cash by
means of a flock of chickens, ducks, geese or turkeys.
There is practically no outlay in raising poultry in this
way, and the revenue is as good as so much found money
in eggs, as the local demand far exceeds the supply.
MAKES  AN  AVERAGE  PROFIT   OF $2,500.00  YEARLY..
I moved to the United States from Norway in 1893, and came to
Saskatchewan from Iowa in 1905. I took up land in the Areola district, where I have now seven quarter sections. I bought this land at
prices ranging from $8.25 to $17.50 an acre. I value it now at $40.00
an acre.
.1 keep 25 horses, 7_ cows, 21 other cattle, about a dozen pigs and
100 poultry. My 'principal crops are wheat, oats and barley. I have
had 45 bushels of wheat to the acre, and never had less than 17 bushels. I estimate the average profit from my farm operations at $2,500.00.
When I came here I had a capital of about $4,000. I value my property now at $54,000.
This is a good country for a man to make a home in, and a
settler with lots of enterprise is assured of success.
(Sgd.)   M.  J.  OLSEN.
Areola, Saskatchewan, January 30, 1915.
41 SASKATCHEWAN IS A GOOD COUNTRY TO LIVE IN.
I settled in Saskatchewan nine years ago and have never had
a crop failure. My poorest yield in that time has been 19% bushels
of wheat to the acre, and there have been years when my wheat crop
went as high as 33 bushels and oats 75.
I estimate the average profit from my farm operations at $3,000.00
a year. My capital to start with was about $600.00, and my property
is now worth not less than $24,000.00. In addition to my land and
improvements I have 14 horses, S cows, 17 other cattle, poultry, etc.,
besides my farm implements and machinery.
The climate is very healthy and in every respect it is a good
country to live in.
(Sgd.)  Si JOHNSON.
Kandahar,  Saskatchewan, January 9th, 1915.
A SPLENDID COUNTRY FOR LIVE STOCK.
I settled in Saskatchewan, in 1902, coming to this country from
Ontario. I have three quarter sections of land and raise principally
wheat, oats, and barley, with some flax. I have had yields of wheat
as high as 42 bushels to the acre, but my average is 22. I have never
had a crop failure.
This is a splendid country for live stock. I keep 90 horses, 15
cows, and 65 other cattle. I also keep a quantity of swine and poultry.
The climate is very healthy. The summers are warm and the winters
are even-tempered and enjoyable.
I had a capital of about $4,000.00 when I came to Western Canada,
and I estimate it now at $33,000.00, so I have reason to say a good
word for Saskatchewan. It is a good country to make a home in, and
any man who is energetic and ambitious can do well here.
.(Sgd.)  R. P. SMYTH.
Kennedy, Saskatchewan, January 20th, 1915.
CLIMATE IS  SPLENDID—CHILDREN  NEVER SICK.
Never having done any farming before, I came to this district
in 1909 and homesteaded S.W. 7 44-10 W. 3rd, which is only 35 miles
east of North   Battleford.
The first year I broke 60 acres and have now 130 under cultivation
and can say that I have always been very successful in raising first-
class crops, every year. This last year for instance, I had ten acres
of breaking in Marquis wheat which yielded 380 bushels, and from 10
acres of Gartons No. 22 oats I secured 1,350 bushels. These oats
are a combination of "Abundance," "Banner" and "Tartar King" and
in cutting this crop the binder would only take a two foot swath.
The oats I sold for 75 cents per bushel and the wheat at $1.75 cents.
A neighbor of mine put an acre and a quarter of garden land into
Marquis wheat and secured 95 bushels therefrom.
There is first-class water in this district to be secured from wells
if you do not happen to have a quarter on which there is a creek.
In .1912 I bought a sow for $12.00, which farrowed in a couple
of months and from this sow I secured inside of two years 79 hogs
which I sold for an average of $14.75 apiece.
I find that by plowing deep and by cultivating the land well that
it pays a great deal better than endeavoring to put in a greater acreage
and trusting to luck.
The climate is splendid, and since coming here my children have
never been sick.
I am a firm believer in mixed farming and can assure anyone who
wishes to make a success in this district, that he can do so by working
the land properly, and not trying to crop more than he can conveniently handle with the power available.
We have co-operative elevators throughout the West which pay
the highest prices for grain and the stock is held by the farmers, they
paying a cash payment of $7.50 per share and the balance is paid yearly
out of the profits. The Provincial Government supervises these elevators.
(Sgd.)    A. C.  LAWLESS.
Hafford, Saskatchewan, January 23rd,  1915.
CORN AND ALFALFA SUCCESSFULLY GROWN.
I came to the North Battleford District in the spring of 1912 from
Nebraska, settling on section 18-43-13 W. 3rd and like the country and
climate so well that I have no desire whatever to return to the States.
My crops have always turned out first class, as have those of my
neighbors who have made it a practice to farm in a proper manner.
42
I find that mixed farming is the better plan to adopt, and feed
most of my grain, receiving thereby a great deal higher prices, and at the
same time do not have to leave my fall plowing in order to haul
grain to town in order to get the high price at the start of the
threshing.
Corn  and   alfalfa  have  been  tried  out  here   and  have  been  vef-jsa
successful  and  the   coming  year  will  see   a   greater   acreage  of  these
commodities.
The Government lend stallions, bulls, boars and rams to groups
of farmers when they form a small association, and where there are
no privately owned male animals in their district. This is a great
help to the farmers and taken advantage of by a good many.
The city of North Battleford last year erected a public market
where farmers can market their produce free of charge, and if they
do not wish to come into town .may send their produce by rail to
the market commission who will "sell it for them and only charge :
a very small commission. The prices obtained are very good indeed
and it saves the bother and loss of time in going from door to door.
A creamery is now operated in the city and can take care of all
the cream that comes in,  paying good prices for same too.
I do not know of a better farming district than that around here
and sincerely recommend it to anyone wishing to locate near a progressive city and in a first class farming community.
(Sgd.)   W.  B.  JONES.
North Battleford, Saskatchewan, January 20th, 1915.
MANITOBA
Manitoba is the oldest and most easterly of the
so-called Prairie Provinces of Canada. The first agricultural settlement in the district now comprised in the
Province of Manitoba was made under the leadership of
Lord Selkirk in 1812 in the Red River Valley near the
site of the present City of Winnipeg, but Manitoba assumed little importance as an agricultural possibility until
1878, when the first railway entered her boundaries. In
1882 the Canadian Pacific Railway ushered an era of prosperity into the province. In 1870 Manitoba had a population of 12,000, which has grown to more than 500,000 at
the present time. Agriculture has been successfully practiced for more than 30 years, and the information that
will be presented to you in the following pages can leave
no doubt that Manitoba is particularly well adapted by
nature for agriculture, embracing in the term mixed farming in all its branches. Manitoba, as originally created
into a province, comprised only 13,500 square miles area.
This has been increased from time to time and is now
253,720 square miles, or approximately the same as Saskatchewan or Alberta.
Manitoba is bounded on the east by Ontario, on the
northeast by Hudson Bay, on the north by the Northwest Territories, on the west by the Province of Saskatchewan, and on the south by the States of North Dakota and
Minnesota, and lies between the 49th and 60th parallels
of latitude. It is in the same latitude as the British Isles.
Edinburgh, Scotland, is farther north than the present
settled parts of Manitoba.
43 1893
1903
1914
1,003,640
2,442,873
2,616,000
388,529
855,431
1,331,000
114,762
326,537
468,000
9,737
55,900
40,000
Grain Growing in Manitoba.—Although in recent
years Manitoba farmers have been turning their attention
largely to mixed farming, including dairying and the
raising of live stock for the market, it was as a wheat-
producing country that the province first became famous.
The name "Manitoba" has become a standard as applied
to wheat, and is favorably known in all the large wheat-
consuming centres. "Manitoba Hard" is esteemed by
millers as practically the best milling wheat in the world.
Spring wheat is grown almost exclusively in Manitoba,
although in recent years some attention has been given
to winter wheat with good results. In 1914 the winter
wheat crop amounted to 15,000 acres, which yielded an
average of 21% bushels to the acre. The soil and climate
of Manitoba are also admirably adapted to the production
of oats, barley and flax, the total yearly crop of each of
these, with the exception of flax, running into many millions of bushels.
The following table shows the increase in the area
under cultivation to the different cereal crops in Manitoba
during the last thirty-one years. The area is shown in
acres:
1883
Wheat     260,842
Oats    215,431
Barley      60,281
Flax   	
The table below shows the average yield of Manitoba
jgrain crops for the last ten-year period. For the sake
'of comparison the average yield of a number of the leading
States of the American Union for the same period is also
shown:
Average Yield Per Acre for Ten Years.
Wheat
Manitoba        17.9
Minnesota         13.4
Iowa          14.7
North Dakota      11.8
South Dakota       12.0
Kansas         10.8
Nebraska        12.8
Wisconsin        16.3
These figures tell their own tale. They
prove conclusively that in the production
of wheat, oats, and barley Manitoba easily
ranks above these leading grain-growing
states, and in flax production she has only
one serious competitor. The figures, too,
are not for any particular year, which might
show especially to the advantage of Manitoba, but are for a period of ten years—•
sufficient to establish a fair basis of comparison.
Fodder and Root Production.—The
fodder and root production of the province
44
Dats
Barley
Flax
39.8
30.1
12.7
31.4
24.8
10.0
30.8
26.2
10.7
28.8
21.7
8.7
29.5
23.7
9.1
24.0
19.3
6.9
25.4
22.7
8.9
32.9
28.0
13.1
is a big factor in the building up of a live stock and
dairying industry. The production for the years 1913 and
1914 is shown in the table below:
1913 1914
Average Average
Yield,      Per Acre,       Yield,       Per Acre,
Bushels       Bushels        Bushels       Bushels
Potatoes   ...    9,977,263 180 8,494,104 140.4
Roots       4,196,612        -257.8 3,351,742 190.9
Tons Tons Tons Tons
Brome Grass        43,432 1.7 48,344 1.9
Rye   Grass.. 33,907 1.6 30,780 1.8
Timothy   ...       181,407 1.5 282,183 1.7
Clover     9,732 1.8 7,212 1.7
Alfalfa    10,722 2.3 23,575 2.3
Fodder Corn       119,764 5.9 164,322 5.9
Climate of Manitoba.—Manitoba possesses a climate
which is particularly adapted to the production of a
healthy, vigorous people. Although in winter the temperature frequently drops to low figures, the bright
sunshine and the total absence of dampness make such
temperatures much more bearable than in damp climates
many degrees higher. And when this is said the worst
is said of the Manitoba climate. Old residents of the
province are unanimous in their declaration that they
prefer the Manitoba winter to the winter of the Eastern
Provinces or Eastern or Central States. There is a considerable snowfall, which farmers regard as an advantage,
as it protects vegetation and affords ample moisture for
the crops in the spring. Snow lies from late in November
until about the middle of March; there are none of the
sudden extremes of temperature which render the winters
in many countries so dangerous to health:
Spring and autumn are delightful seasons of moderate
temperature and bright sunshine. The summer is warm,
• the mercury frequently rising to between 90 and 100 degrees, but the warm days are tempered by nights which
are invariably cool and comfortable. The long summer
evenings, when the sky remains bright until ten o'clock
or later, are a most enjoyable feature of the summer
climate. The average rainfall is sufficient for the production of all cereal crops and the growing of field roots,
garden stuff and fodders of great variety and luxuriance.
A Manitoba Flock
45 Live Stock in Manitoba.—It is only natural that in a Horses, Sheep and Swine.—It is not only in the raising
new prairie country the first years of settlement should be of  beef   cattle   that   great   opportunities   lie   before   the
devoted mainly to grain-growing.   The early settler may Manitoba farmer.    Horses,  sheep  and  swine  each  offer
know quite well that there will ultimately be greater profits their own peculiar advantages.   A wonderful improvement
in raising stock, but for the first few years he perhaps in the general quality of horses  in Manitoba has taken
has not the capital to start a herd or to provide the build- place in  recent years, and the animals now to be seen
ings necessary to house them.    The shrewd settler, how- even at the small fairs at the country towns might well
ever, begins engaging in mixed farming as soon as he can, stir the pride of the horse lover in any country anywhere,
and continues to increase gradually his activities in that The rapid development of the Canadian West, the great
direction.    Nowhere is this more clearly shown than in influx   of  immigration,  the  immense  amount  of  railway
the history of Manitoba.   The Government records show- construction work, and other causes have all contributed
ing  the   expenditure   on   farm  buildings  bear  testimony to a keen demand for good horses, and the farmer who
to the fact that everywhere farmers are giving more and has a team or two to sell each season is always able to
more attention to their stock.   From 1900 to 1914 no less realize good figures.
than $3,387,395 were spent by farmers in the erection of The increase in sheep raising has not been as rapid
farm buildings, and the increase in the quantity of stock ' as might be  expected,  but  there  are indications  that a
kept in the province during the same period is shown by great deal of attention will shortly be turned to this in-
the following Government statistics: dustry.    The chief drawback to sheep raising in the past
has been that few farmers had proper fencing.   This draw-
Year                              Horses       Cattle        Sheep       Pigs back  is  being  gradually   removed,   and  of  recent  years
1900        118,629       237,560       25,816       77,912 sheep  have been shipped in  from the provinces  further
1901         140,080       263,168       22,960       94,680 west and from the Western States.   The fact that leading
1902        146,591       282,343       20,518       95,598 wooi  buyers   of  the  United   States  are  now  looking to
J3S2         !5Hq2        ™°All       ??'?S      !?q'oE Western Canada for a portion of their supplies is turning
1904        143,386       306,943       18,228     118,986 .,      ..    ..        t ,   „,       .,         ,     , ,,    -□    . .   ^
hq^c                                1 ^7 724        319 290        18 508      104113 attention of farmers throughout the Prairie Provinces
1906 .............    164*444       363^202       16^606      120^838 to  the  possibilities  of this  industry, and there  is  every
1907        173,212       463,862       14,442     118,243 reason to believe that sheep raising will soon become an
1908        169^905       409,785       16,924     120,364 important branch of Manitoba husbandry.
1909        189,132       372,520       17,922     155,541 In the last fourteen years the number of swine kept
J2J?        Sll        l9rli^        SSS      llolll in Manitoba increased by over 400 per cent—a fact which
1911         251,572       407,611        37,227      192,386 .  ,,     ..                 ,            ,   .,               .                                 ,  A,
1912 273395 429274 42085 216640 story of the growing importance of that
jqi3 '' "" 300'753 456936 52152 248254 industry. Everything that goes to make swine raising
1914                   325,207       498,040       75,100     325,416. profitable is produced in abundance on the Manitoba farm.
_   In    former    years    many
the   raising   of   beef   ani- votes   part   of   his   atten-
mals.    It   shows   conclu-   Graded Herd, Two-Year-Old, Yearling and Calf, Champions over   tion to this industry is as"
sively that with the grains,              all Breeds at International Live Stock Show, Chicago,              sured   of   liberal   returns
fodders, water, and clim-                                        1913, Raised in Manitoba.                                       for his labor and invest-
atic   conditions   of   Mani- ment.
toba it is possible to produce better beef steers in Mani- Prices  for  Live  Stock.—The  settler  who  thinks  of
toba than anywhere in the United States. raising live stock for sale will be interested in the price
46 47 which he can reasonably expect for his animals. The
pillowing compilation shows the average price paid for
butchers' cattle, hogs, and sheep handled through the
stockyards at Winnipeg during 1914. Averages are shown
for each month and also average for the year.
Butchers' Cattle    Sheep Hogs
January     $7.14 $6.04 $8.02
February     6.59 5.79 8.40
March      6.99 .... 8.38
April     6.97 .... 8.20
May   7.30 6.64 7.51
June      7.34 5.82 7.21
July   6.88 6.39 7.66
August     6.73 6.24 8.40
September    6.43 6.31 8.05
October     5.80 6.03 6.82
November     5.37 5.91 6.62
December     5.90 6.50 6.55
Average for  1914....    $6.62 $7.65^4 $6.17
Dairying in Manitoba.—The growth of the dairy industry is illustrated by the fact that in 1900 the butter and
Cheese products of the province amounted to $643,991.00,
and in 1914 this total had j increased to $2,202,773.77.
Manitoba possesses great natural advantages for the dairy
farmer. The pasturage is rich and nutritious, and there
as an abundant supply of good water. The growth of
jsuch a large city as Winnipeg, in addition to many smaller
•Centres, has brought the dairy business home to every
|resident of the province as an economic question. The
farmers in the past have been unable to keep up with the
rapid increase in consumption of dairy products due to
She phenomenal growth in city population, and the result
-is that the city of Winnipeg, in the midst of one of the
"world's most favored dairy countries, is obliged to import
large quantities of milk and cream from the States of
Wisconsin and Minnesota. The Government is extending
encouragement to the dairy industry, both by means of
special education and by facilitating the financing of
-creameries, and the home-maker who desires to make
dairying an important part of his farm life can be assured
that Manitoba offers him a splendid opportunity.
Poultry Raising — Manitoba
also affords
every opportunity to the farmer
who will' devote
part of his time
! ^'^m pV*l    Bl      t0 poetry rais-
%g i '-iH iH^ --s^tJjjMuM. &i3*flfi9    fH     mS- The normal
supply    in    the
province is less
■g^aaSnSy"-i(ifr^r7iT'i ^   ■i»nir-rr-*ftT~-~':^?T&a        than   the   de-
Manitoba "Three Pounders" mand, and large
48
quantities of
dressed poultry
are imported
from Eastern
Canada to supply
the local markets.
There is no occasion for this state
of affairs except
that consumption
has increased
more rapidly than
production. Many
farmers are raising poultry with
much profit to
themselves, but
there seems no
immediate prospect of the sup-
p 1 y overtaking
the demand.
The following
table shows the
poultry disposed
of by farmers of
Manitoba in the
years 1913 and
1914:
All Vegetables Yield Large Crops
in Western Canada.
1913
Turkeys       176,964
Geese         79,940
Chickens       777,808
1914
184,236
81,720
815,852
Fifty-one thousand nine hundred and five pounds of
honey were produced in Manitoba in 1914. Bee-keeping
is not yet recognized as an extensive enterprise, but the
above figures show it to be entirely possible, and there
is a large field before the settler wishing to give part of
his attention to this line.
Raising Small Fruits.—All the hardy small fruits do
well in Manitoba, and a number of varieties of apples
can be grown where the necessary care is taken. The
small fruits raised in the province have an excellent flavor,
and can be produced in any quantity. As the principal
fruit supplies are imported, the local grower gets a much
higher price for his product than do growers in states or
provinces which are exporters of fruit. The farmer who
sets out a fruit garden, taking care to plant a windbreak,
and give the plot proper cultivation, can not only supply
his own table but add a tidy item to his income on the
side.
Trees for beautifying the farm, providing shelter and
windbreaks, and, eventually, fuel, are easily grown, and
many Manitoba farmers' homes, which were originally
located on absolute bare prairie, are now completely
sheltered in magnificent groves of Manitoba maples,
poplars, cottonwoods and other trees.
49 CAME TO MANITOBA WHEN HE WAS 63 YEARS  OLD.
Prior to settling at Kenville, in the Swan River Valley, Manitoba,
my present abode, I lived in Iowa several years; but the climate not
being suitable, I moved to Kenville, taking a homestead there at the
age of sixty-three. At this age, when most men do very little work, I
set about to make a home afresh, hauling the lumber some eighteen
miles and doing a large share of the building of a house and barns
myself.    This was in 1902.
During the years since my arrival I have accumulated a large
amount of land, actually farming about 300 acres, and doing most of
the work myself. My farms are provided with good buildings, and
my land and chattels should be worth at least from $15,000 to $20,000,
all made in Manitoba. Since coming to Manitoba my health has been
perfect, and I am one of the many farmers who bless the day they
decided to come to this province.
JAMES  WHITE.
Kenville,   Manitoba.
CAME  TO   MANITOBA  WITH   $80;   IS   NOW   WORTH   $60,000.
Killarney, Manitoba,
December 29th, 1915.
I came to Western Canada from Ontario in March, 1882, and settled on land in the Killarney district. Land when I settled on it was
valued at $4 to $6 an acre; it is now.valued at $40 an acre.
Some people in other countries seem to think that the climate of
Manitoba is a disadvantage but I have found the summers perfect,
and the winters are more pleasant than those of a damper climate.
I raise principally wheat, oats, barley, timothy, and some corn,
potatoes, turnips, etc. I have had wheat yield on an average 40
bushels to the acre and oats that went 100 bushels, barley that yielded
65 bushels and flax as high as 25 bushels to the acre. I have never
had a crop failure and I have been here now for over 32 years. I am
raising timothy and alfalfa successfully, as I keep quite a lot of stock—
about 30 horses, 10 cows, 40 other cattle, and some sheep, hogs,
and poultry.
I have reason to speak well of Manitoba as my capital when I
came here was only $30 and I now estimate it at $60,000. I believe
other settlers can have similar success and my advice would be to
them to avoid any unnecessary debt and be industrious and economical.
They will find that they can not only make a good living but establish
a good permanent home in this country.
(Sgd.)    JAMES CHAPMAN.
HAS MADE MONEY AND A GOOD HOME IN MANITOBA.
Killarney, Manitoba,
December 30th, 1914.
I came to Manitoba in 1886 from Huron County, Ontario. I had
no experience in farming up to that time and had only $15, after
arriving in the country, so was obliged to work out for my neighbor
until I could procure sufficient money to begin operations for myself.
I bought a quarter section of land from the Canadian Pacific Railway
Company at $4 an acre. I have since bought a half section adjoining
which  cost me $25 per acre.
I own altogether at the present time 540 acres of land. I have
built on these premises in recent years a frame dwelling which cost
me $3,600, a cattle barn at a cost of $500, and a frame horse barn which
cost me $1,800.    These prices are over and above my own work.
The estimated value of my land as it stands today with improvements is $21,600, or an average of $40 per acre. The farm is all
fenced, a great deal of it with special fencing and cedar posts. I have
spent in the neighborhood of $1,000 besides my work in beautifying my
home with ornamental trees and shrubbery which has added very
materially to the farm surroundings.
I own 20 head of good farm horses which I value at $3,000. I also
own 40 head of cattle which I value at $2,000. Half of them are pure
breds. I have also a few hogs, some poultry and a full line of implements suitable and quite sufficient to carry on the operations of my
farm. These, together with my land and improvements thereon, are
the result of my earnings since settling in Manitoba, and I have had
no other resources except the earnings of the farm. I shall never
regret mv decision to settle in Manitoba and I believe any one who
has ambition and industry can succeed today as well as I have.
(Sgd.)    S. T. KELLAWAY.
50
66
READY-MADE" FARMS
Although these provinces of Alberta, Saskatchewan
and Manitoba undoubtedly offer the world's greatest opportunity to the farmer desirous of making a start on land
of his own, or of increasing his holdings, or of acquiring
at reasonable cost land upon which to establish his sons,
the Canadian Pacific Railway has recognized that there
are many practical farmers who, if left entirely to their
own resources, are not in the position financially to make
the best kind of a start. To such men and their families
the prospect of years spent in pioneering may be a barrier
holding them back from their own greatest prosperity
and happiness.
What is a Ready-Made Farm? A ready-made farm is
a farm upon which the pioneer work has been done; a
farm ready for occupation by the home-maker and his
family, with operations advanced to the point where they
will begin to turn an income almost immediately. Indeed,
the settler who is properly supplied with milch cows, hogs
and poultry can make his. farm revenue-producing from
the day he arrives on it.
These farms, which are-sold to married men only,
consist of 160 or 320 acres each, and are laid out in
colonies on lands which have been carefully selected with
a view to their suitability for mixed farming. They are
located within easy reach of markets, and as they are laid
out in colonies there is none of the loneliness of remote
settlement. Indeed, the ready-made colonies are among
the most closely settled agricultural districts in the provinces, a condition which contributes to the social advantages of the home-maker, and also to the economical maintenance of rural schools, churches, local improvements and
telephones. On each farm a comfortable house of design
which experience has shown to be b'est suited to the
conditions of the country and the needs of the settler, is
built. A substantial barn, to accommodate the horses
and cows of the settler, is provided; the land is all fenced;
a well is dug and a pump installed, and an area of from
50 to 100 acres is brought under cultivation. The prairie
sod is first broken up, then disced and harrowed until it
is in first-class condition for cropping.    In the spring it
i
a,x
jsm. -m>m.
|§|53C|
""■Wfpfjj
_-^—^MjEp
iri«"rTT"-~r
.,.£TO)CmC'
►,-^PP
pp^S
Hpt-i^O;            ^Wlllli     -
Type of "Canadian Pacific Railway" Homes.
51 Type of "Canadian Pacific Railway" Homes.
is seeded with wheat, oats or barley, so that the settler
arriving in summer finds his crop already under way.
This enables him to realize a crop the season of his arrival
in the country; indeed, the settler arriving in mid-summer
may commence almost at once with his harvest operations.
Beginning January 1st, 1915, the policy of establishing ready-made farms was limited to the Company's Irrigation Block in Southern Alberta, and the Lethbridge
Irrigation District. At the time of compiling this booklet,
however, there were still some ready-made farms available in other districts. Settlers desiring these farms should
write at once to the General Superintendent of Lands,
Department of Natural Resources, Canadian Pacific Railway, Calgary, Alberta, or to any representative whose
name and address appears at the conclusion of this book-
LOANS TO HOMEMAKERS
For those who do not wish to avail themselves of a
ready-made farm, and yet who desire some financial assistance toward making a start, the Company has another
policy equally liberal and remarkable—its Loans to Home-
makers Scheme. Under this policy a loan to the value of
not more than $2,000 will be made to the home-maker in
the form of improvements upon the land he buys.
When the Company finds a practical farmer, a married
man who has a thorough knowledge of farm work, who
has. the neces'sary horses and implements to work a farm,
or the money to buy them, and who has sufficient capital
to make his first payment and provide for himself and
family for the first year, it is prepared to assist such a
man with a loan for the purpose of providing a house and
barn, digging a well, and fencing the land. The sattler
may select the type of house and barn he desires from
52
plans which are furnished by the Company, which plans
are the result of many years' knowledge of conditions in
this country and the requirements of the settler.
This loan is extended over a period of twenty years,
with interest at six per cent, per annum. No security is
required other than the land itself and the first payment
on the land and loan, which is made at the time of purchase.
The above loan is given only to home-makers who
purchase land in the Company's Irrigation Block, or irrigable land in the Lethbridge Irrigation District.
GENERAL TERMS OF SALE.
In order to encourage the settlement of experienced
farmers on its lands in Western Canada, the Canadian
Pacific Railway Company makes very liberal terms to
home-makers. The general period for the payment of land
extends over twenty years, with interest at six per cent,
on. the amount unpaid.
Home-makers buying land with loan or improvements
make no second payment of principal until the end of the
second year.   Interest is payable yearly.
Home-makers buying land without improvements pay
one-twentieth down and the balance in nineteen annual instalments with interest -at six per cent, per annum.
The first cash payment is required at the time of
making final application for the land. Purchasers of lands
with improvements or loan pay one-tenth down.
In order to assist home-makers during the first years
of their occupation of improved lands, or lands on which
the Company has advanced a loan, special terms of payment are made which will be fully explained upon request.
Type of "Canadian Pacific Railway" Homes.
53 For information concerning the details of the above
terms and the assistance given to home-makers, write to
Allan Cameron, General Superintendent of Lands, Department of Natural Resources, Canadian Pacific Railway,
Calgary, Canada, or to any representative of the Department of Natural Resources, a list of whom will be found
in the back pages of this booklet.
TOWNSITES.
When a line of railway is definitely located and it is
decided to build the same, the Company selects convenient
townsites to serve the area affected by the railway. These
townsites are subdivided and offered for sale to the public
at a convenient place and at list prices. Lots undisposed
of at this opening sale may be purchased through the
Company's land offices in Calgary, Alberta; Lethbridge,
Alberta; Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, and Winnipeg, Manitoba. An office for the sale of lots is also usually
established in the town where the lots are located.
TERMS OF PAYMENT FOR TOWN LOTS.
The Company has
adopted uniform
terms for the sale of
its townsite property.
One-third cash is demanded, and the balance in two equal
instalments in six and
twelve months from
the date of purchase.
The rate of interest
charged on deferred
payments on town property sales is 8 per cent, per annum.
Farmers Unloading Wheat at a
Country Town.
NATURALIZATION.
It is not necessary for anyone purchasing or owning
lands anywhere in Western Canada to become a naturalized subject unless he so desires. The majority of those
who have settled in the Canadian West from foreign
countries have, however, become citizens.
TITLE.
When you purchase land from the Canadian Pacific
Railway you make your "Contract" direct with that
Company, the deed to the land being made by them under
the authority of what is known as the "Land Titles
Act."^ The "Title" is perfect, and you are dealing with a
corporation which has assets of hundreds of millions of
dollars.
54
A Prairie Home after a Few Years' Occupation.
• The   Land   Titles   System   of   Western   Canada   was
perfected and applied in the early stages of colonization,:,
and is regarded a"s the simplest and most efficient in the
world.
CUSTOMS,  QUARANTINE AND
TRANSPORTATION.
The Canadian Customs tariff provides for free entry
of certain household and settlers' effects, as follows:
Wearing apparel, books, usual and reasonable household
furniture and other household effects, instruments and
tools of trade, occupation or employment, guns, musical
instruments, domestic sewing machines, typewriters,
bicycles, carts, wagons and other highway vehicles, agricultural implements and live stock for the farm, not to
include live stock or articles for sale or for use as a contractor's outfit, nor vehicles nor implements moved by
mechanical power, nor machinery for use in any manufacturing establishment; all the foregoing if actually owned
by the settler for at least six months before his removal
to Canada, and subject to regulations prescribed by the
Minister of Customs, provided that any dutiable articles
as settlers' effects may not be entered unless brought by
the settler on his first arrival, and shall not be sold or
otherwise disposed of without payment of duty until after
twelve months' actual use in Canada.
Live Stock.—A settler may bring into Canada, free of
duty, live stock for the farm as follows, if he has actually
owned such live stock abroad for at least six months before his removal to Canada, and has brought them into
Canada within one year after his first arrival, viz:—
If Horses only are brought    16 allowed.
If  Cattle only are brought    16 allowed.
If Sheep  only are brought  160 allowed.
If Swine only are brought  160 allowed.
The settler is allowed sixteen head of stock, that is
to say, he may bring into Canada ten horses and six
cowS or in any way he wishes making' sixteen head of
stock.
55 Household Goods.—In connection with the shipping
of household goods and personal effects into Canada no
particular form of invoice is necessary. Shipments should
be forwarded in the ordinary way and they will be looked
after by the Canadian Customs Officer at the frontier port
or nearest customs offices to destination. Customs entry
must be made and sworn to by the owner or agent of the
goods before delivery can be obtained.
Automobiles, Traction Engines, Gasoline Engines, and
all implements or vehicles moved by mechanical power
are not allowed free entry into Canada as settlers' effects,
but are dutiable.
Dutiable Articles, being brought into Canada by a
settler of which it is impossible to procure invoices, will
be appraised by a Customs Officer at the frontier port or
nearest customs office to destination for duty purposes.
Shipments in Bond.—Shipments may be made in bond
to .the following points. Those shown in light type are
sub-ports, reporting through the main ports shown in
black type.
Winnipeg.—Selkirk, Sprague, Morden, Crystal City, Snow-
flake, Le Pas, Moose Factory, York Factory.
Emerson.—
•Gretna.—Haskett.
Brandon.—Bannerman, Boissevain, Carberry, Deloraine,
Killarney, Melita, Souris, Virden.
^Portage La Prairie.—Dauphin, Minnedosa, Neepawa.
Those shown in the smaller type are
sub-ports, reporting through the main
ports shown in black type.
Moose Jaw.—Big Muddy, Maple Creek,
Swift Current, Weyburn, Willow
Creek, via Maple Creek, Wood
Mountain, Gull Lake, Harlem Trail
and East Poplar River.
North Portal.—Marienthal, Estevan.
Regina.—Moosomin.
Saskatoon.—Humboldt, North Battleford, Prince Albert, Rosthern, York-
ton, Melfort.
Calgary.—Medicine Hat, Red River, Bur-
dett.
Edmonton.—Vermilion,    Wetaskiwin,    Vegreville,    Athabasca Landing.
Lethbridge.—Cardston, Coutts, Blairmore, Macleod, Twin
Lake, Pinhorn.
Live Stock.—Live stock may be entered only at the
following points: In Manitoba, Emerson, Gretna, Snow-
flake, and Bannerman; in Saskatchewan, North Portal,
Big Muddy, Wood Mountain, Marienthal, and Willow
Creek; in Alberta, Pinhorn, Coutts, and Twin Lakes, or
56
at Kingsgate, Gateway, Rykerts, or Nelson, British
Columbia.
Quarantine Regulations.—All animals imported into
the Dominion of Canada from the United States must be
accompanied by a statutory declaration or affidavit made
by the owner or importer, stating clearly the purpose for
which said animals are imported, viz., whether for breeding purposes, for milk production, for work, for grazing,
feeding, or slaughter, or whether they form part of
settlers' effects, or whether they are entered for temporary stay.
Said declaration or affidavit must be presented to the
Collector of Customs at the port of entry, who will decide
whether the animals are entitled to entry under these
regulations, and who will notify the Veterinary Inspector
-of the Department of Agriculture in all cases where the
regulations require an inspection to be made.
The importation of branded or range horses, mules
and asses, other than those which are gentle and broken
to harness or saddle, is prohibited.
Settlers' Horses, Mules and Asses must be accompanied by a satisfactory certificate of Mallein test, dated
not more than thirty days prior to the date of entry, and
signed by an inspector of the United States Bureau of
Animal Industry, or a similar certificate from a reputable
veterinarian, provided such certificate is endorsed by an
inspector of said Bureau of Animal Industry.
Settlers' Cattle, at the present time, are allowed to
Harvesting Scene, Western Canada.
enter Canada without being subjected to the Tuberculin
test.
Cattle for breeding purposes and milk production,
six months old or over, if unaccompanied by a satisfactory
tuberculin test chart dated not more than thirty days
prior to the date of entry and signed by a veterinarian
of the United States Bureau of Animal Industry, must be
detained in quarantine for one week or such further period
as may be deemed necessary, and subjected to the Tuber-
57 culin test; cattle reacting thereto must be returned to the
United States, or slaughtered without compensation.
Importers may be required to furnish a statutory declaration that the chart produced applies to the cattle it
purports to describe, and no other.
Settlers' Sheep must be accompanied by a certificate
from an Inspector of the Bureau of Animal Industry; if
not accompanied by a certificate they will"be held at the
quarantine station at the frontier port for thirty days.
Typical Farm Home, Western Canada.
Settlers' Swine.—All swine are held at the quarantine
station at the frontier port for thirty days, and before being admitted to quarantine a certificate from the inspector
of the Bureau of Animal Industry must be presented.
The importer will also be required to produce an affidavit to the effect that the swine he proposes -to import
have not been immunized to hog cholera by the simultaneous injection of hog cholera virus and serum.
Chickens may be"brought into Canada by a settler free
of duty if he has actually owned such chickens for at least
six months before his removal into Canada, and has
brought them into Canada within one year after his first
arrival.
Settlers can save themselves the possibility of delay
and expense by complying carefully with the regulations
governing customs and quarantine. These are set out at
greater length in a folder entitled "Information for Settlers," which will be furnished free upon request to the
Canadian Pacific Railway, Department of Natural Resources, Calgary, Alberta, or any of its offices in the
United States, a list of which will be found at the. end
of this folder.
Canadian Pacific Railway Regulations Governing
Carriage of Settlers' Effects.—Carloads of settlers' effects
may be made up of the following property for the benefit
of actual settlers, viz.: Household goods and personal
effects (all second hand) and may include agricultural
implements and farm vehicles, all second hand (will not
include automobiles). Live stock not exceeding a total
of ten head, consisting of horses or mules (not to exceed
58
six head); cows, heifers, calves, oxen, sheep or hogs (up
to ten head). Lumber and shingles (pine, hemlock, spruce
or basswood), which must not exceed 2,500 feet in all, or
the equivalent thereof; or in lieu of (not in addition to)
the lumber and shingles, a portable house, knocked down,
may be shipped. Seed grain, trees or shrubbery—the
quantity of seed grain must not exceed the following
weight: Wheat, 4,500 lbs.; oats, 3,400 lbs.; barley, 4,800
lbs.; flaxseed, 1,400 lbs. Live poultry (small lots only).
Feed sufficient for feeding the live stock while on the
journey.
All shipments must be accompanied by properly filled-
in Export manifest blanks, which can be obtained from
agent at point of shipment.
Freight Rates.—Information regarding special rates
on settlers' effects can be obtained from any land or
station agent of the C.P.R., from M. E. Thornton, Colonization Agent, room 1012, 112 West Adams Street, Chicago, 111., or from any District Representative of the
Canadian Pacific Railway.
Settlers' Rates.—It is impossible within limited space
to quote rates to even a hundredth part of the many points
in Western Canada from Points in the United States, and
the following list of special homeseekers' round trip rates
is only to act as a general indication.
Typical Country School, Western Canada.
Winnipeg, Regina, Saskatoon, Calgary,
Man. Sask. Sask. Alta.
Chicago, 111 $29.10 $35.00 $37.50 $46.50
Peoria, 111     33.60 37.50 40.00 47.50
St. Louis, Mo     34.40 44.00 46.50 50.50
Kansas City, Mo...    30.15 43.50 46.00 47.50
Council Bluffs, la..    24.40 33.75 40.00 46.50
Omaha, Neb. ......    24.75 37.50 40.00 46.50
Sioux City, la     21.45 30.85 38.05 46.50
St. Paul, Minn     17.00 28.60 32.50 39.50
Minneapolis, Minn..    17.00 26.60 32.50 39.50
59 School  in  a  Country Town,
Western Canada.
time to time, without notice.
One way settlers' fares are in
force between the
following points
at the following
a pproximate
rates, but it is
always advisable
to verify them
from your nearest
Station Agent, as
they are subject
to   change    from
Winnipeg, Regina, Saskatoon, Calgary,
Congregation at a
Western
Man. Sask. Sask. Alta.
Montreal, P. Q  $17.00 $17.75 $19.50 $24.50
New York via
1 Montreal       27.30 28.05 29.80 34.80
Boston via Montreal   26.45 27.30 28.95 33.95
Buffalo        20.10 20.85 22.60 27.60
Windsor (Detroit)..    17.00 17.75 19.50 24.50
Full information regarding rates can
be   obtained   from   any   District   Representative    of   the    Canadian    Pacific
iRailway or from M. E. Thornton, Inspector   of   Agencies,   Department   of
Natural   Resources,    Canadian   Pacific
Railway,  room  1012,  112 West Adams
[St., Chicago, Illinois.
GENERAL INFORMATION.
Public   Worship.—The   utmost   religious liberty prevails in Canada.    All
; the leading Christian denominations are
renresented,    but   there    is    no    state
: church and no form of compulsory taxation for the support
}oi any denomination.    The leading religious bodies, how-
-ever, contribute financial assistance toward their congregations in the more unsettled districts. Sunday is observed
as a day of rest and recreation, all ordinary forms of labor
being discontinued.    Church buildings are erected even in
; the smallest villages and also in the better settled rural
communities.   Where churches are not available the public school buildings are used for religious gatherings of
all denominations upon terms of entire equality.
School System.—The school system of these provinces
is acknowledged to be equal, if not superior, to any on
the continent. One-eighteenth part of the whole of Western Canada, or two sections in every township, is set aside
as a school grant for the maintenance of public schools.
This provides a very large fund which makes possible an
adequate and advanced school system at small cost to the
home-maker. The schools are non-sectarian and national
in character.
60
The management of the system is vested in one of the
ministers of the government. The organization of school
districts is optional with the settlers, and wherever there
are sufficient children to justify a school district, one is
established. Children in any school district are rarely
more than 2J^ miles from the school.
The cost to the settler of maintaining a school is comparatively small, owing to the liberal government assist-'
ance and the fact that all privately owned lands, whether
occupied or not, must bear their share of the charge.
Each teacher employed must have a certificate of a
recognized standard of education, and a thorough system
of government inspection is maintained.
Agricultural Education.—The people of these provinces are fully alive to the importance of the most advanced agricultural education. Each Provincial Government maintains a thoroughly up-to-date and well equipped
Department of Agriculture, paying special attention to
the dissemination of useful information
on agricultural subjects among farmers, and particularly among the new
settlers who are unacquainted with
agricultural conditions in Western
Canada. In Manitoba and Saskatchewan, well equipped agricultural colleges
are maintained at Winnipeg and Saskatoon respectively and to each of these
is attached an extensive Demonstration
Farm. In Alberta, there are no less
than three farm schools, situated at
Claresholm, Olds and Vermilion, in addition to which the Provincial Government conducts Demonstration Farms
at   Medicine   Hat, Stoney Plain, and Sedgewick.
The Dominion Government has for many years maintained a chain of well-conducted Experimental Farms in
Western Canada. Two of these farms are located in
Alberta, one at
Lacombe in Central Alberta and
the other at Lethbridge, in the
southern part of
the province.
Both are devoted
to mixed farming, although that
at Lethbridge is
operated partly as
an irrigated farm
Country Church
Canada.
Farm Home, Western Canada.
and partly under the dry farming system. In Saskatchewan, one of the oldest and most favorably known farms
of the system is located at Indian Head, while at Rosthern
61 in Central Saskatchewan and at Scott, further north,
there are also Experimental Stations. In Manitoba, the
Brandon Farm has long been noted for its thorough experimental work and has been of the greatest possible
value to the farmers in that province.
The Agricultural Society and the Farmers' Institute
are flourishing institutions in Western Canada, being subsidized by the various Provincial Governments, which
provide for their organization and assist them in every
possible way. These bodies are of the greatest possible
assistance to farmers through the whole country. Expert
judges are supplied for local fairs and for the stock judging classes which form a prominent feature at the Institute meetings. Speakers, well qualified to discuss agricultural topics, are also furnished for these meetings by
both the Provincial and Dominion authorities. The membership fees are in all cases nominal, the work being carried on almost entirely at the expense of the local Governments, with liberal assistance from the Dominion.
The Department of Natural Resources of the Canadian
Pacific Railway Company has established Demonstration
Farms on which the most approved system of mixed farming is practised with the idea of giving Western farmers
absolute proof that this is the best paying system, and
the only manner of farming that ensures permanent agricultural development. Each of these farms is in charge
of an expert agriculturist whose duty it is to show by
example that in any series of years, mixed farming produces more satisfactory results than straight grain growing. At these farms, advice is given without charge to
farmers, and every effort is made to advance the interest
of the agricultural community in which they are located.
In addition to dairy herds, beef cattle, hogs, sheep and
chickens are kept and areas given over to cropping of
various grains, grasses and roots. Three of these farms
a^e already in operation in Manitoba, four in Saskatchewan and six in Alberta.
At Strathmore, in the Canadian Pacific Irrigation
Block east of Calgary, the railway company operates a
well equipped Demonstration Farm with a competent staff,
the members of which are ready to give disinterested
advice to newcomers and to assist them in many other
ways. A number of other farms in the Eastern portion
of the Irrigation Block are now being operated by the
Company in preparation for their development on lines
similar to that at Strathmore.
In conjunction with the local Governments, the Canadian Pacific Railway Company furnishes, at suitable
seasons, Demonstration Trains manned by experts in
various lines of agricultural work to address meetings of
farmers at many points, in conformity with an itinerary
62
previously arranged and widely advertised. These trains';;
carry specimens of various kinds of farm stock to be;;
used for illustration purposes at the meetings and the?
judging classes at the various stopping places en route.
In the Department of Natural Resources of the Ca-J
nadian Pacific Railway Company, one of the most impor-|
tant branches is that devoted to agriculture and animal|
industry. Connected with this branch are a number oii
trained agriculturists and experts in almost every line of
agricultural work. These men are ready at all times to
advise new settlers and to assist them in acquiring knowl-j
edge of local conditions and of the agricultural methods!
and the varieties of stock most suitable for the district in!
which they are located.
Railway   Facilities.—Western   Canada   is   very   well
served by railroads, as the main lines of three transconti-.^
nental roads—the Canadian Pacific, the Canadian Northerni
and  the   Grand  Trunk  Pacific—all traverse  the   Prairie^
Provinces and cover it with a network of branch lines.
Naturally, in such an  immense  territory, there  are  still
many   districts   remote   from   railway   connection,   but   a.
glance at the map of either Alberta or Saskatchewan will
show what immense strides have been made in supplying1
the  country  with  railway  facilities.    The  lands   offered
for sale by the Canadian Pacific Railway are for the most -
part convenient to good railway service.
Public Roads.—Natural barriers to public traffic such
as dense forests and impassable rivers, which were such
a   drawback   to   early  settlement  in  many  of  the   older:.
countries, are for the most part absent in these provinces. \
Good natural roads are established by the simple process
of driving over the prairie.    With the increase of settle-'
ment, however, teamsters are being more and more forced
to the government road allowances, and the local governments are coming forward with liberal assistance for the
opening up of these road allowances and the construction
of bridges where necessary.
Taxation.—When the territory now known as
Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba was created into
provinces of the Dominion of Canada, an agreement was:
entered into which gives these provinces a large revenue
without any form of direct taxation. The Dominion Gov-:
ernment agreed to grant to each province, every year, a
certain stated sum per head of population, and this grant
constitutes the principal source of the revenue of the
Provincial Government. It is from this revenue together
with the revenue from school lands already mentioned,
that the province is able to bear a share of the cost of
educating the children in rural communities and also to
conduct a liberal program of road-building without imposing taxation upon the settler for these purposes.   A
63 small taxation is, it is true, imposed to supplement the
government grant towards education and public improvements, but the rate is such that it does not bear heavily
upon the settler. No taxes are charged on his improvements; his buildings, machinery, live stock and personal
effects are all exempt from taxation. He pays taxes on
his land only, and even that taxation is very light. It
rarely exceeds $25.00 on a quarter section, and this money
is spent under the direction of the home-makers themselves, through the municipal councils which they elect.
The amount of taxation which may under any circumstances be charged on a farmer's land, is strictly limited
by laws passed by the Provincial Governments.
Voting Regulations.—Canadian naturalization laws are
very liberal, much more so than those of the United States,
and it is not necessary to become naturalized in order to
vote on municipal or school matters. In order, however,
to vote on Provincial or Dominion issues, it is necessary
to be, or become, a British subject.
Rural Telephones.—The telephone systems in these
provinces are owned and operated by the Provincial
Governments, and service is given to the settlers practically at cost. The systems are being rapidly extended into
the rural districts as settlers demand them. In some localities farmers have organized companies and established
local telephone systems of their own, using the Government systems for long distance purposes.
Domestic Water Supply.—An abundance of good well
water is readily obtained by digging, driving or drilling.
The cost ranges from $2.00 to $3.00 per foot completed.
In many sections springs abound and reports are continually being received from well drillers and others to the
effect that they have, during the course of their operations,
secured heavy flows of artesian well water.
System of Land Survey.—The lands are laid off in
townships, practically square in form. The tiers of townships are numbered from one upwards, commencing at
the International Boundary, and lie in ranges from east
to west, numbered in regular order westward from certain
standard lines called principal meridians. Each township
is divided into 36 sections containing 640 acres, more or
less, divided by road allowances. Each section is in turn
divided into four quarter-sections of 160 acres each, which
are designated the south-east, the south-west, the northeast and the north-west quarters. The corners of each
division are marked on the ground by suitable posts,
rendering it an easy matter to locate any particular piece
<of land.
The following is a surveyed plan of a township.    In
every township, sections Nos. 11 and 29 are reserved by
64
the Government for school purposes, and Nos. 8 and 26
by the Hudson's Bay Company.
N
SIX MILES SQUARE
w
I
I
►J
1
ci.R.
|
1
32
mm
33
34
I"
35
$
Gov.
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CP.R.
1
Goy,
1
30
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'37
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3
5
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Gov.
CP.R.
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19
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30
31
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23
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C.P.R.
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18
m
li
Implements and Buildings.—The table given is for the
implements and machinery for a quarter-section (160
acres) farm. The prices quoted are for new, first-quality
implements and may be reduced considerably by attending
sales such as are always taking place in every farming
community. Better still, as before stated, the farmer, for
a small expenditure in freight may bring his implements
with him. Home-makers locating together frequently cooperate with each other in the use of implements for the
first year or two.
Wagon and Box  $ 95.00
Wagon Rack     15.00
Walking Plow    25.00
Drill ..  133.00
Harrows      17.00
Disc Harrows  44.00
Mower     61.50
Hay Rake    36.50
Binder  170.00
Smaller Tools  (say)  28.00
Total   $625.00
The buildings erected the first year are largely a
matter of the taste of the purchaser; some settlers make
their start with the crudest sort of structures, while others
erect homes and out-buildings designed to fill their needs
for a long period. Thus the cost of a house may be anywhere from a couple of hundred dollars to $1,000 and
more, and the same may be said of the barn. Experienced
farmers who avail themselves of the Company's ready-
made farms, or of the loan for improvements, may enter
into immediate possession of very substantial buildings.
65 Investment in Live Stock.—The expenditure for farm
animals the first year is a very elastic amount. However,
we cannot impress too strongly upon the settler the desirability, the necessity, of starting with at least a few.
head of dairy cows, some pigs and fowls. Many, looking
toward Canada for a location, have the idea that the
proper thing for the first season is to go for straight
grain growing and then gradually work into mixed farming. Nothing could be further from the truth. The
permanent foundation of agriculture is live stock, and
this is true of Western Canada as Well as other countries.
Exclusive grain growing is a risking of all in the hope of a
large return, but dairy cows and poultry produce absolutely sure results, while hogs dispose of much that would
otherwise go to waste. Grain does not give nearly as
quick a return as stock, particularly dairy cows and
poultry.
Capital Required.—There is no fixed amount that can
be stated as the capital essential in all cases. Some men
have a genius for getting along on small capital, but it
may be stated as an axiom that the larger the capital the
better. The settler who is taking up unimproved land
without a loan should, in addition to railway fares for his
family, have sufficient capital to meet the following approximate expenditures:
Inspection trip, fare (say)  $ 50.00
First Payment, $20 land  160.00
Freight, carload household goods (say)  75.00
Implements   625.00
4 Dairy Cows   320.00
4 Young Pigs   25.00
2 Dozen Hens    18.00
House, about     300.00
Barn, about  200.00
Poultry house, hog pen, cow shed  100.00
Total   .. •. $1,873.00
This estimate anticipates that the home-maker will
bring with him his own horses and harness. After making
provision for seed grain, and for a little working capital on
arrival, $2,000 will not be too much to be used to advantage. Of course, the settler who brings his own implements, his own cows and poultry, and his own seed grain,
can materially reduce the above total. In this estimate it is
expected that the settler will bring his own horses. The
settler taking a loan will save the $600 above provided
for buildings, but his first payment will include one-
twentieth of the loan, and he will also be required to have
sufficient capital to support his family for the first year.
Cost of Living.—The cost of living in Western Canada
may best be judged by the following table showing the
price of commodities at Calgary, Alberta. There will, of
course, be fluctuations at different points, but this is
generally representative.    The settler will also note that
many of those commodities which represent the large
items in the life of the city dweller, such as butter, meat,
eggs, poultry, vegetables, etc., can be produced on his
own farm.
Farm Implements (Canadian)
2-furrow 12-inch gang... ..$65.00
16-disc 16-inch disc harrow. 44.00
Three-section    spike     tooth
harrow       17.00
Single   disc   10-ft.   drill 133.00
Mower,   5-ft.   cut  61.50
Horse rake,   10  feet   36.50
Binder, complete, 8 feet. . .170.00
Farm   wagon,   complete....  95.00
Harness  and   Saddlery
Good average work harness,
per  set    $4800
Collars, hand-made, each.. 4.00
Single   buggy   harness.. $15.00 up
Halters    85c to $2.00
Saddles    $7.00 up
Furniture
Wood  seat  chairs $ 0.55 up
Leather seated chairs.. 1.50 "
Common kitchen  tables.    3.35 "
Dining tables        7.00 "
Sideboards       13.50 "
Bureaus     8.45 "
Washstands         3.85 "
"Kitchen   cupboards   15.00 "
Iron beds       3.25 "
Wire   springs        2.50 "
Mattresses         3.50 "
Wire camp cots     2.55 "
Canvas camp cots     2.00 "
Pillows,   3-lbs.   each       .90"
Couches        6.35 "
Window shades 35 "
Sheeting, plain or twill, per
yard     30 "
Sheets,   per   pair     1.50 "
Blankets, white, pair. .. 3.50 "
Blankets,  gray,  pair....    2.10 "
Carpets,   union     35-oOc "
Carpet squares, wool... 7.50 "
Carpet squares, cotton.. 4.50 "
Toilet sets        2.25 "
Dry Goods and  Clothing
Staple and fancy woolen goods
average somewhat cheaper than
United States. The same applies
to silks.
Cotton goods, and boots and
shoes, average somewhat dearer
than United States.
Meats
Per lb.
Steaks, round    16 to 18c
Steaks,    Porterhouse. .20 to 22Yzc
Roast,  rib    16 to 18c
Roast     10 to 15c
Corned Beef   18c
Mutton,   side    17c
Mutton,   chops     18 to 20c
Mutton,   fore-quarter    15c
Pork    8 to 10c
Sausage    12 % c
Dressed   chicken    15 to 18c
Lard,   bulk    12%c
Salmon     18%c-
Turkeys     20c
Groceries
Potatoes'     75c to $1.10 bush.
Butter     30 to 35c lb.
Eggs     20 to 45c doz.
Gran,   sugar    8%c lb.
Brown   sugar     8%c lb.
Rolled   oats     : 4c lb.
Best   flour    3.85 to 4.00 cwt.
Ham    22c lb.
Bacon    , 24c lb.
Tomatoes     .12%ctin
Corn     2 tins for 2§c
Evap.  apples    2 lb. for 25c
Evap, peaches   10c lb.
Evap.   prunes   ... .10c to 12 %c lb.
Oranges    20c doz. and up
Lemons    30c doz.
Apples    $1.50 box
Salt,  per bbl $3.25
Soda  biscuits    10c lb.
Tea    .. 25c lb. up
Coffee ' 25c lb. up
Rice     6c lb. up
Beans     7%c lb.
Onions     3c to 5c lb.
Tinned Salmon   15c to 25c
Jams,   pure ."> 1' s. for 90c
Table   &   cooking  syrun. .75c gal.
Cheese     18 to 20c lb.
Baking  powder    25c lb.
Kerosene   oil 40c gal.
Gasoline     40c gal.
Vinegar     60c gal.
Starch      10c lb.
Turnips     lc lb.
Tinned  beef    35c
Condensed   milk 15c—2 for 25c
Codfish     l,")c-2 for 25r
Spices     Same as St. Paul
Crockery     Same as St. Paul
A FINAL WORD.
If you have read the information contained in the foregoing pages you can no longer question the advantages
which these provinces offer to the intending settler. You
have here an opportunity to buy land at from $11.00 to
$30.00 per acre which, according to government statistics,
is capable of producing greater average crops than lands
in older countries selling at $100 an acre and upwards.
You have an offer of terms, and, to settlers in certain*
localities, financial assistance such as has never before
been made on so generous a scale. You have before you
a   country   where   the   conveniences   of  life   are   already
66
67 f
3*
established; a country of churches, schools, railways and
telephones. It is a country of pleasant and healthful
Bimate and of intelligent and sociable citizens; a country
in whose development any man may well be proud to have
a part. And the development of that country is only in its
infancy. Its future possibilities cannot be estimated, even
by those who know it best. It is a country that will
make great demands upon the rising generation, and that
Eyill offer great rewards for industry and intelligence. The
man with a family must think of his children. Does he
wish them to follow in the ruts so firmly established in
older lands, or will he give them the opportunity of a
pew country, where there is no limit upon their possible
accomplishments except such as they set themselves?
»The Farmer with a Family of Boys.—If you come
under this head, the contents of this pamphlet should have
your profound consideration. Ask yourself: "Are my
present holdings large enough to take care of my boys
and the families they will have some day?" "Are the
Returns from my farm sufficient to enable me to loan- the
money to buy some of the high-priced land in this vicinity?" The chances are you will have to answer each
question in the negative. Then, you should be on your
way to Western Canada as soon as you can get away,.
By selling your present farm you could buy at least four
Kmes as large an acreage for the same or less money,—
land that would probably give you greater returns per
acre than your present holdings, and plenty of room for
the boys.
The Farmer with a Mortgaged Farm.—If you come
in this class, the remarks made above apply equally in
your case. Furthermore, you are probably tired of pay-
Big so large a portion of your net earnings out in interest.
You may be able to effect a sale of your farm and realize
considerable capital, and in addition you have your equipment. The first payment you will require to make upon
a good-sized farm purchased from the Canadian Pacific
Railway will probably be but a fraction of what you are
now paying out annually in interest to a mortgage company.
The Farmer on a Rented Farm.—If you come under
fthis class, you are thrice welcome. A large experience in
Western colonization has taught us that the ex-renter
rnakes, perhaps, all things considered, the most successful
[farmer, when provided with the inspiration fostered by
the knowledge that he is working a place of his own. You,
no doubt, started on a rented farm with very limited
capital. If your capital had been ample, you would never
have been a renter. Since then your landlord has taken
'most of the profits and you have been face to face not
alone with paying rent and keeping your family, but also
with augmenting your slender capital as you went along.
You have probably by this time a considerable farm
equipment, some grain and live stock and perhaps a little
68
balance in your bank. Come to Western Canada and avail
yourself of the Canadian Pacific's loan to settlers. You
will find that within a few years your farm in Western
Canada will have paid for itself, and instead of paying
half of your" profits out in rent every year, as you are
now doing, you will be an independent land-owner in comfortable circumstances.
CITIES AND TOWNS.
It is impossible in a booklet of this size to describe,
or even mention, all the cities and towns of Western
Canada, but the following brief information concerning
some of the leading centres will be of interest to the
intending settler. For particulars as to industrial and
business openings in all Western Canadian cities and
towns write to Industrial Agent, Department of Natural
Resources,   Canadian   Pacific   Railway,   Calgary,   Alberta.
MANITOBA.
WINNIPEG.—Forty years ago Winnipeg's population
was less than 1,000. That city is now the railroad and
business centre of the Canadian Middle West, and has a
population estimated at 230,000. Twenty-seven railway
lines radiate from it, and it is the chief central point of
the three transcontinental railways traversing Western
Canada. Winnipeg has 22 chartered banks with 20
branches in the city, 400 manufacturing establishments
employing 18,500 hands, 192 churches and missions, 40
public schools, several colleges, a university and provincial
agricultural college; Its magnificent buildings and parks
make it one of the finest cities in Western America.
BRANDON.—The City of Brandon is situated on the
Assiniboine River, 134 miles west of Winnipeg, and is a
growing distributing centre. In 1901 the population was
5,340, and by the census of 1911 it was 9,620, while at the
present time it numbers over 17,000. Brandon is also a
centre of education, has several flourishing industries, 10
banks, 17 churches and has four railway systems entering
its limits. A large and beautiful Government Experimental Farm adjoins the city. Among other leading
centres of settlement in Manitoba may be mentioned
Portage la Prairie with a population of 7,500; St. Boniface,
population, 10,000; Selkirk, 3,400; Virden, 2,300.
SASKATCHEWAN.
REGINA.—This is the capital of the province and
also the largest city in Saskatchewan. It is an important
distributing and financial centre. The population is 45,000.
Regina has 41 manufacturing concerns, several wholesale
houses, colleges, 12 public schools, churches of all denominations, and is credited with being the largest dis-
' tributing centre for agricultural implements in the world.
69 SASKATOON.—This city claims the distinction of
having grown more rapidly into prominence than any
other city in Canada. In 1903 there were 113 inhabitants,
while the present population is 27,000. Saskatoon is the
location of the Provincial University and' Agricultural
College. The city has spent over $2,000,000 on its public
schools, which are thoroughly well equipped. Saskatoon
is located on three great railway systems and is a wholesale distributing centre of considerable importance. There
are 13 branches of chartered banks.
MOOSE JAW.—This is a divisional point on the main
line of the Canadian Pacific Railway, with a population of
about 25,000, and serves an important grain-growing district. Moose Jaw has, in addition to other factories, a
large milling industry, and is well equipped with educational facilities, including residential colleges for boys
and girls.
PRINCE ALBERT.—This city is picturesquely situated on the North Saskatchewan River, and is one of the
oldest centres of settlement in the Province of Saskatchewan. The present population of Prince Albert is 13,500.
Large lumbering concerns are located near this city,
employing 5,000 men the year round. The city has nine
banks.
ALBERTA.
CALGARY.—This is the largest city in Alberta, with
a population of 85,000. Calgary has some 460 retail stores,
190 wholesale establishments, 92 manufacturing concerns,
27 banks, and is the chief divisional centre of the Canadian
Pacific Railway in Alberta. Here also are located the head
offices of the Department of Natural Resources of the
Company. The extensive Western car shops of the
Canadian Pacific Railway are located here and will eventually employ nearly 5,000 men. The city has many splendid
business blocks, ranging in cost from $100,000 to half a
million dollars. The Palliser, one of the magnificent hotels
of the Canadian Pacific Railway Company, is located here.
There are 36 public schools, representing an investment
of over $3,000,000. The city owns, Operates and controls
all its public utilities, including street railways, electric
light and gravity water-works. Natural gas is used as
fuel. Calgary is one of the most up-to-date and beautiful
cities in Canada.
EDMONTON.—This is the capital city of Alberta,
and has a population of 72,500, with 26 branches of chartered banks. There are 90 wholesale houses and 150 industrial enterprises of various kinds. The city is the centre
of a rich agricultural district, has an important lignite coal
industry, and is the base of supplies for the north country.
The   Provincial  University  has  been   established   on   the
70
south side of the Saskatchewan River, overlooking the
Parliament Buildings. The city also contains ample
educational facilities and operates all public utilities. Edmonton's location on the Saskatchewan River is most
picturesque and much admired.
LETHBRIDGE is situated in Southern Alberta on
the Crow's Nest branch of the C.P.R. and is also a growing manufacturing and distributing centre, with a population of 15,000. Lethbridge owns its electric light and
power plant; has wide streets and ample educational facilities, nine branches of chartered banks, and the mines
operating in the vicinity have a pay roll of over $215,000
a month.
MEDICINE HAT contains some 14,000 inhabitants.
This city is located near the easterly boundary of Alberta
on the main line of the Canadian Pacific Railway. Medicine Hat is famous for its inexhaustible supply of natural
gas, and also has an important coal mine. A number of
manufacturing establishments utilizing natural gas for
fuel and power have located there. The entire gas supply
is owned by the municipality, there being 20 wells with
an open daily flow of 50,000,000 cubic feet.
In addition to the foregoing there are in the three
provinces 151 incorporated towns and 422 incorporated |
villages, besides a large number of smaller places which
have not yet been granted incorporation. The Canadian
Pacific Railway alone has a record of establishing an average of better than a new townsite every week in the year.
These new towns, and the rapid growth of many of the
older centres, offer great opportunities to those who wish
to engage in business or industrial undertakings. The
farmers of these provinces furnish a great and profitable,
market for the merchant and manufacturer "on the spot"
to cater to their requirements. Good business openings
exist in nearly all these rising towns for business men of
means and experience.
DISTRICT  REPRESENTATIVES
M.   E.   Thornton,   Colonization   Agent,   Room   1012,   112  West   Adams
St.,   Chicago,  111.
L.  F.   Mowrey,  District Representative,  Broadway  and 30th  St.,  New
York,   N. Y.
C.   W.   Droegemeyer,   District   Representative,   205   Woodmen   of   the
World   Bldg.,   14th   and   Farnum   Sts.,   Omaha,   Neb.
H. H. Piel, District Representative, 176 East Third St., St. Paul, Minn.
W. A.  Smith, District Representative, 934 17th St., Denver, Colo.
R.   C.   Bosworth,  District  Representative,  705  Sprague  Ave.,   Spokane,
Wash.
L.  P.  Thornton, District Representative, Multnomah  Hotel  Bldg., 271
Pine St., Portland, Oregon.
W.  J.  Gerow,  Dept.  of Natural  Resources,  C.  P.  R.,  Saskatoon,  Saskatchewan.
F. W. Russell, Dept. of Natural Resources, C. P. R., Winnipeg, Manitoba.
Any of the above Representatives of the Canadian Pacific Railway,
Department of Natural Resources, will be glad to furnish full information
concerning the Company's lands in Western  Canada upon  application,
or inquiries  may be sent direct to  Department of Natural Resources,
Canadian  Pacific Railway,  Calgary,  Alberta.
71
I \\OMf
.CANADIAN]
XPACIFIC/
*■ RAILWAY/
For Further Information Write
Canadian
Pacific Railway
Department of
Natural Resources
Broadway & 30th St.
New York
March, 1915

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